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The essence of boredom

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... Daha önceki araştırmalarda da sonuçlar bu şekildedir (Korunka ve ark., 2009). İşte can sıkıntısı ise genellikle yetersiz uyarılmadan kaynaklanan ve göreceli olarak düşük uyarılma ve memnuniyetsizlikle karakterize edilen istenmeyen bir yeri ruh hali olarak tanımlanır(Mikulas ve Vodanovich, 1993). İşte can sıkıntısı yetersiz uyarılmanın bir sonucu olarak görülürken, tükenmişlik aşırı uyarılmayla ilişkilendirilir.Her ikisi de çalışanı yıpranmış hissetmekle karakterize etse de sıkılmış çalışanların tükenmişlere göre daha az şiddetli olumsuz duygular hissettikleri ve tükenmişlik yaşayan çalışanlara göre daha aktif duygu durumuna sahip oldukları bilinmektedir(Reijseger ve ark., 2013). ...
... Sexual boredom might be best understood under the framework of general boredom. Boredom is the fleeting psychological state 4-6 that occurs when the environment is perceived as unstimulating, repetitive, or monotonous [7][8][9][10] or when there is an inability to create interesting activities for oneself. [11][12][13] Some individuals are more susceptible to boredom and will tend to experience boredom more easily. ...
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Background Research suggests a general link between sexual boredom and sexual desire, but its understanding is currently very limited. Aim To identify distinct (latent) groups of women and men in long-term relationships based on their reported levels of sexual boredom and sexual desire. Methods Latent profile analysis (LPA) was conducted in an online sample of 1223 Portuguese participants aged 18 and 66 years (mean ± SD, 32.75 ± 6.11), using indicators of sexual boredom and partner-related, attractive other–related, and solitary sexual desire to categorize participants. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was carried out to explore predictors and correlates of the latent profiles. Outcomes Sexual boredom was assessed by the Sexual Boredom Scale, while sexual desire was measured with the Sexual Desire Inventory. Results As compared with women, men reported higher levels of sexual boredom and sexual desire. LPA indicated 3 profiles in women and 2 profiles in men. Among women, P1 was characterized by above-average sexual boredom, below-average partner- and attractive other–related sexual desire, and very low solitary sexual desire; P2 by below-average sexual boredom, attractive other–related sexual desire, and solitary sexual desire and above-average partner-related sexual desire; and P3 by above-average sexual boredom, attractive other–related sexual desire, and solitary sexual desire and below-average partner-related sexual desire. In men, P1 was characterized by high sexual boredom, above-average partner-related sexual desire, and high attractive other–related and solitary sexual desire and P2 by below-average sexual boredom and above-average partner-related, attractive other–related, and solitary sexual desire. The latent profiles did not differ according to relationship duration. Overall, the sole consistent correlate of the latent categorization was sexual satisfaction. Clinical Implications In women, above-average levels of sexual boredom were linked to below-average levels of partner-related desire, which suggests likely benefits of helping the couple to minimize or cope better with their sexual routines. In men, participants in the 2 profiles did not differ in partner-related sexual desire, suggesting that clinical interventions dealing with male sexual boredom should investigate factors beyond the current relationship. Strengths and Limitations This study explored different facets of sexual desire and used LPA, rendering advantages over previous research. The male sample has lower statistical power than the female sample. Conclusion Patterns of sexual boredom and sexual desire among individuals in long-term monogamous relationships are distinct and consistently related to sexual satisfaction in women and men and to relationship satisfaction among only women, which have important clinical ramifications.
... Boredom occurs as a consequence of a non-stimulating situation (Mikulas & Vodanovich, 1993), and is most often defined as an affective state of relatively low physiological arousal, a decreased desire to act and a tendency to escape a situation that causes boredom behaviourally or mentally (e.g., daydreaming; Goetz & Frenzel, 2006). Boredom refers to a feeling that is the opposite of feelings such as interest, enthusiasm, involvement and engagement. ...
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The transition to online teaching due to the pandemic provides optimal conditions for analyzing the complexity of cognitive assessments in the context of education. Perceived academic control (PAC) allows students to recognize their responsibilities in online learning and achieve better learning outcomes. This study aimed to examine whether the experience of boredom in online teaching can be a mediator in the relationship between PAC and academic achievement of pupils and university students. The sample consisted of 18 pupils and 111 university students, 30% male and 70% female, aged between 18 and 29 (M = 21.41; SD = 2.45), who attended online classes during the second year of the pandemic. The results of the study confirmed the hypothesis that the experience of boredom in online teaching is a statistically significant mediator in the relationship between academic control and average grade (b = .192, 95% CI [.073, .347]). Still, this mediation is partial, because the direct effect between academic control and grade point average remains significant (b = .323, 95% CI [.111, .536]). Also, PAC is associated with pupils’ and university students’ academic achievement, and this connection is mediated by emotions related to teaching. Boredom in the classroom is closely associated with low PAC, resulting in lower academic achievement. We can conclude that pupils and university students more often perceive learning as boring due to the inability to control teaching activities in the research conducted during the pandemic, which may be in correlation with poorer achievements. Given the probability that online teaching will continue, implications for research and practice as well as future research opportunities are discussed. Keywords: online teaching, COVID-19, perceived academic control, boredom, achievement
... Whether boredom may predict more adverse mental health outcomes, such as burnout, has been debated. Some scholars argue that boredom, as a state of understimulation, is not stressful (Mikulas & Vodanovich, 1993), and therefore it should not lead to burnout. Other studies, in turn, have linked boredom at work with indicators of stress, such as frustration (e.g., van Hooft & van Hooff, 2018) and self-reported stress symptoms (Harju et al., 2014;van Hooff & van Hooft, 2014). ...
Article
Boredom and burnout are suggested to develop from opposite conditions: Whereas boredom is associated with low job stressors, burnout is driven by high job stressors. However, little empirical research exists on the relations between different types of stressors and boredom at work vis-à-vis burnout. Moreover, the direction of these relations has not been previously examined. Drawing from control – value theory and the challenge – hindrance stressor framework we used two-wave panel data from 1730 employees to examine cross-lagged relations between two types of job stressors (i.e., workload and red-tape), boredom and burnout. Results of structural equation modelling revealed that both workload and red-tape positively predicted burnout, while only red-tape positively predicted job boredom over the follow-up period. Furthermore, we found that while burnout positively predicted both perceived workload and red-tape, boredom negatively predicted both types of stressors. We also found a positive reciprocal relation between boredom at work and burnout. These results imply that boredom and burnout may have partly distinct antecedents and outcomes, but they may also fuel each other in a way that requires further research. Implications for practice are discussed.
... As explained in Section 2.2, overexpo sure to a stimulus can provoke negative affective responses. First, boredom can occur, which is the consequence of being dissatisfied and inadequately stimulated (Mikulas & Vodanovich, 1993). This can happen particularly when news cover age is perceived as monotonous and re petitive rather than as diverse and novel and falls short of the recipient's cognitive capacities. ...
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A significant amount of political communication research is grounded in the dynamics of the media’s and the public’s attention to public issues, assuming that the news media draw the public’s attention to issues, thereby fostering an informed and participating citizenry. However, there is evidence from several countries that this mechanism is disrupted for issues with high shares of news coverage during a period. Against this background, this article scrutinizes the idea that recipients become fatigued from these issues in the news. Having transferred findings on overexposure from other media stimuli to the news environment, issue fatigue is defined as a negative cognitive and affective state consisting of decreasing issue-specific information processing involvement, perceived information overload, and increasing boredom, annoyance, and anger toward an issue. Issue fatigue can lead to the avoidance of information about the issue, thus serving as a new explanatory approach to avoidance of media information at an issue level. Further consequences, causes, and the development of issue fatigue are discussed.
... From a theoretical standpoint, certain combinations of primary emotion and cognition with secondary emotions and cognitions may trigger more intense reactions than others. For example, boredom is seen as a strong driver for people to avoid further contact with a stimulus (e.g., Atkin 1973Atkin , 1985Hill and Perkins 1985;Mikulas and Vodanovich 1993). As such, issue fatigue combined with boredom could trigger information avoidance. ...
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This paper scrutinizes the phenomenon of issue fatigue and its consequences. Issue fatigue results from overexposure to a news topic that has been on the media’s agenda for an extended period of time. Fatigued recipients become annoyed, and no longer wish to be exposed to the topic. Based on the findings of an explorative qualitative study, a quantitative online survey was conducted in Germany, Mexico, and Pakistan (N = 481). Using cluster analysis, we identified an emotional and a cognitive type of issue fatigue, and investigated how these types react. Both types of fatigued recipients avoided further news about the respective issue in traditional news media (= information avoidance). Differences were observed concerning the strategies to handle fatigue (= coping strategies): recipients of the emotional type posted about their fatigue in social media; recipients of the cognitive type turned to information in sources other than the mainstream news. Taking into account country-specific differences, we concluded that, generally, issue fatigue—via information avoidance—results in an uninformed citizenry. This can be a hurdle for the functioning of an established democracy or for the success of democratic transitions. Posting about issue fatigue, which was more frequent in Mexico and Pakistan, might ‘infect’ others, and intensify problems resulting from issue fatigue. Turning to alternative sources can be either beneficial or problematic for the development of a well-informed citizenry, depending on whether alternative sources provide reliable and truthful information.
Article
Job crafting has been proposed as a solution to alleviate boredom despite inconsistent empirical findings suggesting that interventions may require more nuance to account for boredom as a subjective experience that depends on the individual. Building on job demands-resources theory, we shed light on relationships between workplace boredom and job crafting depending on three personality traits: proactive personality, assertiveness, and promotion focus. A cross-sectional study measuring employee perceptions of boredom showed that the relationship between boredom and job crafting depended on proactive personality, but the nature of this effect was contrary to predictions. An experiment showed that likelihood to job craft when bored depended on assertiveness. Across both studies, personality factors were consistently strong predictors of job crafting, regardless of how boredom was operationalized (i.e., self-rated or experimentally manipulated). These findings have implications for organizations wishing to select individuals more or less inclined to job craft, and less disposed toward feeling bored. One caveat is individuals high in proactive personality or assertiveness might be more negatively impacted by experiencing boredom at work, resulting in less energy to job craft. This work highlights the value of using multiple methods to measure boredom, along with considering specific dimensions of job crafting.
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Smartphone use has become an indispensable aspect of daily life for billions of people. Increasingly, researchers are examining the impact of smartphone use upon psychological well-being. However, little research has investigated how people deliberately use their smartphones to shape affective states; in other words, how smartphones are used as tools to support everyday emotion regulation. In this paper, we report a study that uses quantitative (experience sampling) and qualitative (semi-structured interview) methods to examine when and how people use smartphones to regulate emotions in everyday life, and the associated psychological consequences. Participants report spending a significant amount of time using their smartphones for emotion regulation, in particular to cope with unpleasant feelings such as boredom and stress. They report that smartphone-mediated emotion regulation is effective for attaining desired affective states. However, the perceived emotional benefits of smartphone emotion regulation do not emerge in lagged analyses predicting changes in momentary mood across a few hours, suggesting that emotional benefits may be transient or may reflect self-report biases. Participants discuss their perceptions of smartphone-supported emotion regulation in relation to smartphone addiction. This study provides evidence on how people use their smartphones for emotion regulation, and contributes to better understanding the complex relationship between smartphone use and emotional wellbeing.
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This research presents a validation of an adaptation in French of the Boredom Proneness Scale (sp) intitled "Echelle de disposition a l'ennui" (EDE). Three studies were conducted to evaluate psychometric properties, construct validity and structural validity. A first study with student participants demonstrated acceptable fidelity (test-retest reliability, internal consistency...) and validity indices. However a confirmatory factor analysis did not support the unidimensional structure of the Boredom Proneness Scale. The second study with a sample of drug addicts assessed the validity of the scale using the "Known-Groups" method. Results supported the construct validity of the scale. A third study examined elderly persons. Results of this study point to the reliability and validity of the french version of the Boredom Proneness Scale. Furthermore, a bidimensionality of the boredom construct was found through an exploratory factor analysis.
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The purpose of the present study is to describe the development of a theory-based instrument to measure individual differences in the disposition toward intrinsic motivation in leisure behavior, and to report data from nine studies examining the reliability and validity of the instrument (total n = 1866). Based on the conceptual work of Deci and Ryan (1985a), Kobasa (1979), and their associates, the Intrinsic Leisure Motivation Disposition is defined as a tendency to seek intrinsic rewards in leisure behavior. It is assumed that the strength of this tendency will differ across individuals, but will remain relatively stable within individuals and across situations. The 24-item Intrinsic Leisure Motivation (ILM) Scale displayed Cronbach alpha coefficients ranging from.872 to.913. The four theoretically derived subscales (Self-Determination, Competence, Commitment, Challenge), each with six items, had alphas ranging from.638 to.832. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to explore the structure of the four subscales. Construct validity data showed that the ILM scale correlated in the hypothesized manner with 13 other measures of theoretically related variables. In six studies that tested for gender differences in ILM scores, only one found significant differences. Discussion of possible research applications for the ILM Scale is presented.