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Can playing poker be good for you?
Poker as a transferable skill
Adrian Parke, Mark Griffiths, & Jonathan Parke,
Nottingham Trent University, United Kingdom.
E-mail: mark.griffiths@ntu.ac.uk
Introduction
In late 2004, we were approached by an on-line gaming company
to examine the skills involved in playing poker (both on- and off-
line) and to assess to what extent the skills involved had any
transferability to real-life situations. This provided an interesting
challenge and we would like to share our speculations (as there
was little in the way of empirical research to utilise).
Poker savoir-faire
Much of poker's appeal is due to the fact that, unlike many other
forms of gambling, the scope to influence the outcome is vast. Put
simply, it is primarily a game of skill. Although some of the
necessary skills can be inherent (such as emotional intelligence,
i.e., the ability to process emotional information, particularly as it
involves the perception, assimilation, understanding, and
management of emotion), many of the more idiosyncratic skills are
only acquired through experience. As a result, successful poker
players will always seek to improve by being critical of their own
play and assimilating a behavioural repertoire of opponents' playing
styles. Some sense of humility is required.
Successful poker players must show consistent voracity (i.e.,
greed). Profitable players need to view the game as a financial
exchange rather than a social entertainment activity. This includes
micromanagement of their "stack." In other words, they should not
play loosely simply because they have the chip lead. They
shouldn't differentiate pots based on the level of action or
entertainment value. A "pot won is a pot won" and each one is
important. Poker is a zero sum game—the pot won must not be
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graded only by how much it increases the player's stack, but by
how it affects the chip position with the opponents. A stack is
primarily built by consistently grinding out small wins rather than by
making erratic, high-risk plays.
Another skill that experienced poker players acquire is to realise
their boundaries. This is applicable to several areas. Firstly, they
must choose a game which suits their bankroll. Put simply, they
should not play at a table where they are forced to play their blinds
based on pot odds. Secondly, they should play at a level where
they can keep their head above water (i.e., players should walk
before they can run). A cheaper way to gain experience from the
experienced players rather than "sitting" with them is to simply
observe the profitable players at the high-stakes table. The final
parameter is for players to know when they are beaten. Conceding
defeat in a battle does not equate to losing a war. The war in poker
consists of hundreds of battles. For players to use all of their
"ammunition" in a battle they are unlikely to win is bad strategy.
Control
At a fundamental level, what separates good (professional)
gamblers and novice or problem gamblers is the factor of self-
control. The general rule of thumb for players is to avoid becoming
emotionally involved in the game. Inducing emotional (rather than
logical) reactions from gamblers is what makes the gambling
industry so profitable. By remaining unemotional, players can
protect themselves from recklessly chasing losses and avoid going
on "tilt." On-line gamblers are particularly at risk from engaging in
chasing losses for the simple reason that they have 24-hour access
and are constantly subjected to temptation. Furthermore, they often
lack a "social safety net" to give objective appraisals.
There are ways to avoid becoming emotionally engaged. These
include reflective "time-outs" and having an objective attribution of
outcomes. Reflective time-outs equate to playing slowly and
making gambling decisions with accrued knowledge (i.e.,
knowledge of probability and of opponents). It is advisable after a
"bad beat" for players to be disciplined enough to sit out one or two
hands to regain composure before playing again. Extending the
concept further, it is probably wise after a particularly ineffectual
session to suspend play for an elongated time-out. Reckless and
unintelligent play by knowledgeable players emerges from not
being able to deal with frustration appropriately.
Determining objective attributions of outcomes involves players
having an external locus of control when assessing the cards they
have, and an internal locus of control regarding what they do with
the cards available to them. The mantra of poker players is, "You
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can only play the hand you were dealt." All players will experience
streaks of desirable and poor hands, and it is how players respond
to these streaks which will determine their success. It is very easy
for players to become frustrated while in a negative streak. It is also
easy in a positive streak to become narcissistic and complacent. It
is the knowledgeable player who understands probability and who
realises that over a continuous playing period streaks (both positive
and negative) are inevitable and transient.
On-line poker playing
On-line poker and off-line poker are not synonymous. A very useful
tool in poker is to "read" players through their body language and
their verbalisations. In on-line poker, gamblers are denied this
advantage, so they must seek to manipulate opponents by the
tools at their disposal. The key is to take a weakness (i.e., not
being able to physically see other players) and turn it into an
advantage (i.e., using this nontransparency). On-line poker permits
gamblers to create a false identity. Gamblers could portray
themselves as young attractive novice female players when in fact
they are actually very experienced recognised professionals. The
key to a "hustle" or manipulating other players in poker is for
gamblers to project a character and hide their identity. Essentially,
it is about representing a façade, whether for one hand or the
whole game. Gamblers can adopt any "character" they wish to suit
any game in which they engage. Perhaps in the case of playing
with novices it may be profitable for gamblers to portray themselves
as experienced professionals in order to intimidate players into
submission.
Using the Internet relay chat band provided, gamblers may find it
easier to develop their personas. The tone and pitch of what
gamblers say is not revealed in text, so fundamentally they are
acting with their most unemotional "poker face." Put simply, they
can exude confidence as they go all in on a bluff, when in reality
their hands might be shaking and they may be sweating. The key
to winning is inducing emotional reactions from other players. With
knowledge of their opponents, it is possible for gamblers to "tailor"
interactions to induce the desired response.
On-line social interaction at the poker table is not confined to
adversarial chastising. It is possible to develop amiable
relationships between players. On-line poker—particularly at low-
stakes tables—is often more about entertainment than profit. In
poker, it is not necessary to reveal your hand if nobody calls (i.e.,
pays to see it). Without seeing cards it is more difficult to
understand player behaviour. However, at more sociable tables,
people will reveal what they had to opposing players, if for nothing
else than to indulge the observers. Creating false "alliances" is a
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way for gamblers to ascertain more information about their
opponents and improve their ability to "read" them.
Poker and transferable skills
Poker—both on- and off-line—requires many skills and abilities.
Below are some of the traits and skills we speculate are needed to
be a successful poker player and the characteristics needed to be
a good poker player. We argue that all of these can be utilised in
other contexts to bring about success in other areas of peoples'
lives, particularly in the areas of employability and future success
within that job.
zCritical evaluative skills: The ability to appraise information
and situations realistically, and to anticipate problems and
difficulties, is vital in poker. To critically evaluate your playing
decisions ("did I play that right?") and those of others is
common. These are also essential skills in the workplace—
particularly in management.
zNumerical skills: The ability to handle and interpret
numerical and statistical information is an important skill in
many areas of employability. In poker, there are many levels
of numerical skill, such as the micromanagement of funds—
every penny is important—or the cards themselves. Not many
jobs require mathematical wiz-kids but many decision-making
judgements can be based on the balance of probability or the
ability to interpret data summaries.
zPragmatism skills: The ability to make the best of a nonideal
situation and to work within preset constraints is a valuable
skill in poker. For example, players need to accept what they
cannot change (their cards) and play with what they have.
Pragmatism is an undervalued skill within the workplace—
most probably because it is more of an inherent skill than
something that is learned. Success in almost any job will
require good use of pragmatism.
zInterpersonal skills: Knowledge of the mechanisms of social
communication and the potential sources of interpersonal
conflict can be the difference between a good and a great
poker player. Being able to identify an opponent's "tell" can
pay huge (financial) dividends. Having good interpersonal
awareness is not the same as being socially skilled (although
it contributes). Interpersonal skills contribute to emotional
intelligence, i.e., how to respond to different people in
different situations. Interpersonal awareness skills in the
workplace can make a difference in understanding and
dealing with interpersonal problems. They may also help in
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telling whether colleagues are lying or trying to be economical
with the truth.
zProblem-solving skills: The ability to identify different
strategies and approaches is of great benefit when playing
poker. Problem-solving skills in the workplace are extremely
important to anyone wanting to be successful in their career,
especially when they are tied in with pragmatism skills.
zGoal orientation skills: The ability to set goals and to
formulate strategies to achieve those goals can be of benefit
while playing poker. Being hungry and insatiable in the desire
to achieve (i.e., winning) is a common characteristic of good
poker players. Having goals gives people a purpose, which is
very valuable in the workplace. It allows people to measure
their success in some way, just as the poker player does
when winning or losing.
zLearning skills: The ability to continuously learn and not rest
on your laurels is a valuable skill in poker (as it is obviously in
almost all areas of life). In poker, being humble enough to
learn from those more experienced and to take others'
expertise into future games is akin to other learning
experiences in other environments—including the workplace.
In poker, such learning can bring about objectivity. For
instance, poker players should not act in haste but ponder
and deliberate responses objectively. In essence, this is
continuing professional development. It doesn't matter what
walk of life you find yourself in—learning from others is
paramount.
zHigher-order analytic and strategic skills: The ability to
extract general principles from immediate or concrete
situations and to formulate appropriate strategies can be very
important while playing poker. For example, good poker
players know not to let the cards get them frustrated or not to
fight battles they can't win. There are clear parallels in the
workplace, including office politics.
zFlexibility skills: The ability to adapt to any situation or to be
opportunistic when a situation presents itself underlies skills
in flexibility. In poker, adapting to your environment (e.g., who
are you playing against, how big is your stack) comes with
playing experience. The ability to look from several points of
view is not something that can necessarily be taught but is
certainly a valuable skill to an employer.
zFace management/deception skills: The ability to
knowingly deceive someone is not normally seen as
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desirable, but in poker it is all part of the game. Good acting
ability is needed to demonstrate poker face, bluffs, etc. The
telling of nonverbal white lies is important here. In some
situations in the workplace, such skill will be of great
importance. Telling white lies to keep face or to be diplomatic
is a good example. There are also many situations that
employers have to bluff in order to succeed (e.g., in giving a
presentation to the board or being interviewed for a dream
job). While such skills are not encouraged, they can certainly
be of great benefit to the employee.
zSelf-awareness skills: The ability to play to strengths and
acknowledge weaknesses is a common trait in many walks of
life. In poker, such skills can be very important. For example,
skilful poker players remember that bad luck doesn't always
last and good luck definitely doesn't last. Poker players also
know that there is no room for apathy or complacency (in
winning or losing streaks). In the workplace, self-awareness
skills will help employees succeed in areas of strength and
delegate in areas of weakness.
zSelf-control skills: The ability to act with a cool head under
pressure and to show the nerve and the mettle to cope under
adversity is critical in good poker playing. Quite clearly, in the
workplace, many team leaders and managers need such
skills in order to get the most out of themselves and their
teams. Such skills are also important in terms of stress
management.
Many of these skills are transferable to other arenas and are the
kinds of abilities and traits that will help people achieve in the
workplace and aid promotion. Diplomatic use of white lies can aid
employees in a variety of situations and can help smooth over (or
disguise) mistakes and errors.
This article was not peer-reviewed. Submitted: October 1, 2004.
Accepted: January 12, 2005.
For correspondence: Professor Mark Griffiths, International Gaming
Research Unit, Psychology Division, Nottingham Trent University,
Burton Street, Nottingham, NG1 4BU, U.K. Phone: 0115-8485528,
fax: 0115-8486826, URL: http://ess.ntu.ac.uk/griffiths/, e-mail:
mark.griffiths@ntu.ac.uk.
Contributors: AP and JP collaborated on the initial half of the article
and MG wrote the last half.
Competing interests: None declared.
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Mark Griffiths, PhD, is professor of gambling studies at the
Nottingham Trent University. He is internationally known for his
work into gambling and gaming addictions and was the first
recipient of the John Rosecrance Research Prize for "Outstanding
scholarly contributions to the field of gambling research" in 1994,
winner if the 1998 CELEJ Prize for best paper on gambling, and
2003 winner of the International Excellence Award for "outstanding
contributions to the prevention of problem gambling and the
practice of responsible gambling." He has published over 150
refereed research papers, two books, numerous book chapters and
over 350 other articles. In 2004 he was awarded the Joseph Lister
Award for Social Sciences by the British Association for the
Advancement of Science.
issue 14 — september 2005
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... Among the different forms of gambling, poker is in a league of its own because of its skill elements (Bjerg, 2011;Parke, Griffiths, & Parke, 2005). Several studies have focused on some of the skill elements needed to become a successful poker player (Biolcati, Passini, & Griffiths, 2015;Bjerg, 2010;Dedonno & Detterman, 2008;Hardy, 2006;Parke et al., 2005;Palomäki, Laakasuo, & Salmela 2013b;Shead, Hodgins, & Scharf, 2008;St. ...
... Among the different forms of gambling, poker is in a league of its own because of its skill elements (Bjerg, 2011;Parke, Griffiths, & Parke, 2005). Several studies have focused on some of the skill elements needed to become a successful poker player (Biolcati, Passini, & Griffiths, 2015;Bjerg, 2010;Dedonno & Detterman, 2008;Hardy, 2006;Parke et al., 2005;Palomäki, Laakasuo, & Salmela 2013b;Shead, Hodgins, & Scharf, 2008;St. Germain & Tenebaum, 2011), but only a few have focused on poker players' learning processes (Hayano, 1982;O'Leary & Carroll, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Several studies have focused on some of the skill elements needed to become a successful poker player, but few have described the poker players' learning processes. No studies have used a learning theory to analyse poker players' variety of learning methods or analysed whether the competitive and deceptive nature of the poker game have an impact on the players' learning outcome. This article examines 15 poker players' learning processes and how the players enter different learning communities of practice, arguing that different communities have different norms. In a friendly community of practice, the players were generous in helping each other and revealed secrets so that the group could grow together. In the competitive community of practice, the players were more cautious, and misleading information was common. Online poker, as well as new technology, has made several new artefacts (learning tools) available for poker players, and their main contribution is to reveal information that was previously unavailable. Because poker is a game of information, it greatly affects the players' learning potential.
... other gambling types, poker has specific characteristics, which implies that problem gambling poker playing shows a specific expression (Bjerg, 2010;Barrault et al., 2014) and presents psychopathological specificity (Barrault and Varescon, 2016;Moreau et al., 2016). Indeed and as mentioned by Biolcati et al. (2015), poker should not be considered liker other chance determined gambling activities (such as roulette, scratchcards or lotteries) because of the many skills involved in playing poker like self-control, problem solving, critical evaluation, mathematics, money management and people reading (Parke et al., 2005;Hardy, 2006). This characteristic is important and distinguished between professional, recreational and pathological online poker gamblers. ...
... This result suggests that disinhibition is associated with problematic online poker gambling. Poker requires selfconfidence and considerable control in order to bluff (Parke et al., 2005). Disinhibition might appear here as a dimension of personality that contributes to the loss of control. ...
Article
The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between sensation seeking and online poker gambling in a community sample of adult online poker players, when controlling for age, gender, anxiety and depression. In total, 288 online poker gamblers were recruited. Sociodemographic data, gambling behavior (CPGI), sensation seeking (SSS), depression and anxiety (HADS) were evaluated. Problem online poker gamblers have higher sensation seeking scores (total, thrill and adventure, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility subscores) and depression scores than non-problem online poker gamblers. Being male, with total sensation seeking, disinhibition and depression scores are factors associated with online poker problem gambling. These findings are interesting in terms of harm reduction. For example, because disinhibition could lead to increased time and money spent, protective behavioral strategies like setting time and monetary limits should be encouraged in poker online gamblers.
... Recently, video gaming is no longer considered just an entertaining activity for some people, but it has become an opportunity for a real career. More and more people are investing their future in this activity, participating in competitive tournaments that reward large sums of money, and its activity is so widespread that professional videogamers are also called electronic athletes (Parke et al., 2005). The economic impact is enormous, so much that many brands have invested to advertise during professional tournaments and support players (Bányai et al., 2019). ...
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Full-text available
First-Person Shooter (FPS) game experience can be transferred to untrained cognitive functions such as attention, visual short-term memory, spatial cognition, and decision-making. However, previous studies have been using off-the-shelf FPS games based on predefined gaming settings, therefore it is not known whether such improvement of in game performance and transfer of abilities can be further improved by creating a in-game, adaptive in-game training protocol. To address this question, we compared the impact of a popular FPS-game (Counter-Strike:Global-Offensive–CS:GO) with an ad hoc version of the game based on a personalized, adaptive algorithm modifying the artificial intelligence of opponents as well as the overall game difficulty on the basis of individual gaming performance. Two groups of FPS-naïve healthy young participants were randomly assigned to playing one of the two game versions (11 and 10 participants, respectively) 2 h/day for 3 weeks in a controlled laboratory setting, including daily in-game performance monitoring and extensive cognitive evaluations administered before, immediately after, and 3 months after training. Participants exposed to the adaptive version of the game were found to progress significantly faster in terms of in-game performance, reaching gaming scenarios up to 2.5 times more difficult than the group exposed to standard CS:GO (p < 0.05). A significant increase in cognitive performance was also observed. Personalized FPS gaming can significantly speed-up the learning curve of action videogame-players, with possible future applications for expert-video-gamers and potential relevance for clinical-rehabilitative applications.
... Ainsi, un joueur qui indiquerait à l'un de ces instruments qu'il peut contrôler en partie l'issue d'une partie de poker pourrait ne pas être dans l'erreur. Cet argumentaire est cohérent pour un JHA tel que le poker, où les appuis empiriques démontrent l'influence de l'habileté sur la performance du joueur (Linnet et al., 2012;Palomäki et al., 2013;Parke et al., 2005;Schiavella et al., 2018). Qu'en est-il des paris sportifs? ...
Article
À travers le monde, les paris sportifs représentent la deuxième forme de jeux de hasard et d’argent (JHA) la plus associée aux problèmes de jeu. Les cognitions des parieurs sportifs pourraient contribuer à cette association. Cependant, aucun outil ne semble adapté aux parieurs de loteries sportives, principalement à cause de la composante d’habileté. Cette étude vise (a) à développer l’Inventaire des cognitions à risque — Loteries sportives (ICR-LS) et en déterminer la structure factorielle, (b) à évaluer la validité de convergence de l’ICR-LS avec Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS), les habitudes de jeu, et la gravité des problèmes de jeu; et (c) à évaluer les liens entre le nombre d’heures mensuelles consacrées à la préparation des paris aux loteries sportives et les habitudes de jeu. Les parieurs sportifs recrutés (N = 272) étaient principalement de sexe masculin (86,5 %), dans la vingtaine (M = 26,7 ans) et issus de la communauté universitaire (88,3 %). Les analyses en composantes principales indiquent que l’instrument possède deux dimensions (Superstitions et Habiletés), une forte cohérence interne (les coefficients alpha > ,85) et une bonne validité convergente. Des associations négligeables, mais statistiquement significatives, ressortent entre l’ICR-LS et le montant annuel dépensé aux loteries, les heures consacrées à la préparation des paris et la gravité des problèmes de jeu. En outre, le temps consacré à la préparation des paris sportifs est modérément corrélé avec le montant dépensé, la fréquence de jeu et la gravité des problèmes de jeu, ce qui incite à y voir, peut-être, un facteur de risque lié aux loteries sportives. Le temps consacré à la préparation des paris sportifs et ses effets sur les différentes sphères de vie mériteraient d’être étudiés davantage, notamment auprès de joueurs problématiques.AbstractAround the world, sports betting is the second type of gambling activity most associated with gambling problems. Thus, sports bettors’ cognitions play an essential role in this association. However, no instrument is specifically designed to assess sports bettors’ cognitions. This study aims (a) to develop the Inventaire des cognitions à risque — Loteries sportives (ICR-LS) and to determine its factor structure, (b) to assess the convergent validity of the ICR-LS with the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS), gambling habits, and the severity of gambling problems; and (c) to assess the links between the number of monthly hours spent preparing for sports lottery bets and gambling habits. Participants are sport lottery bettors (N = 272) that are mainly men (86.5%) in their twenties (M = 26.7 years old), and from a university community (88.3%). Principal component analysis results indicate that the instrument is composed of two factors (Superstitions and Abilities), and shows strong internal consistency (coefficients alpha > .85) and good convergent validity. The scale shows statistically significant but negligible associations with the annual amount spent on lotteries, hours spent on the preparation of bets, and gambling problem severity. In addition, time dedicated to bet preparation is moderately associated with the amount spent, gambling frequency, and gambling problem severity, suggesting that sports bettors bet preparation time could be a risk factor in sports betting. Studies should explore further the amount of time dedicated to bet preparation and its effects on different spheres of life, especially for problem gamblers.
... This result suggests that experienced poker gamblers may not develop different inhibition skills than controls, especially when they are faced with poker-related situations. This result questions the transferability of poker skills to real-life situations, as proposed by Parke et al. (Parke, Griffiths, & Parke, 2005). However, poker situations may elicit low emotional response in non-poker players, i.e. no need for significant inhibition skills to refrain emotional expressions in these situations. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims Strategic games, such as poker, require gamblers to develop several skills to perform better than others and to expect a potential gain. Players must remain as unpredictable and unreadable as possible by inhibiting the expression of their emotions in response to both good and bad poker events. The aim of the present study was to compare several aspects of the inhibition process in experienced poker gamblers and controls to better understand how inhibitory control is involved in poker performance. Methods Thirty experienced non-pathological poker gamblers (EG) and thirty healthy controls with no or limited poker experience (HC) completed 3 cognitive tasks. Each task measured a specific type of inhibition: motor inhibition [Go/No-Go task], verbal inhibition [Hayling Sentence Completion Task] and expressive inhibition [expressive suppression task, which combines subjective, expressive (facial EMG) and physiological (skin conductance, heart interbeat interval, cardiovascular and respiratory activation) measures of emotional experience]. Linear mixed models with random effects were performed. Results Inhibitory control skills were similar between the two groups, regardless of the form of inhibition tested. The only difference observed in EG was a higher ability to partially suppress the physiological expression of emotion. However, this difference was only present for negative and positive emotional induction and was not maintained for emotional induction related to poker situations. Discussion and conclusions The development of specific inhibition skills in experienced poker gamblers was not supported and raises questions about the transferability of poker skills previously discussed in the literature.
... In a game of poker, the result is greatly affected by the element of skill (Bouju, Grall-Bronnec, Quistrebert-Davanne, Hardouin, & Venisse, 2013;A. Parke, Griffiths, & J. Parke, 2005). The skill element and the way the betting is organized together make it possible for some players to win in the long run unlike most forms of gambling (Bjerg, 2010;Laakasuo, Palomäki, & Salmela, 2015;McCormack & Griffiths, 2011). This is one of the main motivations for the players, but to develop these skills in poker requires substant ...
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Poker is a popular game, especially among male students. It is known to be highly time-consuming and might lead to players dropping out from education. Yet little is known about why it is so time-consuming. In this article, it is argued that developing and maintaining the requisite skill in poker is a continually ongoing process and the game is highly competitive. If a player is not capable of improving at the same or a higher rate as his or her opponents, that person will be bound to lose in the long run. Twelve young poker players and three ‘‘old-timers’’ were interviewed about changes in online poker and problems with combining poker and education. A thematic analysis was used, which concluded that prioritizing between poker and education can be understood in terms of a weight balance; if a student makes enough money from poker, then quitting school seems like a rational choice. If poker income decreases, then education becomes more important. Several of the informants have found themselves having to choose between poker and education. This study argues that poker has become more competitive and less popular in the last five years, making it harder to succeed as a professional player. Several of the informants described the poker population as more homogenous and with a higher level of skill than before. This, they claim, makes the game less profitable for the best players and that might reduce a student’s inclination to drop out of education. © 2018, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. All rights reserved.
... In a game of poker, the result is greatly affected by the element of skill (Bouju, Grall-Bronnec, Quistrebert-Davanne, Hardouin, & Venisse, 2013;A. Parke, Griffiths, & J. Parke, 2005). The skill element and the way the betting is organized together make it possible for some players to win in the long run unlike most forms of gambling (Bjerg, 2010;Laakasuo, Palomäki, & Salmela, 2015;McCormack & Griffiths, 2011). This is one of the main motivations for the players, but to develop these skills in poker requires substant ...
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... En effet, contrairement au joueur pathologique, il a une forte estime de lui-même qui apparaît soit comme une conséquence des gains financiers importants du jeu, soit comme un trait de personnalité inhérent au joueur (Biolcati et al., 2015). Nous pouvons donner comme exemple le poker, qui nécessite une confiance en soi et un contrôle important pour bluffer (Parke et al., 2005). De plus, le joueur professionnel se comporte différemment face aux pertes financières dans le sens où il sera beaucoup moins dans la « chasse » des pertes, c'est-à-dire qu'il ne cherchera pas nécessairement à se refaire (Rosecrance, 1986 ;McCormack et Griffiths, 2012). ...
... . There have also been writings on professional gambling (particularly poker players) highlighting a wide variety of transferable skills that can be learned and/or enhanced including critical evaluation, numerical ability, pragmatism, interpersonal skills, problem-solving, goal orientation, face management, and self-control (Parke et al., 2005;Griffiths, 2007). ...
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