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INSPEL 32(1998)1, pp. 23-39
USE OF MICRO CDS/ISIS IN PAKISTAN
By Khalid Mahmood
Abstract: Micro CDS/ISIS, free software developed by UNESCO, is widely being used
through out the world for handling and control of bibliographic records. In Pakistan, this is
the only software which is mostly being used in libraries and information centres. This
paper reports a survey on the status of the use of CDS/ISIS in Pakistan. Use of the software
was started in Pakistan in 1988. Cataloguing of books and indexing of periodicals are the
major areas of use. Users’ opinions about various features of the software are given.
Problems faced by the users in using CDS/ISIS are also discussed.
Micro version of the UNESCO-developed software package CDS/ISIS was
released in 1985. Since that time it has been widely used through out the world.
The number of licensed users increased from 3,000 in 1988 to 15,000 at the end of
1994 (1, p.10). The software is available, for non-profit organizations, free of cost
direct from UNESCO, Paris or 100+ regional and national distributors.
Mentioning the aims of the package Hopkinson (2) says
UNESCO’s intention in developing CDS/ISIS was to benefit developing countries in
which library and information services had no easy and affordable access to software.
Additionally, consonant with the aims of PGI, the division of UNESCO at which the
package is now maintained, it promotes the exchange of information between different
sectors in countries that may be at varying levels of development. From the
introduction of the microcomputer version, it has been seen as a tool to use alongside
exchange formats (p.76).
CDS/ISIS is a package that has been developed for bibliographic information; that
is, information about documents such as books, journal articles, or conference
proceedings. However, it has not been developed for library housekeeping
applications (2, p.77). Major differentiating features, for which CDS/ISIS has
become popular in libraries and information centres all over the world, include the
use of variable length fields, sub-fields and repeatable fields. It is free of cost.
CDS/ISIS uses advanced indexing techniques to enable faster searching of the
database. Multilingual nature of the package is another important feature. Text on
menus and worksheets can be changed by the user (3).
In Pakistan, the use of CDS/ISIS has been evidenced since 1988. UNESCO has
appointed Pakistan Scientific & Technological Information Centre (PASTIC),
Islamabad as national distributor of CDS/ISIS software. According to Carino (4)
there were 10 users of the software in Pakistan in 1992. Kips (1, p.11) mentions
that this number was increased up to 51 in 1992.
CDS/ISIS in Library Literature in Pakistan
CDS/ISIS has been much described and discussed in library literature through out
the world. Until April 1996 there were 139 books and monographs and 142
journal articles published in various languages (3). Information on the package
began to appear in Pakistani library literature since 1990. Here we will review the
literature on CDS/ISIS published in Pakistan in a chronological order.
Bushra (5) claimed that the use of CDS/ISIS software was introduced for the first
time in the libraries of Lahore by LABELNET project. This project was jointly
sponsored by International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada and
Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS) and it aimed at the resource
sharing in the libraries in business and economics sector in Lahore. Using
CDS/ISIS two databases were maintained. SENET was the database designed for
union list of serials. The database contained 605 records. The second database,
UNIC, was developed for union catalogue. Until 1990 this database had 1,800
records. Describing the library activities of Dr. A.Q. Khan Research Laboratories,
Bhatti and Sultan (6) related that they got CDS/ISIS package and training from
PASTIC and started library automation. „It is a matter of great satisfaction that
the system has shown commendable results and the library users have widely
appreciated it“ (p.105). Siddiqui (7) mentioned that Pakistan Institute of
Development Economics (PIDE) at Islamabad became ISIS Resource Centre in
1979 with the technical and financial assistance from the International
Development Research Centre of Canada. Under this project PIDE Library created
a computerized database containing 700 records. In 1992, Sultan and Bhatti (8)
described the details of CDS/ISIS use in Dr. A.Q. Khan Research Laboratories
Library. They started to use CDS/ISIS on local area network. Since January 1990
the library had entered about 50% of its total documents. Functions of CDS/ISIS
and its salient features were also described in the article. In a survey of 95
automated libraries of the twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, Maqsood (9)
mentioned that 10 libraries were using CDS/ISIS in 1991-1992 and it was the
only software that was mostly used. According to Hanif (10) „Library Automation
Group (LAG)“ was formed in 1992 consisting of librarians and computer
specialists of Federal Area. LAG constituted a committee to make a comparative
study of two available micro software packages: Micro CDS/ISIS and INMAGIC.
Then the study was published in an issue of LAG News. Software specifications,
indexing features, deferred indexing option for maintenance, input/output
features, data validation, search features, output/display, and many other features
of the both packages were compared. At the end CDS/ISIS was recommended by
the committee for the use in Pakistani libraries. In an article published in Pakistan
Library Bulletin Naqvi (11) described CDS/ISIS software in detail. He introduced
various features and modules of the package with a number of examples. In
another article in Pakistan Library Bulletin Khalid (12) described new features of
CDS/ISIS that were introduced in version 3.0. This version was made specially for
multi-user environments. New and easy installation procedure was adopted. Many
new features in formatting language and indexing techniques were also added to
the software. In 1995 Khalid (13) described the various important characteristics
of CDS/ISIS that were particularly fulfill the requirements of Pakistani libraries.
29 advantages of the use of CDS/ISIS were discussed. Naqvi (14) narrated the
library automation activities of PIDE. Computerization was started in 1988 with
CDS/ISIS version 1.0. Three databases have been developed. LIBRI database,
having 14,632 records, includes publications on South Asia. PILS contains 3,100
records of World Bank publications. HOLD database contains 458 records of
periodicals holding of the library. In a survey of 40 automated libraries of Lahore,
Haroon (15) mentioned that 23 libraries use CDS/ISIS for different purposes. This
is the mostly used software in the city.
From the literature survey it is apparent that all the studies are either theoretical
descriptions of the software or narratives of individual libraries. As CDS/ISIS is
the mostly used package in Pakistani libraries and information centres, the
opinion of its users should have been studied which the previous literature lacked.
There is also a dire need to find out the problems that are faced by the users of
Purpose and Scope of the Study
The purpose of this study is to find out:
-Current status of the use of Micro CDS/ISIS in Pakistan;
-Which functions have been automated with the help of CDS/ISIS;
-Opinion of CDS/ISIS users about various features of the software;
-Problems in the use of the software; and
-Suggestions of users about the support of the software.
Scope of the study covers all libraries, information centres, training centres and
library and information related organizations that are using CDS/ISIS package for
any purpose. It has been tried to cover institutions from all over the country.
Survey method was adopted for this study. A comprehensive questionnaire was
designed. Information about CDS/ISIS use in various institutions were obtained
from different bibliographic and personal sources. The questionnaire was sent to
60 organizations out of which, during the time span of a whole year, 40
responded. The response rate is 66.66%. Most of the institutions at Lahore and
Islamabad were personally visited by the author and working professionals were
interviewed. Data from Quetta and Peshawar was collected with the help of Mr.
Muhammad Ilyas and Syed Liaqat Ali respectively. These are the teachers at LIS
departments in both of the cities. There was no response from Karachi.
Analysis of the Survey Findings
CDS/ISIS use in various provinces: Pakistan is administratively divided into four
provinces Punjab, Sind, Balochistan and N.W.F.P. and Federal & Tribal Area
(administered federally). The independent part of Jammu & Kashmir is also
attached with the country and there is no restrictions in the movement between the
two units. Out of 40 institutions studied 23 (57.5%) are situated in Punjab
Province. Second area where CDS/ISIS is mostly used is Federal Capital
Islamabad where 9 institutions (22.5%) use the package. For other areas see Table 1.
Table 1. Area wise distribution of CDS/ISIS users
Rank Area Frequency %
1Punjab 23 57.5
2Federal Capital 922.5
5Azad Jammu & Kashmir 12.5
Total 40 100.0
CDS/ISIS users: Survey findings show that CDS/ISIS is mostly being used in
academic and special libraries. The ratio of academic libraries is 45% while
special libraries (42.5%) are at the second position in the rank order. Other users
include information centres (7.5%), one public library and one training centre.
See Table 2.
Table 2. Types of CDS/ISIS users
Rank Type Frequency %
1Academic libraries 18 45.0
2Special libraries 17 42.5
3Information Centres 37.5
4Public libraries 12.5
5Training Centres 12.5
Total 40 100.0
Graph 1. CDS/ISIS Users
Versions of CDS/ISIS: It has been found that three different versions of the
software are in use. Information about version is provided by 31 (77.5%) users.
The latest version 3.07 is mostly used in 15 (48.3%) institutions. The second
mostly used version is 3.0 which is used by 14 (45.2%) users. Version 2.3 is also
being used by 2 (6.5%) institutions. See Table 3.
Table 3. CDS/ISIS versions
Rank Version Frequency %
13.07 15 48.3
23.0 14 45.2
Total 31 100.0
Software providers: All users provided information about the institutions from
where they got CDS/ISIS software. Most of the users (50%) procured the package
from PLA Computer Training Centres at different cities. PASTIC, the distributor
appointed by UNESCO provided the software to only 8 (20%) institutions.
Netherlands Library Development Project (NLDP) supplied CDS/ISIS with their
integrated library software LAMP to 6 (15%) institutions. Other software
providers include UNESCO (Paris), LABELNET and Pakistan University Grants
Commission (UGC). For more details see Table 4.
Table 4. Software providers
Rank Name of Institution Frequency %
1PLACTC 20 50.0
Total 40 100.0
Chronology of CDS/ISIS use: Only 29 (72.5%) users supplied the information
about the year when they started the use of CDS/ISIS. In 1988, an institution used
the package for the first time. Graph 2 shows that there is an increase in the use
after 1991. Education of CDS/ISIS by Pakistan Library Association in various
cities of the country appears to be one of the major reasons for this increase. The
other reasons include the activities of LABELNET project in Lahore and the
development of integrated library software LAMP which was developed by NLDP
using CDS/ISIS Pascal programming language. The overall trend of library
automation in the country also another reason for the increased use of a free
software, i.e., CDS/ISIS.
Table 5. Chronological distribution of CDS/ISIS use
Year Frequency %
1988 1 3.4
1989 0 0.0
1990 1 3.4
1991 1 3.4
1992 2 6.9
1993 7 24.1
1994 7 24.1
1995 9 31.0
1996 1 3.4
Total 29 100.0
Graph 2. Chronology of CDS/ISIS use
NUMBER OF USERS
1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995
Services automated using CDS/ISIS: The package has been basically developed
for the control of bibliographic records. Cataloguing service is thus easily be
automated with the help of CDS/ISIS. 80% of users use CDS/ISIS to provide
cataloguing services in their libraries. The second largest use of CDS/ISIS is in
the field of journal articles indexing. This is another form of bibliographic work
which is being done in 12 (30%) institutions. Directory of library members is the
third most area of CDS/ISIS use which is in 9 (22.5%) institutions. Other
examples of CDS/ISIS use include acquisition, circulation, serials control,
abstracting, selective dissemination of information (SDI), stock verification,
mailing lists, list of courses offered by the institution, and teaching librarians and
library and information science students.
Table 6. Services automated using CDS/ISIS (N=40)
Service Frequency %
Cataloguing 32 80.0
Membership directory 922.5
Serials control 717.5
Indexing 12 30.0
Graph 3. Services Automated Using CDS/ISIS
NUMBER OF USERS
DIRECTORY CIRCULATION SERIALS
CONTROL INDEXING ABSTRACTING SDI OTHER
Databases in CDS/ISIS: 34 users supplied information about 51 different
databases they have designed using CDS/ISIS. 5 institutions have designed 4
databases each. Databases are of various sizes and are meant for various purposes.
The maximum number of databases, i.e., 17 (33.3%) have records between 1,000
to 5,000. Three databases have more than 10,000 records each. Total number of
records which have so far been entered in 51 databases is 175,217.
Table 7. Size of databases in CDS/ISIS
Maximum MFN Frequency %
101-500 12 23.5
1001-5000 17 33.3
Total 51 100.0
Training in CDS/ISIS: 35 users supplied information about the formal training of
their staff in using CDS/ISIS. 18 (51.4%) institutions have only one trained staff
member each. 9 (25.7%) institutions have 2 each trained personnel. The
maximum number of trained staff is 7 which is in one institute. The total number
of trained professionals in 35 institutions is 73. From the introduction of
CDS/ISIS in Pakistan PLA has been offering training courses on the software.
Since 1992 five PLA Computer Training Centres in federal capital Islamabad and
provincial headquarters, i.e., Lahore, Karachi, Peshawar and Quetta have been
regularly training working professionals in the use of CDS/ISIS. According to the
survey findings staff from 26 (74.3%) institutions got training from PLA
Computer Training Centres. Other training courses were held by PLA (prior to
PLACTC), PASTIC, LUMS, PIDE and Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and
Technology (PINSTECH). See Table 8. Some users attended course on CDS/ISIS
held in other countries like Thailand, Holland and Sri Lanka.
Table 8. Staff training (N=35)
Rank Institution Frequency %
1PLACTC 26 74.3
2PLA (prior to PLACTC) 411.4
Use of CDS/ISIS by library users: A question was asked from the users whether
the common library patrons can use CDS/ISIS without the help of library staff or
not. Out of 40 respondents only 7 (17.5%) claimed that their users can use the
software at their own.
CDS/ISIS on local area network: 13 (32.5%) institutions claimed that they use
CDS/ISIS on local area network (LAN). Number of terminals ranges from 3 to 25
in different institutions. Discussing the problems regarding the use of CDS/ISIS
in a multi user environment one library mentioned that ‘Record locking’ and
‘Database locking’ are the problem areas.
Consultants in CDS/ISIS: Library automation in Pakistan is in the stage of
infancy. There is a dire need of consultants in using software. There is no formal
consultant for CDS/ISIS. However some persons or organizations provide for free
help in the use of CDS/ISIS. A question was asked whether the users consult
outsiders for help in implementation or trouble shooting in CDS/ISIS. In the
survey 19 users mentioned the outside helpers. A rank wise list of seven informal
consultants have been given in Table 9.
Table 9. Consultants in CDS/ISIS
Rank Name Affiliation Frequency
1Khalid Mahmood Dept. of Library & Information Science,
Punjab University, Lahore 12
2Sultan Mahmood Dr. A.Q. Khan Research Laboratories,
3Zafar Javed Naqvi PIDE, Islamabad 2
4Bushra Riaz LUMS, Lahore 1
5Haseeb Ahmad Piracha Dept. of Geology, Punjab University, Lahore 1
6Sohail Ahmad British Council Library, Lahore 1
7Nisar Ahmad PASTIC, Islamabad 1
General / support features of CDS/ISIS: In opinion about features of CDS/ISIS
the response is not 100%. Out of 32 users 13 (40.6%) are of the opinion that
CDS/ISIS is satisfactorily user friendly. 11 (34.4%) users think that user
friendliness feature is good. CDS/ISIS is a multi-lingual package. The standard
software is available in English, French and Spanish. Versions in other languages
include Latin, German, Italian, Arabic, Hungarian, Korean, Thai, Tibetan, Hindi
and Chinese. According to 50% users the language coverage feature of the
software is good. During last 10 years UNESCO has issued various versions of
CDS/ISIS. According to 33.3% users the rapid updation in versions is good. The
same number of users think it satisfactory. Various manuals and handbooks are
available to help the use of CDS/ISIS. 35.7% users think the publication support
of the software is good. 55.2% users are of the opinion that the training facilities
in CDS/ISIS are good. 36.7% users think that consultation facility is satisfactory.
For more details see Table 10.
Table 10. General / Support features of CDS/ISIS
Feature Responses Very
Poor Poor Satisfactory Good Very
User Friendliness 32 1
Language Coverage 28 1
Rapid Updation of
Versions 27 0
Publication Support 28 2
Training Facilities 29 1
Consultation Facilities 30 3
Technical features of CDS/ISIS: Field definition capacity in CDS/ISIS is vary
high. 200 fields can be defined in a database. According to survey findings 62.1%
users believe that this feature is good. Data entry screens in CDS/ISIS have
various options and these are modifiable. 50% users think this feature good. Data
entry module in the package have various facilities. For instance, default data
entry and cut and paste facilities are provided. According to 43.8% users data
entry facilities are good. CDS/ISIS has powerful indexing techniques which are
really needed in a bibliographic database. According to 43.8% users this facility is
good while 40.6% users have the opinion that this is very good. 50% users think
that the searching speed of CDS/ISIS is good. Nearly same number of users have
the similar opinion about the searching facilities. CDS/ISIS has its own display /
print formatting language which facilitates the users to design different formats as
needed. This language is a little bit difficult to use. 40% users thus think that this
language is satisfactory. Printing features in the software are satisfactory
according to 51.6% users. Data exchange facility is excellent. Data can easily be
exchanged among databases even having different field structures. 46.2% users
think this facility good. CDS/ISIS has its own backup facility. According to 39.3%
users this facility is good. The same number of users have the idea that this
facility is satisfactory. The menus of the software are also modifiable. This facility
is good to 51.6% users. Since version 3.0 CDS/ISIS is working in a multi-user
environment. Its networking support is good according to only 26.3% users. The
same number of users have the opinion that this facility is satisfactory and the
same number say that this is poor. Beyond the limitations of CDS/ISIS advanced
programming is possible through ISIS PASCAL language.
Table 11. Technical features of CDS/ISIS
Feature Responses Very
Poor Poor Satisfactory Good Very
Capacity 29 0
Data Entry Screens 32 1
Data Entry Facilities 32 0
Indexing Features 32 0
Searching Facilities 32 0
Searching Speed 32 0
Display / Print
Formats 30 2
Printing Features 31 2
Facility 26 0
Backup Facility 28 0
Menus 31 0
Networking Support 19 1
36.8% users think that this facility is satisfactory. For details see Table 11. Graph
4 shows the overall opinion of CDS/ISIS users about all features of the package.
In the opinion of 41% users CDS/ISIS is good. The second largest opinion (32%)
shows that it is satisfactory.
Graph 4. Users’ Opinion about Features of CDS/ISIS
VERY POOR POOR
CDS/ISIS and library / information work: A question was asked from the users
whether CDS/ISIS is able to handle all library / information work routines
effectively. Total 34 (85%) users answered this question. Only 12 (35.3%) users
answered the question in ‘yes’ while 22 (64.7%) users did not agree with the
statement. The users mostly stated the following reasons for the failure of
CDS/ISIS in libraries.
-Difficult in acquisition, circulation, SDI and serials control
-Not user friendly
-Difficulties in data entry and printing
-Complex searching is difficult and not user friendly
-No dynamic allocation of memory
-Indexing files are too many and too large to support a big database
Problems in using CDS/ISIS: Averagely 75% users mentioned the problems they
faced in using CDS/ISIS software. Sometimes there are errors in installation of
the package. 48.3% users face this problem rarely. Sometimes during working the
system hangs. 53.3% users are suffering from this problem rarely. Abnormal
termination of the package is rarely faced by 51.7% users. Data corruption is
another problem which is frequently faced by 12.9% users and rarely by 29%. Due
to unknown reasons inverted file occasionally removed. This problem is rarely
faced by 41.4% users. There are errors in inverted file generation. 48.3% users
face this problem rarely. 41.4% users mentioned the problems in search results.
33.3% users feel problems in printing and sorting and 29.6% users face problems
in backup of data. 38.5% users have problems in importing and exporting records.
Other problems indicated by the users include lack of duplication check, lack of
online help, lack of data validation check, and problems in PASCAL training for
ISIS users. See Table 12.
CDS/ISIS user groups: In other countries there are user groups of CDS/ISIS. For
example, in Italy there was a user group meeting with 1,000 participants. Niger
has a user group with 70 members. Thailand has an active user group with 200
institutions and about200 individual members. The Dutch speaking user group
Table 12. Problems in CDS/ISIS
Problem Responses Frequently Rarely Never
Installation errors 29 5
System hangs 30 2
Abnormal termination 29 0
Data corrupted 31 4
Inverted file removed 29 1
Errors in inverted file generation 29 1
Incorrect search results 29 0
Errors in printing / sorting 27 1
Backup errors 27 0
Errors in import / export 26 1
has about 100 members (3). As in Pakistan there are so many users of CDS/ISIS
and they have common problems, user groups at city, provincial and country level
have strongly been recommended. For detail see Table 13.
Table 13. CDS/ISIS user group recommended
Rank Level Frequency %
1City 26 65.0
2Province 22 55.0
3Country 21 52.5
Newsletter on CDS/ISIS: As we know, at international level there are so many
journals and newsletters which inform the users of CDS/ISIS with new
developments and discuss the problems faced by the users. For exchanging
experiences in the use of the software a newsletter has heavily been recommended
by the users in Pakistan. 33 (82.5%) users are in favor of a newsletter at Pakistan
General impression / opinion about CDS/ISIS: 27 (67.5%) users expressed their
general impressions and opinions about CDS/ISIS. A summary of them is given
-In the view of most of the users CDS/ISIS is a good program for libraries
-Good for novice to conceive the concept of database
-Some users say it user friendly and some say not
-It should be modified according to local needs
-It should include spell checker
-Import / export module is difficult and complicated
-It should be modified according to professional needs of libraries
-Circulation module is direly needed
-There should be a version for Windows
It is a bare fact that CDS/ISIS is the only software that is mostly used in Pakistani
libraries and information centres. Although, in this survey , most of the users are
satisfied with the software yet problems are there to be solved out. The package
should be improved to cater for all the needs of libraries and information centres.
CDS/ISIS may be improved in the light of the discussion in this article. As a large
number of reading material in Pakistani libraries is in Urdu language, there
should be an Urdu version of CDS/ISIS to handle this material. Beginning of
CDS/ISIS training at PLA Computer Training Centres is a praiseworthy step. It is
needed to train CDS/ISIS users at advanced level. There should be courses on
programming in library services using ISIS PASCAL. ISIS user groups at all
levels should be formed and a newsletter on the activities of these user groups
should be published. UNESCO and PASTIC should provide funds for this
purpose. PLA should arrange consultancy in the use and trouble shooting of
CDS/ISIS. Although LAMP is a good effort to formulate a standard database
format for Pakistani libraries which are using CDS/ISIS yet this should be
improved according to the international standards, i.e,.MARC, ISBD, etc.
PASTIC should control the distribution of CDS/ISIS in Pakistan and should
obligate the institutions to sign the license before using the software. In this
regard PASTIC may contact the institutions at its own. It is also important to time
to time conduct surveys of this type to know the status of the use of CDS/ISIS and
the problems being faced by the users.
1.Eddie Kips. Explore CDS/ISIS, a training vehicle. Hague : LIS Department,
The Hague Polytechnic, 1994.
2.Alan Hopkinson. CDS/ISIS: UNESCO’s information retrieval package for
microcomputers and the Vax minicomputer. Encyclopedia of Library and
Information Science, 57, 72-89.
3.Khalid Mahmood. The best library software for developing countries: 30+ plus
points of Micro CDS/ISIS. Unpublished.
4.Patricia B. Carino. Status of CDS/ISIS training and use in Asia and the
Pacific: a regional report. Astinfo, 8(1), Jan.-Mar. 1993, 7-10 -- 8(2), Apr.-
June 1993, 7-10.
5.Bushra Riaz. LABELNET: development of a networking project. PULSAA
News, 2(3), Summer 1990, 66-70.
6.Azmatullah Bhatti and Sultan Mahmood. A unique special library. PULSAA
News, 2(3), Summer 1990, 102-105.
7.Akhtar H. Siddiqui. The PIDE Library. Pakistan Library Bulletin, 23(1), Mar.
8.Sultan Mahmood and Azmatullah Bhatti. CDS-ISIS at STINFOD Library.
News Bulletin, Pakistan Library Association, Federal Branch, Issue 26-27,
July-Sept. 1992, 49-51.
9.Maqsood Ahmed. Library automation: survey of computerized library services
in Federal Area (Islamabad/ Rawalpindi). In: Fida Mohammad, ed.
Challenges in Automating the Library Services. Peshawar : Department of
Library & Information Science, University of Peshawar, 1993, 47-49.
10.Sheikh M. Hanif. Comparative study of Micro CDS/ISIS and INMAGIC
software for libraries. LAG News, 1(1), Jan.-Mar. 1993, 4-8.
11.Zafar Javed Naqvi. Mini-micro CDS/ISIS: a bibliographic information
software. Pakistan Library Bulletin, 24(1-2), Mar.-June 1993, 16-25.
12.Khalid Mahmood Malik. Micro CDS/ISIS: what’s new in version 3.0.
Pakistan Library Bulletin, 24(4), Dec. 1993, 17-26.
13.Khalid Mahmood Malik. Why should we use CDS/ISIS in libraries? News
Forum (PLA Punjab Branch), 5(1-4), 1995, 7-12.
14.Zafar Javed Naqvi. Application of computer technology in PIDE Library and
Documentation Division. Pakistan Library Association Journal, No.17, Oct.
1995-Mar. 1996, 32-40.
15.Haroon Idrees. The Library Automation in Lahore. Unpublished Master’s
thesis, University of the Punjab, 1995.
Department of Library & Information Science
University of the Punjab
Quaid-E-Azam Campus, Lahore, Pakistan