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On the Optimal Path Length for Tor


Abstract and Figures

Choosing a path length for low latency anonymous networks that optimally balances security and performance is an open problem. Tor's design decision to build paths with precisely three routers is thought to strike the correct balance. In this paper, we investigate this design decision by experimentally evaluating several of the key benefits and drawbacks of two-hop and three-hop paths. We find that (1) a three-hop design is slightly more vulnerable to endpoint compromise than a two-hop design in the presence of attackers who employ simple denial-of-service tactics; (2) two-hop paths trivially reveal entry guards to exit routers, but even with three-hop paths the exit can learn entry guards by deploying inexpensive middle-only routers; and (3) three-hop paths incur a performance penalty relative to two-hop paths. Looking forward, we identify and discuss a number of open issues related to path length.
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On the Optimal Path Length for Tor
Kevin Bauer1, Joshua Juen2, Nikita Borisov2,
Dirk Grunwald1, Douglas Sicker1, and Damon McCoy3
1University of Colorado at Boulder
{bauerk, grunwald, sicker}
2University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
{juen1, nikita}
3University of California at San Diego
Abstract. Choosing a path length for low latency anonymous networks
that optimally balances security and performance is an open problem.
Tor’s design decision to build paths with precisely three routers is thought
to strike the correct balance. In this paper, we investigate this design
decision by experimentally evaluating several of the key benefits and
drawbacks of two-hop and three-hop paths. We find that (1) a three-
hop design is slightly more vulnerable to endpoint compromise than a
two-hop design in the presence of attackers who employ simple denial-
of-service tactics; (2) two-hop paths trivially reveal entry guards to exit
routers, but even with three-hop paths the exit can learn entry guards
by deploying inexpensive middle-only routers; and (3) three-hop paths
incur a performance penalty relative to two-hop paths. Looking forward,
we identify and discuss a number of open issues related to path length.
1 Introduction
Design decisions made by low latency anonymizing networks frequently involve
achieving a correct balance between security and performance. For example,
Tor does not employ cover traffic or add intentional delays in order to ensure
performance that is sufficient to support interactive applications such as web
browsing. However, this decision has increased Tor’s vulnerability to end-to-
end traffic correlation. Another key design decision is path length. Tor employs
a decentralized architecture of precisely three routers to mitigate any single
router’s ability to link a source and destination. However, three-hop paths have
a performance cost. In this paper, we seek to better understand the security and
performance trade-offs related to path length design decisions.
Tor’s design — like most low latency anonymizing networks — is vulnerable
to end-to-end traffic correlation attacks. If the endpoints are compromised, an
adversary can apply any one of many known traffic analysis attacks [1–8] to cor-
relate the source and destination. Conventional wisdom indicates that three-hop
paths achieve an appropriate balance between security and performance. How-
ever, two-hop paths may be attractive to users seeking improved performance,
though it is unclear what security trade-offs two-hop paths may incur.
Through analysis, simulation, and experiments performed on the live Tor
network, we critically evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of two-hop
and three-hop paths from security and performance perspectives. In addition,
we identify and discuss a variety of open issues related to the security and per-
formance of different path length choices.
Path length and security. We consider an adversary who uses selective dis-
ruption tactics (as in [4, 9–11]) to force circuits to be rebuilt in the event that
a malicious router participates in a circuit that is not compromised. Through
simulation of Tor’s router selection algorithm fueled by real router data obtained
from Tor’s trusted directory servers, we show that three-hop paths are up to 7%
more vulnerable to path compromise than two-hop paths under the same attack.
One potential disadvantage of a two-hop design is that exit routers can triv-
ially discover clients’ entry guards, since they communicate directly. We empir-
ically demonstrate that malicious exit routers can identify clients’ entry guards
even with three-hop paths by deploying middle-only routers that employ selec-
tive disruption. Our results show that an adversary with only ten malicious exit
routers and 50 middle-only routers can learn the entry guards for nearly 80% of
all circuits constructed. We also analyze the potential to identify clients uniquely
through knowledge of their entry guards.
We lastly perform experiments on the real deployed Tor network to show
that low cost timing-based traffic analysis techniques that link circuits by their
circuit building messages can be highly successful in practice. On the live Tor
network with a workload of real user traffic, we show that timing analysis can
successfully link 97% of the traffic from clients that we control even before any
data traffic is sent.
Path length and performance. In addition to an analysis of path length
from a security perspective, we show that shorter paths offer better performance
as perceived by end-users in terms of download time. We perform an analysis of
typical web browsing behavior and demonstrate that users will see fewer circuit
failures with two-hop paths, which results in faster web page loading and an
improved user experience.
2 Tor: The Second Generation Onion Routing Design
Tor is the second generation onion routing design providing a low latency anon-
ymizing overlay network for TCP-based applications [12]. One of Tor’s primary
design goals is to ensure low enough latency to facilitate interactive applica-
tions such as web browsing and instant messaging. Tor’s system architecture
consists of Tor routers, which are volunteer-operated servers, directory servers
that organize information about the Tor routers, and Tor proxies (or clients).
Tor routers may be configured by their operators to allow connections only to
other Tor routers, or to allow exit connections to arbitrary hosts on the Internet.
Tor clients query one of the authoritative directory servers to obtain a signed list
of the available Tor routers, their public keys, bandwidth advertisements, exit
policies, uptime, and other flags indicating their entry guard status and other
To establish an anonymous virtual connection through the Tor network to
a desired destination, the client must first choose a path (or circuit1) of pre-
cisely three Tor routers and establish a shared symmetric key with each, using
authenticated Diffie-Hellman and a telescoping key agreement procedure. Once
the circuit has been created, the client encrypts their data in 512 byte units
called cells with each key in a layered manner and forwards these cells to the
first router in the circuit. Upon receiving a cell, each router removes its layer of
encryption using its symmetric key shared with the client and forwards the cell
to the next router in the circuit. Finally, after the exit router removes the final
layer of encryption, it establishes a TCP connection with the destination and
sends the client’s data. More details can be found in the Tor Protocol Specifica-
tion [13].
2.1 Tor’s Router Selection Algorithm
The manner in which Tor clients select their routers has serious implications
for the network’s security properties. For example, if a client chooses malicious
routers, then they may experience lost anonymity. At Tor’s inception, it was com-
posed of only a few high-bandwidth routers and had few users, so it was sufficient
to select routers uniformly at random. As the network grew in popularity and
router bandwidth diversity, it became necessary to balance the traffic load over
the available bandwidth resources, which can be achieved by selecting routers ac-
cording to their bandwidth capacities. However, Tor routers self-advertise their
bandwidth capacities. It has been shown that an adversary can falsely advertise
high bandwidth claims to attract traffic and increase their ability to compromise
circuits [4,14].
Recent work has proposed methods to securely verify these self-reported
bandwidth claims [15]. Active measurements have been integrated into the Tor
network’s directory servers to verify routers’ bandwidth claims [16]. However,
the security of these active measurements has yet to be evaluated.
Tor’s router selection algorithm [17] chooses routers with the following con-
A router may only be chosen once per path.
To prevent an adversary who controls a small network from deploying a large
number of routers, each router on a path must be from a distinct /16 subnet
(in CIDR notation).2
Each router must be marked as Valid and Running by the authoritative
directory servers.
1The terms “path” and “circuit” are used interchangeably throughout this paper.
2Tor also allows an operator of many relays to set an advisory Family flag that will
ensure that their nodes are not chosen twice per path.
For non-hidden service circuits, each router must be marked as Fast, indi-
cating that the router has at least 100 KB/s of bandwidth or is within the
top 7/8 of all routers ranked by bandwidth.
The first router on the path must be marked as a Guard by the authoritative
directory servers. Clients select precisely three entry guards to use on their
circuits, and choose new guards periodically.
The last router on the path must allow connections to the destination host
and port.
For general purpose circuits, Tor’s path selection algorithm weighs router selec-
tion by each router’s perceived bandwidth capacity. In order to ensure that there
is sufficient exit bandwidth available, the bandwidth of Exit routers is weighted
differently depending on the fraction of bandwidth that is available from non-
Exit routers. Suppose that the total exit bandwidth is Eand the total bandwidth
available is T. If E < T /3, then Exit routers are not considered for non-exit
positions. Otherwise, their bandwidth is weighted by (E(T/3))/E [17].
Entry guards were introduced to Tor’s design to mitigate the threat of pro-
filing and the predecessor attack [14]. Entry guard nodes have special uptime
and bandwidth properties. A router is marked as a Guard by the authoritative
directory servers only if its mean time between failures is above the median of all
“familiar”3routers and its bandwidth is greater than or equal to 250 KB/s [18].
By default, clients choose precisely three entry guards to use for their circuits.
To ensure that there is sufficient guard bandwidth available, guard node selec-
tion is weighted by (G(T/3))/G, where Gis the amount of available guard
bandwidth. If G < T/3, then guard nodes are not considered for non-guard
positions [17].
3 Security Analysis
In this section, we study the security implications of Tor’s path length. First, we
evaluate how an adversary’s ability to compromise circuits varies between two-
hop and three-hop paths. Second, we explore how two-hop paths reveal circuits’
entry guards and discuss the potential for adaptive surveillance attacks. We also
describe an attack where an adversary with few exit routers and comparatively
many middle-only routers can identify the entry guards on a large fraction of
circuits. Third, the amount of information about clients that is revealed by entry
guard knowledge is analyzed. Finally, we evaluate a low cost traffic analysis
technique that links circuits using only circuit building messages on the live Tor
network. This attack’s success re-iterates the fact that three-hop paths provide
no protection whatsoever against these attacks.
3A router is “familiar” if one-eighth of all active routers have appeared more recently
than it [18].
Fig. 1. Distribution of routers used in simulations, as gathered from a directory
3.1 Selective Disruption and Path Length
To understand the relationship between path length and circuit compromise, we
simulate Tor’s current router selection algorithm (described in Section 2.1) using
router data collected from an authoritative directory server.
Simulation setup. We adopt a simulation methodology similar to Murdoch
and Watson [19] in which malicious routers are added to the network and circuit
compromise statistics are computed. In particular, we simulate 1 000 clients who
choose precisely three entry guards and each construct 100 circuits of length
two and three that are suitable for transporting HTTP traffic (port 80).4Next,
a variable number of malicious routers between 5 and 50 are injected into the
network. Each malicious router has 10 MB/s of bandwidth,5is marked as a
Guard,6allows port 80 to exit, and is operated on a distinct /16 subnet.
A snapshot of all Tor routers was obtained from an authoritative directory
server on January 6, 2010. This snapshot (summarized in Figure 1) consists of
1 735 total routers marked as Valid and Running. Note that the snapshot has
sufficient entry guard and exit bandwidth such that both entry guards and exit
routers may by used for any position of the circuit, provided that they have the
appropriate flags.
Results. Figure 2 shows the fraction of circuits that are compromised as the
number malicious routers and amount of adversary-controlled bandwidth in-
creases. First, note that for attackers that do not apply selective disruption, the
circuit compromise rate is directly proportional to the adversary’s resource in-
4We simulate HTTP exit traffic because prior work found it to be the most common
type of traffic by connection on the real Tor network [20, 21].
5Currently the largest believable bandwidth value.
6Obtaining the Guard flag only requires that the router demonstrate stability for a
relatively short period of time. We anecdotally found that a new router on a high
bandwidth link can obtain the Guard flag after running for roughly seven days.
100 200 300 400 500
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Amount of malicious bandwidth (MB/s)
Fraction of circuits compromised
pathlen=3 with disruption
pathlen=2 with disruption
Fig. 2. Fraction of HTTP circuits compromised
vestment: 50 attackers with 10 MB/s of bandwidth each control over half of the
network’s bandwidth, but are able to compromise just over half of all circuits.
Also, the compromise rate is the same regardless of whether three- or two-hop
paths are used for each malicious router configuration since the attacker gains
no advantage from participating in circuits that are not compromised.
Now consider an adversary whose routers selectively disrupt circuits on which
they’re chosen that they cannot compromise. Regardless of path length, if the
client has the misfortune of choosing three malicious entry guards, then due to
selective disruption, their circuits are always compromised. If a client chooses no
malicious entry guards, then their circuits are never compromised. Clients that
chose one or two malicious entry guards experience circuit compromise with a
certain probability. For example, when there are 10 malicious routers and clients
use three-hop paths, 38% of clients choose no malicious guards, 47% choose
one malicious guard, 13% choose two malicious guards, and 1% choose three
malicious guards. Of the clients that choose one or two malicious guards, their
circuits are compromised 63% and 85% of the time, respectively. Note that entry
guards offer some degree of protection against circuit compromise, since clients
that choose no entry guards are safe and the threat increases with the selection
of additional malicious entry guards.
As shown in Figure 2, across all malicious router configurations the fraction
of circuits compromised is up to 7% higher for three-hop paths relative to two-
hop paths. With three-hop paths, when the client selects one or two malicious
guards, their circuits are disrupted when they use a non-malicious guard and
a malicious middle or exit router (or both). In this case, the circuit is rebuilt
and the client may use a malicious guard. With two-hop paths, if the client
does not use a malicious guard, then only the exit position can disrupt non-
compromised circuits. Since three-hop paths have one additional position from
which to disrupt circuits, they exhibit a slightly higher compromise rate relative
to two-hops. However, it is unclear if this small increase in the risk of endpoint
compromise is a sufficient danger to justify a change in Tor’s default path length.
3.2 Adaptive Surveillance Attacks and Path Length
In addition to the threat posed by compromised routers, Tor’s three-hop de-
sign is ostensibly vulnerable to attacks whereby a powerful ISP or government
adversary can monitor a targeted circuit’s endpoints’ networks to identify the
traffic’s source and destination. This attack is believed to be difficult with three-
hop paths because it relies on a circuit having the misfortune of choosing an
entry and exit router that reside within monitored networks. Since Tor achieves
network diversity in its route selection in practice [22], this attack would require
collusion by many network operators.
However, with two-hop paths exit routers can directly observe the entry
guards. Suppose that a client builds a circuit through an adversary-controlled
exit router, but uses a non-malicious entry guard. Since the exit router knows the
client’s entry guard, they could adaptively demand network logs from the entry
guard’s network through legal channels or other forms of coercion. While this
attack requires a powerful adversary and consequently may be unlikely, two-hop
paths make the attack technically feasible which may encourage malicious exit
routers (or their network operators) to implement it.
While two-hop paths enable adaptive surveillance attacks by leaking entry
guards to the exit router, adaptive surveillance is possible even with Tor’s cur-
rent three-hop design. If an adversary deploys both malicious exit routers and
malicious middle-only routers, they can collude to identify the entry guards used
for every circuit on which they are used for the middle and exit positions. We
next show that an adversary who controls few exit routers and comparatively
many malicious middle-only routers can identify the entry guard used for a large
fraction of circuits.
Simulation setup. Experiments are conducted where an adversary controls
only ten exit routers configured to exit HTTP (port 80) traffic and injects 50 and
75 middle-only routers to the Tor network summarized in Figure 1. All malicious
routers have 10 MB/s of bandwidth and now disrupt circuits when they do not
control both the middle and exit positions. We simulate 1 000 clients who each
build 100 circuits.
This attack strategy has a low cost for the adversary, since they do not
need to demonstrate router stability (as is necessary to obtain the guard flag).
In addition, all malicious middle-only nodes could be deployed on the same
/16 network and all malicious exit routers could be deployed on a second /16
network. Thus, the resources required to launch this attack are modest.
Results. For an attacker with 10 malicious exit routers and 50 middle-only
routers, the adversary can identify the entry guard for 79% of all circuits con-
structed. When the attacker deploys 75 middle-only routers, they discover the
client’s entry guard for 85% of all circuits. For these circuits, the adversary could
apply pressure and potentially coerce the entry guard (or its network operator)
to reveal the identity of the client.
Table 1. Daily statistics for clients per entry guard and entropy estimates
No. of Samples Minimum Maximum Median 95% Confidence Interval
n= 737 680 164 000 8416 (24 104, 27 176)
Entropy 8.20 0.29 4.57 (3.05, 2.88)
Perhaps the most compelling argument in favor of three-hop paths for Tor
is that the middle router hides the entry guards from exit routers. By using
a middle router, a malicious exit typically knows only information about the
client that is leaked by their applications. However, if malicious exits collude
with middle routers who can observe the entire circuit, it becomes feasible for
the exit to learn a large fraction of the total client population’s entry guards.
To make matters worse, deploying a relatively large number of middle-only
routers causes a global change in Tor’s router selection process. In these exper-
iments, when 50 middle-only routers are introduced, the aggregate entry guard
bandwidth Gand aggregate exit router bandwidth Eno longer satisfies GT/3
and ET/3, respectively, where Tis the total bandwidth. In this network con-
figuration, exit routers may only be used for the exit position and entry guards
may only be used for the guard position. This enables the adversary to focus
their few exit routers toward occupying the exit position and maximize their
ability to conduct adaptive surveillance.
3.3 Entry Guard Linkability
With a two-hop design, we know that malicious exit routers can discover clients’
entry guards. It is possible that clients’ entry guards may be uniquely identifying
or place clients into small anonymity sets. To understand the extent to which
knowledge of clients’ entry guards may be identifying, we next analyze publicly
available data on entry guard usage from the Tor Metrics Project [23]. From this
data, eleven entry guards provide information about the number of clients that
they observe over time.7Table 1 presents a statistical summary of the number
of clients observed by each entry guard on a daily basis. With this data, we
can estimate how much identifying information is leaked through knowledge of
a client’s entry guard.
We apply the standard entropy metric from information theory [24] to mea-
sure how much information is revealed about a user by their entry guard selec-
tions. The total number of unique Tor users per day is currently estimated to be
between 100 000 and 300 000 [25]. Thus, without any additional knowledge, 17.61
bits of information are necessary to uniquely identify a Tor user.8Now suppose
that a malicious exit router knows a particular client’s entry guard. On average,
roughly 25 000 clients use the same entry guard, so this knowledge leaks only
7To preserve users’ privacy, this data is aggregated by country of origin, quantized
by multiples of eight, and compiled daily.
8This analysis assumes that 200 000 unique clients use Tor each day.
2.96 bits of information about a user’s identity. Even in the worst case when a
client shares a guard with as few as 680 other clients, only 8.20 bits are revealed
(the full entropy results are shown in Table 1).
If an attacker knows all three of a particular client’s entry guards, the client
may be more identifiable since a choice of three guards may be significantly more
unique than a single guard. While it is usually difficult to link a client across
multiple entry guards, if a client inadvertently identifies herself — perhaps by
logging-in to a website or using an application that does not support SSL/TLS
— over time her full set of entry guards could be leaked to a malicious exit
router. Tor clients do, however, expire their entry guard selections periodically,
which may help to protect users from this type of profiling.
We should also point out that, even with three-hop paths, linkability pitfalls
still exist in Tor. First, a Tor circuit can be used by several connections, which
can be trivially linked by the exit router. Second, the predecessor attack shows
that the entry guards used by a client can be learned after O(1/(fmfe)) circuit
constructions on average, where fmand feare the probabilities that a malicious
router will be chosen as the middle and exit router, respectively [26]. Selective
disruption and other techniques [27] can be used to increase the speed of such
3.4 Low Resource Traffic Analysis on the Live Tor Network
Prior work has shown that end-to-end traffic correlation attacks launched against
low latency anonymous networks can achieve near perfect accuracy [2]. To sup-
port interactive or delay-sensitive applications, Tor does not explicitly delay or
batch messages to help defend against end-to-end traffic correlation attacks.
Consequently, Tor’s design assumes that these attacks can achieve high accu-
racy in practice. In fact, such an attack has been proven effective against the
live Tor network in 2006 [14]. Since then, a low resource traffic analysis technique
has been proposed that uses only circuit construction messages to link a source
and destination before any data is sent [4]. This approach allows low bandwidth
attackers to maximize the number of circuits compromised, but this low cost
attack has yet to be validated on the live Tor network. We next evaluate this
traffic analysis approach on the live Tor network.
Experimental setup. We deploy two Tor routers9hosted on a 100 Mb/s net-
work link onto the live Tor network. Each router has a distinct configuration: (1)
One Tor router is configured as a non-exit and after roughly ten days of unin-
terrupted operation, it obtained the Guard flag from the authoritative directory
servers. (2) A second Tor router is configured with the default exit policy.10
During their operation, b oth routers sustained roughly 3 MB/s of traffic.
To evaluate the expected success of traffic analysis, we operate our own Tor
clients and attempt to link their circuits to their destinations. Upon building
9These routers ran software version Tor
10 Ports often associated with outgoing e-mail, peer-to-peer file sharing applications,
and high security risk services are blocked.
a circuit, each client downloads, tears down the circuit, and
repeats this procedure. To preserve users’ privacy, we ignore traffic at the entry
guard that is not produced by one of our clients.11 Note that we do not retain
any linkable data nor do we attempt to deanonymize any other clients but our
Traffic analysis methodology. We apply a traffic analysis technique in which
circuits are linked by their circuit building messages before the clients send
any data cells. This approach leverages the fact that Tor’s circuit establishment
procedure sends a fixed number of circuit building messages in an identifiable
Briefly, circuit linking via circuit building messages works as follows. First,
our entry guard ensures that the circuit building request is from a client and not
a Tor router. Next, it is necessary to ensure that the next router for our entry
guard is the same as the previous router for our exit router (with a tight time
difference). Finally, the circuit building messages for the entry, middle, and exit
routers should occur in increasing chronological order. More details about our
linking procedure can be found in [4].
Results. On the live Tor network, our clients build a total of 1 696 circuits that
always use our entry guard. Of these 821 circuits use our exit router and 875
circuits use a different exit router.12 The middle routers are chosen according to
Tor’s default selection algorithm. Through traffic analysis, we link their circuits
with 97% accuracy, 0.6% false negatives (6 false negatives in total), and 6% false
positives (52 false positives in total). We regard these results as a lower bound
on attainable traffic analysis success, as it should be possible to increase the
accuracy by also using data cells to link circuits. Also, we observe that circuits
that use a popular (i.e., high bandwidth) middle router tend to be more prone to
false positives. Thus, an attacker who sees a positive result with a low bandwidth
middle router can be more confident in the result. Given the high accuracy and
the relatively easy manner in which the traffic analysis was conducted, we confirm
that three-hop paths offer no protection against low cost timing attacks.
4 Performance Analysis
We have already studied Tor’s path length from a security perspective. We next
examine its performance implications. Since the vast majority of Tor traffic is
interactive web browsing [20, 21], we investigate the performance benefits of a
two-hop design from a web browsing end-user’s perspective.
Experimental setup. In order to understand Tor’s performance in a manner
that reflects the quality of a user’s experience, we simulate real clients accessing
the 15 most popular websites13 over Tor version with Polipo version
1.0.4 and measure the download times. Experiments are conducted in February
11 This data collection procedure was approved by the University of Colorado’s Insti-
tutional Review Board.
12 This setup allows us to count the number of false positives that occur during linking.
13 We consider the 15 most popular websites according to
2010 over the course of four days.14 Circuits are constructed according to Tor’s
default router selection algorithm and the Firefox browser downloads one of the
web pages.
In the event of a circuit failure, Firefox’s default behavior is to time-out
after two minutes. However, real users may be impatient and explicitly force
the browser to reload the page by pressing the “refresh” button. Prior work
has found that users of low latency anonymous networks tend to tolerate no
more than four seconds of latency [28]. Thus, in the event of a circuit failure, we
assume that users wait not the full two minutes for their browsers to time-out,
but precisely four seconds before explicitly reloading the page.
Results. A CDF of download times for two- and three-hop paths is shown
in Figure 3. For three-hop paths, half of all web page downloads take longer
than 12 seconds, while for two-hop paths, half complete in over 8 seconds.
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Download time (s)
2 hop paths
3 hop paths
Fig. 3. Time to download popu-
lar web pages
The mean download time for three-hop cir-
cuits is over 28 seconds, which is twice the
expected download time for traffic over two-
hop circuits (14 seconds).
We observe that circuit failures tend to
be a significant cause of the additional ex-
pected download times with three-hop cir-
cuits.15 21% of circuits fail with three-hop
paths, but only 15% of circuits fail with
two-hop paths. The observed unreliability
of three-hop circuits may contribute to high
download times, as some users may wait un-
necessarily for their browser to time-out. In
these experiments, we assume that the user
can quickly identify that their session has
stalled (i.e., by observing that no web con-
tent has loaded) and refresh the page after
waiting four seconds for content to appear.
However, some users may take significantly
longer to launch another web request.
5 Discussion
Having discussed Tor’s path length from security and performance perspectives,
we next discuss a variety of open issues related to path length.
14 While prior studies have found that Tor’s performance varies by time of day [28,29],
a more recent study did not identify diurnal patterns in Tor’s traffic load [20]. Thus,
we do not believe the time of day to be a significant factor that effects performance.
15 A circuit failure occurs when a circuit fails after the circuit has been established and
at least one data stream has been attached. This is different than a circuit building
failure, where a chosen circuit cannot be built.
5.1 User-Configurable Path Lengths
Since two-hop paths offer better performance, it may be tempting to allow users
who value performance over security to use two-hop paths while users who need
stronger security may use three-hop paths. Suppose that most users value perfor-
mance and consequently, Tor chose a default path length of two hops. Security-
conscious users could optionally use three hops to take advantage of the addi-
tional security that three-hop paths offer against adaptive surveillance. However,
clients who choose to use longer paths may be identified as desiring additional
security, which alone could draw an adversary’s attention. Furthermore, it has
been argued that most users tend to keep default options, even when the defaults
may not be optimally suited to their needs [30]. Allowing users to configure their
own path lengths assumes that users understand the full security implications
of their choice, which is unlikely, particularly for novice users. Thus, all users
should be encouraged to use the same path length.
5.2 Potential Liabilities for Exit Routers
Beyond the potential risks of identifying users who desire stronger security by
their path length choice, two-hop paths could be a liability for exit router op-
erators. With three-hop paths, exit routers know nothing about clients other
than what may be revealed by their traffic. However, with two-hop paths, exit
routers are exposed to clients’ entry guards; thus, they are no longer agnostic
with regard to the clients whose traffic they transport. Exit routers could be
presented with subpoenas to reveal entry guard information to governments or
law enforcement agents, which increases the risks associated with operating an
exit router. Since Tor’s exit bandwidth is relatively scarce yet essential to the
network’s ability to function properly, liabilities for exit router operators should
be minimized to attract additional exit routers.
5.3 Secure Bandwidth Estimation
The attacks that we describe in Sections 3.1 and 3.2 are particularly dangerous
in the absence of secure bandwidth verification, since malicious routers could
otherwise inflate their perceived bandwidth to attract traffic. With secure band-
width estimates in place, it will no longer be possible to carry out these attacks
with few resources. However, it is important to remember that such attacks are
still within reach of medium-to-large organizations, or even determined individu-
als: at current hosting rates, running a 10 MB/s node for one week (long enough
for a node to be declared a guard) can cost less than $1 000;16 thus, the financial
resources required to attack the network successfully are moderate at best. Ad-
ditionally, attackers may be able to insert their own high-bandwidth nodes into
the Tor network by compromising computers at well-provisioned institutions.
16 See, for example,
5.4 Does a Two-Hop Design Discard Many Routers?
Many Tor routers are not configured to allow exit traffic and are not fast
and/or stable enough to be an entry guard. These routers are only used for
the middle position. We next consider whether a two-hop design would dis-
card a significant number of middle-only routers and their collective bandwidth.
2 5 20 100 500 5000
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Bandwidth in KB (log scale)
Fig. 4. Bandwidth contributions
from middle-only routers
From the directory server snapshot ana-
lyzed in Section 3, we find that 639 routers
may only be used for the middle position.
These routers collectively contribute about
85 MB/s of bandwidth. To understand how
bandwidth is distributed among non-exit
and non-guard routers, Figure 4 shows a
CDF of these routers’ bandwidth contribu-
tions. Half contribute less than 50.3 KB/s
each and only 11% offer the 250 KB/s neces-
sary to meet the bandwidth criterion for the
guard flag. These higher bandwidth routers
collectively contribute 54.3 of the 85 MB/s
of middle-only bandwidth. If stable enough,
they could eventually obtain the guard flag
and be used for the entry position.
6 Related Work
Security in low latency anonymous networks. An early security analysis
of low-latency anonymous networks suggests that an anonymous path is com-
promised if its endpoints are controlled by an adversary; the expected success
of such an attack is roughly (c/n)2, where there are cmalicious routers, ntotal
routers, and clients choose routers uniformly at random [31]. As networks such
as Tor evolved, it became necessary to balance the traffic load over a diverse set
of volunteer routers, making the task of analytically modeling path compromise
more challenging. To meet this challenge, Murdoch and Watson propose that
path compromise be analyzed empirically through faithful simulation of the un-
derlying routing mechanism in the presence of different threat models [19]. We
adopt a similar empirical approach to reasoning about Tor’s security properties.
Selective disruption attacks. Selective disruption attacks are a form of
denial-of-service (DoS) that allow an adversary to increase the number of cir-
cuits compromised. These attacks work as follows: a malicious router who uses
selective disruption should refuse to forward traffic in the event that they partic-
ipate in a circuit that is not compromised. This causes the circuit to fail and be
rebuilt, providing an opportunity for malicious routers to compromise another
Bauer et al. show that an attacker with only six malicious Tor routers who
utilizes the selective disruption strategy can compromise over 46% of all clients’
circuits in an experimental Tor network with 66 total routers [4]. Similarly,
Borisov et al. demonstrate that an adversary who uses selective disruption expe-
riences a significantly greater path compromise rate. Without selective disrup-
tion, an attacker who controls 50% of the network’s bandwidth can compromise
25% of all circuits, but with selective disruption they can compromise up to 66%
of circuits [9]. However, their analysis was performed using a highly simplified
model of Tor path selection. They also found that, for mix networks, increased
path length results in greater susceptibility to selective disruption attacks, but
did not analyze the effects of path length in Tor. We examine how selective
disruption attacks are less effective with two-hop paths than three hops.
Given the danger of selective disruption, Danner et al. describe an algorithm
for detecting selective disruption attacks that requires a number of probes that
scales linearly with the network size [10]. However, such an active probing ap-
proach may introduce high load into the network. Also, active probing could be
gamed by an intelligent attacker who can recognize the probes, or the adversary
could disrupt circuits probabilistically to blend in with expected background
circuit failures. Ultimately, the DoS strategy allows attackers to perform traffic
analysis on a far greater number of circuits than would otherwise be possible.
End-to-end traffic correlation attacks. Prior work has shown that end-
to-end traffic correlation attacks are highly effective against low-latency anon-
ymizing networks. Levine et al. demonstrate through simulation that the per-
formance of timing-based traffic correlation attacks is dependent on network
conditions, but they show that an adversary can correlate traffic with perfect
accuracy when the packet drop rate is very low [2]. For circuit linking experi-
ments carried out on a small experimental Tor network, Bauer et al. report only
12 false positives out of over ten thousand successful correlations [4]. However,
their traffic load was light and uniform, which may have contributed to the ex-
tremely low false positive rate. Also, Syverson and Øverlier report a negligible
false positive rate for a traffic correlation attack on a Tor hidden service [14].
In this paper, we verify that similarly high traffic correlation accuracies can
be expected for low-resource traffic analysis attacks launched on the real Tor
Alternate router selection strategies. Given the threat of malicious routers
positioning themselves at circuit endpoints for a large number of circuits, Snader
and Borisov propose that clients have the ability to “tune” the router selection
process between security and performance [32]. Choosing routers more uniformly
at random reduces the end-user’s risk of choosing malicious routers who in-
flate their bandwidth claims to attract traffic, however, at the potential cost of
choosing low bandwidth routers and experiencing poor performance. In addi-
tion, Sherr et al. propose that link-based attributes (such as latency or jitter) be
used to select routers rather than node-based attributes (like bandwidth) [33].
However, these proposed routing techniques have yet to be adopted in practice.
Consequently, we only consider Tor’s current router selection algorithm in our
subsequent analysis.
Prior performance analyses. Beyond the security properties of low latency
anonymizing networks, recent work has investigated their performance charac-
teristics. It has been shown that users are more likely to use anonymous com-
munication services that offer better performance [34]. In a performance study
of Tor and AN.ON [35] (a mix cascade) from the end-user’s perspective, Wen-
dolsky et al. find that Tor is subject to unpredictable performance and observe
that users exhibit a four second tolerance to delay [28]. However, Tor users often
experience significant delays beyond this user tolerance threshold [29].
To help explain Tor’s poor observed performance, Reardon and Goldberg
identify that because Tor multiplexes many streams over the same TCP connec-
tions, congestion control interference among different circuits is produced [36].
These unintended interactions often cause very high delays for end-users. TCP-
over-DTLS, an alternate transport design, is proposed to improve performance.
Our work is complementary to these prior studies. Since end-users are sensitive
to excessive delays, we quantify the performance improvement that can be ex-
pected with a two-hop design and argue that such a design may offer even more
improvement in combination with TCP-over-DTLS.
7 Conclusion
We critically evaluate Tor’s path length and consider the advantages and disad-
vantages of a two-hop and three-hop design. We show that two-hop paths are
slightly less vulnerable to circuit compromise attacks than three-hop paths, but
two-hop paths are trivially vulnerable to adaptive surveillance and introduce
potential liabilities for exit node operators. While performance is improved with
shorter paths, we conclude that there is no strong argument for reducing Tor’s
path length. However, we identify a number of open issues that could effect this
decision. Our hope is that this paper encourages further investigation into the
security and performance trades-offs of various path lengths.
We thank Prateek Mittal, Mike Perry, and the anonymous reviewers for their
helpful comments and suggestions.
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... This is mainly due to efficiency reasons and the fact that it is not known whether a circuit length of n > 3 does indeed increase security [43]. Even if greater path lengths would be allowed, it might pose a threat against anonymity: -The path length could act as identifier if not all users commit to same length [7], and -Mounting Denial-of-Security attacks gets easier [9]. ...
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