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Renewable energy for sustainable tourism

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Over the past decades, the travel industry has been growing rapidly and is today the single largest business sector in the world economy, employing in excess of 200 million people worldwide. According to most prognoses, tourism is bound to continue expanding at an appreciable rate, thus providing new business opportunites alongside a wide array of environmental and socio-economic challenges, both locally and globally. The hotel industry is an important part of the travel sector. On a world-wide basis, the energy used in hotels is still predominantly fossil fuel based, despite the fact that many of these facilities are located in areas with ample access to renewable energy resources. The hotel industry is a conglomerate of very diverse subsectors with different energy consumption profiles. Hotels are typically geared towards providing high-level comfort and entertainment, as well as a broad spectrum of services, often without much concern for associated environmental, or socio-economic impacts. Hotels typically compete on a global market by offering more comfortable and spacier accomodation, better and more food, more sophisticated services, entertainment etc., commonly leading to the overexploitation of energy and other resources. A significant amount of the energy used in this sector is waisted, leaving ample room for ambitious measures of energy-efficiency and conservation. This paper will focus on the possibilities to increase energy-efficiency and conservation in the hotel industry, and will examine the possibilities of enhancing the use of renewable energy. A cross-disciplinary approach to the analysis presented here will be taken with both system (technical), planning and management aspects being addressed. Examples of successful cases in different parts of the world will be used to illustrate the potential for combining economic and environmental success in this important sector.
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RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM
Paulina BOHDANOWICZ*, Angela CHURIE-KALLHAUGE**, Ivo MARTINAC*, David REZACHEK***
paulinka@egi.kth.se; angela@infra.kth.se; im@egi.kth.se; drezachek@hotmail.com
*Department of Energy Technology
**Department of Regional Planning
Royal Institute of Technology
100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
***Rezachek & Associates
Honolulu, HI 96813, U.S.A.
ABSTRACT: Over the past decades, the travel industry has been growing rapidly and is today the single largest
business sector in the world economy, employing in excess of 200 million people worldwide. According to most
prognoses, tourism is bound to continue expanding at an appreciable rate, thus providing new business
opportunites alongside a wide array of environmental and socio-economic challenges, both locally and globally.
The hotel industry is an important part of the travel sector. On a world-wide basis, the energy used in hotels is still
predominantly fossil fuel based, despite the fact that many of these facilities are located in areas with ample
access to renewable energy resources. The hotel industry is a conglomerate of very diverse subsectors with
different energy consumption profiles. Hotels are typically geared towards providing high-level comfort and
entertainment, as well as a broad spectrum of services, often without much concern for associated environmental,
or socio-economic impacts. Hotels typically compete on a global market by offering more comfortable and spacier
accomodation, better and more food, more sophisticated services, entertainment etc., commonly leading to the
overexploitation of energy and other resources. A significant amount of the energy used in this sector is waisted,
leaving ample room for ambitious measures of energy-efficiency and conservation.
This paper will focus on the possibilities to increase energy-efficiency and conservation in the hotel industry, and
will examine the possibilities of enhancing the use of renewable energy. A cross-disciplinary approach to the
analysis presented here will be taken with both system (technical), planning and management aspects being
addressed. Examples of successful cases in different parts of the world will be used to illustrate the potential for
combining economic and environmental success in this important sector.
1. INTRODUCTION
The travel industry is one of the most rapidly
expanding industries worldwide, with the hotel
industry constituting one of its most significant and
dynamic subsectors. A steadily growing repertoire of
variations on the accomodation theme are offered
today on a highly competitive international market
by establishments including resort-type hotels,
business hotels and conference facilities. The hotel
industry generates a wide range of business and
employment opportunities, thus accounting for
significant portions of local and/or national income in
many parts of the world. In providing the large
variety of services, levels of luxury and comfort,
attractions, entertainment and products, this
industry consumes (and wastes) enormous amounts
of energy, [1]. On a global scale, the largest portion
of this energy is still fossil fuel based. The resulting
emission of pollutants and greenhouse gases
contributes to both local and global environmental
degradation. This, in turn, jeopardizes the sustained
attractivity of the natural environments marketed,
and thus also the long-term success and survival of
the very businesses by which these impacts are
generated.
Considering that hotels are often located in
places with an abundance of (solar, wind, hydro,
biomass, geothermal and other) renewable energy
resources, in naturally attractive coastal, mountain,
riverine, or lake environments, it is suprising that
these resources remain largely unexploited. The
Hawai’ian Islands provide a showcase example of
an attractive and well-visited travel destination
blessed with abundant supplies of practically every
renewable energy resource imaginable. Despite
this, more than 95% of the energy use in the State
of Hawai’i is still fossil-fuel based. Many similar
examples can be found worldwide.
While in some parts of the world an obvious
improvement in the levels of environmental
consciuosness, education and responsibility has
occurred over the past decades, attitudes towards
the use of renewable energy are still commonly
negative. More often than not, renewable energy is
dismissed as prohibitively expensive and unreliable
compared to energy derived from non-renewable
(=finite) resources (fossil and nuclear fuels).
This attitude is probably as wide-spread as it is
narrow-minded, and is typically the result of poorly
educated, and/or short-term-profit-oriented thinking.
Renewable and non-renewable energy alternatives
are typically not compared with each other from the
perspective of their entire lifecycle impact and cost,
whereby the overall effects of a wide range of
externalities associated with the use of finite energy
resources are unfairly disregarded. With few
exceptions, insufficient or no value is attached to the
effects of energy use on the quality of the
environment, biodiversity, human health and the
overall quality of life, all of which would substantially
benefit from an enhanced use of renewable energy
resources and technologies.
Renewable Energy for Sustainable Tourism 2
Giving preference to renewable energy may
further:
reduce the dependence on imported fuels by
using domestic resources (resulting in foreign
currency savings);
provide access to specific financing schemes
(tax-rebates; emission trading benefits, e.g.
within the framework of the Clean Development
Mechanism, [2]; soft-loans etc.);
attract a more environmentally responsible
category of guests (generating an overall lower
environmental impact at the sites visited);
offer possibilities of integrating passive space-
conditioning concepts with renewable energy
systems already in the early stages of planning,
designing and constructing new facilities, thus
reducing installed power and overall energy
requirements;
generate additional employment opportunities
in the renewable energy and associated
industries.
The purpose of this paper is to show on the
example of two distinctly different cases, [3,4], that
environmental concern and healthy profits can be
combined very cleverly. Not only can hotels
decrease their energy bills by using renewable
resources and technologies, they can directly use
this for documenting environmental responsibility,
and thus enhance their status and competitiveness
on an increasingly conscious and demanding travel
market.
The two cases presented describe different
approaches taken in a resort-type facility, [3], in
Australia, and a conference-type hotel, [4], in
Sweden. The examples discussed show that very
different attempts at sustainable business practice
can prove successful, and that environmental
responsibility and solid economic returns can be
simultaneously achieved under very different
conditions (including business profile/concept,
climate, location, as well as the availability, type and
abundance of renewable energy resources).
2. SUCCESS STORIES
2.1 Case 1: Couran Cove Resort, Queensland,
Australia
The Couran Cove Resort is one of the largest
”ecotourism” resorts in Australia, [3, 5]. It is a 5-star,
567-unit facility located on South Stradbroke Island,
in southern Queensland, ca. 90 km from Brisbane.
The facility offers a typical range of amenities for a
resort-type hotel of this category, including a variety
of restaurants, heated pools, jacuzzis, a surf club,
conference facilities, as well as a variety of sports
facilities. Within its 151 hectares, the property
contains a variety of landscapes and natural
environments, including high-conservation rain-
forest, beaches and open woodlands.
The business objective of the Couran Cove
Resort is to achieve sustainable operations, while
maintaining cost-efficiency.
The average daily electricity consumption at the
facility is ca. 4200 kWh, while an additional 20
GJ/day (5560 kWh/day) of liquid petroleum gas
(LPG) are used in the kitchens and for meeting the
domestic hot water (DHW) demand. The resort’s
base energy system consists of seven LPG-
powered generators (installed capacity 150
kWe/unit), covering ca. 60 % of the resort’s primary
energy demand, [3]. This proportion will be reduced
to ca. 48 % after a wind turbine is installed which is
expected to generate an additional 225 kWe (ca.
12% of total primary energy). Currently, a 2,5 kWe
wind generator provides about 10% of the electricity
demand at the surf club. In addition, solar water
heaters and heat recovered from the LPG-plants are
used for pool heating, acounting for 7,3% and 6,7%,
respectively of the resort’s primary energy use. The
LPG-boosted active solar system is also used for
generating domestic hot water (DHW). LPG-gas
used for cooking and heating accounts for another
25,2% of the total. Heat recovered from the LPG-
plants amounts to a total of 1,5 GWh primary energy
savings per year.
The LPG-based system was chosen after
evaluation of three system alternatives, see Table 1,
[5]. The choice was made based on the requirement
that the system should be as cost-efficient as
possible, and that it should emit a minimum of
greenhouse gases (CO2). As Table 1 shows, The
LPG-fired plant generates about 10% of the CO2
that would be generated by a conventional diesel-
fired plant.
The energy system was computer-modelled to
optimize its size (installed power), as well as to
minimize overall operation and maintenance costs.
Peak energy needs have been shaved off by both
using more efficient equipment, and by scheduling
services intermittently, to minimize the duration and
amplitude of peak power demands. For example,
pumping, treatment, supply and disposal of water
and sewage are scheduled to off-peak times, [3]. By
combining renewable resources with the use of
LPG-gas, ca. 75 000 GJ (2,08107 kWh) of primary
energy are reportedly saved compared to providing
energy by a conventional natural-gas-fired system.
A number of energy-efficiency measures have
been adopted to reduce the overall energy use at
the resort. Passive solar measures, ceiling- and
wall-insulation, as well as shading are all integrated
into building design. Highly energy-efficient lighting
is used (including street lighting operated by
electronic ballasts, and movement detectors
installed in public areas such as toilets and
walkways). Energy-efficient, electronically speed-
controlled engines are used for larger motor loads
including those in the resort’s HVAC-systems, and
the water pumping system.
Each room is individually metered such as to
provide feedback to both guests and management
regarding gas-, electricity- and water usage. The
relevant information is displayed on a TV-screen. All
power in unoccupied rooms is routinely shut down.
Cuba, September 2001
Renewable Energy for Sustainable Tourism 3
Table 1: Comparison of the three energy-system alternatives considered (gn=guest night), [5]
Energy system
alternatives
Factors
A
LPG-gas/wind
option with heat
recovery
B
Grid electricity
(coal-fired plant)
C
Diesel based generation
with heat recovery
Capital cost, 106 AUD
Operating cost, 106 AUD
Maintenance cost, 106 AUD
5,28
0,18
0,2
8,69
0,6645
unknown
8,33
0,8
0,6
Noise pollution
Power station
55 dbA at 10 m
Wind generator
50 dBA at 70 m
No local noise
Power station
65 dBA at 10m
Type of emissions / pollution
CO2 and H2O
Visual ”pollution” by
wind generator
No local pollution
CO2, particles/soot, etc.
Possible diesel fuel spills
during transport, unload-
ing and storage
CO2-emissions, tonnes / yr
Fossil fuel use, tonnes / yr (fuel type)
Primary (fossil) energy use, kWh / gn
Renewable energy use, kWh / gn
517
680 (LPG)
33,06
8,61
7884
3229 (coal)
64,72
0
5 166
2317 (diesel)
62,22
0
As regards resort economy, significant savings
have been achieved by choosing the hybrid LPG-
fired/renewable energy system rather than grid-
supplied electricity, or diesel-based power
generation with heat recovery. The total capital cost
for the resort’s energy system amounted to AUD
5,28 million, which is AUD 2,61 million less then the
next-cheapest option considered in the format of a
conventional 3,9 MW natural-gas-fired plant.
Additional savings of ca. AUD 1 million in annual
operating cost have been achieved. The overall
amount of greenhouse gases emitted by the system
installed amounts to ca. 30% of the emissions that
would have been generated had the natural-gas-
fired plant been chosen, instead.
However, one should bear in mind that LPG is
also a finite resource, and that it is likely that an
even larger proportion of the energy consumed at
the Couran Cove Resort could be derived from
renewable resources (particularly solar and wind
energy), amply available at its sunny coastal
location.
2.2 Case 2: Sånga-Säby Courses & Confer-
ences, Svartsjö, Sweden
Sånga-Säby Courses & Conferences (SSCC) is
a conference facility located on Färingsö Island in
Lake Mälaren, about 35 km northwest of the City of
Stockholm. The climate at the site is well
representative of its Nordic location (ca. 59° 20´ N,
17° 45´ E), with long and cold winters, and short and
mild summers. SSCC has 134 rooms (159 beds)
and 28 conference-rooms distributed in a total of 9
buildings. The facility has profiled itself by having
combined a high level of environmental
responsibility (including energy- and resource-
efficiency) with good economic returns, [4, 6].
Throughout the facility, operations are certified
according to the ISO 9002 quality control and the
ISO 14001 environmental management systems. In
October 1999, the facility was the first conference-
type hotel in Scandinavia to become Nordic-Swan-
ecolabelled, [7]. The facility is also EMAS-registered
(according to the Eco Management and Audit
Scheme developed by the European Union, [8].
The facility has been awarded a number of
environmental prizes, most notably the International
Hotel & Restaurant Association’s 1997 Environ-
mental Award (Green Hotelier of the Year, in the
Independent Unit Category). In 2000, the facility
achieved a turnover of 37,5 MSEK (34,5 MSEK
/1999; 21,7 MSEK /1995), at a profit of 12% (2% /
1999; 0,2%/1995). SSCC’s environmental program
is focused on reducing and making more efficient
the use of energy and other resources, and on
continuously replacing products having an adverse
environmental impact with more environmentally
compatible alternatives. The principle of reducing
and replacing is applied to a broad range of
activities and operations including those using
energy resources, consumables, cleaning and other
chemicals, and transportation. Environmental
criteria are further given high priority when choosing
furnishings, inventories, and – not least –
architectural design, construction methods and
building materials, when erecting new structures
within the facility. Within the framework of its
Cuba, September 2001
Renewable Energy for Sustainable Tourism 4
environmental management program, SSCC aims
at conducting all operations as environmentally
consciously as possible (with the ambition of being
the most environmentally adapted conference
facility in Sweden); satisfying all energy
requirements with renewable resources within an
overall ecocycle that should be as closed as
possible; minimizing the use of environmentally
hazardous substances; offering high-quality food
made to the extent possible from Swedish produce
(the facility has a KRAV-certified, [7] restaurant);
designing all operations such as to achieve
continuous improvement and to create a basis for
preventive environmental programs; designing and
developing all activities such as to satisfy the four
system conditions defined by The-Natural-Step-
Concept (Det Naturliga Steget) applied. This
concept requires that substances from the Earth ’s
crust must not systematically increase in nature;
substances produced by society must not
systematically increase in nature; the physical basis
for productivity and diversity of nature must not be
systematically diminished; and that energy and
other resources must be used justly and efficiently.
As of September 1996, all operations are
conducted relying entirely on renewable energy
resources. SSCC has expressed its committment to
using renewable energy to the extent possible –
within certain limits even if this may result in higher
overall energy costs. An annual average of 65% of
the overall heating demand is satisfied by a heat
pump system operated by heat extracted by 7,5 km
of PE-tubes submerged in the coastal waters of the
adjacent Lake Mälaren. The system consists of
three Kylma Compacta 15308 units (installed
capacity 67 kW/unit), operated with propane R290
as refrigerant. Since January 1996, rapeseed oil
methyl ester (RME) has been used to meet peak
heating demands. A number of energy-efficiency
and conservation measures have been
implemented. Heating is entirely non-fossil-fuel
based. Only ”green electricity” (hydroelectric- or
windpower-based) is used. No electricity is used for
direct space-heating. Heat pumps are used to the
extent possible for heating, and a solar collector
plant is used for heating the pool-water. Low-energy
bulbs are used for ca. 50% of all lighting
requirements. External lighting is entirely need-
driven (lighting of the outdoor fitness track and
exterior lighting). Most buildings are equipped with
motion/presence detectors and timers. Ventilation is
provided by a variable air volume system equipped
with a heat recovery unit. 2- and 3-pane windows
are installed throughout the complex. The sauna-
facility is equipped with a timer, and can also be
directly controlled from the reception. It is heated by
”green electricity”. Guests are encouraged to switch
off lighting and TV-sets when leaving their rooms,
and to decrease excessive room-temperatures
during winter by adjusting radiator valves rather
than by opening windows. To reduce the amount of
laundry processed, guests have the option to keep
their towels for several days if they so wish. None of
the rooms have minibars.
Energy consumption throughout the facility is
low, compared to similar facilities worldwide, [1].
This is obvious both from the low amount of energy
consumed per guest night (76 kWh/gn), as well as
from the amount of energy consumed per unit floor
area (currently 163 kWh/m2), see also Table 2 and
[9]. This is a particularly good result with regard to
the climate zone in which the facility is situated.
The entire company-owned vehicle fleet is
fuelled by renewable fuels. To the extent possible,
guests are shuttled to and from the facility by an
RME-fueled bus. Transports within the facility rely
on vehicles powered by ”green electricity”, or
bicycles. The company car is ethanol-fueled. The
use of public transport to and from the facility is
encouraged, as is car-pooling.
The facility further has an advanced recycling
and waste-treatment system. Waste products
throughout the facility are separated into 24
fractions. Organic waste (including frying oil) and
gardening waste are composted. A fat-separator is
installed and emptied according to existing regul-
ations. All kitchen-waste is separately weighed.
Surplus equipment/inventories are delivered to
second-hand or recycling facilities. Containers for
disposal of used batteries are available at the
reception and throughout the buildings. Conference
guests have the possibility to fraction two types of
paper wastes, as well as compostable organic
wastes. The overall amount of waste is reduced by
presorting and by choosing products with more
resource-efficient packaging.
Table 2: Evaluation of the energy use for the period 1995-2000
Key Parameter
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Amount Renewable Energy Used / Overall Energy Used,
kWh / kWh
0,03 0,94 1,00
1,00
1,00 1,00
Electricity Consumption / Guest Night, kWh
84
83 95
87
76 73
Amount RME Used for Heating / Guest Night, l
2,112 2,389 2,384
0,724
0,749 0,376
Total Amount Energy Used / Turnover (excluding income
from forestry), kWh / (103 SEK) -
-
-
48
40 43
Total Amount Energy Used / Guest Night, kWh - - -
83
81 76
Total Amount Energy Used / Overall Indoor Area, kWh / m2 ---
185
173 163
Cuba, September 2001
Renewable Energy for Sustainable Tourism 5
At least 50% of all electronic office instrumentation
is equipped with stand-by-mode options, and the
same proportion of all computers, fax- and copy-
machines are ecolabelled.
Environmental management and accounting at
SSCC entails the use of a total of 64 key ratios in
evaluating a wide range of activities and operations,
including the use of energy (Table 2) and other
resources, as well as a variety of environmental
issues, [3, 5]. The requirement to use a minimum of
resources as efficiently as possible is applied to
energy and material resources, as well as to labour
time and financial resources. In a business
approach, resource management and value creation
are thus given the same level of importance. Such a
comparatively large number of parameters is
considered necessary by management for evaluat-
ing relevant environmental and financial issues with
the necessary level of detail. This data is also used
to develop the structure of operations, as well as
corporate goals and strategies. Despite substantial
investments in new structures and environmental
programs, profits have been steadily increasing
from a level of 3% in 1997 to 12% in 2000.
Turnovers reached a level of SEK 37,5 million in
2000, equivalent to SEK 0,75 million per employee
(based on an annual average of the number of
employees).
The latest addition to the complex is the
Mälarblick building consisting of 16 guest-rooms,
Fig. 1 and [10]. The intention was to provide first-
class accomodation with as little negative
environmental impact as possible. The building was
designed to fit into the surrounding environment
under the requirement that as little vegetation and
rock material as possible be removed during its
erection.
The roof was designed to accomodate an active
solar thermal (and eventually even a PV) collector
system. The portion of the roof not occupied by
solar equipment is covered with sedum (green roof)
which has good heat insulating properties. The
active solar system currently consists of 37 m2 of
Solsan Sunergy evacuated-tubes, arranged in 8
units of varying size. The system is used for DHW-
generation. There is enough roof-space available to
expand the system (if necessary) to almost three
times the current collector area. It is also intended
that all solar collector systems will be upgraded as
more efficient equipment becomes available.
Heating is provided by a water-based floor
heating system. The water circulated is heated by a
(geothermal) heat pump system extracting heat
from a number of bore-holes drilled into the rock
below the building. The system consists of two IVT
Greenline S16F/H heat pumps (installed capacity
15,5 kW/unit), with R407c as refrigerant.
Sånga-Såby Courses and Conferences is an
excellent example of a conference facility where the
objective to minimize environmental impact has
been successfully integrated with high-quality acco-
modation, energy-efficiency, appealing architecture
and sound economic returns. Obviously, environ-
mental management and responsibility do make
good business sense.
Figure 1. Mälarblick building, SSCC, Svartsjö,
Sweden (Foto: P. Bohdanowicz, 2001)
3. CONCLUSION
As shown above, very different approaches can
be taken in attempting to combine healthy economic
returns with environmentally responsible concepts
and activities in the hotel industry. It is obvious from
the examples described that these two goals are in
no way mutually exclusive, as is frequently and
wrongly assumed. Wholesomely sustainable
businesses are by definition environmentally
compatible and economically successful. In the
case of hotels, the level of success that can be
achieved largely depends on the degree of
wholesomeness applied in planning, designing,
constructing, operating and - eventually - removing
a facility.
While the well-known signals of climate change
and accelerating environmental degradation
undoubtedly call for immediate measures and
ambitiously set goals, it is encouraging to know that
there are many roads to environmentally
responsible practice. There exists a great variety of
sensible business alternatives within the interval
demarked at its least responsible end by entirely
environmentally (and ultimately economically)
unsustainable practice, and at its ideal and most
ambitious antipode by wholesomely sustainable
activities and products. The paths chosen will vary
depending on many parameters, including local
climatic conditions, local availability and type of
renewable resources, existing laws and regulations,
services/activities offered by the facility and
customer profiles catered to, availability of
investment capital and economic incentives, and -
not least - the level of economic returns and
environmental compatibility aimed to be achieved.
Replacing and/or complementing to the extent
possible non-renewable energy resources and
technologies with renewable alternatives, is
undoubtedly a significant step on any of those
roads.
Cuba, September 2001
Renewable Energy for Sustainable Tourism 6
REFERENCES
[1] P. Bohdanowicz, A. Churie-Kallhauge, I.
Martinac, D. Rezachek, Energy–Efficiency and
Conservation in Hotels–Towards Sustainable
Tourism, Proceedings of the 4th International
Conference on Asia-Pacific Architecture,
University of Hawai’i at Manoa, Honolulu,
Hawai’i, USA, 4-7 April, 2001
[2] J. Radoff, MSc-Degree thesis in progress
(dealing with possibilities of applying the Clean
Development Mechanism as a tool for
promoting energy-efficiency, conservation, and
use of renewable energy in the Caribbean
hotel industry), Department of Energy
Technology, Royal Institute of Technology,
Stockholm, Sweden, 2001
[3] J. Miosge, Sustainable Solutions for Ecotour-
ism Resort, CADDET Energy Efficiency,
Special Issue on Australia, pp 20-21, 1999;
www.caddet-ee.org/nl_html/99S_08.htm, as last
accessed 2001-07-30
[4] Sånga-Säby Kurs & Konferens: Miljöredo-
visning 1998, 1999 & 2000 (Environmental
Reports for the years 1998, 1999 & 2000, in
Swedish), SSCC, 179 96 Svartsjö, Sweden
[5] www.couran-cove.com
As last accessed 2001-04-05
[6] www.sanga-saby.se
As last accessed 2001-07-10
[7] www. miljomarkarna.org/miljomarken/tabell.asp
as accessed 2001-07-10 (Site including
information on a variety of relevant ecolabel-
ling schemes)
[8] www.nutek.se/foretag/miljostyrning/emasochiso.html
As accessed 2001-07-10 (Site containing
information relevant to EMAS and ISO
environmental standardization)
[9] I. Martinac, H. Murman, A. Lind af Hageby,
Energy-Efficiency and Environmental Manage-
ment in a Swedish Conference Facility – Case
Study: Sånga-Säby Courses & Conferences,
Proceedings of the 18th Conference on
Passive and Low Energy Architecture, Floria-
nópolis, Brazil, 7-9 November, 2001
[10] Sånga-Säby Kurs & Konferens, Historien om
Mälarblick (The Mälarblick Story, in Swedish),
SSCC, 179 96 Svartsjö, Sweden, 2000
Cuba, September 2001
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This report is an expanded version of the Tourism chapter of the Green Economy Report which makes an economic case for investing in the greening of tourism and provides guidance on how to mobilize such investments. The objective is to motivate policy makers to support increased investment in greening the sector.
... The project, which was completed in May 2005, displaces grid electricity generated from highly polluting fossil fuels and in so doing reduces greenhouse gas emissions by an approximately 51,855 t CO 2 -e (t of carbon dioxide equivalent) annually for the first 7-year crediting period. The windmill itself has become a tourism attraction and draws tourism supporting industry to the area (Castro 2006). ...
... Minor damage such as surface erosion can considerably reduce aerodynamic efficiency and thus power generation; but subsurface structural damage could lead to an unpredictable blade failure during service. From an economic viewpoint, regular maintenance and repair of ageing wind blades are essential to prevent serious blade failures as well as lower the cost of wind energy in order compete with the cost of energy generated from fossil fuels [50]. However, structural maintenance and repair of large wind blades poses several challenges: accessibility for inspection and repair (e.g., in situ inspection), damage identification and assessment (e.g., non-destructive testing), repair conditions (e.g., weather and wind speeds), repair materials and procedures (e.g., patch fabrication and curing), and prior knowledge of the blade's structural and material details (i.e., the OEM's design and material data). ...
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Renewable energy sources such as wind energy—together with energy efficient technologies—are essential to meet global energy demands and address climate change. Fibre-reinforced polymer composites, with their superior structural properties (e.g., high stiffness-to-weight) that allow lightweight and robust designs, play a significant part in the design and manufacture of modern wind turbines, especially turbine blades, for demanding service conditions. However, with the current global growth in on-shore/off-shore wind farm installations (with total global capacity of ∼282 GW by the end of 2012) and trend in wind turbine design (∼7-8 MW turbine capacity with ∼70–80 m blade length for offshore installations), one of the challenges that the wind energy industry faces with composite turbine blades is the aspect of structural maintenance and repair. Although wind turbines are typically designed for a service life of about 20 years, robust structural maintenance and repair procedures are essential to ensure the structural integrity of wind turbines and prevent catastrophic failures. Wind blades are damaged due to demanding mechanical loads (e.g., static and fatigue), environmental conditions (e.g., temperature and humidity) and also manufacturing defects. If material damage is not extensive, structural repair is the only viable option to restore strength since replacing the entire blade is not cost-effective, especially for larger blades. Composite repairs (e.g., external and scarf patches) can be used to restore damaged laminate/sandwich regions in wind blades. With composite materials in the spar (∼30-80 mm thick glass/carbon fibre laminates) and aerodynamic shells (sandwich sections with thin glass fibre skins and thick foam/wood as core), it is important to have reliable and cost-effective structural repair procedures to restore damaged wind blades. However, compared to aerospace bonded repairs, structural repair procedures in wind blades are not as well developed and thus face several challenges. In this regard, the area of composite repair in wind blades is broadly reviewed to provide an overview as well as identify associated challenges.
... Substantial amount of research activity has been accumulated in the last decade at: i) the European, International, and National levels regarding the transfer of good practices on RES and RUE in local level, ii) the establishment of awareness campaigns and iii) the mobilization of citizens and local actors on increasing efficiency of energy use and on development RES in order to support their energy needs [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14]. Whilst the output of the above projects, shows that there is a great potential and willingness in implementing RES and RUE technologies on the local level, deriving from the actual needs of local authorities for sustainable development, and despite the fact that many of the above mentioned project have set mechanisms for awareness and dissemination of information on the local and regional level, which in several cases have led to the successful implementation of RES and RUE, they do little to provide an integrated approach supporting the development and implementation of Sustainable Energy Communities (SEC), i.e. an approach that will provide all necessary information and support in order to: i) increase awareness on RES and RUE potential impacts on the Community, ii) identify the appropriate RES and RUE technologies based on Community's characteristics and requirements, iii) identify alternative ways to support the investment required in order to implement RES and RUE technologies, iv) establish a mechanism for promoting RES and RUE technologies in the local market, and v) develop an integrated Sustainable Energy Plan (SEP) setting the strategy for the successful implementation of the RES and RUE technologies in the Community. ...
Conference Paper
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The development and application of an integrated methodological approach supporting the development of Sustainable Energy Communities in islands is a priority in order to support the increase of renewables' share in the energy mix and therefore, to support the implementation of several European initiatives and legislations on energy, environment and sustainable development. The objective of this research work is to address issues related to the cost-effective and sustainable integration of Renewable Energy Technologies through the development of such a methodological approach for insular areas. The approach developed will be applied and validated in four European islands, i.e. Cyprus, Crete, Cabras and Sicily within the framework of the RE-RINA project.
Chapter
Production of effective, efficient power keeping in mind its economical aspect for the population is a big challenge today. For any country to progress, economic power generation to fulfill the demands of the consumers is necessary. Different renewable energy resources like solar, hydro, wind, etc., may be exploited to facilitate the adequate amount of power generation for the masses. Wind energy power generation may have an upper hand among these renewable energy sources. Wind power generation may be classified as an effective and economical means of power generation for the population. For producing effective and efficient energy, wind power plant needs to be economically viable. In this paper, an attempt has been made to determine annualized cost of generation (Cg) from wind energy. This has been computed by selecting the location (Muppandal) kanyakumari in India. Further the effect of life span has been seen on the annualized factor as well as the cost of wind power generation.
Article
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The increasing importance of renewable energy in the service sector-and specifically in the tourism industry-has developed into a new research topic. Renewable energy, of course, plays a significant role in tourism, in many respects, and especially in relation to such matters as energy efficiency, sustainability and cost reduction. To date, however, no systematically collated review of the literature dealing with the topic has appeared, and so this study attempts to fill this gap in the literature by means of a content analysis of the research publications focusing on the use of renewable energy in the tourism industry. Through a comprehensive review of the literature, our study identifies what is known about renewable energy in the service sector in general and in the tourism industry in particular, although it is clear from this that research into renewable energy in tourism is still at an early stage. The aim of our study, therefore, is a better insight into the role of renewable energy in tourism, mainly by examining accommodation and focusing on destinations. We hope that the system-based approach of our study will open more doors to renewable energy. This, in turn, should support the basic principle of sustainability.
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Polycrystalline CuInSe2 (CIS) thin films have been prepared by low-cost electrochemical method from non-aqueous ethylene glycol solvent onto cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films. The co-deposition potential for Cu, In and Se was optimized with cyclic voltammetry measurements. CIS layers were electrodeposited at -1.1, -1.3 and -1.5 V versus Ag/AgCl references in an air-tight custom made electrodeposition cell. The films were selenized at 400 °C for 20 minutes. The optical, structural, morphological, compositional and optoelectronic properties of as-prepared and selenized samples were studied using UV-Vis spectrophotometery, X-ray diffractometery, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. Three prominent sharp peaks of tetragonal CIS, (112), (204)/(220), and (312/116) were revealed in all as-prepared and selenized samples. Upon selenization the crystallinity of the samples was found to be improved remarkably. Compact, void free, and nearly uniform thin films of grain size ∼1 μm were deposited. The as-deposited and selenized CIS samples were Cu-rich whereas the content of Se was ∼50% obtained by EDAX analysis. The value of inter-planer distance, d = 3.339 Å, measured by HRTEM corresponds to the (112) plane of a tetragonal CIS crystal structure. The circular spotted rings observed in the selected area diffraction (SAD) pattern were confirmed as (112), (204)/(220) and (312)/(116) reflections of CIS. The solar cell parameters, Voc, Jsc, FF and efficiency (η) were found to be 303 mV, 28 mA cm-2, FF ∼ 53% and η = 4.5% for the CIS film deposited at -1.5 V. The values of shunt conductance, GD = 2.5 mS cm-2 and GL = 7.9 mS cm-2 and series resistance, RD = 0.81 Ω cm2 and RL = 0.19 Ω cm2 were calculated for dark and illuminated conditions. Mott-Schottky analysis was also carried out on the final solar cell in dark and illuminated conditions to study the carrier concentration and defects in the CdS/CIS interface. This journal is
Article
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Over the past decades, the hospitality industry has grown to become the single largest business sector world-wide, currently employing in excess of 200 million people. In some parts of the world, tourism is, indeed, the most important source of income. According to most prognoses, the numbers of people traveling for business or pleasure will continue to increase, in some regions very rapidly. While providing a significant boost to many local and national economies, tourism, particularly mass-tourism, has been shown to pose a significant environmental and socio-cultural threat to many of the environments in which it is developed and pursued. Among other resources, the hospitality industry uses substantial amounts of energy for providing comfort and services to its guests, typically with an alarmingly low level of energy-efficiency. The effects on the environment include emissions to and pollution off water resources, soil, and the air, noise, as well as the excessive use of locally available and/or imported natural and other resources. This paper focuses primarily on the use of energy in hotels. It aims at providing an overview of the current situation worldwide, and at discussing more environmentally compatible and sustainable alternatives. The need for an increased use of renewable energy resources/technologies, as well as passive cooling/heating, and lighting/shading strategies in meeting the complex energy requirements in hotel buildings and other facilities is emphasized. It is further pointed out that the development and operation of sustainable hotels requires the close and continuous cooperation of specialists from a broad spectrum of disciplines, including architects, spatial planners, building and services engineers, mechanical (systems) engineers, as well as environmental and marketing specialists, preferably already during the stages of planning and design. Properly planned, designed and operated hotel facilities offer convincing environmental and socio-cultural advantages, as well as attractive opportunities for sustainable business.
The Mälarblick Story
  • Sånga-Säby
  • Kurs
  • Konferens
  • Historien
Sånga-Säby Kurs & Konferens, Historien om Mälarblick (The Mälarblick Story, in Swedish), SSCC, 179 96 Svartsjö, Sweden, 2000 Architecture, of Energy Cuba, September 2001
Energy-Efficiency and Environmental Manage-ment in a Swedish Conference Facility – Case Study: Sånga-Säby Courses & Conferences
  • I Martinac
  • H Murman
  • A Lind
I. Martinac, H. Murman, A. Lind af Hageby, Energy-Efficiency and Environmental Manage-ment in a Swedish Conference Facility – Case Study: Sånga-Säby Courses & Conferences, Proceedings of the 18th Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture, Floria-nópolis, Brazil, 7-9 November, 2001
Sustainable Solutions for Ecotourism Resort, CADDET Energy Efficiency, Special Issue on Australia
  • J Miosge
J. Miosge, Sustainable Solutions for Ecotourism Resort, CADDET Energy Efficiency, Special Issue on Australia, pp 20-21, 1999; www.caddet-ee.org/nl_html/99S_08.htm, as last accessed 2001-07-30
MSc-Degree thesis in progress (dealing with possibilities of applying the Clean Development Mechanism as a tool for promoting energy-efficiency, conservation, and use of renewable energy in the Caribbean hotel industry
  • J Radoff
J. Radoff, MSc-Degree thesis in progress (dealing with possibilities of applying the Clean Development Mechanism as a tool for promoting energy-efficiency, conservation, and use of renewable energy in the Caribbean hotel industry), Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, 2001