The Emotional Impact of Bullying and Cyberbullying on Victims: A European Cross-National Study

Department of Psychology, University of Córdoba, Spain.
Aggressive Behavior (Impact Factor: 2.28). 09/2012; 38(5):342-56. DOI: 10.1002/ab.21440
Source: PubMed


Past research has demonstrated the effects of bullying can be severe and long term for the individuals involved. The main aim of this study is to analyze the emotional impact on victims of traditional bullying, both direct and indirect forms, and of cyberbullying through mobile phones and the Internet. A sample of 5,862 adolescents from three different countries, Italy (N = 1,964), Spain (N = 1,671), and England (N = 2,227), responded to a questionnaire that asked if they had experience of various forms of bullying, and the consequent emotional impact. The results show that both traditional bullying and cyberbullying have a significant prevalence in the samples. Emotional responses are linked to types of bullying. Analysis of answers identified specific emotional profiles for the different types of bullying and cyberbullying. Direct bullying and cyberbullying via mobile phone showed similar profiles, and also indirect bullying and cyberbullying using the Internet. Similarities and differences between profiles are discussed and some hypotheses are presented to explain the results. In addition, school grade, gender, country, and severity of bullying episodes were related to the specific emotional profiles of each type of bullying.

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    • "Our goal is to determine who among young people is likely to be exposed to such media. Although the Internet has brought enhanced access to all manner of content (Ortega et al. 2012), exposure to harm-advocating media is not a particularly new issue. In a wider research context, violent games and movies have long been the subject of debate, particularly in terms of their implications for the young (Anderson et al. 2010; Bushman and Anderson 2001; Ferguson and Kilburn 2009). "
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    • "Fourth, generalizability to other cultural settings was not explored. Given some cultural differences in cyberbullying experiences among victims (Kowalski et al., 2014; Ortega et al., 2012), and in educator actions against traditional bullying (Yoon et al., 2011), our research findings may not apply to other cultures. "
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    • "dinger et al . , 2009 ; Katzer et al . , 2009 ; Del Rey et al . , 2012 ) . However , the effects of cybervictimization are not found with the same degree of intensity in all victims ( Ortega et al . , 2012a ; Dredge et al . , 2014 ; McVie , 2014 ) , and different cybervictim profiles have been identified based on the type of experienced emotions ( Ortega et al . , 2009 , 2012b ) . Different theoretical mod - els have been proposed to help understand the relationship between cyberbullying – and aggression in general – and its effects on victims ( see Kowalski et al . , 2014 ) , most of which focus almost exclusively on cognitive variables ( Lazarus and Folkman , 1984 ; Crick and Dodge , 1994 ; Anderson and Bus"
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    ABSTRACT: The negative effects of traditional bullying and, recently, cyberbullying on victims are well-documented, and abundant empirical evidence for it exists. Cybervictimization affects areas such as academic performance, social integration and self-esteem, and causes emotions ranging from anger and sadness to more complex problems such as depression. However, not all victims are equally affected, and the differences seem to be due to certain situational and personal characteristics. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) and the emotional impact of cybervictimization. We hypothesize that EI, which has previously been found to play a role in traditional bullying and cyberbullying, may also affect the emotional impact of cyberbullying. The participants in our study were 636 university students from two universities in the south of Spain. Three self-report questionnaires were used: the "European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire," the "Cyberbullying Emotional Impact Scale"; and "Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24." Structural Equation Models were used to test the relationships between the analyzed variables. The results support the idea that PEI, by way of a moderator effect, affects the relationship between cybervictimization and emotional impact. Taken together, cybervictimization and PEI explain much of the variance observed in the emotional impact in general and in the negative dimensions of that impact in particular. Attention and Repair were found to be inversely related to Annoyance and Dejection, and positively related to Invigoration. Clarity has the opposite pattern; a positive relationship with Annoyance and Dejection and an inverse relationship with Invigoration. Various hypothetical explanations of these patterns are discussed.
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