Article

The Emotional Impact of Bullying and Cyberbullying on Victims: A European Cross-National Study

Department of Psychology, University of Córdoba, Spain.
Aggressive Behavior (Impact Factor: 2.28). 09/2012; 38(5):342-56. DOI: 10.1002/ab.21440
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Past research has demonstrated the effects of bullying can be severe and long term for the individuals involved. The main aim of this study is to analyze the emotional impact on victims of traditional bullying, both direct and indirect forms, and of cyberbullying through mobile phones and the Internet. A sample of 5,862 adolescents from three different countries, Italy (N = 1,964), Spain (N = 1,671), and England (N = 2,227), responded to a questionnaire that asked if they had experience of various forms of bullying, and the consequent emotional impact. The results show that both traditional bullying and cyberbullying have a significant prevalence in the samples. Emotional responses are linked to types of bullying. Analysis of answers identified specific emotional profiles for the different types of bullying and cyberbullying. Direct bullying and cyberbullying via mobile phone showed similar profiles, and also indirect bullying and cyberbullying using the Internet. Similarities and differences between profiles are discussed and some hypotheses are presented to explain the results. In addition, school grade, gender, country, and severity of bullying episodes were related to the specific emotional profiles of each type of bullying.

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    • "Fourth, generalizability to other cultural settings was not explored. Given some cultural differences in cyberbullying experiences among victims (Kowalski et al., 2014; Ortega et al., 2012), and in educator actions against traditional bullying (Yoon et al., 2011), our research findings may not apply to other cultures. "
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    • "dinger et al . , 2009 ; Katzer et al . , 2009 ; Del Rey et al . , 2012 ) . However , the effects of cybervictimization are not found with the same degree of intensity in all victims ( Ortega et al . , 2012a ; Dredge et al . , 2014 ; McVie , 2014 ) , and different cybervictim profiles have been identified based on the type of experienced emotions ( Ortega et al . , 2009 , 2012b ) . Different theoretical mod - els have been proposed to help understand the relationship between cyberbullying – and aggression in general – and its effects on victims ( see Kowalski et al . , 2014 ) , most of which focus almost exclusively on cognitive variables ( Lazarus and Folkman , 1984 ; Crick and Dodge , 1994 ; Anderson and Bus"
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