Article

A Brief History of Active Sonar

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Abstract

As background for this special issue on strand-ings and mid-frequency active sonar (MFAS), this paper presents a brief history of active sonar, trac-ing the development of MFAS from its origins in the early 20th century through the development of current tactical MFAS.

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... L'histoire moderne de l'acoustique sous-marine débute au début du XX e durant la Première Guerre mondiale avec la mise au point par Paul Langevin d'un transducteur piézo-électrique pour la détection acoustique active de sous-marins (voir Figure 1) (Katzir, 2012). Ce système de mesure a été développé sous la direction francobritannique du Allied Submarine Detection Investigation Committee ou ASDIC, terme qui sera par la suite repris pour désigner les systèmes de détection acoustique actifs (D'Amico et Pittenger, 2009). S'en suit durant l'entre-deux-guerres une période de développement intense de systèmes tion en milieu marin sont bien plus limités qu'en milieu terrestre avec pourtant une surface potentielle d'exploration beaucoup plus importante, les océans recouvrant plus de 70 % de la surface du globe. ...
... ex. hauts-fonds, icebergs) (D'Amico et Pittenger, 2009;Rolt, 1994). Après la Seconde Guerre mondiale, de nouveaux besoins ont émergé sur des thématiques de prospections des fonds marins pour la recherche de ressources naturelles et la sécurité de la navigation (Lurton, 2002). ...
Article
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Couramment utilisé en hydrographie, le sondeur multifaisceaux (ou SMF) est un appareil capable d’émettre et de recevoir des signaux sonores grâce à un grand nombre de capteurs. Sa spécificité réside essentiellement dans le calcul numérique de nombreux faisceaux par formation de voies, ce qui permet d’obtenir une fauchée large tout en conservant une excellente résolution. Depuis sa création à la fin des années 1970, le sondeur multifaisceaux a été majoritairement utilisé pour la réalisation de mesures bathymétriques. Cependant, ses évolutions techniques au cours des dernières décennies permettent désormais d’obtenir simultanément un grand nombre d’informations sur la morphologie et la nature du fond, ainsi que sur la colonne d’eau, avec un unique système de coque. Nous proposons ici un tour d’horizon des applications actuelles des SMF, ainsi qu’un aperçu des perspectives d’utilisations en hydrographie.
... Active sonar used in anti-submarine warfare typically transmits pulses in the range of 1-10 kHz (D'Amico and Pittenger, 2009). These sonar frequencies are lower than what is believed to be the main echolocation band of sperm whales (Møhl et al., 2003), but sperm whale clicks do contain energy at these lower frequencies and broader beam patterns that may propagate out to larger distances. ...
... Extrapolation of these model predictions to other sound sources and larger distances should consider differences in main sonar frequency, source level, and harmonic content of the source spectrum. The 1-2 kHz frequency range of the sonar considered here is relatively low for active sonar systems used to detect submarines (D'Amico and Pittenger, 2009). Fixed ratios between the 1-2 kHz and the sperm whale effective detection band DL hrmc were considered in this study. ...
Article
Modern active sonar systems can (almost) continuously transmit and receive sound, which can lead to more masking of important sounds for marine mammals than conventional pulsed sonar systems transmitting at a much lower duty cycle. This study investigated the potential of 1-2 kHz active sonar to mask echolocation-based foraging of sperm whales by modeling their echolocation detection process. Continuous masking for an echolocating sperm whale facing a sonar was predicted for sonar sound pressure levels of 160 dB re 1 μPa2, with intermittent masking at levels of 120 dB re 1 μPa2, but model predictions strongly depended on the animal orientation, harmonic content of the sonar, click source level, and target strength of the prey. The masking model predicted lower masking potential of buzz clicks compared to regular clicks, even though the energy source level is much lower. For buzz clicks, the lower source level is compensated for by the reduced two-way propagation loss to nearby prey during buzzes. These results help to predict what types of behavioral changes could indicate masking in the wild. Several key knowledge gaps related to masking potential of sonar in echolocating odontocetes were identified that require further investigation to assess the significance of masking.
... Naval mid-frequency active sonar (MFAS) was developed in the 1950s to detect submarines, using frequencies of 8 KHz or higher [3,7]. However, the BW AMSEs, mainly of Cuvier's BWs, did not occur until MFAS shifted to lower frequency ranges of 4.5-5.5 kHz [8]. Mass strandings of BWs were extremely rare worldwide before the 1960s (15 reported cases involving five species), and none were AMSE, but between 1960 and 2004, 121 BW MSEs were reported [3] and the number of species involved increased. ...
... Regardless of these adaptations, marine mammals may develop gas emboli under certain conditions [8,35]. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain how sonar might lead to stranding and/or death of BWs including: (a) swimming away from the sound source into shallower waters and beaching, (b) a behavioural response disrupting their diving profile and resulting in nitrogen accumulation, bubble formation, and tissue damage, (c) physiological changes that royalsocietypublishing.org/journal/rspb Proc. ...
Article
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Mass stranding events (MSEs) of beaked whales (BWs) were extremely rare prior to the 1960s but increased markedly after the development of naval mid-frequency active sonar (MFAS). The temporal and spatial associations between atypical BW MSEs and naval exercises were first observed in the Canary Islands, Spain, in the mid-1980s. Further research on BWs stranded in association with naval exercises demonstrated pathological findings consistent with decompression sickness (DCS). A 2004 ban on MFASs around the Canary Islands successfully prevented additional BW MSEs in the region, but atypical MSEs have continued in other places of the world, especially in the Mediterranean Sea, with examined individuals showing DCS. A workshop held in Fuerteventura, Canary Islands, in September 2017 reviewed current knowledge on BW atypical MSEs associated with MFAS. Our review suggests that the effects of MFAS on BWs vary among individuals or populations, and predisposing factors may contribute to individual outcomes. Spatial management specific to BW habitat, such as the MFAS ban in the Canary Islands, has proven to be an effective mitigation tool and mitigation measures should be established in other areas taking into consideration known population-level information. © 2019 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
... Some of the powerful MFA tactical anti-submarine warfare (ASW) sonars, such as the AN/SQS-53 series, generate powerful pings with source levels as high as 235 dB re 1 µPa @ 1 m or higher in frequency band between 1 and 10 kHz with ping duration of 1 to 2 s [206,207]. These hull-mounted MFA sonars are equipped on many surface warships of the U.S. Navy and its allies [3,207]. ...
... Some of the powerful MFA tactical anti-submarine warfare (ASW) sonars, such as the AN/SQS-53 series, generate powerful pings with source levels as high as 235 dB re 1 µPa @ 1 m or higher in frequency band between 1 and 10 kHz with ping duration of 1 to 2 s [206,207]. These hull-mounted MFA sonars are equipped on many surface warships of the U.S. Navy and its allies [3,207]. ...
Thesis
Most animals inhabit the aquatic environment are acoustical-oriented, due to the physical characteristics of water that favors sound transmission. Many aquatic animals depend on underwater sound to navigate, communicate, find prey, and avoid predators. The degradation of underwater acoustic environment due to human activities is expected to affected these animals' well-being and survival at the population level. This dissertation presents three original studies on the characteristics and behavior of underwater sound fields in three unique marine environments with anthropogenic noises. The first study examines the soundscape of the Chinese white dolphin habitat in Taiwan. Acoustic recordings were made at two coastal shallow water locations, Yunlin and Waisanding, in 2012. Results show that croaker choruses are dominant sound sources in the 1.2--2.4 kHz frequency band for both locations at night, and noises from container ships in the 150--300 Hz frequency band define the relative higher broadband sound levels at Yunlin. Results also illustrate interrelationships among different biotic, abiotic, and anthropogenic elements that shape the fine-scale soundscape in a coastal environment. The second study investigates the inter-pulse sound field during an open-water seismic survey in coastal shallow waters of the Arctic. The research uses continuous acoustic recordings collected from one bottom-mounted hydrophone deployed in the Beaufort Sea in summer 2012. Two quantitative methods were developed to examine the inter-pulse sound field characteristics and its dependence on source distances. Results show that inter-pulse sound field could raise the ambient noise floor by as much as 9 dB, depending on ambient condition and source distance. The third study examines the inter-ping sound field of simulated mid-frequency active sonar in deep waters off southern California in 2013 and 2014. The study used drifting acoustic recorder buoys to collect acoustic data during sonar playbacks. The results show strong band-limited elevation (13--24 dB) of sound pressure levels for over half of the inter-ping intervals above the natural background levels. These three studies provide insights on the dynamics of marine soundscape and how anthropogenic activities can change the acoustic habitat by elevating the overall sound field levels.
... Of particular concern are activities involving the deployment of explosives and munitions, and the use of tactical, high-powered sonar technology operating in the lower (LFAS, ∼0.1-2 kHz) and midfrequency bands (MFAS, 3-8 kHz) (Sivle et al., 2012;Goldbogen et al., 2013;Falcone et al., 2017). LFAS and MFAS systems were developed in the 1950s for anti-submarine warfare (D'Amico and Pittenger, 2009;Bernaldo de Quirós et al., 2019), and have been implicated in a number of atypical lethal mass strandings largely involving deep-diving toothed whales from the Ziphiidae family Filadelfo et al., 2009;Fernández et al., 2012;Parsons, 2017). ...
Article
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Concerns over cetacean mortality events coincident with maritime warfare exercises have motivated efforts to characterize the effects of anthropogenic noise on free-ranging whales and dolphins. By monitoring the movement, diving, and acoustic behaviors of individual whales before, during, and after sound exposure, behavioral response studies (BRSs) have supported significant progress in our understanding of the sensitivity of various cetacean species to high-powered naval sonar signals. However, differences in the designs and sampling capabilities of animal-borne tags typically used in BRS experiments prompt questions about the influence of data resolution in quantitative assessments of noise impacts. We conducted simulations to examine how uncertainty in the acoustic dose either measured on high-resolution multi-sensor biologging tags or modeled from position-transmitting satellite telemetry tags may affect predictions of behavioral responses in Cuvier’s beaked whales ( Ziphius cavirostris ) exposed to low- and mid-frequency active sonar. We considered an array of scenarios representative of real-world BRSs and used posterior estimates of dose-response functions obtained under an established Bayesian hierarchical modeling framework to explore the consequences of different tag choices for management decision-making. Our results indicate that (1) the zone of impact from a sonar source is under-estimated in most test conditions, (2) substantial reductions in the uncertainty surrounding dose-response relationships are possible at higher sample sizes, and (3) this largely holds true irrespective of tag choice under the scenarios considered, unless positional fixes from satellite tags are consistently poor. Strategic monitoring approaches that combine both archival biologging and satellite biotelemetry are essential for characterizing complex patterns of behavioral change in cetaceans exposed to increasing levels of acoustic disturbance. We suggest ways in which BRS protocols can be optimized to curtail the effects of uncertainty.
... Much of the work addressing the effect of anthropogenic noises on marine life has focused on marine mammals, for which the research has been heavily motivated by the protection of marine mammals under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (Marine Mammal Commission, 2015). One of the most vulnerable groups of marine mammals to anthropogenic noise appears to be beaked whales, as evidenced by the numerous strandings often linked to naval training exercises (Frantzis, 1998;Evans and England, 2001;D'Amico and Pittenger, 2009;Fernandez et al., 2012). As a result, there have been several studies investigating beaked whale foraging behavior during exposure to mid-frequency active sonar (MFAS) used during naval training exercises (McCarthy et al., 2011;Tyack et al., 2011;DeRuiter et al., 2013;Manzano-Roth et al., 2016;Falcone et al., 2017;DiMarzio et al., 2019). ...
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To add to the growing information about the effect of multibeam echosounder (MBES) operation on marine mammals, a study was conducted to assess the spatial foraging effort of Cuvier’s beaked whales during two MBES surveys conducted in January of 2017 and 2019 off of San Clemente Island, California. The MBES surveys took place on the Southern California Antisubmarine Warfare Range (SOAR), which contains an array of 89 hydrophones covering an area of approximately 1800 km ² over which foraging beaked whales were detected. A spatial autocorrelation analysis of foraging effort was conducted using the Moran’s I (global) and the Getis-Ord Gi ∗ (local) statistics, to understand the animals’ spatial use of the entire SOAR, as well as smaller areas, respectively, within the SOAR Before, During , and After the two MBES surveys. In both years, the global Moran’s I statistic suggested significant spatial clustering of foraging events on the SOAR during all analysis periods ( Before, During , and After ). In addition, a Kruskal-Wallis (comparison) test of both years revealed that the number of foraging events across analysis periods were similar within a given year. In 2017, the local Getis-Ord Gi ∗ analysis identified hot spots of foraging activity in the same general area of the SOAR during all analysis periods. This local result, in combination with the global and comparison results of 2017, suggest there was no obvious period-related change detected in foraging effort associated with the 2017 MBES survey at the resolution measurable with the hydrophone array. In 2019, the foraging hot spot area shifted from the southernmost corner of the SOAR Before , to the center During , and was split between the two locations After the MBES survey. Due to the pattern of period-related spatial change identified in 2019, and the lack of change detected in 2017, it was unclear whether the change detected in 2019 was a result of MBES activity or some other environmental factor. Nonetheless, the results strongly suggest that the level of detected foraging during either MBES survey did not change, and most of the foraging effort remained in the historically well-utilized foraging locations of Cuvier’s beaked whales on the SOAR.
... In fact, hydrophones receive the sound pressure and convert it to process able signals in the output. Today, hydrophones are mostly used in low frequencies (below 10 kHz) and the majority of the hydrophone sensors, used in sonar devices (D'Amico and Pittenger 2009). There are various methods to convert sound pressure to output signals, but most hydrophones are made of piezoelectric materials because of their optimal properties. ...
Article
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In this paper, a novel micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) piezoelectric hydrophone with the ability to detect the direction of the sound in two dimensions was designed and analyzed. Piezoelectric hydrophones are widely used today. These devices constitute the main part of the sonar systems. Sonars are used in marine vessels and for transportation of marine military equipment, such as submarines and battleships. Hydrophones work by converting received sound pressure to electrical signals. The idea of the present paper for designing hydrophones is taken from sea creatures and use artificial hair cell structure. This structure not only has the advantages of piezoelectric sensors such as being active and having optimal sensitivity, but it is also able to detect the direction of the sound and work at low frequencies, the performance of the sensor has been improved compared with the previous works (Ito et al. in Sens Actuators, 2008; Choi et al. in Sens Actuators, 2010; Guan et al. in Microsyst Technol, 2011; Sens Actuators, 2012; Zhang et al. in Design of a monolithic integrated three-dimensional MEMS bionic vector hydrophone, 2014), in a way that its sensitivity is − 191 dB in the frequency range of below 10.4 kHz (0 dB re 1 V/μPa).
... His transducer received the echo from the sea floor and detected an armor plate 200 m away. It was the first time that human beings had used an echo to detect underwater targets, which was of great significance in the history of modern sonar development [3]. However, due to the low electromechanical coupling factor of single crystal quartz, Langevin's transducer had serious defects, low mechanical underwater transmitting power, low receiving capability, and narrow bandwidth [1]. ...
Article
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In order to boost the electromechanical coupling factor and decrease the characteristic impedance, a 1-3 piezoelectric composite with a 3-tier polymer structure was designed and fabricated, in which epoxy resin constitutes the middle layer and silicone rubber is used to clamp the epoxy. The effective parameters of the composite, such as resonant frequency, electromechanical coupling factor, and characteristic impedance, were studied by the finite element method and experiment. The experimental results indicate that the electromechanical coupling factor of the composite is enhanced by 8.4% and the characteristic impedance is decreased by 52.8%, compared with the traditional 1-3 ceramic/epoxy composite.
... Transducers that operate at low to medium frequencies play a vital role in underwater naval applications for frigates and ships [4,5]. Tonpilz piezoelectric transducers are the most common type of transducers, especially in underwater applications, because they can be produced simply and at low cost [6,7]. The design and choice of piezoelectric materials of Tonpilz transducers directly affect their ability to generate high acoustic power in water in a wide band. ...
Article
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A mid-frequency tonpilz transducer array was designed and analyzed by finite element method using commercial ATILA code and constructed using piezoceramic rings with lead magnesium niobate (PMN)-lead titanate (PT) composition. The morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) 0.675Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.325PbTiO3 composition was chosen to obtain higher performance from the transducer due to the superior dielectric and electromechanical properties of the MPB compositions. A pure perovskite phase was obtained from the ceramics. Piezoelectric charge coefficient (d33) was measured as 435 pCN-1. Single tonpilz element and an array consisting of 7-unit array were constructed and later potted in polyurethane for underwater measurements. A second array was also constructed for comparison from commercial hard Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-PZT ceramics. The longitudinal piston mode vibration frequency of the tonpilz transducer was measured around 33 kHz in air and around 35 kHz in water. The PMN-PT based array was found to have a comparable transmit performance and a superior receive performance compared to PZT.
... U ltrasonography (US) is an efficient and inexpensive tool to assist physicians in diagnosing conditions and treating patients. 1 Point-ofcare US appeared in emergency medicine in 1988 2 and has since expanded into many fields of medicine today. 3 While certain fields use particular US examinations, such as the focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST), multiple specialties use the same skill sets and examinations, increasing the importance of student familiarity regardless of students' specialty aspirations. ...
Article
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Background: The importance of medical ultrasonography (US) is well established, but given an already dense curriculum, integration of US into preclinical training can be difficult. Although there is no clear consensus on the best practice for integrating US into medical school curricula, growing student interest in US training demands investigation of potential solutions. Objective: To investigate whether US integration through peer-assisted learning (PAL) and extracurricular activities during preclinical training is perceived to be valuable by student participants. Methods: First- and second-year students at the West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine (WVSOM) were invited via email to attend 4 monthly PAL extracurricular US sessions on the following point-of-care US topics: (1) basic lung examination to assess pleural sliding, (2) extended focused assessment with sonography for trauma, (3) right upper quadrant biliary examination, and (4) US-guided central venous catheter placement. A brief survey using Likert-style questions inquired about participants' level of agreement with whether the given session was appropriately complex, increased comfort with US, was informative and interactive, and improved confidence in identifying anatomic structures (sessions 2 and 3 only). A final question asked participants whether they would attend more extracurricular US sessions. Results: Fifty-eight students (36 unique students) attended the peer-led sessions. Of the 58 students, 50 responded to the survey for a response rate of 86.2%. Responses were overwhelmingly positive. All respondents strongly agreed or agreed that these sessions improved their confidence in identifying anatomic structures using US, and 49 (98%) strongly agreed or agreed that they would attend more US sessions. Conclusion: Respondents strongly endorsed the peer-led US sessions, which has facilitated the formal integration of an elective US course at WVSOM. The peer-led sessions introduced at WVSOM could provide the framework and motivation for similar courses at osteopathic medical schools across the country.
Book
This book narrates the development of various biomimetic microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors, such as pressure, flow, acceleration, chemical, and tactile sensors, that are inspired by sensing phenomena that exist in marine life. The research described in this book is multi-faceted and combines the expertise and understanding from diverse fields, including biomimetics, microfabrication, sensor engineering, MEMS design, nanotechnology, and material science. A series of chapters examine the design and fabrication of MEMS sensors that function on piezoresistive, piezoelectric, strain gauge, and chemical sensing principles. By translating nature-based engineering solutions to artificial man-made technology, we can find innovative solutions to critical problems.
Chapter
Introduction Animations are increasingly used to present complex information in technical and educational settings. One reason for the rising popularity of these representations has been advancing technology that has greatly facilitated the authoring, presentation, and dissemination of animated displays. Another reason is the widespread assumption that animations are an intrinsically effective way of presenting information, especially subject matter in which dynamics play an important role. However, findings from recent research have cast doubt on the assumed universal effectiveness of animations. Much of this research has been conducted in the field of education, where there is a growing reliance on the use of animations in multimedia learning materials (Höffler and Leutner, 2007). Too often, the effectiveness of animations as tools for explanation has fallen well short of educators’ expectations. It is becoming clear that some of the shortcomings of explanatory animations originate in the perceptual challenges they can pose to learner processing. This chapter examines evidence for the importance of perception in the processing of animations with a particular focus on the methodologies used to produce that evidence. Animations in Real-World Contexts Dynamic graphic displays have become a routine way of presenting information in a wide variety of workplaces. Rather than dealing with information only in its original numerical form, it is now common practice to convert it into graphic displays to provide new affordances that can foster understanding of how information changes over time. The sophisticated visualisation opportunities offered by today’s powerful graphics-oriented computers allow real-time monitoring of such changes as well as retrospective analysis of historical data for predictive purposes. One example of using dynamic graphic displays for “online” monitoring involves the displays used in industrial process control. In this application, animated diagrams are presented on computer screens to depict the events in an industrial plant as they are actually occurring. This allows plant operators to adjust the component production processes so that cost effectiveness can be maximised and safety hazards minimised. Another example is in meteorology, where weather centre staff rely on multiple visualisations of real-time data from various types of sensors to develop their warnings about potentially catastrophic weather events.
Chapter
Animals , for survival rely heavily on their sensing capabilities. May it be catching a prey, escaping from a predator, finding partners for reproduction or being aware of surrounding environment, senses have a very important role to play. It would not be an exaggeration to say that for a species to sustain itself and thrive through the evolutionary process, ‘sensing’ is probably the most decisive factor.
Chapter
Introduction The distinction between applied and basic science is indeterminate and dissolving; therefore so too is the border between careers in applied and basic science. (For a detailed analysis, see Hoffman and Deffenbacher, 2011.) While academic scientists/teachers do conduct applied research, it is also not infrequently the case that researchers who work in government, industry, and private sector institutions conduct research projects that have strong basic dimensions. Despite these fuzzy and dissolving boundaries, it is one thing to train for a career in applied psychology as an academic, but another thing to train for an applied career in government, and quite another thing altogether to train for an applied career in the private sector. Selection of one’s career track still implies the need for some degree of specialist training. Notwithstanding the preceding observations, in this chapter we provide a spectrum of advice that we hope will prove helpful to all those who might consider such graduate training and the diverse careers in applied psychology, human factors, cognitive engineering, and/or related applied domains that are available. We discuss a variety of work setting issues (such as the academic, private sector, and government differentiation) with respect to the current Zeitgeist of applied research. We also try to be candid, though this brings the risk of disillusioning those who are young in science and, as yet, unjaded. Hence, we make use of both humor and sarcasm to flavor our observations.
Chapter
Introduction Researchers have studied sustained attention systematically for more than a half-century (Dember and Warm, 1979). Experiments with adults have identified crucial influences on an individual’s ability to remain vigilant - influences such as task parameters (Warm and Jerison, 1984), environmental conditions (Hancock, 1984), and individual differences (Shaw et al., 2010). By contrast, interest in sustained attention in children has only a short history, and its focus has been directed primarily to disorders of attention in clinical populations. As a consequence, studies of children have remained largely distinct from adult vigilance research and have borrowed only rarely from the extensive foundation in experimental work established by Warm and his colleagues (Parasuraman, Warm, and Dember, 1987; Warm, Dember, and Hancock, 1996; Warm and Dember, 1998). However, research on sustained attention, once centered on adult populations, now investigates infants and children, and clinical research directed to the diagnosis of disorders now seeks comparative knowledge on typically developing children. Lines of research that once ran parallel are revealing valuable points of intersection. This chapter explores those theoretical and methodological contacts. We first explore general theories of the development of childhood attention and the methods used to assess sustained attention in infants and children. Theories of Sustained Attention Few theories address the development of sustained attention in infancy and childhood. While no theories to date address change across all age ranges, several theories have been influential in guiding research on early attentional abilities. The following section addresses several of these theories, beginning with infancy and then moving on to childhood.
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Introduction Energetic constructs have assumed a central place in theories of vigilance since Mackworth?s (1948) original demonstrations that the vigilance decrement is accentuated by sleep loss and countered by amphetamine. In early studies (see Davies and Parasuraman, 1982), the key energetic construct was nonspecific arousal. Vigilance tasks were seen as fatiguing assignments that induced suboptimal levels of arousal. Manipulations of motivation, such as providing knowledge of results to enhance performance, might also be seen in this light. More recent vigilance research emphasizes deployment of attentional resources as the principal explanatory construct (Warm, Dember, and Hancock, 1996; Warm, Parasuraman, and Matthews, 2008). Although perceptually simple and often monotonous, vigilance tasks impose high mental workloads, so that the challenge for the operator is to recruit adequate resources to meet sustained processing demands. In this chapter, we discuss the roles of two different kinds of motivational-affective factors in vigilance, from the perspective of the Warm et al. (1996, 2008) resource model. We focus especially on individual differences in motivation and emotion. One factor is related to subjective energy and tiredness. Measures of subjective energy and task engagement secured prior to performance predict subsequent perceptual sensitivity on a range of signal detection tasks (Matthews, Davies, and Lees, 1990; Matthews, Warm et al., 2010). Broadly, we can see subjective energy as a marker for resource availability.
Chapter
A basic understanding of physics is necessary for effective clinical use of ultrasound, and it allows appreciation of the wonderful technology we now use. Rapid waveform analysis and massive data storage capability make high-resolution imaging and complex hemodynamic assessment accessible at the bedside. Understanding the principles of ultrasound physics and applying them to echocardiography help us to understand the anatomy and function of the heart, while use of Doppler principles allows us to make assessments of blood flow, valve areas, and pressure gradients.
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On March 13, 1938, the Germans took over Austria and by September 1938 they had taken over a large part of then Czechoslovakia. Next, Germany attacked Poland on the September 1, 1939. Two days later, Britain and France declared war against Hitler’s Germany, which set the scenario going for WWII.
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A multistatic synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) configuration, composed of an active sonar, a towed receiver and a sonobuoy, is proposed to acquire the image of a moving target and estimate its velocity vector. The range model incorporates the time delay of an acoustic pulse between its emission and backscattered from the target to the receivers. An image is acquired from the received signals at one receiver after range cell migration correction (RCMC), range walk compensation (RWC) and compression, without prior knowledge on the motion parameters of the target. Range-frequency reversal transform (RFRT) and a modified second-order Wigner-Ville distribution (SoWVD) are used to estimate the chirp rate in the range model, and Radon transform is used to estimate the Doppler centroid. The velocity vector of the moving target is accurately estimated, within 3% of error and insensitive to noise, by using the Doppler centroids derived from the signals at the three receivers. Eight different scenarios are simulated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method. The shape and size of the moving target can be clearly identified in all but one case. Three state-of-the-art methods are also used to verify the accuracy of the proposed method, the effects of noise are analyzed, and autofocus algorithms are applied to enhance the acquired images in some difficult cases.
Chapter
The Resource Concept Resources are mental capacities that both support and limit performance. As originally conceived, resources constituted a single attentional “pool” from which tasks draw. Daniel Kahneman (1973) proposed that a single task, or even two simultaneous tasks, could be performed without effective limit as long as demand did not exceed the pool’s capacity. However, once single or joint demand exceeded capacity, performance was proposed to degrade in proportion to the excess demand. The single-pool concept of resources soon succumbed to observations that interference between tasks depends on similarities between the tasks (Brooks, 1968; Klee and Eysenck, 1973; Wickens and Sandry, 1982; Wickens, Sandry, and Vidulich, 1983). This should not happen with a single undifferentiated pool, because interference is predicted to depend only on the summed overall demands of the tasks. Similarity-based interference implies that the pool of resources is instead differentiated, so that the demands of two tasks on the same subset of resources cause more interference than do their demands on different subsets of resources. From these empirical observations emerged multiple resource theory (MRT; Wickens, 1984). In Chris Wickens’s seminal cube model, resources were envisioned as constituting three dimensions. The modality dimension consisted of visual and auditory resources on the input side of processing, and of manual and vocal resources on the output side.
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Introduction Driving is a demanding task combining complex motor and cognitive skills. A typical driving task may include maneuvering among other vehicles, paying attention to various road users (e.g., drivers and pedestrians), and discerning static and dynamic road signs and obstacles. The total amount and rate of information that is presented to the driver is more than a human brain can handle at a given time in terms of the quantity of information or its complexity (Chun, 2003). Thus, the road environment presents an array of perceptible information, but drivers notice and attend only to a small fraction of it (Hughes and Cole, 1986). Traffic crashes are a prominent killer among all drivers, and most prominent among those aged 15-24 (Shinar, 2007). However, the majority of people can drive for many years without being involved in a crash (approximately one crash every 10 years; Evans, 2004). The ability of drivers to cope with complex driving situations can be attributed to our sophisticated attentional mechanisms that help overcome the overload of information within a visual scene (Chun, 2003). In addition, operators in complex and dynamic environments, such as driving, use cognitive mechanisms to integrate important information from the environment and anticipate upcoming events, a capacity that is often referred to as Situation Awareness (Endsley, 1995a). By focusing on situations and their related concepts, the cognitive system simplifies many tasks such as recognizing objects and events and predicting actions of other agents. Additionally, since specific entities and events tend to occur in some situations more than others, capitalizing on such correlation-constraints facilitates processing (Yeh and Barsalou, 2006; see also Vicente and Wang, 1998).
Chapter
Introduction Color vision culminates a journey of photons, received by a complex system that interprets physical stimuli into an image with meaning. From the reflection of light or light itself, to our retina, and back, the colorful world we see is subject to the visual system’s analysis. Processes, such as adaptation, opponent processing, or taking context into account, are revealed by visual illusions that show that what we see is not a perfect translation of what is there to be seen. Oftentimes what we see is a reinterpretation of what is there to be seen, and it may change depending on the visual process that is taking place (Backhaus, Kliegl, and Werner, 1998). Adaptation, for example, is the process of the visual system renormalizing to a given stimulus. The resulting perception shifts in response, which is also why a room painted a brilliant color may appear less brilliant over time. Opponent system neural firing is part of the color vision process that sends chromatic information forward to the brain; it is responsible for colorful afterimages. Surrounding context has a significant impact on perception. Figure 40.1 illustrates the powerful impact that context can have on our perception of color. The green squares in the center of the spheres do not appear as the same color that they truly are, as is made apparent in the image below by removing the surrounding context.
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Introduction This chapter describes two related models of visual attention. SEEV (salience effort expectancy value) predicts how scanning is driven by the four components in the monitoring and control of complex workplaces like the aircraft cockpit, driving cab, or operating room. It distinguishes between ideal scanning, driven just by expectancy and value, and actual scanning, driven also by the attention capture of salient displays, and the inhibiting factor of the effort of scanning long distances. Data validating the model, and a computational example are presented. NSEEV (Noticing SEEV) predicts the latency and accuracy of noticing discrete events within the workplace, in the context of the ongoing scanning predicted by SEEV. Thus SEEV predicts the distribution of fixations at the time when an event to be noticed occurs, and hence the retinal eccentricity of that event. Event eccentricity, along with event salience and expectancy, predict how long it will take the event to be noticed. Validation data from NSEEV are also presented, and practical applications of both models are described. The SEEV Model High in the skies over Brazil, pilots in a small corporate jet failed to notice that a visual indicator in their cockpit had changed status, informing that their plane was no longer broadcasting its position to others in the sky.
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Introduction The ability to identify and interpret the movements and actions of others is fundamental to visual perception and cognition. It is important for effective communication and social interaction. The motions of living organisms such as people or animals - both whole-body motion as well as partial movements by hands, head, eye, and so on - are typically referred to as biological motions (Blake and Shiffrar, 2007; Johansson, 1973). This form of motion is central to our perception of the dynamic natural environment and for the process of inferring intent from the actions of others. Humans have a remarkable ability to recognize these stimuli. We can detect and interpret actions on the basis of only minimal information and in the presence of considerable visual noise and clutter. Even more remarkably, a basic sensitivity to biological motion appears to be present at or very soon after birth (Simion et al., 2008). The presence of this ability very early in life might allow us to detect conspecifics, such as a mother, in order to find food, protection, and care. Empirical research into biological motion dates back to Marey (1884) and his study of human and animal kinematics through the use of “chronophotography,” which involves capturing successive single images of a moving figure using a high-speed camera. However, it was the development of the point-light technique by Swedish psychologist Gunnar Johansson in the early 1970s that led to much of the modern research into how we perceive and understand the actions of others. Johansson discovered that by attaching lights to the joints of an actor and then filming the actor in near-darkness he could produce a stimulus that captured the dynamic motion information associated with human actions, with only minimal form details. This is illustrated in Figure 21.1. Points of light (e.g., light emitting diodes) are placed on the major joints of a moving actor and are filmed in low ambient light, such as in a dark room. Simple video postprocessing, such as increasing the contrast, can produce effective point-light biological motion stimuli. More recently, several labs (e.g., http://mocap.cs.cmu.edu/) have published online databases of more sophistic motion capture data that can be used to create biological motion stimuli.
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Introduction British soldiers are patrolling a dusty village somewhere in Afghanistan. The soldiers proceed with care; unpredictable improvised explosive devices deal death and severe injury to allied forces with alarming frequency in the battle zones of the War on Terror. A black Labrador retriever accompanies the soldiers and eases their fears. The dog’s nose twitches with each intake of air. The soldiers know their lives depend on the dog’s perceptual abilities. At a New York cafe, a young deaf girl sits reading a book. A brown shaggy dog with a bright orange cape keeps her company. The dog’s ears are erect and constantly swivelling, searching. A woman’s voice calls the girl’s name. The dog immediately nudges the girl’s leg with a firm tap of the nose and then heads for the person calling the girl’s name. The dog looks back at the girl. The girl’s ears do not hear, but the dog listens for her. Termites chew through the beams of a wood frame house in the American Southeast. The owners of the house are unaware of the insects’ activities, but a little beagle wearing a green cape tracks them. The beagle alerts his coworker the termite inspector.
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Introduction Over the past 20 years, it has become clear that the health care systems in the United States, and around the world, are not as safe as patients might expect. Brennan et al. (1991) published the first estimate of the widespread incidence of adverse events in hospitals. Later, Bogner (1994) highlighted sources of error across several areas of medicine for the human factors community. Several years later, the Institute of Medicine estimated that as many as 98,000 annual deaths could be attributed to medical errors in U.S. hospitals (Kohn, Corrigan, and Donaldson, 1999). To put this into perspective, if patient fatality due to medical error were considered a formal cause of death by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, it would rank in the top 10 among all leading causes. In the years following publication of the Institute of Medicine report, the HealthGrades organization began studying Medicare records collected from more than 5,000 hospitals across all 50 U.S. states to compile a more accurate count of hospital-related fatalities. In a recent report covering the years 2007-2009 (Reed and May, 2011), they counted more than 708,000 total patient safety events and more than 79,000 patient deaths with an estimated cost of $7.3 billion. The health care community has recently begun to embrace simulation technology, for its potential to help reduce medical errors and improve patient safety (Gaba, 2004; Gallagher et al., 2005; Reznick and MacRae, 2006; Ziv, Wolpe, Small, and Glick, 2003). Training simulators offer several advantages. First, they allow students to practice on devices instead of on actual patients. Trainees can make mistakes and learn from them, without consequences for patients. Simulators provide opportunities to expose trainees to rare or unusual events and circumstances. Further, students can be required to reach a level of proficiency before treating actual patients. Simulators can also be used for aptitude testing, career-long training, procedural rehearsal, board examinations, and credentialing (Dawson, 2006).
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Introduction Manual control is a hallmark topic and paradigm of experimental psychology, dating to the earliest applied experimental psychology on airplane piloting and railroad engineering (see Hoffman and Deffenbacher, 1992). The study of manual control affords investigation of adaptive visual-motor activity. The essential operational feature of manual control experiments is that the operator can adjust his/her response on the basis of visual information from a computer screen that allows for investigation of a range of sensorimotor processes (e.g., Jagacinski and Flach, 2003). This adaptive control paradigm has its roots in traditional manual tracking experiments (Jones, 2000; Poulton, 1974) and has foundational operational links to contemporary human-computer interaction applications. Manual control has been studied extensively following two theoretical frameworks: information processing and dynamic pattern generation. The investigation of sensory, particularly visual, information in manual control includes standard manipulations that change the amount of information in the display from an information theory framework (Shannon and Weaver, 1949) that has been interpreted through the central processing of perceived information and its influence on the motor performance outcome (Wickens, 1984). In this chapter, we interpret the visual information presentation in the context of the dynamical information of the force output afforded the participant, and we emphasize the mutual influence between the perception of visual information and patterns of motor coordination and control. From the dynamic pattern perspective, different perception-action components of the system organize themselves into coordinative structures (Turvey, 1990). The structures do not reflect prescribed higher level commands but are self-organized as a consequence of emergent properties of the environmental and organismic system constraints/configurations (Newell, 1986).
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Introduction Virtual environment (VE) training technologies provide what many perceive as the panacea in training solutions. Such environments immerse trainees in a realistic context, affording the opportunity to “learn by doing,” “train like we fight,” and “involve me and I understand” (Stanney, Hale, and Cohn, 2012). While simulators and VE training systems have been in use for decades, the advancement of training science and appropriate utility of such systems have evolved from initial systems aimed at providing simulators with high levels of physical and functional fidelity (i.e., level of agreement between VE and real world) as the key design metric, to a more human performance-centered approach. The driving force behind system design for optimal training is psychological fidelity (i.e., level of agreement between a user’s perceptions, thoughts, and actions in VE versus real world) (Kozlowski et al., 2004). The objective is no longer to develop a simulator that provides an exact match with the physical nature of the real world, but rather to develop a training system that provides a real world experience. With this new focus, training system designers turn the spotlight on how a trainee perceives and acts on the VE and how well the physical, psychological, neural, and biological aspects of that perception-action cycle match interaction with the real world. The focus turns from recreating the physical world around the trainee to recreating the sights, sounds, smells, and feelings a trainee relies on to support human performance - thereby simulating the sensory experiences that directly relate to specified training objectives (Alexander, Brunyé, Sidman, and Weil, 2005).
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Visual search is the process of finding specific target items within an environment using particular visual features or prior knowledge. Searches can be as easy as finding your friend with purple hair in a lecture hall or as complicated as finding a purposefully concealed weapon among thousands of harmless bags at an airport checkpoint. Visual searches take place in everyday, innocuous contexts such as finding your car in a parking lot, and in critical contexts, such as finding enemy combatants in an urban battlefield. We conduct searches all the time, and most searches are relatively commonplace. However, in some cases, visual searches can be critically important. For example, airport security screeners must identify harmful items in baggage, and radiologists must identify abnormalities in medical radiographs. Despite the ubiquitous nature of search and the fact that it is sometimes life-or-death critical, human visual search is far from ideal - errors are often made, and searches are typically conducted for either too little or too much time. Thus, some fundamental research questions are the following: How can we maximize search efficiency? What is the best way to increase both search speed and accuracy? Much academic research has focused on increasing search performance, but does such research adequately translate to situations outside the laboratory environment? These open questions are the foundation of research in applied visual search - the application of what has been learned about search accuracy and efficiency from lab-based experimentation to search conditions in the workplace for career searchers, with the goal of increasing performance.
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Introduction The ability to perceive and act upon collision events has widespread practical value. People avoid collisions when they walk around obstacles, drive amid moving traffic, avoid being tackled in football, and avoid damage to blood vessels while performing surgery. People create collisions when they pick up objects, hit or catch baseballs, and control a plane’s contact with the runway to land smoothly. It is important to understand how collision events are perceived. Collision perception has been studied in various applied contexts such as driving (e.g., Caird and Hancock, 2002), sports (Gray, 2002; Gray and Sieffert, 2005), and aviation (Kruk and Regan, 1996). Studies of perceived collision focused on the perception of when a collision would occur or time-to-contact (TTC), and the perception of whether a collision would occur, or collision detection. This chapter collects results of both types of studies. It is concluded that collision perception is based on multiple information sources and that the information observers use depends on the context. It is essential to determine the conditions under which different information sources are used. Toward this aim, a conceptual framework is proposed. This chapter is organized into four sections. First, different types of collision events that people perceive are elucidated. The term “collision” includes contacting, intercepting, or reaching a target.
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Introduction Everyday experience makes it seem that hearing or auditory processing requires little if any effort under normal circumstances. In actuality, extensive research indicates that understanding information presented though the auditory channel (referred to as auditory cognition) can place significant demands on attentional resources, particularly in challenging listening environments or when multitasking is required (Baldwin, 2012). A focus of this chapter is key concepts in auditory perception that minimize the attentional demands of auditory cognition in order to maximize our ability to use this sensory channel effectively and safely in communications and auditory displays. We begin with some of the advantages and disadvantages of the auditory modality and then a brief discussion on when to use the auditory modality, followed by a section on auditory vigilance. We then discuss the psychoacoustics of auditory displays followed by a review of auditory warning recommendations and parameters. We conclude with examples of auditory displays and warnings in applied settings. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Auditory Modality The auditory modality has several unique characteristics that result in specific advantages and disadvantages when used to present information in displays. We begin by discussing some of the many advantages and then we point out some key disadvantages.
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Introduction A domain expert can distinguish intricate perceptual information with remarkable ease. An experienced “birder” (bird watcher), for example, can easily discern subtle shapes and colors that differentiate a magnolia warbler from a MacGillivary warbler. Acquiring perceptual expertise in a specific domain is achieved through years of extensive practice and training. This chapter examines how perceptual expertise, based on experience “in the world” and training in the laboratory, develops. In the first section, we discuss the cognitive and neurological processes of perception that distinguish experts from their novice counterparts. We will examine experts of object recognition such as birders, canine judges, car enthusiasts, and fingerprint examiners. Next, we will discuss experts who possess domain-specific perceptual skills, such as chess players and radiologists, who specialize in the recognition of configurations and patterns of elements in visual displays. In the second section, we will explore expertise training in the laboratory and how training techniques are applied in work situations to hone the perceptual skills of transport security officers. Finally, we will suggest potential directions for research on perceptual learning and expertise. Object Expertise in Domains of Human Activity The level at which an object is first recognized as a member of a category and represented in memory is referred to as the entry point of recognition (Jolicoeur, Gluck, and Kosslyn, 1984). For novices, the entry point of recognition is the basic level (Jolicoeur, Gluck, and Kosslyn, 1984; Rosch et al., 1976). At this level, objects are recognized as “birds,” “dogs,” “cars,” and so on. Rosch et al. (1976) showed that objects at the basic level (e.g., “bird”) are more structurally similar in comparison to objects at a more general, superordinate (e.g., “animals”) level of abstraction. Objects at the more specific, subordinate level (e.g., “Nashville warbler”) tend to be more similar in shape, but the basic level categories are the most distinctive from one another at that level (e.g., “birds” versus “dogs”). Given its distinctive perceptual properties, the basic level is the level at which objects are first perceived and recognized. That is, people are faster to identify an object at the basic level (e.g., “bird,” “chair”) than they are to identify the same object at the more general, superordinate level (e.g., “animal,” “furniture”) and at the more specific, subordinate level (e.g., “warbler,” “rocking chair”) (Jolicoeur, Gluck, and Kosslyn, 1984; Rosch et al., 1976).
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A basic understanding of physics is necessary for effective clinical use of ultrasound, and it allows appreciation of the wonderful technology we now use. Rapid waveform analysis and massive data storage capability make high-resolution imaging and complex hemodynamic assessment accessible at the bedside. Understanding the principles of ultrasound physics and applying them to echocardiography help us understand the anatomy and function of the heart, while use of Doppler principles allow us to make assessments of blood flow, valve areas, and pressure gradients.
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Presented here is the first comprehensive and updated compilation of history, distribution, and findings of Stejneger's beaked whales (Mesoplodon stejnegeri) in Alaska. Stejneger's beaked whales are a poorly understood, elusive, deep‐diving cetacean species found in the North Pacific Ocean. Since Stejneger's beaked whale strandings data in Alaska through 1994 were last published, 35 additional strandings have been documented. Twenty‐seven animals stranded in the Aleutian Islands, seven stranded in Southcentral Alaska, and one animal stranded on St. Lawrence Island. Twenty‐two carcasses were necropsied, but only four were fresh. Seventeen of the 22 died during mass stranding events and cause of death could not be definitively determined. Barotrauma was suspected in three cases and infectious disease possibly complicated by barotrauma occurred in two cases. We documented an expansion of strandings into the northern Bering Sea, characterized a sex bias, examined stomach contents that included macroplastic, and identified parasites not previously associated with Stejneger's beaked whales. Also included are data on the largest known mass stranding of Stejneger's beaked whales, which occurred on Adak Island in 2018. The history, distribution, and findings presented here are central to further our understanding of this species.
Article
Regulations for underwater anthropogenic noise are typically formulated in terms of peak sound pressure, root-mean-square sound pressure, and (weighted or unweighted) sound exposure. Sound effect studies on humans and other terrestrial mammals suggest that in addition to these metrics, the impulsiveness of sound (often quantified by its kurtosis β) is also related to the risk of hearing impairment. Kurtosis is often used to distinguish between ambient noise and transients, such as echolocation clicks and dolphin whistles. A lack of standardization of the integration interval leads to ambiguous kurtosis values, especially for transient signals. In the current research, kurtosis is applied to transient signals typical for high-power underwater noise. For integration time ( t 2 − t 1 ), the quantity ( t 2 − t 1 ) / β is shown to be a robust measure of signal duration, closely related to the effective signal duration, τ eff for sounds from airguns, pile driving, and explosions. This research provides practical formulas for kurtosis of impulsive sounds and compares kurtosis between measurements of transient sounds from different sources.
Article
Hydrophone, serving as a part of sonar, has a significant effect on the performance of acoustic sensors such as frequency characteristics and sensitivity, however, some limitation such as high cost and complexity in SOI manufacturing technique hinder the industrial application of hydrophones. Therefore, a novel Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) piezoelectric vector hydrophone based on PZT (lead zirconate titanate) film has been adopted in obtaining vector information of underwater sound field. The piezoelectric hydrophone sensor was analyzed, designed and fabricated with PZT-on-Si substrate, and the structure consists of a four-cantilevers and an acoustics columnar cilium fixed on the center micro mass. According to the simulation results, the piezoelectric films are optimally distributed at the tip of the four beams, where the maximum strain locates. Finally, the piezoelectric vector hydrophone was characterized by comparative calibration experiments in a standing wave bucket. This passive MEMS piezoelectric hydrophone has the characteristics of receiving sensitivity with −189.3 dB at 920 Hz (0dB = 1 V/μPa) and a typical directional pattern of “8” shape, low noise output and high dynamic test range, which is suitable for high precision passive underwater detection.
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Introduction Attention underlies our ability to focus on goal-relevant information and simultaneously ignore distracting, goal-irrelevant information. It thus serves as a gateway for selective information processing (Desimone and Duncan, 1995; Kastner and Ungerleider, 2001). Working memory is closely linked to attention in that information that passes the attention filter becomes accessible for maintenance over brief periods to be retrieved or manipulated for purposes of guiding subsequent goal directed behavior (Baddeley, 2003; Gazzaley, 2011). As such, efficient attention and working memory functions allow us to control and navigate through constantly changing environments. Given the fundamental importance of these cognitive faculties, many recent neuroscientific investigations are focused on training strategies that might improve attention and executive control. In recent years, regular action video game play by young adults has emerged as an activity that is consistently shown to be associated with superior attention capacities (Greenfield et al., 1994; Green and Bavelier, 2003; West et al., 2008; Chisholm et al., 2010; Hubert-Wallander et al., 2011a). In parallel, other investigators have developed and evaluated novel computer-based games designed specifically to ameliorate neurophysiological deficits in cognitive control, such as those observed in normal aging (Mahncke et al., 2006; Smith et al., 2009; Berry et al., 2010; Anguera et al., 2013). Moreover, impacts of regular game play are also being observed outside the laboratory in everyday life, ranging from superior surgical skills of game playing surgeons (Rosser et al., 2007) to improved self-reports of cognitive health and mood in older individuals who regularly played computerized cognitive training games (Smith et al., 2009).
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Introduction Sensation and perception science and its applications are exciting to teach because the material challenges learners’ belief systems about the way we apprehend the world. Consider, for example, the following interaction that took place during a lecture/discussion that was taught by one of the authors. The Instructor had just explained that color does not physically exist in the world, that objects do not contain color, that color is not carried in light, and human biology (i.e., cone photoreceptors) is what allows humans to perceive color. A Student said, “You’re just messing with us, right?” The Instructor smiled and replied, “Nope. Color exists because our brain interprets information from the photoreceptors, which are activated as a result of specific wavelengths reaching the photoreceptors.” The Student responded by saying, “Professor, you just blew my mind.” Although the reaction from this student is not a scholarly response, it is the type of response professors love to hear because it indicates a change in the learner’s thinking and understanding about how humans perceive the physical world. But despite all of the passion many instructors bring to the classroom, there are several reasons why sensation and perception is one of the most challenging courses to teach. First, sensation and perception is one of the oldest areas in psychology, with empirical findings dating back even before the 1879 laboratory of Wilhelm Wundt, who is generally acknowledged as the “father” of psychology. As a result, there is a large knowledge base that instructors must select from when deciding what is most important for their students. Second, sensation and perception encompasses many different specializations and links to many kindred disciplines. In order to understand the sensory and perceptual systems, learners need to acquire information about the rudimentary physics of the stimuli (e.g., light, sound, chemical composition of odorants, etc.), the biology of the sensory and nervous system, and the psychology of how information is filtered and interpreted. Third, sensation and perception are taught in macro-segments (i.e., tactile, olfaction, taste, auditory, vestibular, and visual systems) and in narrower segments (i.e., spatial gradients, motion perception, depth perception, color perception), but has the ultimate goal of understanding each sensory system as a whole and, ultimately, perception as a whole.
Article
The importance of perceived sound source distance has been noted in controlled exposure studies with free-ranging marine mammals. Different behavioral reactions have been observed for sonar exposures with a similar received level but differing source distances. This psychophysical study examined bottlenose dolphins' use of range-dependent acoustic features in classifying frequency-modulated tonal stimuli (∼10-kHz fundamental). Repetitive tones with simulated range-dependent high-frequency attenuation (HFA) and reverberation (REV) were presented with roving levels (levels varied ±10 dB). The dolphins were trained to produce a phonic response upon hearing tones simulating relatively distant 30-km sources and to withhold response for closer-range tones. Once this behavior was reliably performed, probe trials with intermediate ranges were used to examine stimulus classification based on HFA and REV. Dolphins responded to nearly all probe trials with ranges of 10 and 20 km, while responses were less frequent at 1 and 2 km. Probes with HFA and REV decoupled from simulated source distance indicated that the dolphins used HFA to a greater degree than REV in response decisions. These results suggest that dolphins can classify harmonic signals based on range-dependent HFA and REV independent of received level, making these cues potentially useful in deciding behavioral reactions to acoustic sources.
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Since radio signals are strongly attenuated in saltwater and often scattered by suspended particles (similar for optical signals), acoustic wave becomes major communication medium used in underwater environments (Preisig, Proceedings of the ACM international WS, underwater networks (WUWNet), Los Angeles, USA 2006, [1]). However, some characteristics of underwater acoustic channels raise new challenges to underwater network protocol design, which are summarized below.
Book
The Cambridge Handbook of Applied Perception Research covers core areas of research in perception with an emphasis on its application to real-world environments. Topics include multisensory processing of information, time perception, sustained attention, and signal detection, as well as pedagogical issues surrounding the training of applied perception researchers. In addition to familiar topics, such as perceptual learning, the Handbook focuses on emerging areas of importance, such as human-robot coordination, haptic interfaces, and issues facing societies in the twenty-first century (such as terrorism and threat detection, medical errors, the broader implications of automation). Organized into sections representing major areas of theoretical and practical importance for the application of perception psychology to human performance and the design and operation of human-technology interdependence, it also addresses the challenges to basic research, including the problem of quantifying information, defining cognitive resources, and theoretical advances in the nature of attention and perceptual processes.
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Introduction: A Brief History of SDT Signal detection theory (SDT) represents one of the most prominent scientific developments in psychology of the past 60 years (Dember, 1998; Estes, 2002). Its application to perception began with the use of statistical decision theory for radar detection problems (e.g., Peterson, Birdsall, and Fox, 1954), and efforts to determine the sensitivity of information transmission via a sensitivity measure that was free of response bias (for an early discussion of the historical antecedents of SDT see Swets, 1973). A key insight by the pioneering researchers was that errors of commission in perception tasks are not necessarily the result of guessing, as assumed by threshold theories (Tanner and Swets, 1954). The techniques provided by SDT have found wide application, including domains such as radiology, assessment of memory in clinical populations, and many kinds of monitoring tasks. In general, any categorical decision or diagnostic task can be evaluated using SDT, permitting separate assessment of the capacity of the decision maker to discriminate among categories (defined as perceptual sensitivity, d’) and his or her cognitive bias for selecting one category over another (response criterion or response bias, β). As a statistical model, SDT rests on a set of assumptions. These include the premises that (1) events to be detected (signals) are always embedded in a background of irrelevant sensory information (noise); (2) the distributions of noise and signal-plus-noise are of normal form and equal variance; (3) observers are both sensors and decision makers, and they adopt a criterion of sensory magnitude for deciding whether a given event is a signal or a nonsignal; and (4) measures of perceptual sensitivity (e.g., d’) can be treated as if they were independent of measures of response bias (e.g., β).
Technical Report
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Literature review of underwater sounds produced by the oil and gas industry. The report covers all the stages of the oil and gas lifecycle: exploration, development, production, and decommissioning. Among the acoustic sources addressed in the report are seismic sources, engineering sources, vessels, dredging, drilling, production activities, pipe laying and decommissioning.
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Molecular imaging has become an integral component of modern medicine. Defined by the molecular imaging center of excellence as “the visualization, characterization, and measurement of biological processes at the cellular and molecular level in humans and other living systems”, molecular imaging includes two- or three-dimensional noninvasive imaging as well as the quantification of acquired data over time [1]. Clinically, the importance of molecular imaging is paramount in the study and noninvasive diagnosis of diseases—based on molecular signatures rather than anatomic alterations—which in turn enables early detection of abnormalities and evaluation of new treatment approaches for improved survival rates. James and Gambhir summarized the main advantages of molecular imaging approaches: the possibility of studying cells in their natural environment without any disturbance from outside, the analysis of complex biological processes in real time, the investigation of signaling pathways in vivo, the gaining of information about drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, and the obtaining of multiple data sets in adequate resolution from the same patient over time [2].
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Every day, people make countless decisions about whether certain actions are possible. Soldiers decide whether they can throw grenades close to their enemies. Automobile drivers decide whether they can safely merge into traffic. Construction workers decide whether they can carry heavy loads by themselves, or they should recruit a coworker to help. Nurses decide whether patients can safely reach something, or they should intervene and retrieve it for them. Teleoperators decide whether their robot can climb a certain hill. In each scenario, it is necessary to decide whether the desired action is possible. How do we make these types of decisions? More specifically, how do we know whether those actions are possible? According to J. J. Gibson’s (1979/1986) ecological approach to perception-action, we do so by perceiving our action capabilities, otherwise known as our affordances. The goal of this chapter is to discuss issues related to the study of affordance perception research. Toward that end, the chapter addresses two main questions: What are affordances? How does one study affordance perception? The answers to these questions will provide readers with information about affordance perception, as well as the methodological tools to begin their own affordance perception experiments.
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Introduction The scientific study of visual attention has traditionally been a laboratory affair. However, more and more researchers are beginning to look beyond the laboratory to how visual attention functions “in the wild.” This work has generated important new insights into attention with the promise of more once they are fed back into traditional laboratory based research. The review that follows will highlight research on attention in the wild with emphasis on the different methodological strategies adopted (e.g., naturalistic observation, mobile eye tracking) and some of the insights that have resulted. In addition, we explore a critical idea that has emerged recently, specifically, that the social world profoundly shapes our visual attentional behavior. The scientific study of visual attention cannot ignore the primacy of social goals within those contexts. We first consider some conceptual and methodological issues that form the backdrop of the present chapter. This is followed by a brief review of the use of naturalistic observation and mobile eye tracking in visual attention research, two methods that are central to the investigation of attention in the wild. Last, we offer a case study, based on research using both of these methods, that demonstrates that visual attentional behavior “in the lab” can differ in interesting ways from the conceptually equivalent behavior “in the wild.”
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Introduction In developing or redesigning displays, there are two critical components that must be considered: what information needs to be displayed and how the information should be displayed. The former is concerned with content while the latter is concerned with the format of the information. Both factors will influence the ways in which decisions based on the display are made. This chapter will focus on the use of task analytic techniques as a tool for designing displays. What is the best format for the information displayed or for interacting with the display? Task analytic techniques also point to the content that should be presented in the display. The chapter will present methods for both physical and cognitive task analyses, with a particular emphasis on techniques deriving from methods of hierarchical task analysis (see Annett and Kay, 1956; Hoffman and Militello, 2008; Kirwan and Ainsworth, 1992) and a method for computational modeling of human performance (Card, Moran, and Newell, 1983). The chapter will then discuss ways in which these methods can be used to evaluate displays and be instantiated as tools that can be used to develop displays.
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Cetaceans are sensitive to a variety of anthropogenic sounds because they normally use sound to navigate, communicate and capture prey. This paper reviews some fisheries that have taken advantage of this sensitivity by using sound to help capture numerous species of dolphins and whales. Fishermen in many parts of the world have independently developed methods that use sounds to drive (herd) various species of small cetaceans so that they can be killed and used for food, culled (i.e. to offset competition for fish), help capture fish (e.g. in the Eastern Tropical Pacific) or be taken into captivity. It is well documented that drive fisheries for small cetaceans have occurred for at least 650 years in Japan and Europe.With respect to large whales, the use of sound became widespread after World War II, with the advent of an early form of sonar (ASDIC) which was used for hunting both baleen and sperm whales. Baleen whales displayed a strong avoidance reaction to ASDIC by swimming rapidly away from the sound while remaining near the surface of the water. In contrast, sperm whales made longer dives in response to ASDIC. During the 20th Century, fishermen using these two acoustical methods killed millions of cetaceans (including those caught in the Eastern Tropical Pacific tuna fisheries), both small and large. The effectiveness of acoustic capture methods shows that a wide range of cetacean species have strong avoidance reactions to a variety of anthropogenic sounds. Research to better document the characteristics of these sounds, including those used in existing drive fisheries and those produced by ASDIC devices, would improve understanding of the types of anthropogenic sounds that could contribute to mass-stranding events and should be minimized in protected habitats for cetaceans.
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For the three decades following World War II, the United States realized unparalleled success in strategic and tactical antisubmarine warfare operations by exploiting the high acoustic source levels of Soviet submarines to achieve long detection ranges. The emergence of the quiet Soviet submarine in the 1980s mandated that new and revolutionary approaches to submarine detection be developed if the United States was to continue to achieve its traditional antisubmarine warfare effectiveness. Since it is immune to sound-quieting efforts, low-frequency active acoustics has been proposed as a replacement for traditional passive acoustic sensor systems. The underlying science and physics behind this technology are currently being investigated as part of an urgent U.S. Navy initiative, but the United States and its NATO allies have already begun development programs for fielding sonars using low-frequency active acoustics. Although these first systems have yet to become operational in deep water, research is also under way to apply this technology to Third World shallow-water areas and to anticipate potential countermeasures that an adversary may develop.
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Presents the fundamentals of underwater acoustics, acoustic signal generation, and acoustic signal processing in sufficient depth to permit the analysis of optimization of performance of underwater acoustic systems. Covers the generation and propagation of compressional acoustic waves in the ocean, including the complex effects that occur at the surface and bottom boundaries. Reviews Fourier methods, correlation techniques, random processes, and statistical detection and estimation theory.-from Author
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KeeganJohn. The Price of Admiralty: The Evolution of Naval Warfare. New York: Viking. 1989. Pp. xii, 292. $21.95. - Volume 22 Issue 2 - Robert W. Love
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For much of the first four decades of the twentieth century (with the exception of an impulse effort during World War I), undersea acoustics had limited financial support and a small number of practitioners. During 1940–1950 this situation changed. A massive effort funded by the U. S. Navy enabled a large multidisciplined group of civilian scientists to transform a previously relatively simple pragmatic ’’art’’ into an increasingly complex emerging science.
Article
Since the beginning of the twentieth century, submarines have been the weapon of choice for weaker naval powers that wish to contest a dominant power's control of the seas or its ability to project power ashore from the sea. This is because submarines have been and are likely to remain the weapon system with the highest leverage in a battle for control of the ocean surface. Hence, antisubmarine warfare (ASW) will always remain the most important element of the U.S. Navy's core mission sea control. Since the middle of the twentieth century, submarines have also become a weapon of the strong, both because they became a major if not the dominant platform for performing ASW, and because they also became a dominant means of projecting power from the sea, first as a nuclear delivery platform, and now, at the end of the century, as a conventional precision strike platform. For the U.S. Navy, maintaining superiority in ASW, and maximizing its ability to project power from the sea will require innovative contributions by each of its platform communities in new mission areas, as it did during the Cold War. It is likely that the sources of victory in these future endeavors will be similar to those that gave the Navy a great victory in the Third battle.
Article
Underwater acoustics is a very rewarding field in which to work, one reason being that the frontiers of knowledge are closer at hand than in some other fields. It has not developed as quickly as radar, for example, although the first measurement of the velocity of sound in water was made in 1827. Building on a foundation of physics, underwater acoustics embraces ultrasonics, electrical engineering and mechanical engineering, and impinges on a wide range of subjects such as biology, geology, oceanography and civil engineering. There are also important applications in the fishing industry. Interwoven with all these is the fascination of the sea and of marine life. In this paper, several aspects are considered and some of the results of recent research and development are described.
Article
Underwater acoustics has been one of the fastest growing fields of research in acoustics. In particular, the 20th Century has taken our understanding of underwater acoustics phenomena a great step forward. The two World Wars contributed to the recognition of the importance of research in underwater acoustics, and the momentum in research and development gained during World War II did not reduce in the years after the war. The so-called cold war and the development in computer technology both contributed substantially to the development in underwater acoustics over the second half of the 20th Century. However, the very widespread field of underwater acoustic activities started nearly 2300 years ago with human curiosity about the fundamental nature of sound in the sea. From primitive philosophical and experimental studies of the velocity of sound in the sea and through centuries of successes and failures, the knowledge about underwater acoustics has developed into its high-technological status of today. In particular the development through the period from Aristotle (384–322 BC) to 1960 formed the basis for the tremendous research and development efforts we have witnessed in our time. In this paper most emphasis will be put on the development in underwater acoustics through this period of nearly 2300 years duration, and only the main trends in later research will be mentioned.
Article
Mass strandings of live whales have been explained by proposing many `natural' or human-related causes. I found that a recent stranding of Cuvier's beaked whale coincided closely in time and location with military tests of an acoustic system for submarine detection being carried out by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
Article
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