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Effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic goal structures on achievement: A meta-analysis

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Abstract

Meta-analyses indicated that cooperation is more effective than interpersonal and individual efforts in promoting achievement and productivity, that cooperation in intergroup competition is superior to interpersonal and individual efforts in promoting achievement and productivity, and that interpersonal competition and individual efforts do not differ in effects on achievement and productivity.
... Social games can be collaborative, competitive, or a combination of both. Games involving peer competition and collaboration have been widely researched (Johnson et al., 1981;Pareto et al., 2012;Plass et al., 2013;Shaikh et al., 2013). Studies show that both types of learning activities (collaborative and competitive) harbor a powerful motivational effect (motivation to engage in disciplinary practice) (Pareto et al., 2012). ...
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Networked computers can potentially support classrooms to be more interactive. It can help students share representations amongst themselves and work together on a shared virtual activity space. In research on the role of shared screens or shared virtual workspace in learning settings, there has been less attention paid to contexts where learners are co-located. This paper looks at the impact of the shared screen in a computational game environment on mathematics learning and practices and the construction of learners' emotions and social status in classroom interactions. We designed two versions of a simple arithmetic game: a solo version in which the student played the game alone and a multi-player version in which the screen was shared, and the players could see the arithmetic moves of the other players. We implemented these two versions of the game in a 4th-grade classroom in a suburban school in a large metropolis in India. Classroom sessions were video recorded, computer logs were collected, and field notes were taken. Focus group sessions were held with the students. We coded a portion of the data to get at patterns of classroom interactions. Then we drew on qualitative video analysis tools to analyze specific episodes to understand the fine timescale dynamics of dominant interaction patterns in each setting. Our analysis shows that the shared screen served as a shared memory device, keeping a record of all the students' posts, and was entangled in the moment-to-moment dynamics of self- and peer- assessments of arithmetic. These findings suggest that thoughtful integration of networked digital tools in computer-supported learning environments can increase student–student interactions and support disciplinary learning.
... The theory primarily emphasizes the positive effects of cooperative situations on a number of psychological and performance outcomes (for meta-analyses, see Johnson et al., 2014;Johnson et al., 1981;Roseth et al., 2008). Competitive situations, on the other hand, are basically viewed as maladaptive because they create negative interpersonal emotions which are presumed to hamper task performance and learning processes (Johnson & Johnson, 1989). ...
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... Asimismo analizan las variables psicoafectivas como la motivación, la autoestima, las habilidades sociales, la integración y la aceptación de los escolares en el grupo-clase. Los más representativos son los de Johnson, Skon y Johnson (1980), Johnson, Maryuama, Johnson, Nelson y Skon (1981). En la década de los noventa, los investigadores se interesaron por dos líneas de trabajo: la primera analiza el proceso interactivo en sí mismo y la calidad del mismo (Johnson, Johnson, Stanne y Garibaldi, 1990;Bennet y Dunne, 1991); la segunda línea se propone descubrir y, en su caso, verificar qué factores condicionan la eficacia del aprendizaje cooperativo (Rewey, Dansereau, Dees, Skaggs y Pitre, 1992;O´Donnell y Dansereau, 1992;Echeita, 1995;Fabra, 1992). ...
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Con este estudio pretendemos analizar si existe alguna influencia o relación entre la metodología de Aprendizaje Cooperativo y el desarrollo de la enseñanza - aprendizaje en los alumnos de 1º y 2º de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria, desde la perspectiva de los propios alumnos y de los equipos docentes de los mismos. La muestra está formada por 112 alumnos y 15 profesores. La recogida de datos se ha llevado a cabo mediante la aplicación de dos cuestionarios: “Evaluación del Aprendizaje Cooperativo según la percepción de los profesores” y “Evaluación del Aprendizaje Cooperativo según la percepción de los alumnos” (Equipo de Innovación Educativa. Centros La Salle Arlep 2.011), elaborados a tal efecto. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo en el que se han utilizado medidas de tendencia central. Los resultados más relevantes indican el carácter motivador del trabajo cooperativo de alumnos y profesores y la facilidad para potenciar el conocimiento interpersonal. Asimismo se verifica que la implementación metodológica no merma el esfuerzo personal, mejora el aprendizaje escolar y modifica positivamente la actitud de profesores y alumnos.
... This finding confirms previous findings that students' feelings of happiness become an important factor in the education construct [4]. Likewise, supporting statements Johnson et al [13] that better achievement and more positive relationships were supported by cooperation. And according to research Karakolidis, Pitsia & Emvalotis [14] which concluded that self-belief became a statistically significant variable predicted student performance in mathematics. ...
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