Focal but reversible diastolic sheet dysfunction reflects regional calcium mishandling in dystrophic mdx mouse hearts

Cardiovascular Division, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri: and.
AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.84). 07/2012; 303(5):H559-68. DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.00321.2012
Source: PubMed


Cardiac dysfunction is a primary cause of patient mortality in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, potentially related to elevated cytosolic calcium. However, the regional versus global functional consequences of cellular calcium mishandling have not been defined in the whole heart. Here we sought for the first time to elucidate potential regional dependencies between calcium mishandling and myocardial fiber/sheet function as a manifestation of dystrophin-deficient (mdx) cardiomyopathy. Isolated-perfused hearts from 16-mo-old mdx (N = 10) and wild-type (WT; N = 10) were arrested sequentially in diastole and systole for diffusion tensor MRI quantification of myocardial sheet architecture and function. When compared with WT hearts, mdx hearts exhibited normal systolic sheet architecture but a lower diastolic sheet angle magnitude (|β|) in the basal region. The regional diastolic sheet dysfunction was normalized by reducing perfusate calcium concentrations. Optical mapping of calcium transients in isolated hearts (3 mdx and 4 WT) revealed a stretch-inducible regional defect of intracellular calcium reuptake, reflected by a 25% increase of decay times (T(50)) and decay constants, at the base of mdx hearts. The basal region of mdx hearts also exhibited greater fibrosis than did the apex, which matched the regional sheet dysfunction. We conclude that myocardial diastolic sheet dysfunction is observed initially in basal segments along with calcium mishandling, ultimately culminating in increased fibrosis. The preservation of relatively normal calcium reuptake and diastolic/systolic sheet mechanics throughout the rest of the heart, together with the rapid reversibility of functional defects by reducing cytosolic calcium, points to the significance of regional mechanical factors in the progression of the disease.

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Available from: Ya-Jian Cheng, Mar 09, 2014
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    • "Signs of overt cardiomyopathy are more pronounced in aged mdx mice as compared to milder cardiac alterations in young animals [76, 77]. Aged mdx mice showed a widespread and patchy increase in ventricular wall fibrosis [78], whereby the basal region exhibited a greater degree of fibrotic changes than the apex of the dystrophic heart [79]. The onset of fibrosis in the mdx heart was found to be associated with an increased expression of collagen and the connective tissue growth factor CTGF [80]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiorespiratory complications are frequent symptoms of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a neuromuscular disorder caused by primary abnormalities in the dystrophin gene. Loss of cardiac dystrophin initially leads to changes in dystrophin-associated glycoproteins and subsequently triggers secondarily sarcolemmal disintegration, fibre necrosis, fibrosis, fatty tissue replacement, and interstitial inflammation. This results in progressive cardiac disease, which is the cause of death in a considerable number of patients afflicted with X-linked muscular dystrophy. In order to better define the molecular pathogenesis of this type of cardiomyopathy, several studies have applied mass spectrometry-based proteomics to determine proteome-wide alterations in dystrophinopathy-associated cardiomyopathy. Proteomic studies included both gel-based and label-free mass spectrometric surveys of dystrophin-deficient heart muscle from the established mdx animal model of dystrophinopathy. Comparative cardiac proteomics revealed novel changes in proteins associated with mitochondrial energy metabolism, glycolysis, signaling, iron binding, antibody response, fibre contraction, basal lamina stabilisation, and cytoskeletal organisation. This review summarizes the importance of studying cardiomyopathy within the field of muscular dystrophy research, outlines key features of the mdx heart and its suitability as a model system for studying cardiac pathogenesis, and discusses the impact of recent proteomic findings for exploring molecular and cellular aspects of cardiac abnormalities in inherited muscular dystrophies.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Co-administration of ibuprofen (IBU) and isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) provides synergistic beneficial effects on dystrophic skeletal muscle. Whether this treatment has also cardioprotective effects in this disease was still unknown. Aims: to evaluate the effects of co-administration of IBU and ISDN (a) on left ventricular (LV) structure and function, and (b) on cardiac inflammatory response and fibrosis in mdx mice. METHODS: three groups of mice were studied: mdx mice treated with IBU (50mgkg(-1))+ISDN (30mgkg(-1)) administered daily in the diet, mdx mice that received standard diet without drugs and wild type aged-matched mice. Animals were analysed after 10-11 months of treatment. Structural and functional parameters were evaluated by echocardiography while histological analyses were performed to evaluate inflammatory response, collagen deposition, cardiomyocyte number and area. RESULTS: treatment for 10-11 months with IBU+ISDN preserved LV wall thickness and LV mass. Drug treatment also preserved the total number of cardiomyocytes in the LV and attenuated the increase in cardiomyocyte size, when compared to untreated mdx mice. Moreover, a trend towards a decreased number of inflammatory cells, a reduced LV myocardial interstitial fibrosis and an enhanced global LV function response to stress was observed in treated mdx mice. CONCLUSIONS: treatment for 10-11 months with IBU+ISDN is effective in preventing the alterations in LV morphology of mdx mice while not reaching statistical significance on LV function and cardiac inflammation.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Pharmacological Research
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