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The Freshman 15: A Critical Time for Obesity Intervention or Media Myth?

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Abstract

We test whether the phrase “Freshman 15” accurately describes weight change among first-year college students. We also analyze freshmen's weight change during and after college. This is the first investigation of the “Freshman 15” to use a nationally representative random sample, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). The data are analyzed using descriptive statistics, regression analysis, simulations, and longitudinal analysis. Freshmen gain between 2.5 to 3.5 pounds, on average, over the course of their first year of college. Compared to same-age noncollege attendees, the typical freshman gains only an additional half-pound. Instead of a spike in weight during the freshman year, college-educated individuals exhibit moderate but steady weight gain during and after college. Anti-obesity efforts directed specifically at college freshmen will likely have little impact on obesity prevalence among young adults.

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... This is generally true across 28 countries in the European Union [7]. The Health Survey for England found that in 2015 [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24] year olds ate a mean of 2.9 portions of fruit and vegetables per day, compared to the mean for all adults of 3.5 portions per day [8]. Similarly, the 2015 Scottish Health Survey showed 2.6 portions a day were consumed by [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24] year olds and 3.1 portions per day for all adults [9]. ...
... The Health Survey for England found that in 2015 [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24] year olds ate a mean of 2.9 portions of fruit and vegetables per day, compared to the mean for all adults of 3.5 portions per day [8]. Similarly, the 2015 Scottish Health Survey showed 2.6 portions a day were consumed by [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24] year olds and 3.1 portions per day for all adults [9]. Taking into account the low current level of consumption in this age-group, and the potential health benefits, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption amongst young adults is a desirable public health goal. ...
... It is unsurprising therefore to find multiple studies, principally in the US, but also in England, reporting a mean weight gain in students who have recently begun university study [20][21][22][23]. Those that compare students beginning university with their peers not beginning university found students beginning at university gained more weight, though studies vary in the size of effect reported [20,24]. ...
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Background: In developed countries, adolescent and young adult diets have been found to be nutritionally poor. The aim of this study was to examine whether a choice architecture intervention, re-arrangement of produce within a grocery store to increase the accessibility of fruit and vegetables, affected purchasing behaviour on a university campus. Methods: A database of daily sales data from January 2012 to July 2017 was obtained from a campus grocery store. Two changes to the layout were made during this time period. In January 2015, fruit and vegetables were moved from the back of the store, furthest from the entrance, to the aisle closest to the entrance and an entrance-facing display increasing their accessibility. In April 2016, the entrance-facing display of fruit and vegetables was replaced with a chiller cabinet so that fruit and vegetables remained more accessible than during the baseline period, but less accessible than in the period immediately previously. A retrospective interrupted time series analysis using dynamic regression was used to model the data and to examine the effect of the store re-arrangements on purchasing. All analyses were carried out both for sales-by-quantity and for sales-by-money. Results: The first shop re-arrangement which made fruit and vegetables more prominent, increased the percentage of total sales that were fruit and vegetables, when analysed by either items purchased or money spent. The second rearrangement also had a positive effect on the percentage of total sales that were fruit and vegetables compared to baseline, however this was not significant at the 5% level. Over the five year period, the percentage of sales that were fruit and vegetables declined both in terms of items purchased, and money spent. Conclusions: Increasing accessibility of fruit and vegetables in a grocery store is a feasible way to improve the diet of students in tertiary education. There is evidence of declining fruit and vegetable consumption among the studied population, which should be further investigated.
... Similarly, Ng found that in developed countries, the greatest weight gain was experienced by 20-40 year olds, doubling the prevalence of obesity over the past 30 years Curr Obes Rep [30••]. Additional evidence of weight gain among young adults can be found in studies of the BFreshman 15^(i.e., the belief that students gain about 15 lbs in their first year in college) [31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38]. Examination of a series of meta-analyses of the Freshmen 15 studies shows an estimated pooled mean weight gain of 1-2 kg per year; with relatively consistent estimates between analysis of 0.73 g-3.99 kg [31]; 1.55 kg (95 % CI = 1.3-1.8 ...
... [33]. Significant weight gains in this age group have also been reported in the general population [36,37]. For example, youth 7-18 years old re-assessed 22 years later showed a 42.2 % increase in overweight and/or obesity (from 10 to 52.2 %, with BMI ≥25) [36]. ...
... For example, youth 7-18 years old re-assessed 22 years later showed a 42.2 % increase in overweight and/or obesity (from 10 to 52.2 %, with BMI ≥25) [36]. In summary, albeit limited, the evidence supports the notion that young adulthood is a critical developmental stage with a distinctive weight gain trajectory that increases the risk for obesity [36][37][38]. ...
Article
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The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically over the past decade. Although an imbalance between caloric intake and physical activity is considered a key factor responsible for the increase, there is emerging evidence suggesting that other factors may be important contributors to weight gain, including inadequate sleep. Overall research evidence suggests that inadequate sleep is associated with obesity. Importantly, the strength and trajectory of the association seem to be influenced by multiple factors including age. Although limited, the emerging evidence suggests young adults might be at the center of a "perfect health storm," exposing them to the highest risk for obesity and inadequate sleep. Unfortunately, the methods necessary for elucidating the complex relationship between sleep and obesity are lacking. Uncovering the underlying factors and trajectories between inadequate sleep and weight gain in different populations may help to identify the windows of susceptibility and to design targeted interventions to prevent the negative impact of obesity and related diseases.
... Weight gain over the first year of college (Gropper et al., 2011;Levitsky, Halbmaier, & Mrdjenovic, 2004;Lloyd-Richardson, Bailey, Fava, & Wing, 2009;Kasparek, Corwin, Valois, Sargent, & Morris, 2008;Mihalopoulos, Auinger, & Klein, 2008;Jung, Bray, & Martin Ginis, 2008;Hoffman, Policastro, Quick, & Lee, 2006;Racette, Deusinger, Strube, Highstein, & Deusinger, 2005;Morrow et al., 2006;Economos, Hildebrandt, & Hyatt, 2008;Holm-Denoma, Joiner, Vohs, & Heatherton, 2008;Smith-Jackson & Reel, 2012;Finlayson, Cecil, Higgs, Hill, & Hetherington, 2012;Webb, Butler-Ajibade, Robinson, & Lee, 2013;Wengreen & Moncur, 2009;Zagorsky & Smith, 2011) varies quite a bit but studies suggest it is between 2.2 and 9 pounds (Gropper et al., 2011;Lloyd-Richardson et al., 2009;Mihalopoulos et al., 2008;Jung et al., 2008;Hoffman et al., 2006;Economos et al., 2008;Zagorsky & Smith, 2011;Pope & Harvey-Berino, 2013). Understanding how weight gain occurs and what predicts weight gain in freshmen is the first step towards prevention. ...
... Weight gain over the first year of college (Gropper et al., 2011;Levitsky, Halbmaier, & Mrdjenovic, 2004;Lloyd-Richardson, Bailey, Fava, & Wing, 2009;Kasparek, Corwin, Valois, Sargent, & Morris, 2008;Mihalopoulos, Auinger, & Klein, 2008;Jung, Bray, & Martin Ginis, 2008;Hoffman, Policastro, Quick, & Lee, 2006;Racette, Deusinger, Strube, Highstein, & Deusinger, 2005;Morrow et al., 2006;Economos, Hildebrandt, & Hyatt, 2008;Holm-Denoma, Joiner, Vohs, & Heatherton, 2008;Smith-Jackson & Reel, 2012;Finlayson, Cecil, Higgs, Hill, & Hetherington, 2012;Webb, Butler-Ajibade, Robinson, & Lee, 2013;Wengreen & Moncur, 2009;Zagorsky & Smith, 2011) varies quite a bit but studies suggest it is between 2.2 and 9 pounds (Gropper et al., 2011;Lloyd-Richardson et al., 2009;Mihalopoulos et al., 2008;Jung et al., 2008;Hoffman et al., 2006;Economos et al., 2008;Zagorsky & Smith, 2011;Pope & Harvey-Berino, 2013). Understanding how weight gain occurs and what predicts weight gain in freshmen is the first step towards prevention. ...
... Of the studies that explored weight gain in the first year of college by gender, inconsistencies in patterns and predictors of weight change have been observed for both males and females. For instance, in some studies weight gain was higher in males compared to females (Zagorsky & Smith, 2011;Kasparek et al., 2008;Jung et al., 2008) and some found that females gained more weight than males. (Holm-Denoma et al., 2008;Smith-Jackson & Reel, 2012;Zagorsky & Smith, 2011). ...
... Racette et al. 3 reported an average weight increase of 1.8 6 5.2 kg from the beginning of the first year of college to the end of the second year, and an increase of 4.1 6 3.6 kg among those who had gained weight during that period. Similarly, Zagorsky et al. 4 observed that college freshmen from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth gained approximately 1.5 6 4.6 kg. Weight gain in young adults 18-30 years of age 5 is associated with metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. ...
... Follow-up analyses of weight change within gender comparing freshman to other school years have been reported previously. [1][2][3][4] Missing data in these multivariate analyses were handled by listwise deletion. Multi-item variables, such as IPAQ total score, were not calculated if any item was missing. ...
... The observed weight changes over 15 months (males gained 3.87 pounds; females gained 2.41 pounds) with greater weight gain in first-year students are similar to other findings among college students. [1][2][3][4] We also observed, however, small but significant gains in stature for males (.11 in) and females (.08 in). The small increase in stature suggests that some participants might not have reached their full growth potential before the study. ...
Article
Purpose: To identify impact of an online nutrition and physical activity program for college students. Design: Randomized, controlled trial using online questionnaires and on-site physical and fitness assessments with measurement intervals of 0 (baseline), 3 (postintervention), and 15 months (follow-up). Setting: Online intervention delivered to college students; a centralized Web site was used for recruitment, data collection, data management, and intervention delivery. Subjects: College students (18-24 years old, n = 1689), from eight universities (Michigan State University, South Dakota State University, Syracuse University, The Pennsylvania State University, Tuskegee University, University of Rhode Island, University of Maine, and University of Wisconsin). Intervention: A 10-lesson curriculum focusing on healthful eating and physical activity, stressing nondieting principles such as size acceptance and eating competence (software developer: Rainstorm, Inc, Orono, Maine). Measures: Measurements included anthropometrics, cardiorespiratory fitness, fruit/vegetable (FV) intake, eating competence, physical activity, and psychosocial stress. Analysis: Repeated measures analysis of variance for outcome variables. Results: Most subjects were white, undergraduate females (63%), with 25% either overweight or obese. Treatment group completion rate for the curriculum was 84%. Over 15 months, the treatment group had significantly higher FV intake (+.5 cups/d) and physical activity participation (+270 metabolic equivalent minutes per week) than controls. For both groups, anthropometric values and stress increased, and fitness levels decreased. Gender differences were present for most variables. First-year males and females gained more weight than participants in other school years. Conclusion: A 10-week online nutrition and physical activity intervention to encourage competence in making healthful food and eating decisions had a positive, lasting effect on FV intake and maintained baseline levels of physical activity in a population that otherwise experiences significant declines in these healthful behaviors.
... 25 In addition, research has shown that male students are more likely to have an unhealthy diet compared with their female counterparts. 24 The study by Morse et al. (2009) showed similar findings suggesting that female students tend to eat more fruits and avoid fat, while male students are more likely to eat fast, fatty foods and consume more alcoholic beverages. 26 Another study showed similar fruit and vegetable consumption among female and male students, but female students ate more fatty foods than males did. ...
... Previous evidence on gender differences in dietary behaviors has been mixed. 24,26 These non-significant findings on the semester-long changes in freshman students' BMI, MVPA, and dietary behaviors are interesting. It may be that one semester is too short of a timeframe to detect differences in our outcome variables, considering how stable dietary behaviors can be. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The objective of this study was to examine changes in freshman students’ objectively measured body mass index (BMI), physical activity (PA), and dietary behaviors (consumption of trans fats, sugars, and added sugars) during their first college semester. Methods: Twenty-eight participants (18.32 ± 2.2) completed the dietary (ASA24-US) and PA (wrist-worn ActiGraph accelerometer) assessments. Non-parametric Paired-Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to identify the changes in BMI, moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA), vigorous-intensity PA (VPA), and nutrition. Results: The analyses showed a statistically significant increase in BMI (Mbaseline = 22.85[2.87] kg/m²; Mpost = 23.53[3.21] kg/m²; p = .002, r = .53) and MVPA (Mbaseline = 200.94[81.08]; Mpost = 216.92[78.33]; p = .031, r = .41), but there were no statistically significant changes in VPA or dietary behaviors. Conclusions: Although freshman students’ PA and dietary behaviors were relatively healthy, efforts to increase VPA and reduce consumption of added sugars are well warranted.
... 9 Yet, emerging adults with obesity are less likely to participate in and more likely to drop out of standard behavioral weight loss (BWL) trials. 6,[10][11][12] Although emerging adults of both sexes experience significant increase in body weight 13,14 and percent of body fat 15 during college years, females on average gained more body weight while in college, 14 and more females became and remained obese when transiting from adolescence to emerging adulthood. 13 Due to such differences in weight gain between male and female emerging adults and possibly different reasons for weight gain among female emerging adults, [15][16][17] it is advantageous to study male and female emerging adults separately. ...
... 9 Yet, emerging adults with obesity are less likely to participate in and more likely to drop out of standard behavioral weight loss (BWL) trials. 6,[10][11][12] Although emerging adults of both sexes experience significant increase in body weight 13,14 and percent of body fat 15 during college years, females on average gained more body weight while in college, 14 and more females became and remained obese when transiting from adolescence to emerging adulthood. 13 Due to such differences in weight gain between male and female emerging adults and possibly different reasons for weight gain among female emerging adults, [15][16][17] it is advantageous to study male and female emerging adults separately. ...
Article
Emerging adults are less likely to participate in and more likely to drop out of behavioral weight loss programs. Thirty-five female emerging adults who dropped out of a behavioral weight loss program, Weight Loss For Life, completed an online survey. Main reasons for dropout relate to insufficient behavioral skills and unique characteristics of emerging adults, especially when in college (e.g., citing working and getting good grades to be more important than losing weight). Most desired >50% of program online, having virtual groups, and using small groups to model desirable behaviors. Around $140 and $180 seemed sufficient to them to encourage participation in all scheduled treatment sessions and reaching overall weight loss goal, respectively. Future behavioral weight loss programs for emerging adults may consider helping develop time management and task management, decision-making that focuses on longer term outcomes, and immediate tangible rewards similar to what college students typically receive after they complete each class assignment.
... 26,45,56,57,[94][95][96] A small number assessed socio-economic status, 4,26,29,40,[42][43][44]59,63,83,86,97 and of the three to examine its relationship with body composition change all reported a non-significant association. 35,57,98 Finally, poorer academic performance appears to be associated with greater weight gain. 38,42,43,78,98 Discussion Upon reviewing the current body of literature, there appears to be room for improvement with respect to the examination of freshmen weight and body composition changes and associated determinants. ...
... 35,57,98 Finally, poorer academic performance appears to be associated with greater weight gain. 38,42,43,78,98 Discussion Upon reviewing the current body of literature, there appears to be room for improvement with respect to the examination of freshmen weight and body composition changes and associated determinants. The following discussion outlines areas that future researchers could improve upon aspects of study design, and the measurement, analysis and reporting of weight and body composition and selected determinants. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Scoping review of freshmen weight and body composition change determinants in order to inform practice, policymaking, and research that improve health and well-being. Methods: A systematic search of the literature identified potential sources. Duplicates were removed before a title and abstract review. A full-text review was then conducted on the remaining sources. Retained sources were then reviewed systematically before synthesis. Results: Eighty-five sources were synthesized. Variation in study design, measurement, reporting, and analyses of determinants, in particular dietary characteristics and physical activity, complicate comparisons. Dietary characteristics and physical activity appear to influence freshmen weight and body composition changes, while evidence indicates alcohol consumption is associated with deleterious weight and body composition changes. Conclusions: Design, measurement, analyses, and reporting can be improved considerably to better examine relationship between body composition changes and determinants in order to provide insight into, and inform, interventions and policies to benefit students' health and well-being.
... The transition from high school to college is also considered a high-risk period for weight gain and changes in body composition for some students. Approximately 30% of freshmen gain weight during the first year of college, defined as >5 lbs or 2.3kg (Cluskey and Grobe, 2009;Morrow et al., 2006;Wengreen and Moncur, 2009;Zagorsky and Smith, 2011). Weight gain results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. ...
... In contrast to the aforementioned positive findings, other studies found that alcohol use was not associated with college weight gain (Deliens et al., 2013;Kasparek et al., 2008;Pliner and Saunders, 2008;Pope et al., 2017;Zagorsky and Smith, 2011). For example, in the only study to measure alcohol calorie intake in students, Pope et al (2017) estimated college students' daily alcohol calorie intake using a food frequency questionnaire and did not find a significant impact on 4-year weight change (Pope et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Background The transition to college is a developmentally sensitive time in which freshmen are at high‐risk for engaging in heavy drinking and experiencing changes in weight and body composition. The study tested prospective associations among drinking patterns (weekly drinks, heavy drinking occasions/month) and alcohol calorie intake on weight and waist circumference change over the first year of college. Methods College freshmen (N=103) were randomly selected from a pool of eligible students to participate at the beginning of the academic year. The sample was comprised of 52% males, 46% of individuals identifying as racial or ethnic minority, and 45% students with at‐risk drinking as defined by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test‐ Consumption questions. Students engaging in daily risky drinking (n=2) were excluded. Participants attended three visits during the academic year during which they provided weight and waist circumference measurements and completed assessments about drinking, dietary intake, and physical activity. Results Weight gain (>2.3 kg) occurred in 28% of participants. In linear mixed models, drinking patterns and alcohol calorie intake were not associated with weight or waist circumference changes within individuals, when controlling for demographic and energy balance variables. Drinking patterns and alcohol calorie intake did not account for differences in anthropometric measurements between participants, when controlling for covariates. Conclusions Alcohol use did not explain the anthropometric changes observed in a sample well represented by freshmen engaging in risky drinking (and excluding those with daily risky drinking) during the academic year. Drinking may not contribute to short‐term weight gain among freshmen. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The 'Freshman 15' has been popularized by the media as a common danger of leaving home for college. 66 67 In addition to a 3.0 kg average weight gain, students had significant increases in BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist to hip ratio, and percent body fat. These findings counter the possibility that weight gain is primarily due to natural growth or added lean mass. ...
... Descriptive statistics by total sample and by gender………………………….……64 Pearson correlations for global social support and BMI by gender……………….66 ...
Article
Over 50% of college students are overweight or obese, and there is a high incidence of weight gain during the college years. Social support has been linked with weight loss and improvements in diet and exercise in the general population. As social support changes in college, there may be a relationship between social support and weight or weight related behaviors during freshman year of college. PURPOSE: This investigation aimed to explore the relationships between global or behavior-specific social support and BMI, exercise habits, and dietary habits in freshman college students. A secondary aim was to determine whether these relationships differed by gender. METHODS: Fifty male and 50 female college freshmen (BMI = 24.0  3.3 kg/m2) aged 18-20 completed questionnaires regarding pre-college height and weight, global, diet, and exercise-specific social support, exercise and dietary habits, and completed assessments of height, weight and body composition. RESULTS: Change in BMI over the first semester was not significantly associated with global, exercise-specific, or diet-specific social support. Friend support for healthy eating behaviors was significantly associated with current BMI ( = .29, p = .004). Exercise (min/week) was significantly associated with friend support for exercise ( = .35, p < .001). While no clear relationship between social support and dietary habits existed, global social support was associated with sweetened beverage consumption, snacking frequency, and alcohol consumption. In overweight and obese subjects, higher global social support was associated with lower increases in BMI over the first five months of freshman year (r = -.40, p = .027). Conclusions: Increasing social support for exercise and healthy eating behaviors may benefit the lifestyle behaviors of college freshmen, though longitudinal studies are required to determine causality. Moreover, relationships between social support and behaviors may be particularly interesting in overweight and obese individuals.
... The transition to college has been suggested as a critical time for the establishment of weight management behaviors as young adults leave the parental home and experience changes in eating behaviors, physical activity, sleep patterns, and alcohol consumption. 5,6 Earlier literature reviews and retrospective studies 3,7,8 estimated the mean change in weight during the first year of college to be 1.1-2.1 kg; however, no measure of adiposity (%FAT) was included owing to the limited number of publications reporting a measure of %FAT. Including an estimate of adiposity may explain a portion of the variance in weight change, when weight gain can occur in the absence of change in adiposity, 9 and as much as 27% of the increase in body weight may be due to increases in lean mass that occur during the first year of college. ...
... The changes in body weight are similar to previous estimates that suggested the mean change during the first year of college ranged from 1.1 to 2.1 kg. 3,8,70 The results of the current study support those of a previously published meta-analysis examining the change in body weight during the first year of college, and expands on their work by including studies beyond the freshman year, estimating potential bias in the published literature, and improving the precision of the estimate of change in body weight by weighting each ES by the inverse variance. 7 The current study also adds an estimate of the change in body composition that occurs during college, as a small but statistically significant increase in adiposity, equal to 1.2%, was also observed during the same period. ...
Article
Full-text available
Context: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess changes in body weight and relative adiposity (%FAT) during college and identify potential moderating variables. Evidence acquisition: A review of peer-reviewed articles published before June 28, 2013 identified 49 studies evaluating the effect of the first year of college on the dependent variables of body weight (137 effects from 48 studies) and %FAT (48 effects from 19 studies). Statistical analysis was conducted between July 1, 2013, and May 1, 2014. Effect sizes were calculated by subtracting the mean pre-test measurements from the mean post-test measurements. Evidence synthesis: Participants' weight increased 1.55 kg (95% CI=1.3, 1.8 kg) during college, with a 1.17% increase in %FAT (95% CI=0.7, 1.6%). Meta-regression analysis concluded that changes in body weight and %FAT were positively associated with study duration, suggesting that effects measuring change over a longer duration yielded larger effects when compared to effects with shorter observations. Sex and baseline BMI were not associated with change in weight or %FAT after accounting for study duration. Conclusions: The increase in weight and %FAT during the college years is equal to 1.55 kg and 1.17%, respectively. Change in body weight during the first year of college is significantly less than that during the cumulative remaining years of college. By understanding the magnitude of change, appropriate prevention efforts can be designed for the college population, which may be beneficial in reducing adult overweight and obesity rates.
... (Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine 2021.) The young adult age ranges from 18-30, the period of young adult when there is a maturation biologically and psychologically (Zagorsky 2011). ...
Thesis
Abuse of alcohol has become a global health problem among young adults. The abuse of alcohol not only impacts the families of young adults but also society in general. The aim of the thesis was to conduct a qualitative literature review on nursing interventions for alcohol abuse in young adults between the ages of 18 and 25. The information was gathered from PUBMED and CINAHL and obtained all the relevant articles. The method of literature survey on the topic of research is done using relevant keywords. The articles related to the topic of abuse of alcohol among the young adult population were collected. From the collected articles eleven most relevant articles were selected. Articles from 2011-2022 related to the topic and read them carefully and analyzed the data and present the relevant information in the thesis. In the literature survey, nursing interventions were found for alcohol abuse by young adults such as brief motivational interviews (BMI), motivational interviews (MI), Audit, Audit C. Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), Routine screening brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT). Mobile phone interventions, community-based interventions, booster sessions, timeline follow-up (TLFB), and counselling. In conclusion, nursing interventions included methods to identify and reduce alcohol consumption among young adults. Among these methods, Audit, Audit C, the MI, and evidence-based pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder (AUD) were helpful in identifying and reducing alcohol consumption among young adults.
... As an adolescent's transition from adolescence to manhood, corporeal transformations occur, but gradually. Individuals begin to gain a steady weight, which will define adulthood, but the transformations appear not as sudden as when puberty begins (Cole, 2003;Zagorsky & Smith, 2011;Committee Improving the Health, Safety and Well-Being of Young Adults, 2015). ...
Article
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In our research, we are interested in how personality dimensions can influence the career choices of students entering teacher education and the extent to which sport appears as a preference variable in the strength of career motivation factors. There is a shortage of teachers, and the prestige of teachers is low (Borbély, 2016). The contradictory social situation of teachers is characterised by the incongruence of knowledge and material benefits related to the profession and prestige (Fónai, 2014). The teaching career is preferred among people with repressive personality traits (Figula, 2000). In our study, we used the Eysenck personality test and the Factors Influencing Teaching Choice Scale career motivation test. Our sample is given by 244 trainee teachers participating in the teacher training of the University of Nyíregyháza, whose average age is 21.93 years. The sample includes physical education trainee teachers (56.6%) and non�physical education trainee teachers (43.4%) of the undivided teacher training. Students majoring in physical education are more willing to take risks, are more sociable, more extroverted than non-physical education trainee teachers, and are more emotionally stable and respond more calmly to various stimuli. The risk�taking personality trait has a negative effect on career motivation and increases the secondary career nature of the teaching profession. Impulsivity shows a positive relationship with personal usefulness, secondary career path, and social influence, while social conformity shows a positive relationship with the beauty of the teaching profession and social usefulness. Our studies provide a picture of the motivation of the physical education trainee teachers and other trainee teachers, as well as the differences between the groups. It helped to explore the factors influencing teacher career motivation and the degree of correlation. Our research proved that during the time spent in training, the perspective of trainee teachers about the teaching career changes, and their motivation, and thus the attraction of the career, decreases.
... As an adolescent's transition from adolescence to manhood, corporeal transformations occur, but gradually. Individuals begin to gain a steady weight, which will define adulthood, but the transformations appear not as sudden as when puberty begins (Cole, 2003;Zagorsky & Smith, 2011; Committee Improving the Health, Safety and Well-Being of Young Adults, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Adulthood is a period of development and transformation, though it may not be as dramatic as childhood and adolescence. Physical changes, for example, from youth to adolescence, are transformative. The body proliferates and develops secondary sexual characteristics as adolescence progresses. Exercise training for the elderly has been linked to a variety of health benefits, including a reduction in cardiovascular mortality. Changes in the balance of the cardiac autonomic nerves result in an increase or relative innervation of the vagus nerve, an explanatory mechanism that may be involved after exercise. Regular physical activity has also been linked to improving mental health (for example, reducing stress, anxiety, and depression). Mental health is critical for preventing and managing cardiovascular disease, but it also impacts other chronic diseases (such as diabetes, osteoporosis, hypertension, obesity, cancer, and depression). Conclusions: Finally, this review unifies the relationship between physical activity, cardiorespiratory health, and adulthood across the life span. In adulthood, changes in daily physical activity have a significant impact on overall health and well-being. As people’s corporeal and psychological health care deteriorates with age, regular physical activity becomes crucial for well-being.
... Undergraduate students who report high levels of stress are more likely to report increased consumption of cookies, cake, and chocolate (Oliver & Wardle, 1999), and display a higher frequency of fast-food intake (Almogbel et al., 2019). Consequently, the term "Freshman 15" has emerged as a result of this trend to characterize this notion of ample weight gain during post-secondary years (Zagorsky & Smith, 2011). Although emotional eating may provide temporary comfort and distraction, frequent utilization of this strategy may be maladaptive in the long run (Rutledge & Linden, 1998), and may exacerbate the impact of stress on psychological and physical health outcomes (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). ...
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With a rise in the prevalence of depression among undergraduate students, it is important to identify potential antecedents and modifiable factors in illness development. One of the most well studied etiological predictors of depression among youth and among young adults is the experience of real or perceived stress. However, research further suggests that the impact of stress on health outcomes may largely depend on the coping strategies employed. Emotional eating is an emotion-focused coping strategy that may be used to minimize negative affect stemming from perceived stress. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the moderating role of emotional eating in the relationship between perceived stress and depressive symptoms among undergraduate students. A total of 100 undergraduate students (mean age = 20.2 years, 83% female) completed questionnaires that tapped into perceived stress, emotional eating behaviour, and depressive symptoms. Moderation analyses revealed a significant moderation effect (b = .016, t(91) = 2.728, p = .008). Simple slopes showed that the magnitude of the association between perceived stress and depressive symptoms increased from low (b = .092) to moderate (b = .147) to high (b = .201) emotional eating tendencies. Findings suggest that perceived stress and emotional eating may have a synergist association with depressive symptoms among undergraduate students.
... Adams et al (2007) did not account for dietary intake, psychosocial Clusky et al (2009) did not account for demographic Darling et al (2017) did not account for psychosocial De Vos et al (2015) did not account for dietary intake/physical activity, psychosocial Delinsky et al (2008) did not account for demographic, psychosocial, eating disorder Economos et al (2008) did not account for dietary intake/physical activity, psychosocial, eating disorder Graham et al (2002) did not account for eating disorder Hodge et al (1993) did not account for dietary intake/physical activity, psychosocial, eating disorder Hovell et al (1985) did not account for dietary intake/physical activity, psychosocial Kelly et al (2015) did not account for dietary intake/physical activity, demographic, psychosocial, eating disorder Oloritun et al (2013) did not account for dietary intake, psychosocial Roane et al (2015) did not account for psychosocial Yamane et al (2014) did not account for dietary intake Zagorsky and Smith (2011) did not account for demographic ...
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Introduction: Young adulthood is a sensitive developmental period that is high-risk for weight gain. Ample research has focused on weight gain among college students; however meta-analyses report <2 kg pooled estimates of weight gain, which is in the range of normal weight fluctuation, and there is disagreement in the literature regarding common predictors of weight gain. These limitations pose a major barrier to targeted obesity prevention efforts. The present study reviewed the literature assessing college weight gain with a focus on three methodological factors that could contribute to variability in the literature: 1) use of an evidence-supported definition of weight gain (>2 kg or ≥3%); 2) weight measurement protocols; and 3) including weight/BMI in analyses of predictors of weight change. Methods: Three databases were systematically searched. Studies were included in the review if the primary goal was to determine magnitude of weight change and/or test predictors of weight change during the academic year, and they reported weight at 2+ time points. Results: A total of 81 studies were included in the review. Most studies (90%; 73/81) did not use an evidence-supported definition of weight gain. Studies that used an evidence-supported definition reported estimates of gain among students who gained weight to be beyond the range of normal weight fluctuation (4.0-7.5 kg), and occurred in a subset (<32%) of participants. Studies that did not use an evidence-supported definition reported weight gain to be 2.0-4.5 kg, and occurred in the majority >50% of students. Most studies that measured height and weight (71%; 42/59) did not use a fasting protocol and the majority (63%; 37/59) did not conduct measurements at the same time of day. A higher percentage of studies that used a standardized measurement protocol reported weight change >2 kg (44% vs 20%). A lower percentage of studies that used a standardized measurement protocol had substantial variability in weight change estimates (50% vs 69%). The majority of studies that tested predictors of weight gain (74%; 42/57) included weight/BMI as a covariate in analyses. Conclusions: The body of literature examining weight change among college students suffers from limitations that may have contributed to overestimations in the percent of students who gain weight, and simultaneous underestimations of the magnitude of weight gain among those who gain weight. Weight gain may be limited to approximately 30% of students in a sample, and weight gain among this subset of students may be substantial (>4 kg). Going forward, use of both an evidence-supported weight gain definition and fasting measurement protocol will likely enhance accuracy in characterizing weight gain among college students, as well as improve researchers' ability to detect important predictors of weight gain.
... kg [1,2]. These estimates agree with another large-scale study of self-reported weight gain, where female first-year students reported gaining 1.4 kg and males reported gaining 1.6 kg (N = 4687) [3]. Further, other studies indicate that weight gain can occur early in the first year, even during the first semester [4,5]. ...
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Studies demonstrate that first-year university students are at high risk for weight gain. These reports typically rely on self-selected participants. The purpose of this study was to explore if students who chose to participate in a health-based research study had more desirable health measures and behaviors than students who completed health assessments as part of a first-year seminar course. Health measures included blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), and percent body fat. Health behaviors included dietary patterns (Starting the Conversation questionnaire) and alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption). A total of 191 (77% female) participants completed testing in the self-selected "Health Study" group, whereas 73 of the 91 students (80%, 55% female) enrolled in the "Seminar" allowed their data to be used for research purposes. Baseline measures favored Health Study participants, including but not limited to fewer participants with undesirable BMI (≥25.0 kg/m²; males and females) and a smaller percentage of participants with undesirable BP (systolic ≥120 mmHg and/or diastolic ≥80 mmHg; females only). Differences in dietary behaviors at baseline were inconsistent, but Seminar students engaged in more problematic alcohol-use behaviors. While both groups experienced undesirable changes in health measures over time, the degree of change did not differ between groups. Changes in health behaviors over time typically resulted in undesirable changes in the Seminar group, but the magnitude of change over time did not differ between groups. Thus, results from first-year university students who self-select into health studies likely underestimate the seriousness of undesirable health measures and behaviors but may accurately reflect the degree of change over time.
... It is possible that any increase in weight is not necessarily due to university or college enrollment and stress imposed on students, but rather on the increased weight gain that occurs in this age range in general. 56 Another limitation of the studies in this review is inadequate differentiation between stress and anxiety and, at times, the terms were used almost interchangeably. Future research should distinguish between anxiety and stress and assess their effect on weight individually. ...
Article
Background Stress and anxiety levels are elevated among university and college students. Although high stress levels can lead to an increase in adiposity, it is not clear whether stress and anxiety experienced when in university or college have an influence on students’ weight. Objective The aim of this systemic review was to investigate whether stress and anxiety levels encountered during university and college enrollment were associated with higher adiposity or weight changes among students. Method A search strategy was used to identify peer-reviewed studies published between 1985 and March 2017 using the following databases: Medline using Ovid; PubMed, CINAHL using EBSCO, Embase using Ovid, PSYCHINFO, and Open Access Theses and Dissertation. Two reviewers independently assessed the title, abstract, and then the full article of the studies that met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted and quality assessment was conducted for the included studies. Results Twenty-five observational studies were identified in this review (23 cross-sectional and two longitudinal); 11 found that there was no association between stress and body mass index or weight change. In addition, five studies did not find a significant association between anxiety and body mass index. A few studies revealed stress and anxiety might be associated with higher or lower weight status, thus there is a possibility that stress can increase or decrease weight, demonstrating that a bidirectional influence on body mass index may exist. Conclusions The current data in this review are inadequate to draw firm conclusions about the role of stress on weight change in university and college students. The inconsistency of results in the literature reviewed for this article suggest that a focus on longitudinal studies with adequate sample size would better evaluate the relationship between stress or anxiety and its influence on weight status or weight change among college and university students.
... A recent meta-analysis documented a weight gain of 1.8 kg during the freshman year (Vella-Zarb & Elgar, 2009), far less than the popularized value of 6.8 kg. In their review, Zagorsky and Smith (2011) found similar weight gain during the freshman year of 1.1 kg and 1.5 kg for females and males, respectively. Further, the range of weight gain appears to be between 0.7 kg (Butler, Black, Blue, & Gretebeck, 2004) and 4.0 kg, (Hovell et al., 1985), again supporting the notion that "the freshman fifteen" is an inflated value. ...
Article
The Actiotope Model of Giftedness (AMG) focuses on person–environment interactions to define giftedness. The development of the Questionnaire of Educational and Learning Capital (QELC) was based on the AMG. The first aim of this study was to present the reliability and validity of a Turkish version of the QELC for 10th grade students. The second aim of this study was the administration of the QELC in gifted and non-gifted students and the determination of mean QELC-scale differences between both groups. Two different samples were included in the study. In the first sample, 421 10th grade students took the QELC (147 boys, 274 girls). The second sample consisted of 38 gifted students and 38 non-gifted students, the latter randomly selected from the first sample. In addition to the QELC, confidence in one’s competence, failure coping, stability and modifiability beliefs regarding one’s action repertoire were assessed and used to validate the QELC. School grades were collected, too. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis supported the two-factor structure of the QELC (i.e., educational capital and learning capital). The results supported the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of QELC. Gifted students had lower scores in educational as well as learning capital than non-gifted students.
... College students go through many lifestyle and environmental changes that put them at risk of gaining weight. 1,2 Whereas some authors found an average weight gain of 2.5 to 3.5 pounds over the first year of college, 2 others found an average gain of 9.7 pounds over 12 months (range of 3.4 to 27.8 pounds) in a sample of undergraduate female students. 1 Such weight gain can lead to overweight and obesity, with 34.1% of college students being affected by one of these conditions. ...
Article
Over a third of American college students are either overweight or obese, which has been suggested to negatively impact their academic achievement. Objective: This study seeks to better understand the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and grade point average (GPA), while examining potential mediators of this association. Participants and methods: The sample consists of 298 college women who volunteered to complete online questionnaires between October and December 2014. Results: While no significant differences were noted for sociodemographic variables, overweight and obese female students were found to report lower GPA and academic self-efficacy as well as higher depressive symptoms, compared with their normal-weight counterparts. Academic self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between BMI and GPA. Conclusions: To foster better academic achievement in female college students, and especially for those who are overweight and obese, strategies for improving self-efficacy and adaptation to college should be implemented.
... Si nos centramos en el sector juvenil, tal y como muestran estudios realizados como el de Estévez, Muros, Torres, Pradas, Zurita & Cepero (2015), afirman los datos dados por esas investigaciones, demostrando que el 30% de los jóvenes europeos sufren sobrepeso u obesidad, situándose España en un 27.8% y siendo las niñas las que tienden a padecer obesidad, mostrando un Índice de Masa Corporal mayor (Smith-Jackson & Reel, 2012). Sin embargo, otras investigaciones demostraban que por el contrario eran los niños los que tenían más propensión a ganar peso y por lo tanto a tener algunos problemas de acumulación de grasas en el organismo (Zagorsky & Smith, 2011). ...
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La obesidad y el sobrepeso se están convirtiendo en uno de los trastornos más importantes que se dan sobre todo en los países desarrollados. Existen varios factores que pueden influir en el aumento del IMC en niños con edad escolar ligados al desarrollo de la sociedad actual, como son la disminución de actividad física, una dieta desequilibrada o un aumento en actividades sedentarias. Este estudio se realizó sobre 315 escolares con edad entre 10 y 12 años y pertenecientes a la ciudad de Granada. Se pretende analizar y relacionar el género con los parámetros de obesidad, actividades sedentarias y físicas y la calidad de la dieta. Los resultados arrojaron que la mayoría de alumnado perteneciente a primaria se encuentra dentro del normopeso y tienen una dieta óptima sin haber significación respecto al género. Los varones solían pasar más horas realizando actividades sedentarias que las niñas. Sin embargo, los chicos suelen realizar más actividad física que las chicas. Como conclusión, se demuestra la necesidad de realizar intervenciones para motivar a la realización de deporte, sobre todo en el sector femenino, además de concienciar a los jóvenes de las consecuencias del sedentarismo y la obesidad. Palabras clave. Obesidad, género, sedentarismo, dieta, educación primaria.
... 7 Multiple studies have documented increases in college students' body weight throughout all four years of college education; 8,9 a significant portion of the weight gained by students during college years occurs during their first year of school. [10][11][12][13][14] In addition to unfavorable weight changes, cardiovascular and muscular fitness and flexibility have also declined in college students in the last two decades, contributing to the rising risks of chronic diseases present in this population. 15 Weight gain among college students is particularly prominent among those living on campus where a lack of parental supervision, an abundance of unhealthy food options, support for physical inactivity, and the advent of stress-related behaviors and sleep deprivation are present in the campus environment. ...
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Although poor health-related behaviors that impact development of chronic diseases begin much earlier than when actual disease is evident, few studies have examined health behaviors in college students, who may be at an important transitional period where early intervention could prevent development of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine health-related factors in female college students (N = 61) by race/ethnicity and weight status. We found significant differences in health profiles between non-Hispanic White (White) and African American students, including greater physical fitness and healthier diets among White students. Overweight/obese students had worse health profiles than healthy BMI students. Furthermore, weight status was significantly associated with cardiovascular fitness. This supports a focus on PA promotion for interventions in the period of emerging adulthood, alongside the other healthy behaviors, to elicit improvements in weight status and potential reduction of chronic disease risks.
... To achieve a comprehensive expression of Project WebHealth's efficacy to improve or maintain weight-related health behaviors, health behavior categories were constructed from Project WebHealth outcome targets for fruit and vegetable intake ($ 5 cups/d), 28 physical activity level ($ 30 min/d), 28 and weight maintenance (gaining # 2 lb) 29 over the 3 months. The re-searchers grouped the experimental participants into 1 of 3 categories: (1) no action (meeting none of the Project WebHealth outcome targets by the 3 mo postintervention); (2) maintained (maintaining any 1 of the outcome targets from baseline to 3 mo postintervention); or (3) improved (improved to meet at least 1 outcome target from baseline to 3 mo postintervention). ...
Article
Objective: To evaluate the motivational effect of the Project WebHealth study procedures and intervention components on weight-related health behavior changes in male and female college students. Design: Process evaluation. Setting: Eight universities in the United States. Participants: Project WebHealth participants (n = 653; 29% men). Main outcome measures: Participants rated motivational effects of study procedures and intervention components. Participants were grouped into outcome-based health behavior categories based on achievement of desired targets for fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, and/or body weight. Analysis: Differences in motivation from each procedure and component were analyzed by gender- and outcome-based health behavior category. Results: Women were generally more motivated than men. Compared to those who did not meet any target health behaviors, men with improved health outcomes (68%) were significantly more motivated by the skills to fuel the body lesson, goal setting, and research snippets. Their female counterparts (63%) were significantly more motivated by the lessons on body size and eating enjoyment, and by the suggested weekly activities. Conclusions and implications: Specific study procedures and components of Project WebHealth motivated study participants to improve their weight-related health behaviors, and they differed by gender. Findings support the need for gender-tailored interventions in this population.
... In men and African-American women, total weight gain during the early to midtwenties was larger than during the thirties (Lewis et al., 2000). In 2009, 20% of college students were considered overweight and 11% obese (American College Health Association, 2009); Zagorsky and Smith found that college students gain an average of 5 kg (Zagorsky & Smith, 2011). Over time, this weight gain can lead to overweight and obesity. ...
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Approximately one-third of college students are overweight or obese and the average student gains 5kg during college. Previous research has identified a relationship between emotional eating and weight gain in young adults, but outside the realm of eating disorders, few studies qualitatively capture why individuals cope with emotions by eating. Exploratory qualitative research was conducted, including 3-day food journals and indepth interviews, with proportionate quota sampling of eight male and eight female undergraduate students to gain an understanding of students' perceptions of their emotional eating behaviors. Participants were purposively selected based on their emotional eating scores on the Weight Related Eating Questionnaire from a larger survey assessing student eating behaviors. Participants' (n=16) mean age was 19.6±1.0years and all self-reported their race to be white. Mean Body Mass Index (BMI) for females and males was 24.1±1.2kg/m(2) and 24.8±1.7kg/m(2), respectively. Findings from the qualitative analyses indicated gender differences and similarities. Females identified stress as the primary trigger for emotional eating, frequently followed by guilt. Males were primarily triggered by unpleasant feelings such as boredom or anxiety turning to food as a distraction; however, males were less likely to experience guilt after an emotional eating episode than females. During emotional eating episodes, both genders chose what they defined as unhealthful foods. These findings indicate a multidisciplinary intervention focusing on emotion and stress management in addition to dietary behavior change should be developed to reduce the potential for weight gain associated with emotional eating in the college-aged population.
Article
Both affective lability and eating expectancies have been found to predict binge eating. There is the additional possibility that the joint effect of affective lability and eating expectancies incurs further risk: perhaps expectancies for affective relief from eating operate more strongly in those experiencing frequent, rapid shifts in emotion. In the current study, we tested whether such a joint effect predicts binge eating prospectively in college students. We assessed affective lability, eating expectancies, and binge eating in 358 college students at two time points during the first year of college (e.g., December and April). The interaction of affective lability and eating expectancies in December predicted binge eating 4 months later in April. The influence of eating expectancies on binge eating was stronger at higher levels of affective lability. Findings offer support to the hypothesis that risk factors may transact to further elevate risk for eating disorder behaviors. Clinical implications • The interaction of affective lability and eating expectancies predicts binge eating • Risk factors may interact to further increase binge eating • Identification of co-occurring risk factors may have vital treatment implications
Article
Objective: Obesity is associated with chronic pain, but the contribution of body mass index (BMI) trajectories over the life course to the onset of pain problems remains unclear. We retrospectively analyzed how BMI trajectories during the transition to adulthood were associated with a measure of pain interference obtained at age 29 in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Methods: Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort (follow-up from 1997 to 2015), were used to determine BMI trajectories from age 14 to 29 via group trajectory modeling. At age 29, respondents described whether pain interfered with their work inside and outside the home over the past four weeks (not at all, a little, or a lot). Multivariable ordinal logistic regression was used to evaluate pain interference according to BMI trajectory and study covariates. Results: Among 7,875 respondents, 11% reported "a little" and 4% reported "a lot" of pain interference at age 29. Four BMI trajectory groups were identified, varying in starting BMI and rate of weight gain. The "obese" group (8% of respondents) had a starting BMI of 30 kg/m2 and gained an average of 0.7 kg/m2/y. On multivariable analysis, this group was the most likely to have greater pain interference, compared with "high normal weight" (odds ratio [OR] = 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.14-1.88), "low normal weight" (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.13-1.87), and "overweight" trajectories (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.02-1.73). Conclusions: Obesity and rapid weight gain during the transition to adulthood were associated with higher risk of pain interference among young adults.
Article
Background: The transition to college is associated with weight gain, but the relation between eating behavior indicators and anthropometric outcomes during this period remains unclear. Objective: Evaluate sex differences in stress, emotional eating, tendency to overeat, and restrained eating behavior, and determine whether the psycho-behavioral constructs assessed immediately prior to starting college are associated with anthropometry and adiposity at the start of college, and with first-semester weight gain. Methods: A prospective study administered the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Satter Eating Competence Inventory, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) to 264 participants one month before college. Body composition was assessed via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the start of college, and anthropometry (weight, height, waist circumference[WC]) was collected at the beginning and end of the first semester. Ordinary least squares regression tested the cross-sectional association of baseline psychological and behavioral scales with baseline DXA and anthropometry, and the longitudinal association with change in anthropometry. Results: Among 264 participants, 91% (241) had baseline data, and 66% (173) completed follow-up. In sex-adjusted linear regression models, baseline TFEQ disinhibited and emotional (DE; EE) eating sub-scales were positively associated with baseline weight (P = .003; DE, P = .014; EE), body mass index (BMI, P = .002; DE, P = .001; EE), WC (P = .004; DE, P = .006; EE) and DXA fat mass index (P = .023; DE, P = .014; EE). Baseline PSS was positively associated with subsequent changes in weight and WC among males only (weight Pinteraction = 0.0268; WC Pinteraction = 0.0017). Conclusion: College freshmen with questionnaire scores indicating a greater tendency to overeat in response to external cues and emotions tended to have greater weight, BMI, and WC at the start of college. Males with higher perceived stress at college entrance subsequently gained significantly more weight in the first semester, but no such relation was evident in females.
Article
Introduction: Heavy episodic alcohol use during young adulthood may contribute to excess weight gain and transition from healthy weight to overweight/obesity. This study is the first to evaluate the association between heavy episodic drinking during early adulthood and transition to overweight/obese status 5 years later using data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Methods: The study used data from Waves III and IV, when participants were aged 18-26 and 24-32 years, respectively. The final sample consisted of 7,941 participants with measured height/weight who reported ever drinking alcohol. Multinomial logistic regression models tested the association between heavy episodic drinking and risk of transitioning to an unhealthy weight class. Results: Heavy episodic drinking was associated with 41% higher risk of transitioning from normal weight to overweight (relative risk ratio, 1.41; 95% CI=1.13, 1.74; p=0.002) and 36% higher risk of transitioning from overweight to obese by Wave IV (relative risk ratio, 1.36; 95% CI=1.09, 1.71; p=0.008), compared with individuals not drinking heavily, while accounting for covariates. Heavy episodic drinking was associated with 35% higher risk of maintaining obesity (relative risk ratio, 1.35; CI=1.06, 1.72; p=0.016) and gaining excess weight (OR=1.20, 95% CI=1.03, 1.39, p=0.02). Conclusions: Regular heavy episodic drinking in young adulthood is associated with higher risk of gaining excess weight and transitioning to overweight/obesity. Obesity prevention efforts should address heavy drinking as it relates to caloric content and risk of transitioning to an unhealthy weight class.
Article
Objective: We investigated predictors of weight gain in college freshmen. Participants: A longitudinal cohort study followed a representative sample of freshmen (N = 264) from 8/2011-6/2012. Methods: Repeated measurement included anthropometry, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), physical activity, and diet. We investigated predictors of 9-month weight gain using regression models. Results: 172 participants completed follow-up: 75% gained >0.5kg. Mean weight change was +2.3kg (SD 3.2) and +2.0kg (SD 3.2) and mean adiposity change was +1.3% (SD 1.6) and +0.7% (SD 2.2) in males and females, respectively. In participants gaining >0.5kg, weight increased 5.6% and body fat increased 1.6%. Anthropometric change in males occurred in the first semester, while females increased in both semesters. Leaner DXA-defined body composition at baseline was consistently associated with greater weight gain (P-values 0.029–0.049). Conclusions: Freshman weight gain is common and reflects increased adiposity. Leaner body composition entering college predicted greater weight gain for both males and females.
Article
The transition from adolescence to young adulthood is a vulnerable stage for young women. Entering this period of individuality in college is a crucial time for young adults to adopt or maintain healthy lifestyles to continue throughout their lifespan. This study looks at freshman females in college and their perceptions of health. A positive significant relationship was found between those who have gained weight since the beginning of the year and those who rated themselves as having not healthy to slightly healthy eating habits (p = .007). The results of this study indicate that interventions for college-aged freshman could be highly beneficial.
Article
Purpose: A criticism of incentives for health behaviors is that incentives undermine intrinsic motivation. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of monetary incentive provision on participation motives for exercise in first-year college students at a northeastern public university. Design: Randomized-controlled trial. Setting: Public university in the Northeastern United States. Subjects: One hundred seventeen first-year college students. Intervention: Participants were randomized to one of three conditions: a control condition receiving no incentives for meeting fitness-center attendance goals; a discontinued-incentive condition receiving weekly incentives during fall semester 2011, and no incentives during spring semester 2012; or a continued-incentive condition receiving weekly incentives during fall semester, and incentives on a variable-interval schedule during spring semester. Measures: The Exercise Motivation Inventory 2 measured exercise participation motives at baseline, end of fall semester, and end of spring semester. Fitness-center attendance was monitored by using ID-card check-in/check-out records. Analysis: Repeated-measures analyses using linear mixed models with first-order autoregressive covariance structures were run to compare motive changes in the three conditions. Results: Participation motives of Enjoyment and Revitalization associated with intrinsic motivation did not decrease significantly over time in any of the conditions, F(4, 218) = 2.25, p = .065 and F(4, 220) = 1.67, p = .16, respectively. Conclusion: Intrinsically associated participation motives for exercise did not decrease with incentive provision. Therefore, incentives may encourage fitness-center attendance without negatively impacting participation motives for exercise.
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Alcohol consumption is described in terms of both quantity and frequency of alcohol use. This article describes present knowledge of alcohol use in young adults, complex factors that influence alcohol use and binge drinking, nutrition and body weight consequences of alcohol use, and interventions that may decrease alcohol use. Young adults have the highest prevalence of infrequent, high-quantity alcohol consumption in any age group, placing them at an increased risk for weight gain, overweight, and obesity. Lifestyle medicine practitioners can have a positive impact by sharing 4 key recommendations about alcohol use: (a) alcohol provides calories but no essential nutrients;(b)if alcohol is consumed, it should be consumed in moderation-up to one drink per day for women and two drinks per day for men;(c) moderate-level alcohol consumption is associated with the lowest risk of obesity (d) moderate-level alcohol consumption, when consumed in a binge-drinking pattern, is not protective against obesity.
Article
Objective This study examined associations between college students' self-report and measured height and weight. Methods Participants (N = 1,686) were 77% white, 62% female, aged 18–24 years (mean ± SD, 19.1 ± 1.1 years), and enrolled at 8 US universities. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated for self-report (via online survey); trained researchers measured height and weight and categorized them as normal (18.5 to < 25), overweight (25 to < 30), obese (30 to < 35), and morbidly obese (≥ 35). Results Concordance of self-report vs objectively measured BMI groups using chi-square revealed that 93% were accurate, 4% were underestimated, and 2.7% were overestimated. Pearson correlations and adjusted linear regression revealed significant associations between self-report and measured BMI (r = .97; P < .001) and BMI adjusted for age, gender, and race/ethnicity (R2 = .94). Concordance was also high between BMI categories (kappa = 0.77; P < .001). Conclusions and Implications Findings provide support for the utility of self-report height and weight for survey research in college students.
Article
Objective: To determine whether fitness-center attendance established with the provision of weekly monetary incentives persisted after the discontinuation, or decreased frequency, of incentives. Participants: One hundred seventeen first-year college students participated during the 2011-2012 academic year. Methods: A randomized controlled trial with control, discontinued-incentive, and continued-incentive conditions was conducted. During fall semester, students in incentive conditions received weekly monetary payments for meeting fitness-center attendance goals. During spring semester, discontinued-incentive condition participants no longer received incentives, whereas continued-incentive condition participants received payments on a variable-interval schedule. ID-card attendance records tracked fitness-center attendance. Results: Goal completion decreased from 63% in the incentive groups during the fall semester to 3% in the discontinued-incentive condition, and 39% in the continued-incentive condition during the spring semester. There was not a significant interaction between condition and body mass index change, F(6, 332) = 0.67, p = .68. Conclusion: Incentive discontinuation resulted in students no longer meeting fitness-center attendance goals. A variable-interval reward schedule better maintained attendance.
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E ating disorder (ED) symptoms are prevalent among college students. Recent surveys estimate that 13.5% of women and 3.6% of men screen positive for EDs and 20% of college students report a history of an ED. 1,2 Disordered eating behaviors and unhealthy weight regulation methods appear to have increased in this population over the last decade and affect an even greater number of students. 3 Subclinical symptoms are associated with significant distress and impairment, and persist over time. 1 Of great concern are the large numbers of students with EDs who do not seek treatment, an estimated 80 to 90% of individuals who screen positive for an ED. 1, 4 College presents a unique opportunity to prevent, identify, and treat EDs given the multiple channels through which students can be reached, including health services, residential education, academic affairs, social networks, and extracurricular activities. This paper provides a summary of the current status of EDs on college campuses, including identification, prevention, and evidence-based treatment. We also highlight key challenges and important areas for further outreach and research. How do EDs in College Students Present? ED Screening Transitions are times when problem behaviors may become exacerbated. The transition to college is a major life event that occurs in the context of significant neurological change. For many students, college also marks a change in their eating environment, comparison of eating habits with peers, and possible concern about the "Freshmen 15" weight gain myth. 5 It is unsurprising then, that the peak age of onset for BN, BED and EDNOS is 16-20 years, around the time that young people leave home and go to college. 6 EDs are often associated with other problems such as major depression, panic disorder, generalized anxiety, suicidal ideation, self-injury, binge drinking, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use, making early detection and intervention among this population of even greater public health importance. 1 Fortunately, there is a growing literature on ED screening instruments with good predictive validity that can identify ED risk factors, and preventive interventions to reduce ED risk and onset have been developed. Screening can be conducted on a mandatory basis for incoming students as part of entrance medical forms, "strongly encouraged" (i.e., recommended but not required) in the same way that many universities promote alcohol education programs for new students, or advertised as one of several resources available to students through health promotion and/or counseling center services. 7-9 We favor an online format for screens as this permits greater anonymity and confidentiality, easier access, and the provision of immediate feedback to the student with recommendations for appropriate resources. Wide-spread screening also promotes a greater reach among the student body and reduces the potential to overlook problematic behaviors among students.
Article
Objective: To examine the viability of monetary incentives to increase fitness-center use and maintain/improve the Body Mass Indexes (BMIs) of first-year students over the fall semester. Method: Randomized-controlled trial with no-treatment and incentive conditions involving 117 first-year students. For 12 weeks, students in the incentive condition received monetary payments ranging from $10 to $38.75 for meeting researcher-set fitness-center use goals that were identical across conditions. Fitness-center use was monitored through electronic ID-card check-in and check-out records at the campus fitness center. Results: 63% of incentive-condition participants met the weekly fitness-center use goals on average compared to only 13% of control-condition participants, a significant difference, p<0.001. Goal achievement significantly decreased over time, p<0.01 and at roughly the same rate in the control and incentive conditions, p=0.23. Average BMI increases over the fall semester in the control (24.2 (0.6) to 24.6 (0.6)kg/m(2)) versus incentive condition (23.1 (0.4) to 23.5 (0.4)kg/m(2)) were not significantly different (p=0.70). Conclusion: Weekly monetary incentives resulted in significantly more first-year students meeting weekly fitness-center use goals. However, the increased fitness-center use by the incentive condition did not prevent an increase in BMI during fall semester.
Article
This paper discusses the critical period of adolescence and its potential role in the development and persistence of obesity. The adolescent years are characteristic of changes in body composition (location and quantity of body fat), physical fitness and decreased insulin sensitivity during puberty. This period of growth and maturation is also marked with behavioural changes in diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and psychological health. Physical activity and sport participation decline during adolescence especially in teenage girls, while sedentary behaviour, risk for depression and body esteem issues increase during the teenage years. These physiological and behavioural changes during adolescence warrant the attention of health practitioners to prevent the onset and continuation of obesity throughout the lifespan.
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Younger generations of Australians are gaining weight faster than their parents. Associated health consequences are likely to ensue unless weight gains are prevented; however, it is unclear how to effectively intervene in this population. Electronic databases for health sciences were searched from April to the end of August 2011. Nine studies were included in the review, eight in the meta-analysis, from 771 abstracts reviewed for eligibility criteria: randomized controlled trials of lifestyle interventions, published in English (1980 onward), aimed at preventing weight gain among healthy subjects 18-35 years. Mean body weight change was the primary outcome. The combined weighted mean change in intervention participants was -0.87 kg (95% CI -1.56, -0.18) and in control participants 0.86 kg (95% CI 0.14, 1.57). Post hoc meta-regression analyses revealed evidence-based interventions of 4 months or longer duration were significantly associated with greater weight loss (-1.62 [95% CI -3.21, -0.04], P = 0.045). The small number, short duration and large heterogeneity of trials means the effectiveness of lifestyle intervention for preventing young adult weight gain remains unclear. Future trials conducted over longer periods with larger samples are urgently required to develop effective programmes that will protect against weight gains in future generations.
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Objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) holds that American culture coaxes women to develop observers' views of their bodies. The present study was designed to test whether a state of self-objectification can be automatically activated by subtle exposure to objectifying words. A state of self-objectification or of bodily empowerment was primed by the use of a scrambled sentence task. Women's ratings of negative emotions were higher and their ratings of the appeal of physical sex lower when primed with self-objectification than when primed with body competence. Men's ratings were unaffected by the primes. The results of this study suggest that mere exposure to objectifying media can play a significant role in the initiation of a self-objectified state along with its attendant psychological consequences for women.
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The obesity epidemic in North America has focused attention on the health risks of excess weight gain. The transition from high school to university is a critical period for weight gain, commonly referred to as the Freshman 15. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the transition from high school to university on anthropometrics and physical and sedentary activities in males. A total of 108 males completed 3 study visits: the summer prior to first year university, and the ends of the first and second semesters. Outcome measures were body mass, height, body mass index (BMI), body fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist:hip ratio, dietary intake, and participation in physical and sedentary activities. Between the summer prior to and the end of first year university, male students experienced a significant weight gain, of 3.0 kg, with significant increases in BMI, body fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist:hip ratio. Energy and nutrient intake did not change. Final body mass was significantly predicted by intention for body mass to stay the same, relative to weight loss intention. Fast aerobic physical activity significantly decreased between the summer prior to and the end of first year university, while slow aerobic physical activity, strength training, and flexibility training did not change. Computer and studying time significantly increased, while television time and hours of nightly sleep significantly decreased between the summer prior to and the end of first year university. Weekly alcoholic drinks and binge drinking frequency significantly increased over this time period. In conclusion, between the summer prior to and the end of first year university, male students gained an average of 3.0 kg, with increases in related anthropometrics. These changes may be due to body mass change intention and (or) the observed decreased physical and increased sedentary activities, but appear to be unrelated to dietary intake.
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To examine diet, physical activity, and body-weight changes associated with relocation from home to university. Diet, fitness/physical activity, body-weight parameters and self-efficacy were assessed among 54 freshman women upon college entry and 5 months later. Although caloric intake significantly decreased, a significant increase occurred in body-weight parameters that may be attributed to significant decreases in total physical activity. Interventions are needed aimed at increasing physical activity; improving diet quality related to consumption of vegetables, fruits, breads and pasta, and meats; and decreasing alcohol consumption.
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We estimated health care expenditures associated with overweight and obesity and examined the influence of age, race, and gender. Using 1998 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data, we employed 2-stage modeling to estimate annual health care expenditures associated with high body mass index (BMI) and examine interactions between demographic factors and BMI. Overall, the mean per capita annual health care expenditure (converted to December 2003 dollars) was $3338 before adjustment. While the adjusted expenditure was $2127 (90% confidence interval [CI]=$1927, $2362) for a typical normal-weight White woman aged 35 to 44 years, expenditures were $2358 (90% CI=$2128, $2604) for women with BMIs of 25 to 29.9 kg/m(2), $2873 (90% CI=$2530, $3236) for women with BMIs of 30 to 34.9 kg/m(2), $3058 (90% CI=$2529, $3630) for women with BMIs of 35 to 39.9 kg/m(2), and $3506 (90% CI=$2912, $4228) for women with BMIs of 40 kg/m(2) or higher. Expenditures related to higher BMI rose dramatically among White and older adults but not among Blacks or those younger than 35 years. We found no interaction between BMI and gender. Health care costs associated with overweight and obesity are substantial and vary according to race and age.
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Students entering their first year of college are faced with many stresses and changes, including changes in eating and exercise behavior. A common but often undocumented myth among college students is that there is a high risk of gaining 15 pounds of weight during freshman year. The objective of this study was to measure changes in body weight and percentage of body fat among first-year college students. Using a digital scale with bio-electrical impedance, the authors measured height, weight, and percentage of body fat for a sample of students who volunteered to be weighed during a health assessment in the university dining halls. The authors sent e-mails inviting those same students to complete a second measurement in February of the academic year. Sixty-seven of the 217 students who volunteered for the health assessment agreed to undergo a second set of measurements in the spring. The mean change in body weight was 2.86 pounds (1.3 kg, SD = 4.0 kg), and the mean change in percentage of body fat was 0.7% (SD = 4.0%). For those students who gained weight only, the mean increase in body weight (as measured by body mass index, weight divided by height in kg/m2) was 6.82 pounds (3.1 +/- 2.4 kg) and percentage of body fat was 0.9 +/- 3.8%. The authors found that the first year of college is a period in which weight and fat gain may occur. The exact causes behind these changes are unclear and warrant further research to plan or improve intervention and prevention.
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To examine how stress and health-related behaviors affect freshman weight change by gender. Three hundred ninety-six freshmen completed a 40-item health behavior survey and height and weight were collected at baseline and follow-up. Average weight change was 5.04 lbs for males, 5.49 lbs for females. Weight gain was related to increased alcohol consumption (P=0.014) in men and increased workload (P<0.001) in women. Weight loss was associated with lower academic confidence at baseline (P=0.009) and peer pressure modified by alcohol increase (P=0.025) in men, and fruit/vegetable consumption at baseline (P=0.015) in women. Gender-specific approaches to weight management in this population are needed.
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To examine the accuracy of self-reported height and weight data to classify adolescent overweight status. Self-reported height and weight are commonly used with minimal consideration of accuracy. Eleven studies (4 nationally representative, 7 convenience sample or locally based). Peer-reviewed articles of studies conducted in the United States that compared self-reported and directly measured height, weight, and/or body mass index data to classify overweight among adolescents. Self-reported and directly measured height and weight. Overweight prevalence; missing data, bias, and accuracy. Studies varied in examination of bias. Sensitivity of self-reported data for classification of overweight ranged from 55% to 76% (4 of 4 studies). Overweight prevalence was -0.4% to -17.7% lower when body mass index was based on self-reported data vs directly measured data (5 of 5 studies). Females underestimated weight more than males (ranges, -4.0 to -1.0 kg vs -2.6 to 1.5 kg, respectively) (9 of 9 studies); overweight individuals underestimated weight more than nonoverweight individuals (6 of 6 studies). Missing self-reported data ranged from 0% to 23% (9 of 9 studies). There was inadequate information on bias by age and race/ethnicity. Self-reported data are valuable if the only source of data. However, self-reported data underestimate overweight prevalence and there is bias by sex and weight status. Lower sensitivities of self-reported data indicate that one-fourth to one-half of those overweight would be missed. Other potential biases in self-reported data, such as across subgroups, need further clarification. The feasibility of collecting directly measured height and weight data on a state/community level should be explored because directly measured data are more accurate.
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To conduct a prospective, longitudinal study examining weight fluctuation and its predictors before and during the first year of college. Men (n = 266) and women (n = 341) enrolled at Dartmouth College (age range: 16 to 26; body mass index range: 15.0 to 42.9) provided self-reports of weight and height and completed measures of self-esteem, eating habits, interpersonal relationships, exercise patterns, and disordered eating behaviors both in their senior year of high school and either 3, 6, or 9 months into college. Self-reported weight was the primary outcome indicator. Analyses indicated that both men and women gained a significant amount of weight (3.5 and 4.0 pounds, respectively). Weight gain occurred before November of the first academic year and was maintained as the year progressed. College freshmen gain weight at a much higher rate than that of average American adults. For men, frequently engaging in exercise predicted weight gain. Having troublesome relationships with parents also predicted weight gain in men, whereas for women, having positive relationships with parents predicted weight gain. Understanding the predictors of early college weight gain may aid in the development of prevention programs.
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The Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study surveyed students at a nationally representative sample of 4-year colleges in the United States four times between 1993 and 2001. More than 50,000 students at 120 colleges took part in the study. This article reviews what we have learned about college drinking and the implications for prevention: the need to focus on lower drink thresholds, the harms produced at this level of drinking for the drinkers, the secondhand effects experienced by other students and neighborhood residents, the continuing extent of the problem, and the role of the college alcohol environment in promoting heavy drinking by students. In particular, the roles of campus culture, alcohol control policies, enforcement of policies, access, availability, pricing, marketing, and special promotions of alcohol are highlighted.
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The error in self-reported weight and height compared with measured weight and height was evaluated in a nationally representative sample of 11,284 adults aged 20–74 y from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 1976–1980. Although weight and height were reported, on the average, with small errors, self-reported weight and height are unreliable in important population subgroups. Errors in self-reporting weight were directly related to a person’s overweight status--bias and unreliability in self-report increased directly with the magnitude of overweight. Errors in self-reported weight were greater in overweight females than in overweight males. Race, age, and end-digit preference were ancillary predictors of reporting error in weight. Errors in self-reporting height were related to a person’s age--bias and unreliability in self-reporting increased directly with age after age 45 y. Overweight status was also a predictor of reporting error in height.
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Review of the 1st edition of Patterns of Human Growth by Barry Bogin
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College students may develop unhealthy eating habits during their freshman year. Poor eating habits or exercise regimens and lifestyle choices could lead to chronic disease later in life. We previously reported that 44 [18 males (41%) and 26 females (59%)] freshmen gained an average of 2.8±2.7kg (6.2±5.9♯) during their first year of college, rather than the “The Freshman Fifteen” commonly reported. Intakes of protein, fat, and alcohol were greater than recommended, and carbohydrate was less than recommended. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess and compare the eating patterns of on- [32 (73%)] and off-campus [12 (27%)] athletes [13 (30%)] and non-athletes [31 (70%)] to food pyramid guidelines. A dietary and lifestyle questionnaire (HHHQ) was completed by all subjects at baseline (BL)(18.5±0.4 years) and follow-up (FU)(19.2±0.4 years). Average intakes at BL and FU were not different and were substandard for all groups except the milk group. Bread, vegetable, fruit, milk, meat, fats/sweets, and alcohol group intakes at BL were 3.6±2.1, 2.2±1.3, 1.6±1.1, 2.8±1.7, 1.9±1.2, 4.0±2.4, and 0.1±0.3 servings and at FU were 3.9±2.4, 2.0±1.5, 1.4±1.5, 2.5±1.4, 1.9±1.2, 3.4±2.0, and 0.1±0.2 servings. Three-way ANOVA indicated that gender only affected meat intake, while residence and athletic status affected fat and vegetable group intakes, respectively. These results indicate that nutrition education is needed to foster an improved intake among college freshmen. These results may be biased and not reflect all freshman, as 85 subjects were recruited and only 44 successfully completed the study.
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This report is the first report of the Surgeon General on physical activity and health. For more than a century, the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service has focused the nation's attention on important public health issues. Reports from Surgeons General on the adverse health consequences of smoking triggered nationwide efforts to prevent tobacco use. Reports on nutrition, violence, and HIV/AlDS - to name but a few - have heightened America's awareness of important public health issues and have spawned major public health initiatives. This new report, which is a comprehensive review of the available scientific evidence about the relationship between physical activity and health status, follows in this notable tradition. Scientists and doctors have known for years that substantial benefits can be gained from regular physical activity. The expanding and strengthening evidence on the relationship between physical activity and health necessitates the focus this report brings to this important public health challenge. Although the science of physical activity is a complex and still-developing field, we have today strong evidence to indicate that regular physical activity will provide clear and substantial health gains. In this sense, the report is more than a summary of the science - it is a national call to action.
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Examined relationships among self-esteem, health promotion, nutrition, and weight in 57 female college freshmen (mean age 18.5 yrs). Ss completed questionnaires on demographics, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, and the Health-Promoting Life-style Profile, and recorded nutritional intake. Ss' mean weight gain was 2.45 lbs at the end of the freshman year. Positive correlations were identified among health promotion behaviors, self-esteem, and nutrition. Results indicate that interventions developed to promote self-esteem as well as knowledge of healthful behaviors could improve health within this population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This research tested the hypothesis that the “freshman 15” may be more fantasy than fact. The “freshman 15” refers to the belief that college students, particularly women, gain an average of 15 pounds during their first year of college. Female college students were weighed during their first month at college and again 6 months later. They also completed measures of self-esteem, body image, locus of control, and self-monitoring. Findings indicated that the majority of women remained the same weight during the first 6 months of college. A favorable body image was related to less weight loss among those who lost weight, but none of the other characteristics were related to weight change.
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Obesity poses substantial costs both to the individual and society, mainly through its impact on health and labor productivity. Because obesity is more prevalent among the poor some have raised concerns that food assistance programs may encourage excess weight. This paper investigates whether the U.S. Food Stamp Program contributes to adult participants' weight as measured by body mass index (BMI). Results suggest that the typical female food stamp participant's BMI is indeed more than 1 unit higher than someone with the same socioeconomic characteristics who is not in the program. For the average American woman, who is 5 ft 4 in. (1.63 m) tall, this means an increase in weight of 5.8 pounds (2.6 kg). While this association does not prove that the Food Stamp Program causes weight gain, it does suggest that program changes to encourage the consumption of high-nutrient, low-calorie foods should be considered.
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The error in self-reported weight and height compared with measured weight and height was evaluated in a nationally representative sample of 11,284 adults aged 20-74 y from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 1976-1980. Although weight and height were reported, on the average, with small errors, self-reported weight and height are unreliable in important population subgroups. Errors in self-reporting weight were directly related to a person's overweight status--bias and unreliability in self-report increased directly with the magnitude of overweight. Errors in self-reported weight were greater in overweight females than in overweight males. Race, age, and end-digit preference were ancillary predictors of reporting error in weight. Errors in self-reporting height were related to a person's age--bias and unreliability in self-reporting increased directly with age after age 45 y. Overweight status was also a predictor of reporting error in height.
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Most studies of adolescent sleep habits show a pattern of decreasing total sleep time, a tendency to delay the timing of sleep, and an increased level of daytime sleepiness. Laboratory tests have shown that adolescents do not have a decreased need for sleep but probably need more sleep than prepubertally. A number of factors affect the development of adolescent sleep patterns. Puberty itself imposes a burden of increased daytime sleepiness with no change in nocturnal sleep. Parental involvement in setting bedtimes wanes, though they become increasingly involved in waking teenagers in the mornings. Curfews and school schedules also affect adolescent sleep patterns, seen most commonly as imposing earlier rise times as the school day begins earlier during the adolescent years. Part-time employment has a significant impact on the sleep patterns of teenagers: those who work more than 20 h each week sleep less, go to bed later, are more sleepy, and drink more caffeine and alcohol. Development of circadian rhythms may also play a role in the phase delay teenagers commonly experience. The primary conclusion is that many adolescents do not get enough sleep. The consequences of the chronic pattern of insufficient sleep are daytime sleepiness, vulnerability to catastrophic accidents, mood and behavior problems, increased vulnerability to drugs and alcohol, and development of major disorders of the sleep/wake cycle. Educational programs hold the promise of improving teenagers' sleep patterns through informing youngsters, parents, and pediatricians about proper sleep hygiene and the risks of poor sleep habits.
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Life events, perceived social support, and psychological symptoms were studied prospectively among older adolescents during the transition from high school to college. These variables were reciprocally related to one another in patterns which changed over a period of 6 months. The findings are supportive of a transactional model of stress that emphasizes reciprocal, rather than linear, paths of influence. Further, the study highlights the importance of studying stress and social support during life transitions that may constitute periods of greater vulnerability to life events.
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A representative sample of university freshman women were compared to same-aged community women for rate of weight change. University women were found to gain a mean of .73 lbs/month, 36 times faster than community women. Analysis of variance showed that university women gained significantly more excess weight than did community women. The incidence of developing "treatable" excess weight was 26% and 9% for university and community women, respectively. University women were 2.6 to 5.2 times as likely as community women to gain 15% or more above ideal weight. Three-year follow-up of university women showed a stabilization and reduction in mean weight for sophomore and junior years. By the junior year, average weight returned to near baseline levels as entering freshman. Mean excess weight loss was associated with a move from mandatory dormitory housing and cafeteria food services. Young adult university women (and men) may be especially important nonclinical study populations for identifying behavioral factors involved in weight gain and self-correcting weight loss, which could be valuable for development of more effective obesity prevention programs.
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Substance use in the college-age population is an important public health and educational concern. This study compared rates of use among college students and nonstudents, including high school dropouts, from a single data source representative of the nation. Rates of use were estimated from the combined National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse from 1991 to 1993. Logistic regression models were used to test the effects of educational status and living arrangement. Educational status and living arrangement were found to be significant predictors of substance use. Rates of illicit drug and cigarette use were highest among high school dropouts, while current and heavy alcohol use were highest among college students who did not live with their parents. Substantial variation in substance use patterns within the college-age population suggests that overall rates of use for young adults should not be used to characterize specific subgroups of young adults. These data from a single source will thus help planners more clearly distinguish the service needs of the diverse subgroups within this population.
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The effectiveness of lifestyle behavior interventions with children to reduce chronic disease risks in adulthood assumes stability in the lifestyle behaviors across time. The transition out of high school is a time when many changes occur in social roles, e.g., changing schools, leaving the parents' home, changing peers, finding employment, getting married, and becoming a parent. Cancer risk behaviors may increase as a result of some of these social role changes. Concepts relevant to the stability or change in lifestyle behaviors through the transition out of high school are presented. Literature concerning diet, smoking, smokeless tobacco, alcohol, physical activity, sexual practices, and sun exposure behaviors through the transition is reviewed. Most lifestyle behaviors display increasing cancer risk around the transition out of high school. Different levels of change were associated with different pathways through the transition. Inconsistent findings were obtained in the pattern of co-occurrence of these behaviors. Priority research includes establishing the pattern of co-occurrence of lifestyle behaviors through the transition, identifying the pattern of tracking of each behavior through the transition, and identifying the primary influences on the group values and tracking of the behaviors. Longitudinal research is needed to control for preexisting differences between pathways through the transition.
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Over two decades, our data document a substantial linear increase in the percentage of university students who self-reported dissatisfaction with their sleep, i.e., 24% in 1978, 53% in 1988, and 71% in 2000.
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The authors investigated whether the perception that freshmen gain 15 pounds during their 1st year of college is related to either actual or perceived weight gain. Forty-nine incoming freshmen at a small liberal arts college completed the study by filling out questionnaires and health data at the beginning and end of their 1st year on campus. The findings revealed no significant weight gain at the end of the year. The "Freshman 15" myth was found to play an important role in perpetuating negative attitudes toward weight. Freshmen who were concerned about gaining 15 pounds were more likely to think about their weight, have a poorer body image than others, and categorize themselves as being overweight.
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Prevention of obesity and weight maintenance have become important public health issues. One strategy for prevention of obesity is to identify critical periods of weight gain across the life span. The purpose of this initial evaluation was to determine whether the transition from high school to college is such a critical period. A total of 135 college students were weighed in September and December of their freshman year and a subset also provided data in May. Results showed that statistically significant but modest weight increases occurred during the freshman year for most participants. However, one quarter of participants gained at least 2.3 kg during the first semester of college, and the proportion of participants classified as overweight or obese increased markedly. For this subset of participants, the freshman year of college could be considered a critical period for weight gain. Identifying critical periods for weight gain may be an important first step towards the development of effective obesity prevention programs.
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Gourmet coffee beverages (GCBs) are relatively new products in the foodservice industry that consist of high-energy coffee drinks. A descriptive study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of consumption of GCBs and their energy and fat contribution to overall dietary intake in college women using a beverage questionnaire and a 3-day food diary. A convenience sample of 165 undergraduate and graduate women attending Simmons College completed a beverage questionnaire, and a subsample of 41 women completed a 3-day food diary. Mean reported GCB consumption was 2.5 times/week for the entire sample and 7 times/week for the food diary subsample. A comparison of GCB consumers and nonconsumers indicated that GCB drinkers had a 206 kcal/day higher intake (P=.250) and a 32 g higher sugar intake than nonconsumers (P<.05). A significant percentage of college women consume GCBs, which contributes additional energy and fat to dietary intake. Over time, this could potentially affect weight status.
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The highest rates of obesity in the United States occur among population groups with the highest poverty rates and the least education. The impact of socioeconomic variables on obesity may be mediated, in part, by the low cost of energy-dense foods. The observed inverse relationship between energy density of foods, defined as available energy per unit weight (kilocalories per gram or megajoules per kilogram), and energy cost (dollars per kilocalorie or dollars per megajoule) means that diets based on refined grains, added sugars, and added fats are more affordable than the recommended diets based on lean meats, fish, fresh vegetables, and fruit. Taste and convenience of added sugars and added fats can also skew food choices in the direction of prepared and prepackaged foods. Paradoxically, attempting to reduce diet costs may lead to the selection of energy-dense foods, increased energy intakes, and overweight. The present energy-cost framework provides an economic explanation for the observed links between obesity and the food environment, with diet cost as the principal intervening variable. If higher food costs represent both a real and perceived barrier to dietary change, especially for lower-income families, then the ability to adopt healthier diets may have less to do with psychosocial factors, self-efficacy, or readiness to change than with household economic resources and the food environment. Continuing to recommend costly diets to low-income families as a public health measure can only generate frustration and culpability among the poor and less-well educated. Obesity in America is, to a large extent, an economic issue.
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There is little national research on longitudinal patterns of physical activity and sedentary behavior in ethnically diverse teens as they transition to adulthood. Longitudinal questionnaire data from U.S. adolescents enrolled in Wave I (1994-1995) and Wave III (2001) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n =13,030) were analyzed in January 2004. Incidence, reversal, and maintenance of achieving five or more weekly bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and < or =14 hours of weekly TV and video viewing, computer/video game use (screen time) were assessed. Multinomial logistic regression models examined the likelihood of achieving five or more weekly sessions of MVPA week and < or =14 hours screen time per week as an adolescent and/or young adult, controlling for household income, parental education, age of adolescent, and seasonality. Of those achieving five or more weekly sessions of MVPA and < or =14 hours of weekly screen time as adolescents, few continued to achieve these favorable amounts of activity (4.4%) and screen time (37.0%) as adults. More failed to maintain these favorable amounts of activity (31.1%) and screen time (17.3%) into adulthood. Black versus white females were more likely to maintain less [corrected] favorable amounts of activity from adolescence to adulthood (odds ratio [OR]=3.09; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.49-6.42), while black males (OR=1.50; CI=1.05-2.14) and females (OR=2.00; CI=1.40-2.87) were more likely than whites to maintain less (versus more) favorable screen time hours. The vast majority of adolescents do not achieve five or more bouts of moderate physical activity per week, and continue to fail to achieve this amount of activity into adulthood.
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The objective of this study was to assess changes in food group consumption patterns from childhood to young adulthood. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected on a longitudinal sample of young adults. Dietary intake data were collected on 246 young adults (70% European American, 30% African American) aged 19 to 28 years who participated in a previous cross-sectional survey when they were 10-year-olds. Descriptive statistics and linear mixed models adjusting for study time (age), sex, and ethnicity. In childhood, consumption of fruits/fruit juice and mixed meats ( P </=.05), desserts, candy, and milk ( P </=.0001) were greater than in young adulthood. Young adulthood consumption was greater for sweetened beverages, poultry and seafood ( P </=.001), salty snacks ( P </=.05), and beef ( P </=.01) compared to childhood. Milk consumption decreased, but the decrease was greater among males ( P </=.0001). Sweetened beverage consumption increased, but the increase was greater for European Americans ( P </=.0001). Candy consumption decreased, but the decrease was greater for African Americans ( P </=.05). Changes occur in food group consumption patterns from childhood to young adulthood. Overall, there was a decrease in diet quality during this age transition. Understanding eating habits of children early in life is important for planning effective intervention strategies.
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Reforms for slowing the growth in health care spending and increasing the value of care have largely focused on insurance-based solutions. Consumer-driven health care represents the most recent example of this approach. However, much of the growth in health care spending over the past twenty years is linked to modifiable population risk factors such as obesity and stress. Rising disease prevalence and new medical treatments account for nearly two-thirds of the rise in spending. To be effective, reforms should focus on health promotion, public health interventions, and the cost-effective use of medical care.
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The purpose of the present study was to document any changes that might occur in body weight, body composition, RMR, and dietary intake in newly enrolled college freshmen. Body weight, RMR by ventilated O(2) consumption, body composition by bioelectrical impedance and dietary intakes were recorded in 27 first-year college freshmen during their initial 16-week semester. Mean body weight increased significantly with time (3.0 lbs; p < 0.001); 16 subjects (59%) gained >or= 3.0 lbs, while 6 subjects (22%) gained >or= 6 lbs. Percent fat mass significantly increased (p < 0.001), while lean body mass decreased (p < 0.001). Changes in RMR failed to reach statistical significance; however, there was a significant correlation between changes in weight and RMR (r = 0.45; p < 0.02). Mean reported calorie intake did not differ significantly between the beginning (1905 +/- 664 kcal) and end (1960 +/- 687 kcal) of the study. However, the differences ( approximately 55 kcal) are in the range necessary to support the mean 3 lb. weight gain. The present study supports the notion that freshmen students, on average, gain weight during their first semester; however, this weight gain may be more modest than generally perceived. The study also provides important new data on changes in diet, body composition and RMR.
Article
To describe the relationship between obesity class and workforce participation and the influence of demographic, socioeconomic, and comorbid disease states on this relationship using population-based Canadian data. Responses from 73,531 adults surveyed in the Canadian Community Health Survey 2000 to 2001 who provided complete information regarding variables of interest were analyzed. Workforce participation was defined as individuals reporting that they held and were present at a job or business in the week before survey administration. The association between obesity and workforce participation was explored using logistic regression after adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, and obesity-related comorbidities. In univariate analysis, obese individuals had lower odds of participating in the workforce. In the fully adjusted model, increasing obesity was associated with decreasing odds of workforce participation, with Class I, II, and III obesity having odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of 0.94 (0.89 to 0.99), 0.85 (0.77 to 0.94), and 0.66 (0.57 to 0.78), respectively. Obese individuals were also less likely to be employed and more likely to be absent from work. Obesity is associated with lower workforce participation. This association appears to be independent of associated comorbidity and sociodemographic factors. These results indicate that the economic impact of obesity alone on workforce productivity is larger than previous reports suggest.
Article
The objective of this study was to investigate changes in body weight, BMI, body composition, and fat distribution among freshman women during their 1st year of college. Freshman women during the 2004 to 2005 academic year were recruited to participate. The initial baseline visit occurred within the first 6 weeks of the fall 2004 semester, with the follow-up visit occurring during the last 6 weeks of the spring 2005 semester. At each visit, height, weight, BMI, waist and hip circumferences, and body composition (by DXA) were obtained. One hundred thirty-seven participants completed both the fall and spring visits. Significant (p < 0.0001) increases between the fall and spring visits were observed for body weight (58.6 vs. 59.6 kg), BMI (21.9 vs. 22.3), percentage body fat (28.9 vs. 29.7), total fat mass (16.9 vs. 17.7 kg), fat-free mass (38.1 vs. 38.4 kg), waist circumference (69.4 vs. 70.3 cm), and hip circumference (97.4 vs. 98.6 cm), with no significant difference observed in the waist-to-hip ratio (0.71 vs. 0.71; p = 0.78). Although statistically significant, changes in body weight, body composition, and fat mass were modest for women during their freshman year of college. These results do not support the purported "freshman 15" weight gain publicized in the popular media.
Article
To determine the relationships between BMI and workforce participation and the presence of work limitations in a U.S. working-age population. We used data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a nationwide prospective cohort, to estimate the effect of obesity in 1986 on employment and work limitations in 1999. Individuals were classified into the following weight categories: underweight (BMI < 18.5), normal weight (18.5 < or = BMI < 25), overweight (25 < or = BMI < 30), and obese (BMI > or = 30). Using multivariable probit models, we estimated the relationships between obesity and both employment and work disability. All analyses were stratified by sex. After adjusting for baseline sociodemographic characteristics, smoking status, exercise, and self-reported health, obesity was associated with reduced employment at follow-up [men: marginal effect (ME) -4.8 percentage points (pp); p < 0.05; women: ME -5.8 pp; p < 0.10]. Among employed women, being either overweight or obese was associated with an increase in self-reported work limitations when compared with normal-weight individuals (overweight: ME +3.9 pp; p < 0.01; obese: ME +12.6 pp; p < 0.01). Among men, the relationship between obesity and work limitations was not statistically significant. Obesity appears to result in future productivity losses through reduced workforce participation and increased work limitations. These findings have important implications in the U.S., which is currently experiencing a rise in the prevalence of obesity.
Article
Diets abundant in fruits and vegetables are associated with reduced risk for chronic disease, but intakes of adolescents are often inadequate. To design effective interventions it is important to understand how dietary intake changes longitudinally during adolescence and to monitor progress in the population toward fruit and vegetable consumption recommendations. The objective of this study was to examine longitudinal and secular trends in fruit and vegetable intake among two cohorts of Minnesota adolescents over the period 1999-2004. Measures of fruit and vegetable intake and demographics were completed by 944 boys and 1161 girls who were Project EAT participants in 1999 and 2004. In 2005, mixed linear regression models were used to estimate (1) longitudinal trends among two cohorts of young people during developmental transitions and (2) age-matched secular trends between the two cohorts of young people at middle adolescence. Longitudinal trends indicated that adolescents decreased their daily intake of fruit and vegetables by an average of 0.7 servings during the transition from early to middle adolescence and by 0.6 servings from middle to late adolescence. Analyses of age-matched secular trends at middle adolescence showed a mean daily decrease of 0.7 servings among girls and 0.4 servings among boys between 1999 and 2004. The large longitudinal and secular declines in fruit and vegetable intakes of adolescents indicate a strong need for further research to understand why consumption is decreasing among adolescents and to develop more effective interventions for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption during this critical developmental period.
Article
Although many studies have found that students gain weight during their first year at college, many others have not. Participants in the present study were classified according to their scores on the Herman/Polivy Restraint Scale and their place of residence-at home or on campus. Body weight was assessed early in the academic year and five months later. At the same sessions participants completed a questionnaire pertaining to their eating habits prior to beginning college (first session) and since coming to college (second session). Overall weight gain was 1.5 kg; those most likely to gain weight were restrained eaters living on campus, who gained an average of 4.1 kg. In addition, changes in eating habits were a significant independent predictor of weight gain.
Article
The aims of the study were to assess whether women during the first year of college experience (1) significant weight gain; (2) a prospective relation between dietary restraint and weight gain; (3) an increase in disordered eating; and (4) a prospective relation between dietary restraint or concern about the Freshmen 15 (i.e., weight gain of 15 lbs during the freshman year of college) and disordered eating. Participants were 336 female students in their first year of college who completed questionnaire measures of Body Mass Index (BMI), eating disorder pathology, dietary restraint, body image, and self-esteem. Participants' mean weight gain was approximately 3 lbs (1.5 kg), and among those who gained weight, the mean gain was 7.32 lbs (3.3 kg). Dietary restraint in September did not predict weight change in April, but participants who lost weight reported significantly greater dietary restraint than those participants who gained weight. Eating disorder symptoms increased significantly from September to April. Dietary restraint, concern about the "Freshman 15", and self-esteem in September uniquely predicted EDE-Q Weight and Shape Concern subscale scores in April. Female students in their first year of college gain a small but significant amount of weight, and weight gain was mostly unrelated to dietary restraint. Disordered eating increases during the first year of college and, is predicted by prospective dietary restraint and concerns about weight gain.
Article
How does health misinformation become part of the American and Canadian vernacular? Twenty-three databases were searched for articles discussing university freshmen weight gain. Research articles were examined for methodology, number and gender of the participants and weight gain. Popular press articles were reviewed for the types of information published: expert/anecdotal, weight gain, nutrition, exercise, health and alcohol. A timeline of article publication dates was generated. Twenty peer-reviewed, 19 magazine, 146 newspaper, and 141 university newspaper articles were discovered. Appearance of media articles about the 'Freshman 15' mirrored the peer-reviewed articles, yet the information did not reliably depict the research. Research indicated a weight gain of less than five pounds (2.268 kg), while half of the popular press publications claimed a 15-pound (6.804 kg) weight gain. The misinformation was frequently accompanied by information about achieving weight control through diet, exercise, stress reduction and alcohol avoidance. Understanding of how the concept of the 'Freshman 15' developed indicates that remediation efforts are needed. Collaborative efforts between health science and academic librarians, faculty and journalists to construct new paradigms for the translation of scientific evidence into information that individuals can use for decisions about health and well-being is suggested.
Article
The authors assessed the stability of diet and physical activity and their relationship to weight changes in first-year university women. They collected anthropometric and body composition data from 101 resident women at the beginning of their first year of college and again at 12 months. The authors obtained physical activity and dietary logs 4 times throughout the year. Caloric intake decreased over 12 months in all participants (p = .01). There was little change in physical activity in participants who lost weight (p = .73, d = .18). Those who gained weight experienced a trend toward decreased physical activity (p = .13, d = .38). A significant Time X Group interaction on physical activity (p = .04) suggests that physical activity patterns differed substantially between individuals who gained weight and those who lost weight. Reduction in physical activity appears to be the defining characteristic in freshman weight gain.
Article
A critical period for weight gain may occur during the transition from high school to university. This descriptive, noncontrolled cohort study of 116 healthy females examined the effect of this transition over three study visits in first year university. The main outcome measure was body weight; others were height, body composition, waist circumference, dietary intake, and participation in physical and sedentary activities. Difference among study visits was determined by repeated measures analysis of variance; multiple regression examined changes in energy intake and physical and sedentary activities as predictors of final weight. Weight increased (P<0.001) by 2.4 kg (61.4 to 63.8 kg) during the entire course of the study. Other increases (P<0.001) included: body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)), 22.3 to 23.1; percent body fat, 23.8% to 25.6%; and waist circumference, 76.9 to 79.4 cm. Dietary energy intake did not increase; vigorous physical, but not strength building, activities increased; television use decreased; and computer use increased (P<0.03 for all): however, these changes were not predictive of final weight. A change (decrease) in moderate physical activity was, however, an important predictor of final weight. Females making the transition to university gained 2.4 kg; weight gain during this formative period may be modified by lifestyle activities.
Article
Building on findings related to physiological and psychological motivations of food preference, this research develops a framework to examine preferences toward comfort foods. Study 1 used a North American survey of 411 people to determine favored comfort foods, and Study 2 quantified the preferences for these foods across gender and across age groups using a stratified sample of 1005 additional people. Consistent with hypotheses, the findings showed different comfort food preferences across gender and across age. Males preferred warm, hearty, meal-related comfort foods (such as steak, casseroles, and soup), while females instead preferred comfort foods that were more snack related (such as chocolate and ice cream). In addition, younger people preferred more snack-related comfort foods compared to those over 55 years of age. Associations with guilty feelings underscored how these different preferences between males and females may extend to areas of application.
Multiple Types of Dieting Prospectively Predict Weight Gain During the Freshman Year of College Carpenter-Aeby, and K. Barber-HeidalA Survey of Energy Drink Consumption Patterns Among College Students
  • E Mckinney
  • B Stice
  • V Aeby
  • R Overton
McKinney, and E. Stice. 2006. “Multiple Types of Dieting Prospectively Predict Weight Gain During the Freshman Year of College.” Appetite 47:83–90. r1406Social Science Quarterly Malinauskas, B., V. Aeby, R. Overton, T. Carpenter-Aeby, and K. Barber-Heidal. 2007. “A Survey of Energy Drink Consumption Patterns Among College Students.” Nutrition Journal 35(6):6–35
SomethingElsetoCheckOutatLibrary:Starbucks
  • B Horovitz
Horovitz,B.2007.“SomethingElsetoCheckOutatLibrary:Starbucks.”USATodaySeptember 27:1B