Smallpox vaccination in the United States is a routine public health measure which has been under intensive review during the last decade. The most frequently occurring adverse reactions to vaccination are benign and require little or no systemic therapy. These reactions include accidental infection, erythematous and urticarial rash, and generalized vaccinia. Chickenpox occurring concurrently with vaccination presents no problem unless vaccinia has widely superinfected the chickenpox lesions. There is no risk to the pregnant woman who is vaccinated, but there is a slight risk that the fetus will develop fetal vaccinia. The vaccinia does not cause congenital malformations. Vaccinia hyperimmune globulin (VIG) in prophylactic dosage may be given to a pregnant woman who is traveling to a smallpox infected or endemic area in order to prevent fetal vaccinia. Vaccinia necrosum and eczema vaccinatum require vigorous systemic therapy with VIG, and often thiosemicarbazone. Post-vaccinial encephalitis, while frequently serious, has not been shown to be ameliorated by VIG therapy, although there are data which suggest VIG has some value in prophylaxis for encephalitis. Prophylaxis, prompt recognition, and proper therapy may reduce the fatality rates of these complications. Revaccination of patients who have suffered a complication is a frequent clinical problem. Revaccination of an individual who has had post-vaccinial encephalitis or vaccinia necrosum is contraindicated unless the risk of contracting smallpox outweighs the risk of the above two diseases. Revaccination of children who have had eczema vaccinatum is not contraindicated. Revaccination of children with a history of accidental infection or erythematous or urticarial rash presents no known or theoretically increased risk.
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"These complications may be severe and life-threatening. Severe adverse events following vaccination may include eczema vaccinatum (EV) in patients with atopic dermatitis and certain other skin conditions, and progressive vaccinia (PV) in immunocompromised patients
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
A33 is a type II integral membrane protein expressed on the extracellular enveloped form of vaccinia virus (VACV). Passive transfer of A33-directed monoclonal antibodies or vaccination with an A33 subunit vaccine confers protection against lethal poxvirus challenge in animal models. Homologs of A33 are highly conserved among members of the Orthopoxvirus genus and are potential candidates for inclusion in vaccines or assays targeting extracellular enveloped virus activity. One monoclonal antibody directed against VACV A33, MAb-1G10, has been shown to target a conformation-dependent epitope. Interestingly, while it recognizes VACV A33 as well as the corresponding variola homolog, it does not bind to the monkeypox homolog. In this study, we utilized a random phage display library to investigate the epitope recognized by MAb-1G10 that is critical for facilitating cell-to-cell spread of the vaccinia virus.
By screening with linear or conformational random phage libraries, we found that phages binding to MAb-1G10 display the consensus motif CEPLC, with a disulfide bond formed between two cysteine residues required for MAb-1G10 binding. Although the phage motif contained no linear sequences homologous to VACV A33, structure modeling and analysis suggested that residue D115 is important to form the minimal epitope core. A panel of point mutants expressing the ectodomain of A33 protein was generated and analyzed by either binding assays such as ELISA and immunoprecipitation or a functional assessment by blocking MAb-1G10 mediated comet inhibition in cell culture.
These results confirm L118 as a component of the MAb-1G10 binding epitope, and further identify D115 as an essential residue. By defining the minimum conformational structure, as well as the conformational arrangement of a short peptide sequence recognized by MAb-1G10, these results introduce the possibility of designing small molecule mimetics that may interfere with the function of A33 in vivo. This information will also be useful for designing improved assays to evaluate the potency of monoclonal and polyclonal products that target A33 or A33-modulated EV dissemination.
"While very effective, the Dryvax vaccine has the highest rate of serious adverse events of any Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved vaccine   . Because of the risks associated with administration of the current live viral smallpox vaccine, and the large percentage of the population for whom this live virus vaccine is contraindicated, public health interests would best be served by the development of an efficacious recombinant or peptidebased vaccine. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An important approach for developing a safer smallpox vaccine is to identify naturally processed immunogenic vaccinia-derived peptides rather than live whole vaccinia virus. We used two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to identify 116 vaccinia peptides, encoded by 61 open reading frames, from a B-cell line (homozygous for HLA class I A*0201, B*1501, and C*03) after infection with vaccinia virus (Dryvax). Importantly, 68 of these peptides are conserved in variola, providing insight into the peptides that induce protection against smallpox. Twenty-one of these 68 conserved peptides were 11 amino acids long or longer, outside of the range of most predictive algorithms. Thus, direct identification of naturally processed and presented HLA peptides gives important information not provided by current computational methods for identifying potential vaccinia epitopes.
"The surveys should be regarded as reports of diagnoses of the physicians, rather than as reports of proven disease entities.'' Goldstein et al, 1975 13 ''Generalized Vaccinia. DiagnosiseThis is a generalized erythematous maculopapular rash occurring in primary vaccinees on otherwise normal skin. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated military personnel who developed dermatologic reactions suggestive of generalized vaccinia (GV) after smallpox vaccination.
We conducted surveillance and retrospective analysis of cases from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (a passive reporting system managed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), and the military's preventive medicine channels, vaccine healthcare centers, clinical laboratory network, dermatology clinics, and pathology departments from December 2002 to December 2004.
Of 74 cases investigated in 753,226 vaccinations, 50 (67.6%) met the case definition of possible GV (rate 66/million), 95% confidence interval (49-88/million), consistent with historically reported rates. Cases of possible GV occurred more frequently in primary vaccinees (81/million) than in those revaccinated (32/million) (relative risk 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.2-5.9, P = .013). None met the case definition of probable or confirmed GV, including 15 with virologically negative laboratory evaluations (eg, culture, skin biopsy, or polymerase chain reaction).
The methods of case collection and retrospective nature of this study are its limitations. The clinical diagnosis of possible GV was made on the basis of the authors' interpretation of clinical notes and adverse events submitted by more than 100 different providers. Only 15 of the 74 cases of possible GV had laboratory attempts for virological confirmation.
GV is still a rarely reported complication of smallpox vaccination. True GV, strictly defined, may be even less common than previously reported. We named one self-limited dermatologic manifestation confused with GV "postvaccinial nonviral pustulosis." Properly screened individuals considering smallpox vaccination may be assured most exanthemata after vaccination are benign.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2006 · Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology