ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

Acacia nilotica Lam (Mimosaceae) indigenously known as 'Babul' or 'Kikar' is a proverbial, medium sized tree and is broadly scattered in tropical and subtropical countries. It has an inspiring range of medicinal uses with potential anti-oxidant activity. This plant contributes a number of groups among which are alkaloids, volatile essential oils, phenols and phenolic glycosides, resins, oleosins, steroids, tannins and terpenes. A. nilotica is a medicinal plant acknowledged to be rich in phenolics, consisting of condensed tannin and phlobatannin, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, pyrocatechol, (+) -catechin, (-) epi-gallocatechin-7-gallate and (-) epigallocatechin-5, 7-digallate. Different parts of this plant such as the leaves, roots, seeds, bark, fruits, flowers, gum and immature pods act as anti-cancer, antimutagenic, spasmogenic, vasoconstrictor, anti-pyretic, anti-asthamatic, cytotoxic, anti-diabetic, anti-platelet agregatory, anti-plasmodial, molluscicidal, anti-fungal, inhibitory activity against Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-I and antioxidant activities, anti-bacterial, anti-hypertensive and anti-spasmodic activities, and are also engaged for the treatment of different ailments in the indigenous system of medicine. This review spotlights on the detailed phytochemical composition, medicinal uses, along with pharmacological properties of different parts of this multipurpose plant.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 6(9), pp. 1492-1496, 9 March, 2012
Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/JMPR
DOI: 10.5897/JMPR11.1275
ISSN 1996-0875 ©2012 Academic Journals
Review
Acacia nilotica: A plant of multipurpose medicinal uses
Atif Ali*, Naveed Akhtar, Barkat Ali Khan, Muhammad Shoaib Khan, Akhtar Rasul,
Shahiq-UZ-Zaman, Nayab Khalid, Khalid Waseem, Tariq Mahmood and Liaqat Ali
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Alternative Medicine, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur,
Pakistan.
Accepted 26 October, 2011
Acacia nilotica Lam (Mimosaceae) indigenously known as ‘Babul’ or ‘Kikar’ is a proverbial, medium
sized tree and is broadly scattered in tropical and subtropical countries. It has an inspiring range of
medicinal uses with potential anti-oxidant activity. This plant contributes a number of groups among
which are alkaloids, volatile essential oils, phenols and phenolic glycosides, resins, oleosins, steroids,
tannins and terpenes. A. nilotica is a medicinal plant acknowledged to be rich in phenolics, consisting
of condensed tannin and phlobatannin, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, pyrocatechol, (+) -catechin, (-)
epi- gallocatechin-7-gallate and (-) epigallocatechin-5, 7-digallate. Different parts of this plant such as
the leaves, roots, seeds, bark, fruits, flowers, gum and immature pods act as anti-cancer,
antimutagenic, spasmogenic, vasoconstrictor, anti-pyretic, anti-asthamatic, cytotoxic, anti-diabetic,
anti-platelet agregatory, anti-plasmodial, molluscicidal, anti-fungal, inhibitory activity against Hepatitis
C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-I and antioxidant activities, anti-bacterial, anti-
hypertensive and anti-spasmodic activities, and are also engaged for the treatment of different ailments
in the indigenous system of medicine. This review spotlights on the detailed phytochemical composition,
medicinal uses, along with pharmacological properties of different parts of this multipurpose plant.
Key words: Acacia nilotica, phytomedicine, multipurpose plant, different parts, medicinal uses, pharmacological
properties.
INTRODUCTION
Acacia nilotica (L.) Del. syn. Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd.
(Mimosaceae) is an imperative multipurpose plant (Kaur
et al., 2005). A. nilotica is a plant 5 to 20 m high with a
thick spherical crown, stems and branches usually
sinister to black colored, grey-pinkish slash, fissured
bark, exuding a reddish low quality gum. The plant has
straight, light, thin, grey spines in axillary pairs, usually in
3 to 12 pairs, 5 to 7.5 cm long in young trees, mature
trees commonly without thorns. The leaves are bipinnate,
with 3 to 6 pairs of pinnulae and 10 to 30 pairs of leaflets
each, rachis with a gland at the bottom of the last pair of
pinnulae. Flowers in globulous heads 1.2 to 1.5 cm in
diameter of a bright golden-yellow color set up either
*Corresponding author. E-mail: ajmaline2000@gmail.com.
Abbreviations: HIV, Human immunodeficiency virus; DMBA,
7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene; HCV, hepatitis C virus; PR,
protease; DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid.
axillary or whorly on peduncles 2 to 3 cm long located at
the end of the branches. Pods are strongly constricted,
white-grey, hairy and thick (baravker et al., 2008). A.
nilotica is a pantropical and subtropical genus with
species abundant throughout Asia, Australia, Africa and
America. A.nilotica occurs naturally and is imperative in
traditional rural and agro-pastoral systems (Shittu, 2010).
A. nilotica is recognized by the following names: Acacia,
Acacia Arabica, Babhul - Hindi and Napalese, Babla -
Bengali, Babool - Unani, Babool Baum - German,
Babhoola - Sanskrit, Babul, Babul Tree, Huanlong Kyain -
Burmese, Kikar, Mughilan - Arabian Indogom - Japenese
and Ummughiion Persian (Steve, 2004). A. nilotica is
an imperative multipurpose plant that has been used
broadly for the treatment of various diseases (Singh et
al., 2009b).
Natural medicinal plants promote self healing, good
health and durability in ayurvedic medicine practices and
have acknowledged that A. nilotica can provide the
nutrients and therapeutic ingredients to prevent, mitigate
or treat many diseases or conditions). It also serves as a
Ali et al. 1493
Table 1. Some common medicinal uses of different parts of A. nilotica.
Part used
Uses
References
Root
The roots are used against cancers and/or tumors (of ear, eye, or testicles),
tuberculosis and indurations of liver and spleen.
(Kalaivani and Mathew, 2010)
Leaf
Chemoprventive, anitmutagenic, anti bacterial, anticancer, astringent, anti
microbial activity Tender leaves are used to treat diarrhea, Aphrodisiac,
dressing of ulcers,anti-inflammatory and Alzheimer’s diseases.
(Kalaivani and Mathew, 2010; Shittu,
2010; Kalaivani et al., 2010)
Gum
Astringent, emollient, liver tonic, antipyretic and antiasthmatic.
(Baravkar et al., 2008)
Stem bark
Anti bacterial, antioxidant, anti-mutagenic, cytotoxic bark is used as astringent,
acrid cooling, styptic, emollient, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, expectorant,
emetic, nutritive, in hemorrhage, wound ulcers, leprosy, leucoderma, small
pox, skin diseases, biliousness, burning sensation, toothache, leucoderma,
dysentery and seminal weakness. The trunk bark is used for cold, bronchitis,
diarrhoea, dysentery, biliousness, bleeding piles and leucoderma.
(Agrawal et al., 2010; Del, 2009;
Kalaivani and Mathew, 2010; Kaur et
al., 2005; Singh et al., 2009; Singh et
al., 2008a)
Seeds
Spasmogenic activity and antiplasmodial activity.
(El-Tahir et al.,1999; Amos et al., 1999)
Pods
Anti hypertensive and antispasmodic, anti-diarrhoerial, astringent,anti-fertility
and against HIV-1 PR, Inhibited HIV-1 induced cythopathogenicity,
antiplatelet aggregatory activity and anti oxidant.
(Gilani et al., 1999; Asres et al., 2005;
Shah et al., 1997; Singh et al., 2009)
source of polyphenols (Singh et al., 2009a). The role of
these polyphenols to the plant itself is not well implicit,
but for the human kind they can be of prime strategies
(Singh et al., 2009a). The phytochemicals contribute
chemically to a number of groups among which are
alkaloids, volatile essential oils, phenols and phenolic
glycosides, resins, oleosins, steroids, tannins and
terpenes (Banso, 2009). This plant contain a profile of a
variety of bioactive components such as gallic acid,
ellagic acid, isoquercitin, leucocyanadin, kaempferol-7-
diglucoside, glucopyranoside, rutin, derivatives of (+)-
catechin-5-gallate, apigenin-6,8-bis-C-glucopyranoside,
m-catechol and their derivatives (Singh et al., 2009a). It
has been reported that different parts of the plant are
prosperous in tannins (ellagic acid, gallic acid and tannic
acid), stearic acid, vitamin-C (ascorbic acid), carotene,
crude protein, crude fiber, arabin, calcium, magnesium
and selenium (Meena et al., 2006). A number of
medicinal properties have been ascribed to various parts
of this highly esteemed plant (Table 1). Traditionally the
bark, leaves, pods and flowers are used against cancer,
cold, congestion, cough, diarrhea, dysentery, fever, gall
bladder, hemorrhoid, ophthalmia, sclerosis, tuberculosis
and small pox, leprosy, bleeding piles, leucoderma and
menstrual problems.
They have spasmogenic, vasoconstrictor, anti/-
hypertensive, -mutagenic, -carcinogenic, -spasmodic, -
inflammatory, -oxidant and -platelet aggregatory
properties (Singh et al., 2009b). A. nilotica has anti-
plasmodial, molluscicidal, anti-fungal, anti-microbial
activity, inhibitory activity against HCV and HIV-I (Sultana
et al., 2007). The bark of the plant is used as astringent,
acrid, cooling, styptic, emollient, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac,
diuretic, expectorant, emetic and nutritive, in hemorrhage,
wound ulcers, leprosy, leucoderma, skin diseases and
seminal weakness. Gum is used as astringent, emollient,
liver tonic, antipyretic and antiasthmatic (baravkar et al.,
2008). The bark is used extensively for colds, bronchitis,
biliousness, diarrhoea, dysentery, bleeding piles and
leucoderma (Del, 2009). It is used by traditional healers
of different regions of Chattisgarh in treatment of various
cancer types of mouth, bone and skin. In West Africa, the
bark and gum are used against cancers and/or tumors (of
ear, eye, or testicles) and indurations of liver and spleen,
the root for tuberculosis, the wood for smallpox and the
leaves for ulcers (Kalaivani and Methew, 2010a). Pods
and tender leaves are given to treat diarrhoea and are
also considered very useful in folk medicine to treat
diabetes mellitus (Gilani et al., 1999). The tender twings
are used as toothbrushes (Meena et al., 2006). So far no
comprehensive review has been compiled encircling the
efficacy of this plant in all proportions from the literature.
Its stretchy utility as a medicine forced us to bridge the
information gap in this area and to write a comprehensive
review on the medicinal, phytochemical and
pharmacological traits of this plant of high economic
value.
PHYTOCHEMISTRY
Plant compounds have interest as a source of safer or
more valuable substitutes than synthetically created
antimicrobial agents. Phytochemical progress has been
aided extremely by the development of rapid and
accurate methods of screening plants for particular
1494 J. Med. Plants Res.
chemicals. These procedures have shown that many
substances originally thought to be rather rare in
occurrence are of almost universal distribution in the
plant kingdom. The phytochemicals are divided
chemically into a number of groups among which are
alkaloids, volatile essential oils, phenols and phenolic
glycosides, resins, oleosins, steroids, tannins and
terpenes (Banso, 2009). Phytochemistry confirmed that
all the tested extracts contain physterols, fixed oils, fats,
phenolic compounds, flavanoids and saponins (Kalaivani
et al., 2010b). The phytochemicals alkaloids and
glycosides detected in the crude extracts of A. nilotica
roots are indicated (Jigam et al., 2010) below.
Phytochemical screening of the stem bark of A. nilotica
exposed that the plant contain terpenoids, alkaloids,
saponins and glycosides. Negative results were recorded
for steroids and flavonoids which authenticate the
absence of these phytochemicals (Banso, 2009). This
plant recommends a variety of phytochemical such as
gallic acid, ellagic acid, isoquercitin, leucocyanadin,
kaempferol-7-diglucoside, glucopyranoside, rutin,
derivatives of (+)-catechin-5-gallate, apigenin-6,8-bis-C-
glucopyranoside, m-catechol and their derivatives. A.
nilotica contains gallic acid, m-digallic acid, (+)-catechin,
chlorogenic acid, gallolyated flavan-3, 4-diol, robidandiol
(7, 3, 4, 5-tetrahydroxyflavan-3-4-diol), androstene
steroid, D-pinitol carbohydrate and catechin-5-galloyl
ester (Singh et al., 2009a). The bark is prosperous in
phenolics viz. condensed tannin and phlobatannin, gallic
acid, protocatechuic acid pyrocatechol, (+)- catechin, (-)
epigallocatechin-7-gallate, and (-) epigallocatechin-5,7-
digallate (Singh et al., 2009a). The bark is also reported
to contain (-) epicatechin, (+) dicatechin, quercetin, gallic
acid, (+) leucocyanidin gallate, sucrose and (+) catechin-
5-gallate (Mitra and Sundaram, 2007). A.nilotica is a
medicinal plant from which the polyphenolic compounds
kaempferol has been reported for the first time]. Another
compound umbelliferone has been reported from A.
nilotica (Singh et al., 2010b).
MEDICINAL USES AND PHARMACOLOGICAL
EFFECTS
A. nilotica also has numerous medicinal uses. The
medicinal traits and pharmacological activities endorsed
to various parts of A. nilotica are detailed as follows.
Anti-hypertensive and anti-spasmodic activities
A decrease in arterial blood pressure is reported by use
of methanolic extract of A. nilotica pods and provides
evidence of anti hypertensive activities independent of
muscarinic receptor stimulation. In the in vitro studies, A.
nilotica has inhibitory effect on force and rate of
spontaneous contractions in guinea-pig paired atria and
rabbit jejunum. A. nilotica also inhibits K+ induced
contractions in rabbit jejunum advocating the
antispasmodic action of A. nilotica which is mediated
through calcium channel blockade and this may also be
responsible for the blood pressure lowering effect of A.
nilotica, observed in the in vivo studies (Gilani et al.,
1999).
An aqueous extract of the seed of A. nilotica is also
investigated on the isolated guinea-pig ileum which
exposed the sustained dose-related contractile activity. A
dose-related significant elevation of blood pressure is
produced by intravenous administration of the extract
(Amos et al., 1999).
Antibacterial and antifungal activities
The assays of the stem bark extracts confirms the
antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus viridans,
Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis
and Shigella sonnei using the agar diffusion method. A.
nilotica could be a potential source of antimicrobial
agents (Banso, 2009).
A. nilotica demonstrates highest activity against three
bacterial (E. coli, S. aureus and Salmonella typhi) and
two fungal strain (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger)
(Kalaivani and Methew, 2010a).
Antiplasmodial activities
The ethyl acetate extract holds the highest activity on
Plasmodium falciparum. Phytochemical analysis
indicated that the most active phase contained terpenoids
and tannins and was devoid of alkaloids and saponins
(El-tahir et al., 1999). Crude methanolic root extracts of A.
nilotica reveals significant activity against chloroquine
sensitive strain of Plasmodium berghei in mice (Jigam,
2010).
Antioxidant activity
Water extract/fractions of A. nilotica (L.) in lipid
peroxidation assay possess the peroxyl radical
scavenging capacity and results prove the anti-oxidant
activity of plant.
The bark powder of the plant extracts with different
solvents found the scavenging activity using maceration
extraction (Del, 2009). Another study reveals that A.
nilotica is easily accessible source of natural antioxidants,
which can be used as supplement to aid the therapy of
free radical mediated diseases such as cancer, diabetes,
inflammation, etc (Amos et al., 1999). Furthermore, the
high scavenging property of A. nilotica may be due to
hydroxyl groups existing in the phenolic compounds that
can scavenge the free radicals (Kalaivani and Mathew,
2010).
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities
Acetylcholinesterase is a basic aim in the treatment of
Alzheimer’s disease. It has been found that A. nilotica
has effect on central nervous system activities due to
potent Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. More
investigations are required in the treatment of
Alzheimier’s (Crowch and Okello, 2009).
Anti-diabetic activities
Studies have confirmed anti-diabetic activities. However,
pods and tender leaves are considered very beneficial in
folk medicine to treat diabetes mellitus (Gilani et al.,
1999).
Chemopreventive, cytotoxic and anti-mutagenic
activities
It has been reported, that the antimutagenic and cytotoxic
activities exhibited by acetone extract may be due to the
presence of gallic acid and other polyphenols (Kaur et al.,
2005). It is reported that the leaf extract of A. nilotica had
significant chemopreventive and anti-mutagenic activity
than the other parts (Kalaivani and Mathew, 2010a). The
chemopreventive activity of A. nilotica gum, flower and
leaf aqueous extracts, on 7,12
dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced skin
papillomagenesis in male swiss albino mice has been
found.
The chemopreventive and anti-mutagenic activity of the
leaf extract of A. nilotica was the most significant,
followed by the flower extract and then by gum (Meena et
al., 2006).
OTHER MULTIPLICITIES
The extract of A.nilotica is found to stimulate the
synthesis and release of prolactin in the female rate and
may be give a better result for lactating women (Lompo et
al., 2004). A. nilotica are used for tanning, dyeing of
leather, for gastrointestinal disorders, syphilitic ulcers and
toothache (Amos et al., 1999). A. nilotica pods have
reported inhibited HIV-1 induced cythopathogenicity
(Asres et al., 2005). Fresh roots extract used as narcotic,
known as Desi sharab (local bear), gum is used as
aphrodisiac with water; branches are used for cleaning
teeth (Badshah and Hussain, 2011). Methanolic bark
extract of bark has significant inhibitory effects of
sudanese medicinal plant extracts on HCV protease
(Hussein et al., 1999b). In the end, methanol extracts of
bark and pods have considerable inhibitory effects
against HIV-1 PR (protease) (Hussein et al., 2000a).
Ali et al. 1495
FUTURE PROSPECTS
Based on the different studies on different parts of
A.nilotica, there is a grim need to isolate and identify new
compounds from different parts of the tree, which have
possible antimutagenic and cytotoxic activities.
Therefore, the spreadilbility of naturally occurring
polyphenolic compounds having ability to provide
protection against certain types of mutagens and
carcinogens is of great importance. The A. nilotica extract
was also studied for its possible interaction with serotonin
(5-HT) receptors which is associated with hypertension.
Furthermore, it contains additional serotonin blocking
compounds, which may be further studied for detailed
interaction with serotonin receptor subtypes (Gilani et al.,
1999). The high scavenging property of A. nilotica
exhibits high scavenging activity due to presence of
phenolic compounds. However, further research is
required to identify individual components forming anti-
oxidative system and develop their application for
pharmaceutical and food industries (Kalaivani and
Mathew, 2010a). Umbelliferone, a potent antioxidant
isolated from A. nilotica plant and food derived
antioxidants are implicated in the prevention of cancer
and aging by destroying oxidative species that initiate
carcinogenesis through oxidative damage of
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) The supplementation of
functional food with antioxidants, which inhibit the
formation of free radicals, can lead to prevention of some
diseases As most of the antimu- tagenic compounds act
via scavenging of free radicals, There is intense need to
investigate the antioxidant activity of the functional
components present in the extract from A. nilotica (Singh
et al., 2009b).
Literature is however scarce in respect of the efficacy
of gallotannins as antiplasmodial agents so more
investigation is required (Jigam et al., 2010). Having
potential uses of this plant, it is highly recommended to
cultivate widely to get maximum production for welfare of
mankind.
REFERENCES
Agrawal S, Kulkarni GT, Sharma VN (2010). A comparative study on
the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of acacia. Adv. Nat. Appl.
Sci., 4(1): 78-84.
Amos S, Akah PA, Odukwe CJ, Gamaniel KS, Wambede C (1999). The
pharmacological effects of an aqueous extract from Acacia nilotica
seeds. Phytother. Res., 13: 683-685.
Asres K, Seyoum A, Veeresham C, Buca F, Gibbons S (2005).
Naturally derived anti-HIV agents. Phytother. Res., 19: 557-581.
Badshah L, Hussain F (2011). People preferences and use of local
medicinal flora in District Tank, Pakistan. J. Med. Plants Res., 5(1):
22-29.
Banso A (2009). Phytochemical and antibacterial investigation of bark
extracts of Acacia nilotica. J. Med. Plants Res., 3: 082-085.
Baravkar AA, Kale RN, Patil RN, Sawant SD (2008). Pharmaceutical
and biological evaluation of formulated cream of methanolic extract of
Acacia nilotica leaves. Res. J. Pharm. Technol., 1(4): 481-483.
Crowch CM, Okello EJ (2009). Kinetics of acetylcholinesterase
1496 J. Med. Plants Res.
inhibitory activities by aqueous extracts of Acacia nilotica (L.) and
Rhamnus prinoides. Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 3(10): 469-475.
Del WE (2009). In vitro evaluation of peroxyl radical scavenging
capacity of water extract / fractions of Acacia nilotica (L.). Afr. J.
Biotechnol., 8(7): 1270-1272.
El-Tahir A, Satti GM, Khalid SA (1999). Antiplasmodial activity of
selected sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis on Acacia nilotica.
Phytother. Res., 13: 474-478.
Gilani AH, Shaheen F, Zaman M, Janbaz KH, Shah BH, Akhtar MS
(1999). Studies on antihypertensive and antispasmodic activities of
methanol extract of Acacia nilotica pods. Phytother. Res., 13: 665-
669.
Hussein G, Miyashiro H, Nakamura N, Hattori M, Kakiuchi N (2000a).
Inhibitory effects of sudanese medicinal plant extracts on hepatitis C
virus (HCV) protease. Phytother. Res., 14: 510-516.
Hussein G, Miyashiro H, Nakamura N, Hattori M, Kawahata T, Otake T
(1999b). Inhibitory effects of sudanese plant extracts on HCV-1
replication and HCV-1 protease. Phytother. Res., 13: 31-36.
Jigam AA, Akanya HO, Dauda BEN, Okogun JO (2010).
Polygalloyltannin isolated from the roots of Acacia nilotica Del.
(Leguminoseae) is effective against Plasmodium berghei in mice. J.
Med. Plants Res., 4(12): 1169-1175.
Kalaivani T, Mathew L (2010a). Free radical scavenging activity from
leaves of Acacia nilotica (L.) Wil . ex Delile, an Indian medicinal tree.
Food Chem. Toxicol., 48: 298-305
Kalaivani T, Rajasekaran C, Suthindhiran K, Mathew L (2010b). Free
radical scavenging, cytotoxic and hemolytic activities from leaves of
Acacia nilotica (l.) wild. ex. delile subsp. indica ( benth.) brenan. Evid.
Based Complement. Alternat. Med., 2011: 274741.
Kaur K, Michael H, Arora S, Harkonen P, Kumar S (2005). In vitro
bioactivity-guided fractionation and characterization of polyphenolic
inhibitory fractions from Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Del. J.
Ethnopharmacol., 99: 353-630.
Lompo-Ouedraogo Z, Heide van der D, Beek van der EM, Swarts HJM,
Mattheij J AM, Sawadogo L (2004). Effect of aqueous extract of
Acacia nilotica ssp adansonii on milk production and prolactin release
in the rat. J. Endocrinol., 182: 257-266.
Meena PD, Kaushik P, Shukla S, Soni AK, Kumar M, Kumar A (2006).
Anticancer and antimutagenic properties of Acacia nilotica (Linn.) on
7, 12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene-induced skin papillomagenesis in
Swiss albino mice. Asian Pac. J. Can. Prev., 7: 627-632.
Mitra S, Sundaram R (2007). Antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate soluble
fraction of Acacia arabica bark in rats. Indian J. Pharmacol., 39(1):
33-38.
Shittu GA (2010). In vitro antimicrobial and phytochemical activities of
Acacia nilotica leaf extract. J. Med. Plants Res., 4(12): 1232-1234.
Singh BN, Singh BR, Sarma BK, Singh HB (2009b). Potential
chemoprevention of N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced
hepatocarcinogenesis by polyphenolics from Acacia nilotica bark.
Chem-Biol. Interact., 181: 20-28.
Singh BN, Singh BR, Singh, RL, Prakash D, Sarma BK, Singh HB
(2009a). Antioxidant and anti-quorum sensing activities of green pod
of Acacia nilotica L. Food Chem. Toxicol., 47: 778-786.
Singh R, Singh B, Singh S, Kumar N, Kumar S, Arora S (2010b).
Umbelliferone An antioxidant isolated from Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd.
Ex. Del. Food Chem., 120: 825-830.
Singh R, Singh B, Singh S, Kumar N, Kumar S, Arora S (2008a). Anti-
free radical activities of kaempferol isolated from Acacia nilotica (L.)
Willd. Ex. Del. Toxicol. Vitro, 22(8): 19.
Steve B (2004). Medicinal Plant Constituents. Available from lifelong
pres. www.naturalhealthwizards.com
Sultana B, Anwar F, Przybylski R (2007). Antioxidant activity of phenolic
components present in barks of Azadirachta indica, Terminalia
arjuna, Acacia nilotica, and Eugenia jambolana Lam. trees. Food
Chem., 104: 1106-1114.
... The plant is rich in secondary metabolites of the polyphenolic compounds (tannins, flavonoids, and phenolic acids), essential oil, terpenoids, steroids, saponins, proteins, and alkaloids (Rizwana et al., 2014). Hence, some isolated compounds have shown the presence of condensed tannin, and phlobatannin, and the tannin compounds such as gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, pyrocatechol, (+) catechin (-) epigallocatechin-7gallate and (-) epigallocatechin-5, 7-digallate were also identified in this species (Ali et al., 2012). ...
... They also found that the n butanol can also be replaced for diesel as an alternate. Kariuki and Njoroge (2011) [3][4][5] helped us to know that the Vachellianilotica has an antimicrobial property by testing it against the Staphylococcus aureus, [6] and also the Streptococcus pneumonia along with Escherichia coli [7][8][9] by using a method called bioassay and the method called test by disk diffusion [10]. ...
Article
This present study reports about the Acacia nilotica (karuvel) seed oil from which biodiesel for experimenting is produced. The greatest advantage of Karuvel oil is free from the content of fatty acid and so esterification of free fatty acid was done which was then undergone a transesterification process and from which the production of biodiesel was done. The catalyst like Sulphuric acid along with KOH was used as a catalyst and made available for the transesterification process. The gas chromatography and also the physiochemical properties is characterized for the biodiesel which is produced. Unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters are been found in a high value in the Karuvel biodiesel. A detailed report has been given on the Catalyst concentration and reaction time for completing the transesterification process.
... Acacia nilotica is a species of the genus Acacia, which belongs to the Mimosaceae family (Kabbashi et al. 2016). This plant has various medicinal properties (Ali et al. 2012) used in folk medicine to treat a variety of ailments (Abduljawad 2020). Its barks and pods are used in the treatment of diarrhea, verminosis, and gastritis in rural conditions (Traore et al. 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Infestation by Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi mite causes scabies in humans and mange in animals. Alternative methods for developing environmentally friendly and effective plant-based acaricides are now a priority. The purpose of this research was the in silico design and in vitro evaluation of the efficacy of ethanol extracts of Acacia nilotica and Psidium guajava plant leaves against S. scabiei. Chem-Draw ultra-software (v. 12.0.2.1076.2010) was used to draw 36 distinct compounds from these plants that were employed as ligands in docking tests against S. scabiei Aspartic protease (SsAP). With docking scores of − 6.50993 and − 6.16359, respectively, clionasterol (PubChem CID 457801) and mangiferin (PubChem CID 5281647) from A. nilotica inhibited the targeted protein SsAP, while only beta-sitosterol (PubChem CID 222284) from P. guajava interacted with the SsAP active site with a docking score of − 6.20532. Mortality in contact bioassay at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/ml was determined to calculate median lethal time (LT 50) and median lethal concentration (LC 50) values. Acacia nilotica extract had an LC 50 value of 0.218 g/ml compared to P. guajava extract, which had an LC 50 value of 0.829 g/ml at 6 h. These results suggest that A. nilotica extract is more effective in killing mites, and these plants may have novel acaricidal properties against S. scabiei. Further research should focus on A. nilotica as a potential substitute for clinically available acaricides against resistant mites.
Article
Nanotechnology is the integrative science in the field of physics, chemistry and biology. For the synthesis of silver nanoparticles, a simple approach was applied using Firmianacolorata (Roxb.) aqueous leaf extract. During the synthesis of this silver nanoparticle, the solution color changes from green to deep brown due to the reduction of silver. The phytocompounds present in the Firmianacolorata (Roxb.) leaf extract acts as a reducing as well as a capping agent. Identifying the presence of bioactive compounds responsible for the reduction of silver was extensively characterized by UV–Vis spectrophotometer, FTIR, SEM, and EDX. Moreover, to know the efficacy of the silver nanoparticles (AgNps) antioxidant and antimicrobial studies were evaluated against the human pathogenic bacteria. Furthermore, GC–MS analysis of the leaf extract of Firmianacolorata has been done followed by the in-silico molecular docking against the Anti-inflammatory and oxidative protein. Here within this study, a comparative evaluation was done among the Firmianacolorata (Roxb.) leaf extract and the synthesized silver nanoparticles. Results indicate that ethnomedicinally lesser known Firmianacolorata (Roxb.) and AgNps have the potency to act as anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antimicrobial agents.
Article
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
There is an on-going demand in recent years for safer and “greener” hair coloring agents with the global consumer awareness of the adverse effects of synthetic hair dyes. The belief in sustainability and health benefits has focused the attention of the scientific community towards natural colorants that serve to replace their synthetic toxic counterparts. This review article encompasses the historical applications of a vast array of natural plant hair dyes and summarizes the possible coloration mechanisms (direct dyeing and mordant dyeing). Current information on phytochemicals (quinones, tannins, flavonoids, indigo, curcuminoids and carotenoids) used for hair dyeing are summarized, including their botanical sources, color chemistry and biological/toxicological activities. A particular focus is given on research into new natural hair dye sources along with eco-friendly, robust and cost-effective technologies for their processing and applications, such as the synthetic biology approach for colorant production, encapsulation techniques for stabilization and the development of inorganic nanocarriers. In addition, innovative in vitro approaches for the toxicological assessments of natural hair dye cosmetics are highlighted.
Article
Full-text available
Gum arabica is a local commercial nutraceutical and food preservative collected mostly from acacia plants. HPLC-DAD analysis identified gallic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid, coumarin, rutin and rosmarinic acid in hydroethanol extracts of all three acacia species with ferulic acid being the most abundant component in Acacia ataxacantha (45.25 ± 0.33 mg/g) Acacia sieberiana (130.3 ± 0.65 mg/g) and Acacia nilotica (125.50 ± 0.51 mg/g). Extracts displayed good antioxidant capacities in β-carotene-linoleic acid, DPPH•, ABTS•+, CUPRAC and metal chelating assays and extracts were more active than the standards used in the DPPH•, ABTS•+ and CUPRAC assays. Extracts inhibited violacein production in Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472 at MIC and sub-MIC concentrations as well as quorum sensing in C. violaceum CV026 under externally supplied acylhomoserine lactone. The extracts showed antimicrobial activity with MIC values ranging from 0.1562 mg/mL to 2.5 mg/mL on Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Typhi, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans with excellent biofilm inhibition at MIC and sub-MIC concentrations especially against E. coli. Extracts showed inhibitions on some enzymes with A. Sieberiana and A. Nilotica having very good anticholinesterase, antidiabetic (α-glucosidase and α-amylase) and antiurease activities. The results indicate the relevance of acacia in food applications.
Article
Full-text available
Multidrug resistance (MDR) in pathogenic bacteria have become a major clinical issue. Quorum sensing regulated bacterial virulence is a promising key drug target for MDR infections. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to assess the anti-quorum sensing properties of selected medicinal plants against bacterial pathogens as well in silico interaction of selected bioactive phytocompounds with QS and biofilm-associated proteins. Based on the ethnopharmacological usage, 18 plants were selected using methanolic extract against Chromobacterium violaceum 12472. The most active extract (Acacia nilotica) was fractionated in increasing polarity solvents (n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate) and tested for anti-QS activity. The most active fraction i.e. ethyl acetate fraction was evaluated for their activity at sub-MICs against QS-associated virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Serretia marcescens MTCC 97. Microtiter plate assay and light microscopy was used to determine inhibition of biofilm. Phytochemicals of the ethyl acetate fraction were analysed by GC/MS and LC/MS. Phytocompounds were docked with QS (LasI, LasR, CviR, and rhlR) and biofilm proteins (PilY1 and PilT) using Auto dock vina. The MIC of ethyl acetate fraction determined was 250, 500, and 1000 μg/ml against C. violaceum 12472, P. aeruginosa PAO1, and S. marcescens MTCC97 respectively. At sub-MICs QS regulated virulence factors production and inhibited biofilms broadly (more than 50 percent). GC/MS detected the major bioactive compound benzoic acid, 3,4,5-trihydroxy-, methyl ester (61.24 %) and LC-MS detected Retronecine for the first time in A. nilotica pods. In silico, dehydroabietic acid occupied the same cavity as its antagonist in the CviR ligand binding domain. Also, betulin and epicatechin gallate interact with biofilm proteins PilY1 and PilT, preventing biofilm formation. The findings suggest that the phytochemicals of A. nilotica pod could be exploited as an anti-QS agent against Gram-negative pathogens. To discover therapeutic efficacy of standardised bioactive extract/phytochemicals must be tested under in vivo condition.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose In this study, two main research objectives were examined: (1) the cytotoxic and anticancer activities of the aqueous methanol extract from Acacia nilotica flowers on three human cancer cells, namely lung A549, breast MCF-7, and leukemia THP-1 cells, and (2) the genotoxic effects of A. nilotica extract and its influence on DNA damage induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) in mice. Methods Mice were orally treated with A. nilotica extract (200, 500, and 800 mg/kg for 4 days) with or without MNU (80 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 24 h). Results In vitro experiments showed that A549 cells were the most sensitive to A. nilotica extract among the tested cell lines. A. nilotica extract inhibited A549 cell proliferation by blocking the cell cycle at the G 2 /M phase and accumulating apoptotic cells in the sub-G 0 /G 1 phase in A549 cells. In vivo experiments showed that MNU induced positive and negative genotoxicity in bone marrow cells and spermatocytes, respectively. Negative genotoxicity was observed in A. nilotica extract-treated groups only. However, A. nilotica extract (800 mg/kg) remarkably increased comet tail formation in bone marrow cells. Unexpectedly, the absence of antigenotoxicity was observed in three cotreated groups with A . nilotica extract and MNU compared with the MNU-treated group. Astonishingly, cotreatment with MNU and A. nilotica extract at a dose above 200 mg/kg remarkably increased micronucleus and comet tail formation in bone marrow cells compared with the MNU-treated group. Conclusions A. nilotica extract possessed anticancer activity with relative genotoxic effects at high doses.
Article
Full-text available
The in vitro antimicrobial and phytochemical activities of the crude ethanolic leaf extract of Acacia nilotica on Campylobacter coli isolated from goats in Gwagwalada Abattoir was investigated. Hydrolysable tannins, saponin, saponin glycosides, volatile oils, phenols, triterpenes, flavonoids and alkaloid were present in the extract. Minimum inhibitory concentration was 70 mg/ml of the extract related to standardized bacteria colony of 3 x 10 8 organisms per mL. The highest zone of inhibition was observed with the 70 mg/ml concentration, following isolation and inoculation of test organisms on Muller Hinton Agar incubated at 37C for 24 h. The basis of this plant extract in the traditional treatment of diarrhea in human is highlighted.
Article
Full-text available
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a key target in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We studied the potential anti-AChE activities of Acacia nilotica (Leguminosae) and Rhamnus prinoides (Rhamnaceae) plants that have previously been shown to affect central nervous system activities. Sonicated aqueous extracts of A. nilotica and R. prinoides displayed significant AChE inhibition by about 56 and 53%, respectively, after 5 min incubation at 0.1mg/ml final assay concentration. Inhibition kinetics showed both plant preparations to be mixed inhibitors (specifically non-competitive uncompetitive type). Galanthamine was assayed as a positive control and was found to be a very potent mixed type (competitive non-competitive) inhibitor; IC50 of 0.0004 mg/ml compared to 0.079 mg/ml for A. nilotica and 0.201 mg/ml for R. prinoides. We conclude that although the AChE inhibition by A. nilotica and R. prinoides is not as potent as that of galanthamine, in addition to their known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities these plants could provide novel poly-pharmacological leads of potential benefit to the treatment of AD and therefore warrant further investigation.
Article
Full-text available
The present study was planned to confirm the peroxyl radical scavenging capacity of water extract/fractions of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. Ex Del. in lipid peroxidation assay and results were compared with standard antioxidant (butylated hydroxytoluene). The bark powder of the plant was extracted with different solvents of increasing and decreasing polarity by maceration extraction method and then the water extract was further partitioned with ethyl acetate and water. The scavenging activity of extract was found to increased on fractionating the extract.
Article
Full-text available
A methanol extract of Acacia nilotica pods (AN) caused a dose-dependent (3-30 mg/kg) fall in arterial blood pressure. Treatment of animals with atropine abolished the vasodilator response of acetylcholine (ACh), whereas the antihypertensive effect of the plant extract remained unaltered. Phentolamine (an alpha-adrenergic blocker) abolished the vasoconstrictor effect of norepinephrine (NE), whereas pretreatment of the animal with AN, did not modify the NE response. These results indicate that the antihypertensive effect of plant extract is independent of muscarinic receptor stimulation or adrenoceptor blockade. Pn the in vitro studies, AN produced a dose-dependent (0.3-3.0 mg/mL) inhibitory effect on force and rate of spontaneous contractions in guinea-pig paired atria. Similarly, it inhibited the spontaneous contraction of rabbit jejunum in a concentration-dependent (0.1-3.0 mg/mL) manner, AN also inhibited K+-induced contractions in rabbit jejunum at a similar concentration range, which suggests that the antispasmodic action of AN is mediated through calcium channel blockade, and this may also be responsible for the blood pressure lowering effect of AN, observed in the in vivo studies. Copyright (C) 1999 John Wiley & Sans, Ltd.
Article
Full-text available
Crude methanolic root extracts of Acacia nilotica Del. (Leguminoseae) demonstrated significant activity against chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium berghei in mice. Purified extracts showed only a single fraction with significant antiplasmodial effects using bioguided essay techniques. The active A. nilotica isolate was highly polar dissolving readily in methanol, appeared as a single spot in different TLC conditions and was positive for tannins, melting with decomposition between 224 -229°C. Its 1 H NMR spectra exhibited large signals at S 6.90 -7.58 and 4.70 -5.00. The Mass spectra (ES1 -Msn) of the isolate gave a large M -1 signal of m/z 1395 consistent with the molecular formula C 62 H 43 O 38 . Others at 1243, 1091, 939, 787, 635, 453 and 331 that differ by m/z 152 were accounted for by the progressive loss of a galloyl (C 7 H 4 O 4) moiety. A polygalloyltannin structure containing a central glucosyl moiety corresponding with 1, 3, 6 – digalloyl – 2, 4 monogalloyltannin was hence postulated.
Article
Acacia nilotica was assessed for active principles. The results showed that the stem bark extract of the plant possessed the active principles e.g. terpenoids, tannins, alkaloids, saponins and glycosides. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was assayed against Streptococcus viridans, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Shigella sonnei using the agar diffusion method. The plant extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against all the test microorganisms. B. subtilis was the most susceptible to the plant extract while Candida albicans was the most resistant. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the stem bark extract of the plant ranged between 35 and 50 mg/ml while the minimum bactericidal concentration ranged between 35 and 60 mg/ml. A. nilotica could be a potential source of antimicrobial agents.
Article
Objective: To study the antioxidant activity of various extracts and fractions of Acacia arabica by in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Materials and Methods: Various solvent extracts were prepared by Soxhlet extraction. Extract fractionations were done by solvent-solvent extraction and flash chromatographic separation. In vitro lipid peroxidation was carried out by tertiary butyl hydroperoxide -induced lipid peroxidation. The most active fractions were identified and standardized by thin layer chromatography (TLC). In vivo experiments on the most active fraction were carried out with 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg, p.o. doses, in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced hepatotoxicity, in rats. Various biochemical parameters like serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation were estimated. Results: Flash chromatographic fractions 2-6 of ethyl acetate extract exhibited maximum activity with in vitro lipid peroxidation. In vivo evaluation of this active fraction (AA) in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity for 19 days at a dose of 150 mg/kg offered marked liver protection, which was evident by significant changes in lipid peroxidation, glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase (P<0.01). The treatment also showed significant changes in AST, ALT, and GSH-Px levels (P<0.05). At lower doses, the protection was not consistent. Conclusion: The polyphenol rich active fraction of Acacia arabica is a potent free radical scavenger and hepatoprotective and protects TBH-induced lipid peroxidation and CCl4 -induced hepatic damage.
Article
The traditional uses of medicinal plants in healthcare practices are providing clues to new areas of research and hence its importance is now well recognized. However, information on the uses of indigenous plants for medicine is not well documented from many rural areas of Pakistan including district Tank. The study aimed to look into the diversity of plant resources that are used by local people for curing various ailments. Questionnaire surveys of 375 respondents, participatory observations and field visits were planned to elicit information on the uses of various plants. It was found that 41 plant species were commonly used by the local people for curing various diseases. Thirteen of them were frequently told and three of them viz. Citrullus colocynthis, Withania coagulans and Fagonia cretica were the ever best in the area. In most of the cases (31%) leaves were used. The interviewees mentioned various plant usages. Those most frequently reported had therapeutic value for treating fever, rheumatism, diarrhea, asthma and piles. The knowledge about the total number of medicinal plants available in that area and used by the interviewees was positively correlated with people's age, indicating that this ancient knowledge tends to disappear in the younger generation and existing only in the elderly persons of age group 60 -80 of years.
Article
Twenty-two plant organs from eleven plants comprising five families were extracted and screened for antiplasmodial activity in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 (chloroquine sensitive) and Dd2 (chloroquine resistant and pyrimethamine sensitive). Fifty nine percent of plant extracts from 22 extracts exerted activity on P. falciparum strain 3D7 with an IC 50 less than 50 mg/mL, whereas 43% of plant ex-tracts showed an IC 50 value within 50 mg/mL on Dd2 strains. Plant extracts from Gardenia lutea, Haplo-phyllum tuberculatum, Cassia tora, Acacia nilotica and Aristolochia bracteolata possessed IC 50 values less than 5 mg/mL on both tested strains. Bioassay guided fractionation of A. nilotica revealed that the ethyl acetate extract possessed the highest activity (IC 50 = 1.5 mg/mL). Fraction 2 (R f = 0.75) prepared by pre-parative chromatography showed the highest activity on P. falciparum (IC 50 = 1.7 mg/mL). Phytochemical analysis indicated that the most active phase contained terpenoids and tannins and was devoid of alka-loids and saponins. The effect of plant extracts on lymphocyte proliferation showed low toxicity to the human cells. This plant has been subjected to long term clinical trials in folk medicine and is a promising plant. Copyright # 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.