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Mind in society: The development of higher mental processes

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... The third workshop (phase 4) addressed the development of professional practices using the concept of a zone of proximal development (Vygotsky, 1978). This refers to the supported learning actions for proceeding towards learning goals (Engeström, 2015). ...
... We argue that efforts to improve professional practices comprise processes of learning, activity-theoretically formulated in the principle of the remediation of activity (Vygotsky, 1978). In practice, this emphasizes purpose-driven redesign of the means and tools that com-prise and mediate professional practices (Miettinen et al., 2009;Vygotsky, 1978). ...
... We argue that efforts to improve professional practices comprise processes of learning, activity-theoretically formulated in the principle of the remediation of activity (Vygotsky, 1978). In practice, this emphasizes purpose-driven redesign of the means and tools that com-prise and mediate professional practices (Miettinen et al., 2009;Vygotsky, 1978). We have created an analytical framework with which to cover the numerous dimensions of collective change efforts as the contribution of multiple participants, perspectives, and interests. ...
Chapter
Professionals in health and social care services need to develop competences for client involvement, to learn from the experiences of clients and patients. Health care volunteers with personal lived experiences of life and health challenges are referred to as experts-by-experience (EbEs). A practice theory and cultural-historical activity theory approach was used to analyze EbE participation as a form of civic engagement. A set of workshops organized in Finland are used as examples of client involvement that brought together researcher-facilitators, professionals, clients, patients and EbEs to advance a shared understanding of how client involvement can be enhanced in work and everyday care. Findings highlight the contribution of EbEs to the development of concepts and theory for drawing on client expe-riences to improve practices. The authors underscore the importance of client involved learning interventions in which EbEs participate, for a sustained development of health and social care services.
... While all types of play are understood to be powerful for children's learning and development, imaginative play is particularly acknowledged theoretically as a major influence for students' cognitive growth [4]. Indeed, Piaget [7] described imaginative play as one of the purest forms of symbolic thought for a child, and Vygotsky [8] argued that not only does children's imaginative play afford the inclusion of real-life experiences in that play, but that it is this movement between reality and imagination that sees them working at their highest cognitive capacity. Imaginative play frees children from the constraints ...
... While the play may emerge from particularly personal and cultural contexts and knowledge, children move in and out of the play frame as they explore meanings and symbols and their understandings of associated behaviours. Vygotsky [8] identifies that there is a "pivot" that enables a shift both into and within a playframe. This pivot is a mediating or symbolic device that prompts the play, which is shaped not only by the child's personal explorations of their concept of the world but also by their interactions with people, artefacts, and the environment within which the play occurs. ...
... Observations of play reported in the literature and shared in this paper reveal much about the subjective nature of play and issues of access and power evidenced through language [15,20] and other semiotic systems (movement, gestures, and so on). While it is clear that children continue to develop language and literacy proficiencies during independent imaginative play [8], the need is also clear for planned and intentional teaching through more structured play scenarios. Educators are uniquely positioned to support children to develop the meaning-making skills and strategies that increase a child's repertoires for accessing social settings in their immediate lives and into their futures [18,28]. ...
Article
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Imaginative play is an important part of childhood that provides insight not only into a child’s ability to use language, but ultimately into their understandings of the world more broadly. Through play, children control the story as they shape an emerging narrative through words, gestures, movement, and use of play spaces. In this paper we deconstruct a single instance of imaginative play captured in the home corner of a preschool classroom. The unscripted play dialogue creates a shared and compelling narrative evident in the texts the children created and their ongoing and complex interactions. Microanalysis of this narrative provides a novel insight into the play scenarios children create, the resources they select for developing the play, and the ways they communicate. We focus on discourse, subjectivity, and power to analyse the scenario. The cultural and linguistic resources demonstrated by this group of four-year-old children through their play provides insight not only into their understanding and interpretation of activities conducive to the home corner but also into their emerging social identities.
... Informed by developmentally appropriate practice, effective educators use the aforementioned core considerations to intentionally scaffold children's learning so that each child may achieve their potential. Vygotsky (1978) suggested that the most potent scaffoldings occur within the child's "zone of proximal development," defined as the difference between what a child can achieve with assistance (for example, from the educator) and what they can achieve unassisted. The case examples in this volume demonstrate how appropriate teacher scaffoldings of children's development and learning optimally operate within the three core considerations, their associated nine principles of child development and learning, and the six guidelines for developmentally appropriate practice in action. ...
... These assignments may encourage preservice teachers to individually and collaboratively identify key issues and brainstorm practical solutions. The process can promote both individual construction (Piaget 1963) and collaborative co-construction of knowledge (Vygotsky 1978). A variety of opportunities for learning about developmentally appropriate practice can foster a community of educators who appreciate the pedagogical challenges and innovative possibilities of working with children who have diverse social and cultural identities and developmental characteristics. ...
... Unlike the cognitive school, which views language as a psychological phenomenon, the sociocultural school focuses on both the influence of learners' elements on second language acquisition and on how social and cultural aspects affect second language acquisition (Vygotsky, 1978;Ellis, 2008;Green and Abutalebi, 2013;Tong and Yip, 2015). Vygotsky's sociocultural theory is influential in this school (Lantolf and Appel, 1994;Lantolf and Thorne, 2006), and posits that learners' L1 serves as a mediation tool that helps them achieve their communicative purposes when learning a second language. ...
... From a theoretical perspective, first, this study provides additional systematic empirical evidence regarding the longstanding question about the role of learners' LI in second language acquisition in cross-language transfer theory. Combined with linguistic distance's varying degree of influence on each language knowledge for different Chinese proficiency levels, our findings fully reflect the complex and dynamic understanding of the cognitive and sociocultural schools of thought regarding the role of L1 in second language acquisition (Vygotsky, 1978;Ringbom, 2007). Second, our study also provides support for asymmetry in CSL learners' Chinese character or morpheme writing and recognition development (Li et al., 2014;Zhang and Roberts, 2021). ...
Article
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How linguistic distance affects second language acquisition is a major concern in cross-language transfer research. However, no study has explored how systematic differences between Chinese and learners’ native language (L1) influences Chinese character, vocabulary, and grammar acquisition, or how these influences change as Chinese proficiency improves. To address this, we employed the World Atlas of Language Structures (WALS) index method to multidimensionally quantify the linguistic distance between Chinese and L1, and examined the effect of systematic linguistic distance on acquisition of Chinese character (Quasi-Experiment 1), vocabulary (Quasi-Experiment 2), and grammatical knowledge (Quasi-Experiment 3) in Chinese as a second language (CSL) learners with elementary, intermediate, and advanced Chinese proficiency levels. We examined a random sample of 58,240 CSL learners’ test scores from 24 different L1 backgrounds, and analyzed 2,250 CSL learners’ Chinese character, vocabulary, and grammar scores in each of the three quasi-experiments. We found that closer linguistic distance facilitated more favorable Chinese character and vocabulary acquisition at elementary, intermediate, and advanced Chinese proficiency levels, and that the influence of linguistic distance on CSL learners’ vocabulary acquisition tended to decrease as Chinese proficiency increased. Finally, linguistic difference did not significantly affect CSL learners’ grammar acquisition at elementary proficiency, but as Chinese proficiency improved, an L1 interference effect occurred among CSL learners with a short linguistic distance from Chinese, which hindered grammar acquisition. These results suggest that linguistic distance has differential proficiency-dependent effects on Chinese character, vocabulary, and grammar acquisition.
... One of the most influential theories often discussed in literacy education is the social constructivist learning theory. The social constructivist learning theory by Vygotsky (1978) claims that learners create, or construct knowledge rather than simply receive it from others. In other words, teachers should provide a learning environment, activities and assessments that promote leaners to construction knowledge instead of the teacher dominating the process of knowledge dissemination. ...
... In developing reading skills, the interaction of young readers with others while interacting with text provides the frames and supports for independent thinking. The concept of interaction in social environments is congruent with Vygotsky's (1978) zone of proximal development that suggests that students need guided practice in social situations to increase independent learning. Bodrova and Leong (2013) suggested that the teaching of reading through the use of children's literature should be started in the very early grades since reading literacy development is the most effective if it starts since young. ...
Article
Assessment is the essence of any curriculum in the education system, besides content and pedagogy. Since 2011, classroom assessment has played a significant role in gathering information on pupils’ progress. The purpose of this research was to examine the challenges faced by teachers in implementing classroom assessment in their lessons. Responses from 685 teachers from primary schools throughout the country were gathered through an online survey instrument and anaylsed using NVivo 11. Five categories were formed which are home-based learning issues, lack of time, teachers’ incompetence, mixed ability of students and teachers’ workload. However, 70.7% of the responses were mainly skewed to home-based learning issues and time constraint in assessing the pupils, indicating teachers understand the concept of classroom assessment and able to implement classroom assessment in normal circumstances. Findings also highlighted a small number of teachers require assistance in determining pupils’ mastery based on professional judgement. These findings propose better infrastructure, more effective teaching and learning strategies and efficacious administrators’ leadership to strengthen classroom assessment.
... People are said to learn and gain knowledge from what they know. Lev Vygotsky (1978) stated that social constructivist learning theory is utterly student-centered learning because they define and develop based on their own experience and understanding. In other words, learners create their meaning based on their own experiences in learning. ...
... In other words, learners create their meaning based on their own experiences in learning. According to Vygotsky (1978), social constructivism occurs on two levels in every child's cultural development. The first level is on social status, and the second level is on the individual level. ...
Article
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English is a global language that most people use all around the world. English is the second language vastly used as a communication tool in daily life in Malaysia. It is also a compulsory subject to learn at schools from primary school to secondary school. However, many second language learners may have higher possibilities of facing various challenges in learning English as a Second Language (ESL) in Malaysia. Hence, the purpose of this study was to compare the flipped classroom and traditional classroom teaching approaches in secondary school pupils’ overall English language performance in these particulars: Grammar, Reading, and Writing, as well as to evaluate the perceptions of flipped learning experience among lower secondary pupils in learning ESL. The study was conducted quantitatively with a quasi-experimental method set in pre and post-tests design and consisted of 50 pupils separated equally into control and experimental groups. Seven weeks of lessons were conducted for both control and experimental groups. One-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to adjust the pre-test scores of experimental group and study whether there are any significant differences on the effectiveness by implementing flipped classroom approach in experimental group despite the covariate (pre-test score) exists.After the post-test was conducted in the experimental group, the pupils were given a set of questionnaires containing 14 items to respond to and gauge their perceptions of flipped classroom learning experience based on motivation, effectiveness, engagement, and satisfaction. Findings reveal that the pupils in the experimental group achieved higher scores than the control group on their post-test scores in learning Grammar, Reading, and Writing by implementing a flipped classroom teaching approach. Also, the questionnaire's evidence indicated that most of the pupils had favorable perceptions of flipped classroom learning experience in the experimental group. This study indicates that flipped classroom teaching approaches positively enhanced pupils’ academic performance and learning experience.
... The teaching and learning process in any educational setting is a phenomenon that is both complicated and interactive between teachers and students (Vygotsky, 1978). It is believed that learning is a process of "problem-solving and that the social" creation of solutions to issues forms the basis of learning (Cifuentes, 2021, p. 83). ...
... It is believed that learning is a process of "problem-solving and that the social" creation of solutions to issues forms the basis of learning (Cifuentes, 2021, p. 83). In addition, Vygotsky (1978) described the learning process as involving the creation of a 'zone of proximal growth' that will include "the teacher, the student, and" a problem that needs to be solved (Novakowski, 2019, p. 85). The solutions to problems that need to be solved can be put together or constructed by students and peers in a social context that is facilitated by an instructor. ...
Chapter
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The purpose and objectives of this case study are to explore the effective use of mobile technologies by first year students amid the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic, using a situational analysis and active theory. Moreover, this study will unveil intersectional problems and educational inequality among 'digital natives' and 'digital immigrants' at the Rundu campus of the University of Namibia (UNAM). The study aims at examining how the interventions of distance and/or online learning are exclusive, exposing many, especially first year, students to educational inequality. Finally, the implications of sustainable development in higher education in terms of teaching, learning, and assessment will be considered.
... One of the most influential theories often discussed in literacy education is the social constructivist learning theory. The social constructivist learning theory by Vygotsky (1978) claims that learners create, or construct knowledge rather than simply receive it from others. In other words, teachers should provide a learning environment, activities and assessments that promote leaners to construction knowledge instead of the teacher dominating the process of knowledge dissemination. ...
... In developing reading skills, the interaction of young readers with others while interacting with text provides the frames and supports for independent thinking. The concept of interaction in social environments is congruent with Vygotsky's (1978) zone of proximal development that suggests that students need guided practice in social situations to increase independent learning. Bodrova and Leong (2013) suggested that the teaching of reading through the use of children's literature should be started in the very early grades since reading literacy development is the most effective if it starts since young. ...
Article
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Oral reading fluency is fundamental to literacy development as it is often bridged to meaning construction and production. Struggling readers face difficulties in reading fluently and, therefore, they are reluctant to participating in reading-related activities. This action research presents a novel approach to investigate the effectiveness of Dual Reader’s Theatre (DRT) in improving oral reading fluency among Year 3 ESL learners in Malaysia. Eight Year 3 pupils were selected by employing convenience sampling. The instruments used were one-minute reading test, Multidimensional Fluency Scale and questionnaire. The findings of the study revealed the positive impact of DRT in improving participants’ oral reading fluency. The increase in the words read correctly between the pre- and posttest exhibited an increase in participants’ accuracy rate with the margin of improvement ranging from 1.69% to 29.95%. The findings from the Multidimensional Fluency Scale showed participants’ an increase in their word recognition automaticity as well as improvement in the prosodic aspects of reading. The questionnaire revealed that participants perceived DRT positively as a fun and motivating activity to improve their oral reading fluency. This research is beneficial to teachers who wish to improve pupils’ oral reading fluency, or who seek an engaging reading activity for pupils.
... The methodological approach that we intend to present is one of the research guidelines launched by the Research Laboratory in Media Education and Active Learning (RIMEDI@) of the University of Salerno on the use of Dynamic Concept Maps (DCM) in learning management systems as remediators within the teaching-learning process (Marzano, 2017;Marzano & Miranda, 2020); we propose a possible interpretation of this process by using the historical-cultural approach of Vygotsky (1978), enriched and "contaminated" by the perspective of reciprocal remediation of Bolter and Grusin (1999) inspired by the theories of McLuhan (1964). ...
Article
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In recent years, numerous researches have been carried out to investigate and verify how concept maps could be effective in learning management systems. This paper discusses the use of dynamic concept maps (DCMs) as a tool to encourage remediation processes among digital artefacts and analog resources and, consequently, to enhance learning processes and improve their effectiveness. The DynaMap remediation approach (DMRA) intends to propose a possible interpretation of this process by using Vygotsky’s historical-cultural approach, enriched and contaminated by the perspective of mutual remediation of Bolter and Grusin inspired to McLuhan’s theories. The research carried out in the last five years shows how this methodology (DMRA) has positively influenced study times and learning outcomes of the engaged students.
... Notably, the present rehabilitation was conducted using systematic and explicit instruction. This approach, based on Vygotsky's concept of the zone of proximal development (Vygotsky, 1978), is commonly recommended in special education for the teaching of mathematics to children with cognitive disabilities (Browder et al., 2008). It allows students to increase their learning in small steps, and to be guided during practice with the goal of achieving a high level of success. ...
Article
Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at greater risk of mathematical learning disabilities due to associated motor and cognitive limitations. However, there is currently little evidence on how to support the development of arithmetic skills within such a specific profile. The aim of this single-case study was to assess the effectiveness of a neuropsychological rehabilitation of arithmetic skills in NG, a 9-year-old boy with CP who experienced math learning disability and cumulated motor and short-term memory impairments. This issue was explored combining multiple-baseline and changing-criterion designs. The intervention consisted of training NG to solve complex additions applying calculation procedures with a tailor-made computation tool. Based on NG’s strengths, in accordance with evidence-based practice in psychology, the intervention was the result of a co-construction process involving N, his NG’s parents and professionals (therapist and researchers). Results were analyzed by combining graph visual inspections with non-parametric statistics for single-case designs (NAP-scores). Analyses showed a specific improvement in NG’s ability to solve complex additions, which maintained for up to 3 weeks after intervention. The training effect did not generalize to his ability to perform mental additions, and to process the symbolic magnitude.
... Following the theoretical traditions of Piaget (1962) and Vygotsky (1978), relationship models of development are based on the premise that close, intimate relationships afford children the opportunity to develop social understanding and to construct shared meanings with significant others (Carpendale & Lewis, 2015;Dunn, 2015;Hartup, 1989;Howe et al., 2022). Thus, siblings and friends provide two important but unique relationship contexts for studying imitation's social function. ...
Article
Imitation is argued to have an important affiliative function in social relationships. However, children's tendency to imitate different play partners during naturalistic play and associations with social understanding have been overlooked. We investigated the frequency and context of imitation in a longitudinal study of 65 focal children (T1: M age = 56.4 months, SD = 5.71) during play with their older or younger sibling and a friend in two separate play sessions. Children were observed again approximately 3 years later (T2: n = 46, M age = 94.6 months; SD = 6.6). We coded focal children's verbal and nonverbal imitation of their play partner, their partner's response to being imitated, the context in which imitation occurred (e.g., pretense), and the focal child's social understanding (i.e., mental state references). Verbal imitation occurred more often than nonverbal imitation and was used most often during the contexts of play negotiations and pretense. Although focal children's imitation of both their siblings and friends increased significantly over time, children imitated friends more than siblings at T1. All play partners responded positively (i.e., smiling, laughing) most often to being imitated. Associations between focal child imitation and mental state talk with friends at T2 approached Social Development. 2023;1-15.
... Learning is gained through immersion in an activity and a process of mentorship that moves the novice from observation to mastery (Brown, 1992). This process aligns with the work of sociocultural learning theorists such as Vygotsky (Daniels, 2016;Vygotsky, 1978), who believed that learning was constructed socially, with more experienced participants scaffolding learners through the Zone of Proximal Development -the point at which current skills or knowledge can be extended with the support of a more capable individual. Lave and Wenger also explore the notion that learning is grounded in the context in which it occurs. ...
Article
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Initial teacher education programs regularly engage students in service-learning programs, providing an additional pathway to personal, professional and pedagogical transformation in their learning journey. One of those pathways is through service-learning placements in community arts projects. This paper reports on a study of arts-based service-learning programs at two universities. Eight initial teacher education (ITE) students were interviewed after their placements and a number of key themes emerged. These include the importance of productive discomfort as part of the service-learning experience and transformative pedagogy resulting from the art-based experience. This paper also explores some critiques of traditional service-learning models that have opened spaces for critical service-learning approaches. The analysis of ITE students’ narratives led to findings about the path of transformation from traditional to critical service-learning approaches through arts-based projects, an area which has been largely unexplored in previous research. The paper concludes with discussion of future avenues for related research that orientate service-learning in the arts towards social and creative justice.
... This research methodology has been applied in various context including transdisciplinary research in collecting and analysing self-reflection from social and natural scientists for transformative change (Haeffner et al., 2022), examining professional identity tensions of transnational teachers (Yazan et al., 2022), exploring the experiences of international students to transitioning to an academic job in the university (Consoli et al., 2022), bringing perspectives of humanities into computer education (Bernard, 2022), leading a whole-school reform (Alonzo et al., 2021), and many others. Engeström's (1987) activity theory was chosen as a framework for this study, based on Vygotsky's (1978) conceptualisation of the primacy of culture rather than individual cognition in mediating action, learning and meaning-making. In this theory, the social interactions of individuals within the community facilitate the activity. ...
Article
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The use of social media for the collaboration of academics has been increasing in recent years. However, there are no reported studies on using Messenger as a collaborative platform to write and publish journal articles and apply for research and development grants. We use an auto-ethnography to reflect on our experiences over the last 3 years, using Messenger as our medium for our ongoing collaborative research activities. Our results highlight the benefits and challenges of using social media for this engagement. The capabilities of Messenger, as opposed to traditional correspondence through email, have paved our preference to use this platform. We can engage in dynamic collaboration and focussed discussion with less formal communication conventions through Messenger. In addition, the extra features, including easy phone calls, sending links, resources and screenshots, and using emojis and stickers for more socially cohesive interactions, are valued features of Messenger. We used the activity theory to highlight the interrelationships of factors (i.e., personal, social-emotional, structural, technological, and organisational) contributing to the success of collaborative academic activities, including the successful publication of journal articles and securing research and development grants. The findings of our study significantly contribute to understanding how social media can be effectively used for academic engagement.
... While neuroimaging can advance what it known about how the brain is activated during the reading process, teachers must assess how to best challenge individual students as readers. Vygotsky (1978) suggests that teachers facilitate learning by determining the range between what a student can do independently and what he or she can do with assistance (the zone of proximal development). The art of teaching lies in determining what tasks may be appropriately challenging for a student. ...
Article
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Science texts have the potential to influence how people make decisions. In recent years, there has been an increased demand for research that helps illuminate how individuals read science texts. Educators seek to develop ways of supporting students as strong readers of science texts. Neuroimaging technology can be an important tool used to understand how individuals read science texts. This technology can inform how educators develop pedagogy; however, it can be difficult to determine how to apply neuroscience technology to educational environments in appropriate ways. One pathway forward is to develop interdisciplinary research collaborations between neuroimaging researchers and science educators. The intersection of neuroscience and education research may allow the technology of neuroimaging to be used in meaningful ways within education. Interdisciplinary partnerships between neuroscience and education can be strengthened by examining study design. When researchers collaborate across the fields of neuroscience and education, flaws in study design can be corrected before research begins. This article presents several factors to consider when designing research that connects neuroimaging and disciplinary literacy in science. By reflecting on the recommendations presented in this article, neuroimaging scientists and science educators may be able to create study designs that have significant implications for classroom settings.
... In this blended learning plan, the pedagogical theory which is adhered to is the cognitive perspective which accentuates the theory of social constructivism in which knowledge construction is built through social interaction (Mayes and De Freitas, 2007). Vygotsky (1978) calls this learning approach 'social constructivism' which suggests that knowledge development is enhanced through social activity. He further underpins the social constructivism on the concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) which explains the difference between a learner's current conceptual development and learner's potential capability which is developed by others' guidance or peer collaboration. ...
Article
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The encompassing goal of the Intensive English Course at Universitas Billfath is to help students improve English skills so that they can pass the standardized English test. In practice, however, this expected goal could not be effectively achieved because of truancy issue and pandemic situation. In this scheme, blended learning is a thoughtful enhancement of learning experience with the incorporation of online technology which can offer flexibility of learning and social interaction to enhance learning. Moreover, as a kind of blended learning technology, a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) can afford students with flexibility and opportunities to work collaboratively. Thus, this study is an attempt to propose an incorporation of blended learning approach into the existing classroom sessions in the Intensive English Course at Universitas Billfath. Since the proposed blended learning is a novel learning experience in this context, there may be several issues which remain significant to take into account. Further, it is also important to assess the effectiveness of the use of VLE in this blended learning design, so it warrants an evaluation to embark on the constructive review of how this kind of blend can enhance the English learning by developing its potentials and improving its imperfections.
... El aprendizaje es un proceso activo que involucra y alienta al estudiante a manipular herramientas que promuevan experiencias y reflexiones, para construir modelos mentales del mundo y ofrezcan nuevas maneras de pensar sobre las experiencias en un entorno virtual; los estudiantes deben participar activamente en los materiales de apoyos dispuestos para sus estudio a través de las lecturas, escritura, conversación y reflexión (Vygotsky, 1986). Estas aspiraciones no son nuevas, lo que sucede es que no se le ha dado la valoración suficiente. ...
Article
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En este trabajo se destacan los elementos que dan cuenta del estado de la evaluación de los aprendizajes en entornos virtuales. Se hace una revisión de literatura de trabajos de evaluación de los aprendizajes como una actividad normal de todo docente y de cualquier institución educativa, por tanto, resulta evidente la necesidad de destacar la relevancia de los instrumentos requeridos para la obtención de la información en este proceso. Es necesario conocer el desempeño de nuestros estudiantes, los avances y dificultades que presenten en los cursos. Por ello, la evaluación debe proveer la información suficiente para hacer ajustes y redefinir de ser necesario las estrategias utilizadas en los mismos cursos o en las actividades. En la actualidad las evaluaciones que se realizan fundamentalmente son de dos tipos las sumativas y formativas, generalmente se realizan en distintos periodos de tiempo del proceso y consideran aspectos situacionales según la naturaleza de los cursos a evaluar. La evaluacion formativa se utiliza para identificar áreas de mejora, ajustar metas y desarrollar estrategias para conseguirlas. La Sumativa se considera mas formal, se utiliza para evaluar si los resultados del obeto evaluado cumple con el objetivo establecido, esta suele ser cuantificada numericamente.
... In addition to these skills, an adolescents' grade point average (GPA) reflects a combination of skills that are not understood or expressed by any individual assessment, including: academic knowledge, test performance, classroom engagement, and assignment performance (Bowers, 2011). According to Vygotsky (1978), one way that children develop higher-level cognitive functions is through social interactions with adults. The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) is the gap between what a child can do independently and what they can achieve when adults guide and assist them. ...
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Focusing on the period of 54-months (i.e., 4.5 years) through age 15, the current study explored the longitudinal influence of early childhood relational adversity (i.e., low-quality mother-child relationship) on adolescents’ academic achievement and the moderating role of high-quality teacher-child interactions. Participants included 1077 children from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Academic success outcomes were obtained from official high school transcripts (i.e., grade point average at ninth grade) and direct assessments of adolescents’ cognitive abilities at age 15 (i.e., language, literacy, and mathematics). High-quality teacher-child interactions throughout elementary school (i.e., first grade, third grade, and fifth grade) were measured at the classroom level and assessed using an observational tool of emotional climate and classroom management. Analyses of data revealed a significant three-way interaction. High-quality teacher-child interactions throughout elementary school moderated the relation between early childhood relational adversity and adolescent math development for children from middle and upper-class families, but not for children from lower-class families. Furthermore, child gender was found to moderate the relation between high-quality teacher-child interactions and adolescent language development. Specifically, high-quality teacher-child interactions were positively associated with adolescent female language development but negatively associated with male language development. Implications for the findings, future research, academic programs, and interventions are discussed.
... Conceptual change theory notes that students have prior conceptual knowledge that is influenced by educational materials like curriculum, which can lead to alterations in conceptions (Strike and Posner, 1982). The sociocultural theory lens views student engagement with one another while using inquiry approaches in classroom contexts (Vygotsky, 1978). Finally, the community of practice framework acknowledges the dynamic interactions of students and teachers within and among overlapping communities such as social, school, and scientific (Lave and Wenger, 1991). ...
Article
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The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), amid recent shifts in science curriculum, call for students to learn science through the practices of scientists and engineers (science and engineering practices, or SEPs). SEPs, related to inquiry learning, are ways students learn science content by doing science. Students have varied experiences learning science and engineering practices, including exposure in the classroom, from media, and in science fairs. Using a qualitative, multiple case study design, we analyzed public school educators’ and middle and high school students’ (ages 12–18) interview transcripts about learning through the science and engineering practices. Findings demonstrate that students learn different aspects of science and engineering practices during both in school and out-of-school science learning. Several transcending themes emerged from our interview data leading to recommendations for educators. Specific science and engineering practices might be better leveraged to introduce students to scientific research, students saw themselves as scientists leading to development of science identity while learning through SEPs, the relevancy of their work drove student learning, and resiliency was important during many of their learning experiences.
... In-class time is utilised for interactive activities such as discussion (Wei et al., 2020), problem-solving activities (Cheng et al., 2019), brainstorming and gaming (Jo et al., 2018). Most research on FCA cited constructivist learning theories based on the works of Piaget (1968) and Vygotsky (1978). Piaget introduced the concept of cognitive conflict that occurs following the interactions with peers, and Vygotsky's concept of zone of proximal development (ZPD) explained learning that occurs because of the interactions with more advanced individuals. ...
Conference Paper
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Grammar has been given due attention for conveying messages accurately. Home-Based Learning (PdPR) becomes challenging for both Malaysian primary ESL teachers and learners. Low participation and engagement among learners in PdPR has resulted in the difficulty in mastering Subject-Verb Agreement (SVA) knowledge via PdPR during COVID-19 pandemic. This study was aimed to examine the effectiveness of Gamified Flipped Home-Based Learning in improving Malaysian Year 3 ESL Learners’ SVA competence. This study adopted a pretest-posttest nonequivalent groups design in which 60 Malaysian Year 3 ESL learners from Selangor and Johor were selected via purposive sampling as the participants of both experimental and control groups of the study. A pre-test and post-test were administered prior and after 2-week intervention respectively. A set of questionnaires was given to the experimental group participants in order to examine their perceptions towards learning SVA via Gamified Flipped Home-Based Learning. The findings from pre-test and post-test depicted that both experimental and control groups portrayed improvement in scores, but the experimental group’s margin of improvement outperformed the control group with the score difference of 282. The results from the questionnaire revealed that learners hold positive perceptions towards Gamified Flipped Home-Based Learning. This shows that it is effective and positively accepted among Malaysian primary ESL learners. This study implied that teachers may modify their teaching approaches to suit their pupils by incorporating games into the flipped PdPR. Future research can focus more on integrating different gamifications in the FCA to suit the different levels of ESL learners.
... In-class time is utilised for interactive activities such as discussion (Wei et al., 2020), problem-solving activities (Cheng et al., 2019), brainstorming and gaming (Jo et al., 2018). Most research on FCA cited constructivist learning theories based on the works of Piaget (1968) and Vygotsky (1978). Piaget introduced the concept of cognitive conflict that occurs following the interactions with peers, and Vygotsky's concept of zone of proximal development (ZPD) explained learning that occurs because of the interactions with more advanced individuals. ...
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Grammar has been given due attention for conveying messages accurately. Home-Based Learning or PdPR has become challenging for both Malaysian primary ESL teachers and learners. Low participation and engagement among Malaysian primary ESL learners in PdPR have resulted in the difficulty of mastering Subject-Verb Agreement (SVA) knowledge via PdPR during COVID-19 pandemic. The innovation project was an extension of the Flipped Classroom Approach (FCA) which is enhanced to Gamified Flipped Home-Based Learning (GAMLET) Model in order to improve Malaysian primary ESL learners' mastery of SVA knowledge. This project adopted a quasi-experimental design in which 30 Malaysian Year 3 ESL learners from Selangor and Johor were selected as the participants of the project. A pre-test and post-test were administered prior and after 2-week intervention respectively. Then, a questionnaire was given to the participants to examine their perceptions towards learning SVA via the GAMLET Model. The findings from pre-test and post-test depicted a significant improvement in learners' SVA competence. The results from the questionnaire revealed that learners hold positive perceptions towards GAMLET-based PdPR English lessons. This shows that the GAMLET Model is effective and positively accepted among Malaysian primary ESL learners. This project may provide an insight to the stakeholders, particularly ESL teachers who may modify their teaching approaches to cater ESL pupils' needs and learning styles by incorporating games into the flipped lessons. Future research can focus more on integrating different gamifications in the flipped home-based learning to suit the different levels of ESL learners.
... Humans as complex beings are affected by many internal and external factors considering personal experience and development. Hökkä (2012) supports the social theory of Vygotsky (1978) and Wertsch (1991) that, to understand change one must study the individual characteristics. The constellation of all the behaviors that form human behavior is referred to as personality. ...
... Since the 20 th century, constructivism with its views of learning being mediated by the individual's active involvement and participation in situated social practices and not as the result of knowledge transmission, has become a popular theoretical perspective underpinning various recent educational studies. As a result, interest in the sociocultural views of Vygotsky (1978) has brought the issue of social interaction to the centre of recent educational reforms. From this perspective, teaching and learning are socially negotiated and constructed through interaction, modifying the roles of the teacher and students as communicators and learners. ...
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This article applies Casual Layered Analysis (CLA) (Inayatullah, 2004) as a framework to examine factors that affect applying a student-centered learning approach in Vietnam. The Four layers of CLA help disclose weaknesses in the current traditional learning approach, causes that create the problems and hidden beliefs that keep traditional perceptions about learning permanent. The results reveal that changing the stu-dents' present learning approach to student-centeredness does not need a new collection of principles to be imposed on learners. Rather, there need to be changes in both school infrastructures and people's perceptions. Further studies need to be conducted to determine how to implement these changes so that the new approach can be implanted successfully in the local context.
... The poor use of ICT in chemistry education may be a consequence of the unavailability and inadequacy of ICT resources in secondary schools; one cannot speak about the use of ICT in chemistry instruction without the materials being accessible and sufficient for the students. Thus, the constructivist idea proposed by Vygotsky (1978) that learning should be an active, contextualized process of generating knowledge by permitting peer cooperation among students would be refuted. Ajayi and Ekundayo (2009) noticed that the degree of ICT application in secondary schools in Nigeria is pitiful owing to the lack of ICT infrastructure. ...
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Information and communication technology (ICT) is crucial to the educational growth of any country and the academic interactions and collaborations of students. The study determined the extent of ICT application in chemistry instruction in Anambra State, Nigeria, secondary schools. This study uses a descriptive survey. A total of 133 students and 12 chemistry teachers as samples. The t-test was used to test the research hypothesis. The study's findings revealed a low extent of ICT application in teaching and learning chemistry in Anambra State, Nigeria. Moreover, both the chemistry teachers and students agree that ICT is applied to a low extent for teaching and learning chemistry in Anambra State, Nigeria. The study also revealed that the use of outdated computers; lack of technical assistance; lack of time; lack of computer hardware/software; lack of electricity; broken down computers; lack of internet or slow connectivity, and high cost of computers are some of the challenges of ICT application while the provision/maintenance of adequate ICT software and hardware, exposure of chemistry teachers to workshops and conferences and provision of uninterrupted internet services and power supply by the government among others were proffered as possible strategies to eliminate these challenges.
... The majority of scholars believe that pragmatic features, like other language skills such as grammar and vocabulary, should be included in classroom pedagogy (Shakki et al., 2016). Researchers examined the effectiveness of different instructional methods, such as input-and output-based instruction, explicit and implicit teaching, meta-pragmatic discussion, and teaching within the zone of proximal development (ZPD) (Vygotsky, 1987;Alcón-Soler and Martínez-Flor, 2005;Kasper and Roever, 2005;Martínez-Flor and Alcón-Soler, 2005;Rose, 2005;Cohen, 2008;Takahashi, 2010a,b;Taguchi, 2011Taguchi, , 2018Taguchi, , 2019Birjandi and Derakhshan, 2014;Derakhshan and Eslami, 2015;Culpeper et al., 2018;Derakhshan and Arabmofrad, 2018;Blyth and Sykes, 2020;Derakhshan and Eslami Rasekh, 2020;Irshad and Bukhari, 2020;Malmir and Derakhshan, 2020;Tajeddin and Alemi, 2020;Derakhshan and Cohen, 2021;Derakhshan and Malmir, 2021;Hernández, 2021). The findings from previous studies show the positive effects of instruction and its superiority. ...
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How efficient is instruction in pragmatics? We have attempted to answer this question through meta-analyses. Considering the plethora of studies conducted in L2 pragmatics instruction, it is still challenging for researchers to keep up with the literature, so aggregating the findings across multiple studies and comparing their results systematically in various dimensions can be pivotal to deciding whether this kind of research is effective or not. This review paper delineates the previous meta-analyses and reviews conducted in the field of instructed second language pragmatics in EFL/ESL context to explore the importance of conducting meta-analyses and to recommend some suggestions and pedagogical implications for further studies.
... We also concluded that maintaining a balance that supports the intended outcome (i.e., transformative learning to increase cultural responsiveness) requires constant monitoring based on the facilitator's knowledge of each candidate, the relationships between each candidate and the facilitator, and each candidate and the group. Not unlike Vygotsky's (1978) facilitators must acknowledge and work against the ways in which our identities, epistemological standpoints, and/or cultural experiences are privileged (Baldassar & McKenzie, 2016;Soria & Troisi, 2014). We can do so by actively seeking experiences, or as Brown (2015) states, lean into experiences that provide us with alternative perspectives. ...
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The task of preparing future teachers for diversified classrooms is imperative. We aimed to deepen our understanding of the capacity of international teach abroad programs (TAPs) to prepare Canadian teacher candidates to be more culturally responsive in their classrooms. Data were collected using pre- and post-questionnaires, focus groups, and anecdotal notes during a short-term (two weeks) TAP in the Dominican Republic with Canadian teacher candidates. The findings revealed that participation alone is not enough to develop culturally responsive teachers. Candidates must be challenged, supported, and guided on how to positively develop cultural competence in situations where they feel vulnerable, including purposeful mechanisms to intentionally interrupt and challenge participants’ positionality. Otherwise, at best, the candidates achieve superficial levels of learning that potentially reinforce biases and privilege. Abstract in Spanish La tarea de preparar a los futuros docentes para las aulas diversificadas es imperativa. Nosotros apuntamos a profundizar nuestra comprensión de la capacidad de los programas internacionales de enseñanza en el extranjero con el objetivo de preparar a los profesores candidatos canadienses para que sean más receptivos culturalmente en sus aulas. Los datos se recopilaron mediante cuestionarios de pre-prueba y post-prueba, grupos focales y notas anecdóticas durante un corto plazo de dos semanas en la República Dominicana con candidatos a docentes canadienses. Los hallazgos revelaron que la participación por sí sola no es suficiente para desarrollar maestros culturalmente receptivos. Los candidatos deben ser desafiados, apoyados y guiados sobre cómo desarrollar positivamente la competencia cultural en situaciones en las que se sienten vulnerables, incluidos mecanismos con propósito para interrumpir y desafiar intencionalmente la posición de los participantes. De lo contrario, en el mejor de los casos, los candidatos alcanzan niveles superficiales de aprendizaje que potencialmente refuerzan los sesgos y los privilegios.
... Video-based group assessments provide a possible avenue to narrow this gap because they allow for the storage and systematic examination of student dialogues. To explore this, we adopted a sociocultural perspective (Greeno et al., 1996;Vygotsky, 1978) to identify the key opportunities and challenges in process-oriented and video-based assessments. The following research questions guided the analysis: ...
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This paper presents a case study of process-oriented assessment in a Norwegian secondary school. We investigate the teachers' design of a process-oriented and video-based assessment, shedding light on how student collaboration and competence was displayed and made assessable in video-recorded group assessments. The results reveal that, although this is a highly complex assessment format, student group videos can be integrated within process-oriented assessment in ways that allow for assessing students’ collaborative work.
... Findings from the present research contribute to SCT in general and ZPD and DA in particular, and also to knowledge about L2 reading. First, working within learners' ZPD via DA was shown to be effective in promoting learner development and enabling knowledge transformation from the intermental plane of mediator-learner interaction to a learner's intramental plane (Vygotsky, 1978). Second, DA enables the identification of relative strengths of various types of mediation in promoting L2 learners' reading development, addressing concerns expressed in Alderson et al. (2015). ...
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Built on Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory, Dynamic Assessment (DA) integrates teaching and assessment through mediator-learner interactions to promote learner development. This study employed interactionist DA to diagnose Chinese university EFL learners’ reading difficulties and promote their reading proficiency in a seven-week study. The design included a pre-test, a four-week Enrichment Program, a post-test, and a transfer test. Five learners completed each test both in a non-dynamic (NDA) and DA form. The learners’ individual interactions with a mediator in DA were recorded, transcribed and analyzed via Nvivo. In addition, the learners’ independent performances (IPs) on the NDA and DA, difficulties encountered in the process, the mediator’s prompts provided for the learners, and the learners’ mediated performances (MPs) were all identified and analyzed. Comparisons of the learners’ IPs and MPs across the tests showed that DA contributed to learners’ reading proficiency development, and this progress was evident both in their post-test IPs and MPs.
... The social-constructivist theory holds that individuals learn through the creation of their knowledge and then linking the newly acquired ideas and experiences with the existing information and experiences (Bruner, 1977;Vygotsky, 1978). Resultantly, new or improved understanding is generated. ...
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Abstract: Although substantial research has been dedicated to refining active learning in recent years, minor improvements have been made to its development within the virtual environment oriented towards sustainability. Few information theorists and practitioners would argue the necessity of the metacognitive evolution of training processes performed via telecollaboration. These problems can be solved by using Active Learning Methodologies and Cooperative approaches. Our research examines the Sustainable Active Virtual Learning or SAVL model, which combines relevant social, academic, competential and sustainable development factors. We analyse four case studies` outcomes accomplished through inter-university virtual collaboration; each followed a different final task engagement (case study 1 – portfolio, case study 2 – video, case study 3 –pre- sentation and case study 4– poster). The study showed that virtual collaboration might be leveraged to build creative learning environments, allowing more cost-effective university training options. Given the current growth of internet-based educational exchanges, instructors and students will appreciate the suggested model. The proposed model application for enhancing online interactions helps overcome such challenges as schedules or grading systems and boosts learning motivation and purposefulness. Keywords: Higher education, virtual learning, sustainable development, learning methods, case studies.
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Arithmetic difficulties have long captured the attention of teachers and researchers, but intervention programs for assisting children are seldom successful for all. Recent Australian research suggests that this is because we have failed to recognise the complexity of arithmetic difficulties. Analysis of some 30,000 oneon-one clinical interviews conducted over three years during the Early Numeracy Research Project provided rich data for charting the pathway of young children’s number learning in four domains (Counting, Place Value, Addition and Subtraction Strategies, and Multiplication and Division Strategies), and for identifying children who were having difficulty. We describe such children as being vulnerable or at risk of not being able to take advantage of everyday classroom experiences. The data show that the combinations of domains in which children were vulnerable were diverse, and suggest that there is no single ‘formula’ for describing children who are vulnerable in number learning, or for describing the instructional needs of students. Indeed, children have learning needs that call for teachers to make individual decisions about the instructional approach for each child. Further, the diversity of children’s mathematical knowledge in the four domains suggests that knowledge in any one domain is not necessarily prerequisite for knowledge construction in another domain. This finding has implications for both intervention programs and for the way in which school mathematics is introduced to children. It seems likely that children may benefit from concurrent learning opportunities in all number domains, and that experiences in one domain should not be delayed until a level of mathematical knowledge is constructed in another domain.
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Aim This research explored perspectives of play according to parents of Somali heritage and primary school practitioners, in an English primary school. At its core, it aimed to investigate the frequently overlooked cultural dimension of play and how this affects the education of Somali heritage children. The broader contentious concern of the role of play in early years and primary education was also explored. Method Focus group discussions drew on cross-cultural conceptions of play, to explore how parents of Somali heritage children and primary school practitioners perceive the relationship of play to children’s development and learning, with consideration for their own experiences of childhood. Findings Focus group data were analysed using thematic analysis, supported by the Cultural Historical Activity Theory framework. The findings of this research highlight shared and individual definitions of play, competing benefits of play, and the importance across cultures of play being intrinsically motivated. Limitations A small sample of participants is represented and all participants were female. Conclusions Implications for practice centre on the need to recognise play as part of unique cultural milieus at a practitioner, school, educational psychology service, and policy level.
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The current study has derived inspiration from the design thinking approach as one of the pedagogical means to respond to the need for teaching, learning, and assessment in the twenty-first century. Specifically, the study was intended to explore strategies to implement design thinking’ in designing and delivering lessons in higher secondary-level biology classrooms. The study employed a participatory design approach which involved the participation of the researcher with the selected teachers in the co-design of biology lessons. This study was carried out over two weeks in one of the higher secondary schools in Samtse district, Bhutan. Hence, data for this study was obtained from the researcher’s qualitative notes based on field engagement with three piloted teachers, and teaching observations. The data from observation field notes were presented in narrative descriptions, to provide rich descriptions of classroom activities and tasks, teacher and students’ classroom interactions, and the design thinking process followed in the teaching and learning process. Findings revealed that both teachers and students have positive perceptions about the application of design thinking in biology class. The application of design thinking in biology class offers an opportunity for students to learn through the highest degree of collaboration, interaction, and creative thinking, unlike in a conventional classroom. Additionally, this offers an opportunity for building a foundation for teachers and educators to revitalize educational practices to prepare students to thrive in the modern era, by equipping students with the tools and capacity for innovative and creative thinking and the ability to solve problems.
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This study presents a conceptual framework for embedding interdisciplinary learning approaches in a postsecondary science program in order to foster interdisciplinary science habits in students. The framework was developed through the lens of a multi-year interdisciplinary postsecondary science program that encompasses a series of courses in which science disciplines are bridged within an authentic science research environment. The validity of the developed framework is supported by the empirical data comprising live experiences of the students obtained through questionnaires, interviews and focus groups. The data were processed and evaluated using content analysis and activity theory. This work provides design principles that will be useful for both program developers and education researchers seeking to launch effective interdisciplinary science programs.
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Design thinking is a human-centric, iterative, and collaborative approach to solve complex problems. Current study has made an attempt to implement design thinking (DT) as one of the pedagogical means to respond to the need for teaching, learning, and assessment and specifically, the study was intended to explore strategies to implement DT in designing and delivering lessons in the classrooms of a higher secondary school at Samtse. The study was conducted through a participatory design approach which involved co-designing lessons using DT between the researchers and teacher participants. The data for this study was obtained from observations, semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, and reflections. Eventually, for data analysis thematic analysis and narrative descriptions were used. As such, this study provides information that broadens the understanding of the integration of the DT approach in the classroom in the Bhutanese context, and its impact on the development of skills in students. The findings of the study unveiled that using DT empowers teachers to be innovative in planning learning activities that enables lessons to become more engaging and exciting. Further, the finding also revealed that DT assists students to develop problem solving skills and creativity.
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While teacher education candidates and faculty have improved their knowledge and skills with technology, challenges remain regarding their understanding of how to integrate technology effectively within their pedagogical practices. One solution is to provide models of purposeful technology integration within instruction that embeds digital pedagogy throughout the learning process. This paper describes how a teacher education program is addressing the need to engage candidates and faculty around issues of technology integration and adoption. This is done through participation in a Breakout EDU game focused on introducing candidates, and faculty, to what might be possible when integrating technology within their instructional practices. Throughout the paper, I describe how restructured instructional spaces and the Breakout EDU game model technology integration and has initiated change within the teacher preparation program.
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The method of gathering evidence for ‘what works’ in psychological therapeutic treatments today has philosophical underpinnings located in experimental psychology, which as presented in previous chapters is the problem. Drawing upon the cultural-historical (C-H) tapestry of ideas, this chapter re-examines the method (or framework) in which new knowledge in psychology is constructed. A niu-method (or safe passage of inquiry) that makes visible cultural knowledge traditions of Fa’aSamoa (Samoan-indigenous cultural knowledge) is unveiled. The philosophical knowledge base of psychopathology whose history of knowledge production excludes knowledges of Fa’aSamoa is challenged, and a new methodological inquiry from cultural constructs of Fa’aSamoa is made visible. Along this methodology, the niu-line of inquiry explores significant changes that have occurred over time, place and space for Samoan males and how violent offending by Samoan males was dealt with historically in Samoa and now through migration to new lands such as Aotearoa/NZ. Children of the Pacific diaspora born in new places away from home island nations present new problems that require new methods from ancient cultural knowledges that have provided healing for generations, to bring restoration of peace and harmony for families, communities and nations. By delving into niu-method of inquiry to explore language as a mediator of change embedded within the context of Fa’aSamoa (Samoan-indigenous culture), a prototype drawn from a cultural-historical re-frame of psychology is born. This new methodological platform for understanding the way in which knowledge is investigated and produced is termed as niu-method and shifts away from traditional psychology’s linear line of investigation which examines the effect of x on y, to focus on what occurs between people and then within. This inter-psychological plane between people (individual–we and therapy) is where the ‘cultured development’ of Fa’aSamoa, evident in the language of Saili Matagi, is embedded. This is the space where inter-psychological functioning is mediated for intra-psychological impact. Ultimately this chapter provides an impetus for understanding how language embedded with the cultural context of Fa’aSamoa impacts the way of knowing (thoughts/understanding), being (relationships) and doing (behaviour) for children of the Pacific diaspora.KeywordsCultural-historical tapestryFa’aSamoa (Samoan indigenous cultural knowledge)Antiquated methodological paradigmAcculturationEthnic identityCultural-historical re-frameNIU-methodological paradigmPsychological toolsPacific methodological developmentTalanoaFa’afaletui
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Much of psychology as we know it and as practised today in Aotearoa New Zealand has been imported from North America and European contexts; the language and culture of these contexts are inevitably embedded within the knowledge base of ‘imported psychology’. In this new modern era of twenty-first-century psychology, the supersized growth of its commercialised industry with healing as its central commodity is problematised in this chapter through the work of Lev Vygotsky (1896–1934). Therapeutic interventions focus healing at the mind and to some extent the soul. There are different commodities in psychology which target healing of the mind (or soul); this is visible in the array of therapies available and the consistent factory line production of different forms of therapies. The products are tried and tested in human laboratories more commonly known as clinics across the globe, where different varieties of the general product are developed. This is most evident in psychotherapy, where the current fad of therapy popularising the world is cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), a therapeutic spinoff from rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT), the brainchild of Albert Ellis (1913–2007). This chapter highlights the complicated foundations of how knowledge is produced in psychology, unveiling the direct impact on the discipline and practice.KeywordsCrisis in psychologyVygotskyCultural-historical theoryCartesian logic vs Spinoza holismHistory of psychologyDialectical processCultural-psychological meeting placeTherapeutic interventionsCosmology of Fa’aSamoaVa’ai, Fa'aolo ma Tautala (Samoan learning/ holistic literacy process)knowledge formationIfoga (Samoan cultural ritual for transformative forgiveness and healing)
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The concept of development within traditional psychology advocates and promotes a universal individual independent trajectory of the life cycle. Basically, this means what works for one person/group of people based on scientific investigations will work for everyone else in the world/universe. However, it is clear (as outlined in Chap. 2) that diverse cultural knowledge systems located in language (verbal and non-verbal) impact how we interact with each other. This chapter proposes NIU-ideology in psychology through the example of a Samoan learning process Va’ai, Fa’alogo ma Tautala opening new ways of understanding the complexities of human development. NIU-ideology through the framework of Va’ai, Fa’alogo ma Tautala reveal core Samoan relational concepts Vā fealoa’i (respectful relational edicts), Vā Tapuia (sacred relational being), Feagaiga (sacred covenantal relationship) and Fa’aleleiga (collective reconciliation) as cultural-psychological tools for healing from the lens of Pacific-Indigenous psychology.KeywordsVā fealoa’i (respectful relational edicts)Vā Tapuia (sacred relational being)Feagaiga (sacred covenantal relationship)Fa’aleleiga (collective reconciliation)NIU-ideologyhuman developmentMethod of investigationCultural-psychological contributionMauliPsychological phenomenaCultural-epistemological Suli (belonging to others)Church-village mission impactCultural tools for healing
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Reducing inequalities in knowledge representation ensures the safety and overall well-being of Indigenous peoples in psychology. The revelation of NIU (new Indigenous understandings) psychology from the context of Samoa provides unique insights of cultural-psychological understandings that already exist in the depths of Oceania and govern people’s everyday lives. In this final chapter, Galuola, as a metaphor throughout this book, brings home NIU knowledge to reveal what has been existent for many generations embedded within ‘language’. This NIU knowledge sustained Pacific-Indigenous ways of ‘knowing, being and doing’. For Samoans, Galuola represents the life-giving wave-break people wait for when coming onshore, counting waves intuitively for a safe landing is ultimately God (faith in the life of Jesus Christ), aiga (family) and nu’u (village). NIU psychological underpinnings of Pacific-Indigenous psychology opens the way for Fa’aSamoa (Samoan Indigenous knowledge) to speak directly to the heart of psychological theory and practice. It bridges psychology’s practices and knowledge with Oceania’s ancient ways of understanding existent before the birth of psychology as a young science. As such, psychologists must recognise the knowledge of their profession has set an unequal level playing-field for some whom they seek to serve. NIU psychology from the depths of Oceania provides a sustainable pathway for the wellbeing of Pacific-Indigenous and diasporic communities.KeywordsNIU psychologyCultural-faithCultural-psychological innovationAiga (family)Nu’u (village)Galuola (wave-break of safety)Pacific-Indigenous psychologyCultural safetyPractice-informed evidenceSaili Matagi (search for healing winds)Saili Matagi programme modelForensic rehabilitationCultural factors and responsivityPrison-based rehabilitationNIU insightsColliding value systemsNexus of changeSocial justiceWellbeing
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An historic shift in focus on the quality and person-centeredness of health care has occurred in the last two decades. Accounts of results produced from reinvigorated attention to the measurement, management, and improvement of the outcomes of health care show that much has been learned, and much remains to be done. This article proposes that causes of the failure to replicate in health care the benefits of “lean” methods lie in persistent inattention to measurement fundamentals. These fundamentals must extend beyond mathematical and technical issues to the social, economic, and political processes involved in constituting trustworthy performance measurement systems. Successful “lean” implementations will follow only when duly diligent investments in these fundamentals are undertaken. Absent those investments, average people will not be able to leverage brilliant processes to produce exceptional outcomes, and we will remain stuck with broken processes in which even brilliant people can produce only flawed results. The methodological shift in policy and practice prescribed by the authors of the chapters in this book moves away from prioritizing the objectivity of data in centrally planned and executed statistical modeling, and toward scientific models that prioritize the objectivity of substantive and invariant unit quantities. The chapters in this book describe scientific modeling’s bottom-up, emergent and evolving standards for mass customized comparability. Though the technical aspects of the scientific modeling perspective are well established in health care outcomes measurement, operationalization of the social, economic, and political aspects required for creating new degrees of trust in health care institutions remains at a nascent stage of development. Potentials for extending everyday thinking in new directions offer hope for achieving previously unattained levels of efficacy in health care improvement efforts.
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As an integral skill in Math learning at high schools, Math communication competencies are formed and developed throughout the process of Math learning in the classroom environment through student-teacher, student-student as well as student-learning material and instrument interactions. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development acts as the foundation and guideline for the teaching and learning process at school, emphasizing the role of social interaction in cognitive development. The study presents the two concepts of ‘community’ and ‘social interactions’ from the theory by Vygotsky for application in Math teaching. The article starts with clarifying the two concepts above in the context of Math classrooms, then proposes several sample activities of teaching Algebra in high schools with the application of the two concepts to develop learners’ Math communication competence.
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A unique component of early childhood involves understanding how caregivers and educators promote children’s developmental outcomes, with play opportunities being a key avenue for enhancing these skills. Targeted coaching is one type of support that can tap into active family engagement during playful learning. This collective case study examined how remote-based eCoaching could support family-centered practices related to the facilitation of pretend play in caregivers of preschool children in the home setting. Four mother–child dyads of preschool children, with and without a disability, participated in eCoaching focusing on pretend play behaviors. During the implementation of eCoaching, three primary findings emerged related to knowledge acquisition, mothers’ facilitation of play with their children, and changes in children’s pretend play behaviors. In general, both mothers and children benefited from the eCoaching experience. In addition, mothers’ perceptions of eCoaching as a means of family-based support were positive, and all deemed eCoaching easy to engage in and beneficial.
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Collaborative Learning (CL) is a learning model that implies cooperation in a group consisting of two or more people to achieve a common goal while respecting each individuals contribution as a whole. CL is more synonymous with social interaction. In the learning process, the centre of attention is the interaction of educators with students, interactions between students, and interactions of students with their environment. The purpose of this review is to look at global trends related to CL research in the field of Chemistry Education. Obtained 62,555 articles discussing CL with various keywords, 88 of which are relevant to the purpose of this article review. After being mapped, there are five research themes related to CL, namely (1) CL based on student activities and the role of educators, (2) Collaboration Strategy for STEM, (3) CL based game, (4) Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL), and (5) CL in Laboratory Work. Based on the review findings, research related to CL has excellent potential to be continued and developed, such as collaboration with STEM, games, practicum in the laboratory, and CSCL.
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The purpose of this research is to present a means for ESL students in higher education to apply their academic knowledge and language (Cummins, 1981) to increase their local knowledge of school culture and intercultural competence (Neuliep, 2017) by working with teachers and students in a local K-12 school community. This was accomplished through a co-teaching K-12 program sponsored by a large public university that provides international college students of any major an opportunity to have a cultural and language learning experience through student teaching in a public middle school. The researcher, an ESL graduate student, along with a fellow ESL graduate student teacher pursuing a degree in food science, was partnered with two middle school teachers, observed an ESL and a science classroom, co-designed new lesson plans, and co-taught a full day of lessons weekly over one semester. Throughout the practicum, the participant researcher wrote weekly journals and reflections and attended workshops. At the end of the semester, the middle school students (n=140) completed a short questionnaire regarding their experience working with the international student teachers. The survey results indicate that the middle school students, including 40 ESL students, valued the experience of working with culturally diverse teachers. In addition, the experience benefited local teachers, as the ESL college students were able to provide linguistic, sensory, cultural, and interactive supports for content matter (Gibbons, 2014), along with innovative ideas and resources funded by grants. In the meantime, the ESL graduate students had an immersive learning experience on communicating more effectively in a school setting, both academically and interculturally. In conclusion, this collaboration program benefits ESL college students by developing their language proficiency, broadening their cultural perspective, and achieving their educational goals.
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