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The Situation of Physical Education in Schools: A European Perspective

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Abstract

Physical Education (PE) in Europe has evolved from influences and initiatives, which have variously shaped national systems either through assimilation or adaptation. As a geopolitical entity Europe is characterised by diversity, testimony to which are different and various forms of structures and practices but there are some elements of congruence in concepts and delivery. Survey and other research evidence indicates a perceived decline or marginalisation of PE in schools, particularly marked in the 1990s, which has attracted attention of the Council of Europe and the European Parliament. In presenting the situational trends and tendencies of PE in schools in the European region, this article draws from three European-wide surveys, a World-wide survey and an extensive literature review including global and regional qualitative studies and national reports. In some countries, there are instances of well implemented programmes and good practices. Equally, there is evidence to generate concern about the situation. The review of PE in Europe is marked by "mixed messages" with indicators of stabilization in some countries juxtaposed between positive, effective policy initiatives in other countries and reticence or little political will to act and continuing concerns in others. There are apparent deficiencies in provision, specifically in curriculum time allocation, subject status, financial, material (inadequacies in facility and equipment supply) and human resources, the quality of the physical education curriculum and its delivery as well as the extent of efficacy of beyond school networks. The crux of the situation is that there is a gap between promise and the reality. The article concludes with suggested strategies, underpinned by development of a "basic needs model", to assist in converting "promises" into "reality" and so secure a safer future for PE in schools.
08HM01_005_018_Hardmann_Situationd.indd 5 2008-06-12, 09:37:27
HUMAN MOVEMENT
THE SITUATION OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS:
A EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE
2008, vol. 9 (1), 5–18
DOI: 10.2478/v10038-008-0001-z
Ken Hardman
University of Worcester, United Kingdom
ABSTRACT
Physical Education (PE) in Europe has evolved from influences and initiatives, which have variously shaped national systems either
through assimilation or adaptation. As a geopolitical entity Europe is characterised by diversity, testimony to which are different and
various forms of structures and practices but there are some elements of congruence in concepts and delivery. Survey and other
research evidence indicates a perceived decline or marginalisation of PE in schools, particularly marked in the 1990s, which has
attracted attention of the Council of Europe and the European Parliament. In presenting the situational trends and tendencies of PE in
schools in the European region, this article draws from three European-wide surveys, a World-wide survey and an extensive literature
review including global and regional qualitative studies and national reports. In some countries, there are instances of well
implemented programmes and good practices. Equally, there is evidence to generate concern about the situation. The review of PE in
Europe is marked by “mixed messages” with indicators of stabilization in some countries juxtaposed between positive, effective
policy initiatives in other countries and reticence or little political will to act and continuing concerns in others. There are apparent
deficiencies in provision, specifically in curriculum time allocation, subject status, financial, material (inadequacies in facility and
equipment supply) and human resources, the quality of the physical education curriculum and its delivery as well as the extent of
efficacy of beyond school networks. The crux of the situation is that there is a gap between promise and the reality. The article
concludes with suggested strategies, underpinned by development of a “basic needs model, to assist in converting “promises” into
“reality” and so secure a safer future for PE in schools.
Key words: physical education, status, policy, curriculum practices, strategies
Introduction gion, especially in central and eastern Europe, there had
been some encouraging developments, the subject ap-
The story of Physical Education (PE) in Europe con- peared to be under greater threat than it had been at the
tains a rich tapestry of influences and developments, beginning of the decade. Essentially, in most countries
which have evolved from individual and/or “local” in- there was (1) insufficient curriculum time for PE, espe-
stitutional initiatives with distinctive identities. These cially for primary age groups and the 17–18 year age
initiatives have variously shaped, or contributed to group, which were well under the minimum; (2) the
shaping, national systems either through assimilation or quality of PE in most countries was not, or was insuffi-
adaptation. Taking evolutionary developments into ac- ciently, controlled particularly so in primary schools
count, it is unsurprising that different and various forms because of PE teacher education programmes with
of structures and practices are evident across Europe a majority of countries reporting inadequate PE train-
and that the region as a geopolitical entity is character- ing for primary school teachers; and (3) an undervalu-
ised by diversity but with some elements of congruence ing of the primary school phase for motor development
in PE and school sport concepts and delivery. Another and motor learning. The survey concluded that in a ma-
dimension to the developing PE tapestry in Europe was jority of countries there was insufficient quality control
the widespread perceived decline or marginalisation of and that the political or educational decision-makers
physical education in schools, particularly marked in were not overly interested in the quality of PE delivered
the 1990s and epitomised in the Loopstra and van der [1]. These and other issues and concerns (decreasing
Gugten survey [1] conducted on behalf of the European curriculum time allocation, inferior status, lower in val-
Physical Education Association (EUPEA). This survey ue and importance than other subjects, PE lessons can-
indicated that whilst in some countries within the re- celled more often than so calledacademic subjects
5
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K. Hardman, The situation of Physical Education in schools
and resource deficiencies such as funding limitations
and impacts on, for example, swimming, which was be-
ing omitted from curricula in some countries, were
borne out in on-going analyses of national and interna-
tional documentation regularly reported by Hardman
[2–7], in a world-wide PE survey [8] and in a Council of
Europe commissioned survey [9] on the situation of PE
in schools in Member States, the findings of which
spawned a set of Ministerial Recommendations [10] on
policy principles designed to remedy the school PE and
sport situation in the region. Since the Council of Eu-
rope Recommendations, the developments in school PE
policies and practices in Europe have been diverse with
a plethora of positive initiatives juxtaposed with evi-
dence to generate continuing disquiet about the situa-
tion. It was such disquiet at a time of widespread in-
creasing levels of obesity and numbers of overweight
children and young people, concomitant rises in seden-
tary lifestyle-related illnesses and high adolescent drop-
out rates from sporting activity inter alia that prompted
the European Parliament to engage (2006) in a study of
the situation of PE in schools and its prospects in the
then 25 and 2 acceding Member States. Specifically, the
European Parliament’s Committee on Structural and
Cohesion Policies, Culture and Education section
sought data on subject status, curriculum aims, delivery
and content, quality PE criteria, responsible authorities,
PE curriculum time allocation, status of PE teachers
and teacher qualifications, material resources (facility
provision and finance), inclusion issues related to disa-
bility, ethnic/religious groups and girls, case studies’
information on links with/between health and school
sport, pathways to participation in the wider communi-
ty, the training of PE teachers (PETE) including initial
and in-service training (INSET)/continuing professional
development (CPD) and policy recommendations1.
In presenting the situation of PE in schools in the
European region, this article draws from the Council of
Europe’s 2002 commissioned survey [9], a semi-struc-
tured questionnaire instrument administered (2005)
through the Council of Europe Committee for the De-
velopment of Sport (CDDS) unit with responses from
representative government level agencies; a semi-struc-
tured “update” questionnaire distributed to recognised
PE “experts” (2006) and administered in the 27 Euro-
1 The European Parliament (EP) Project Report can be accessed via
the EP website at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/activities/expert/
eStudies.do?languages=EN
pean Union States to inform the European Parliament’s
2006–2007 funded study project [11], an on-going analy-
sis of European data2 extracted from of a North West-
ern Counties Physical Education Association and Uni-
versity of Worcester supported and UNESCO, WHO
ICSSPE endorsed Follow-up World-wide Survey un-
dertaken by Hardman and Marshall (2005–2007) and
an extensive literature review including qualitative
studies of PE in global [12] and European [13] contexts
and Reports, e.g. the German Sport Confederation
“Sprint” Study [14].
At the outset, it is necessary to acknowledge poten-
tially problematic issues surrounding validity and relia-
bility of data generated from questionnaires, especially
in terms of nature and size of samples. Nevertheless, in
themselves these data do provide an indication of trends
and tendencies as well as reveal some highly specific
situations. Caution in interpretation is to a large extent
alleviated by forms of triangulation embracing the
range of questionnaire samples’ sets, interviews, the re-
view of research-related literature, including qualitative
national studies, case and project studies undertaken
and submitted by experts in the respective fields. Such
forms of triangulation serve to underpin the question-
naire-generated data and bring a higher degree of valid-
ity and reliability to the content of the article.
The general situation of physical education
in schools
Within the general education system, all countries in
the region have legal requirements (or it is generally
practised) with either prescriptive or guideline expecta-
tions for PE for both boys and girls for at least some part
of the compulsory schooling years. In a majority of
countries, national governments have at least some re-
sponsibility for the PE curriculum. In some countries
there are joint and multiple (national, regional, local and
school) levels of responsibility. Responsibility in some
countries lies at two levels and where decentralised
forms of government are constituted, responsibility is
essentially at regional level as in, for example, the Bel-
gian Flemish and French “Language Communities”, in
the 16 Länder of the Federal Republic of Germany and
in the autonomous regions of Spain. Across Europe and
2 The data include collated semi-structured questionnaire respon-
ses from PE teachers, administrators, government level representa-
tives and experts in the field.
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K. Hardman, The situation of Physical Education in schools
particularly in EU countries, administrative and deliv-
ery responsibility is frequently devolved to local au-
thorities or even individual schools. Legally, PE has the
same status as other subjects in some 90% of countries
but its actual status is perceived to be lower in 34% of
countries. Thus, its status may be equal in law but may
not actually be matched in practice, a not untypical il-
lustration of which is seen in a Portuguese teacher’s ob-
servation that “…It (PE) can be considered compulsory
in the 1st cycle, but, many times it is not taught”. Moreo-
ver, designation of a subject as “foundation” or “subsidi-
ary” implies a lower hierarchical status position than
“core” or “principal” “or main” and in any event, PE is
allocated less time in the curriculum than other subjects
such as language, mathematics and science. Data related
to the issue of implementation are confusing: on the one
hand in 85% of countries, the PE curriculum is claimed
to be implemented in accordance with regulations but
on the other hand, nearly one third of countries indicate
that its subject status is inferior and that PE classes are
cancelled more often than other subject classes. There is
a lower perception of PE teacher status than other sub-
ject teachers in over 20% of countries.
Physical education curriculum time allocation
Across Europe, there was a gradual erosion of school
PE time allocation throughout the 20th century. Den-
mark experienced reductions from 7 to 4 lessons in
1937, 4 to 3 in 1958 and 3 to 2 in 1970, now it is 1–3 les-
sons (usually 2, but 3 in grades 4–6) [15]. In Sweden the
daily provision in 1900 has shrunk to 1–2 lessons in Ba-
sic Schools [16] and Sollerhed [17] reported a reduction
from 3 to 1 hour per week in the 1990s and cancellation
of school sport days; however, in 1999, annual PE and
Health “clock hours increased from 460 to 500 clock
hours, i.e. 2×50 min” each week. In France the number
of lessons was reduced from 5 to 3 in 1978 [18]; and in
Greece reductions of PE time allocation occurred in the
1990s [19]. In former “socialist bloc” countries in central
and eastern Europe, the erosion in time allocation has
been more confined to post-1990 political reforms. In
Hungary for example the former 4–5–6 PE hours per
week-staged model in the 1980s has been replaced by
a 2/3–1.5/2–1 hours per week-staged model. Over the
decade after the (re)-unification of the two Germanys in
1990, Helmke and Umbach [20] indicated reductions as
high as 25% in PE timetable allocation in all class stages
(except class 4) in the Federal Republic of Germany.
During the last decade, many European countries
have undertaken educational reforms. Whilst it is en-
couraging to see that PE has remained compulsory or is
generally practised in all countries and that time alloca-
tion has increased in just 16% of countries and remained
the same in 68% of countries, in 16% of countries it has
actually been reduced. The latter is epitomised by an
Irish PE teacher’s comment that “PE is being squeezed
out of the education system by more and more compul-
sory academic courses… which hold little benefit com-
pared to PE”.
The issue of time allocation is generally complicated
(1) by localised control of curricular timetables, which
vary considerably between schools and especially in
those countries where responsibility for delivery of the
curriculum has been divested to individual schools, and
(2) practices of offering options or electives, which pro-
vide opportunities for additional engagement in PE
and/or school sport activity. “Uptake” by pupils of such
opportunities can vary within, and between, countries
and not all pupils take advantage of any such extra pro-
vision. Whatever, the options/electives available may be
included in curriculum time allocation indicated in
some countries survey responses and, therefore, may
not accurately represent the actual prescribed or ex-
pected time allocation for all pupils. Thus, a cautionary
note is necessary here because data for some countries
do include additional optional or elective lesson hours
and hence, provide some distortion of the actual situa-
tion in at least some schools in those countries where
additional opportunities exist. “Triangulation” of cur-
riculum policy documents, survey data and qualitative
data derived from literature [see especially 12, 13] pro-
vide a scenario of policy prescription or guidelines not
actually being implemented in practice for a variety of
reasons. Geographically representative examples illus-
trate the point. In Austria there is a standard number of
lessons but school autonomy prescribed by national
Law 283/2003 produces variations and PE can, and in
some schools does, give way to other subjects: the
standard allocation of 3–4 lessons in secondary schools
has been effectively reduced to 2 in lower secondary
and 1 in upper secondary levels [21, 22]. In Bulgaria,
some reductions are occurring as a result of increased
time allocation to foreign language studies, further-
more, there are variations on the duration of lessons be-
cause they are determined by school staff, hence some
schools offer less PE lesson minutes per week than oth-
ers. In Cyprus, the 2×40 min lessons in primary schools
7
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K. Hardman, The situation of Physical Education in schools
are “often abandoned when time is required for the
main school subjects such as maths and language” [23].
In the Czech Republic, the third lesson in primary
schools is frequently cancelled or has not been even in-
cluded in the curriculum [24]. According to the curricu-
la in most German Länder, time allocation for school
PE is between two and three lessons per week (i.e. be-
tween 90 and 135 min per week). The results of the
Sprint Study [14] show that there is a wide gap between
policy and practice. In the secondary general schools
(Hauptschule), differences exist between the demands
of the curriculum and PE lessons that have been given
with 2 hours per week instead of 3 hours, that is 33% of
lessons are cancelled [25]. In Ireland despite a recom-
mended 60 min per week, PE is not provided in all pri-
mary schools, quality of provision varies and research
shows the average amount of time ranges from 12 to 60
min and 75% classes have less than 30 min; at post-pri-
mary level, 120 min are recommended (90 min is seen
as a minimum but many schools offer less), however,
there is a progressive reduction from 75 min (year 1) to
57 min (year 6) [26, p. 386]. In Lithuania, even though
there is a legal basis, “it is difficult to put regulations
into practice” [27, p. 445]; the School Boards decide PE
hours (obligatory and supplementary); the 1995 Law on
PE and Sports stipulated 3 lessons but only 26% achieve
this in classes 1–4, moreover, 38.9% do not have a third
lesson; fewer than 10% schools comply with the 1995
Act for 3 lessons [27, p. 445]. In the Netherlands, there
is no specific prescription but there is an average of 90
minutes per week with considerable differences because
head teachers determine actual time allocations; addi-
tionally facilities represent a considerable problem and
present provision makes it difficult or impossible to re-
alise prescribed attainment goals [28]. In Portugal,
teacher’s autonomy brings variations to the 3×30 min
lessons allocated and only a minority of primary schools
have the opportunity to benefit from PE classes [29, p.
556]. Since 2001 in Sweden, an increase in time alloca-
tion has occurred and two hours of additional options
are popular but for more athletically talented children;
schools may be designated as special profile schools
(so-called “The School Choice”) and sport can be “the
profile…(one) outcome of the various tracks means
prevalence of differences in allocated hours: in Basic
Schools, the 1–2 lessons (80–100 min) can be increased;
25% have done this but 50% haven’t and 24% have de-
creased” [16, p. 611]. Pervasive throughout the EU re-
gion is the low priority accorded to PE in Vocational
Schools, where usually minimal provision is reported
[8, 9, 12, 13, 30, 31].
Despite national policy concerning required, pre-
scribed, recommended or aspirational guidelines, local
levels of actual control of curriculum time allocation
give rise to variations between schools and, therefore,
difficulties in specifying definitive figures for a country
or region. However, some general tendencies are identi-
fiable. In primary/basic school years, weekly timetable
allocation for PE across Europe is 109 min (range of
30–240 min) with clusters around 60 and 90 min and in
secondary and high schools 101 min (range of 45–240
min) with a cluster around 90 min: there is a gradual
“tailing off” in upper secondary (high) schools (post
16+ years) in several countries and optional courses be-
come more evident. The figures represent a worrying
trend of decreasing time allocation since 2000 when
figures were higher with an average of 121 min in pri-
mary schools and 117 min in secondary schools [8] and
this despite international advocacy supported by an
overwhelming medical, scientific, economic, social and
cultural case for adequately timetabled PE programmes
and plans in some countries to introduce an entitlement
of at least 120 min per week.
Physical education curriculum issues
An issue which is becoming significant in an in-
creasing number of countries is that of the relevance to
the outside-school world and quality of PE curricula.
Within the context of educational reforms, associated
philosophical and pedagogical changes, and in response
to the obesity epidemic and concepts of active lifestyles
in lifelong learning contexts, some curricular changes
are now occurring in some parts of the region and some
shifts in PE curricular aims and themes are evident with
signs that the purpose and function are being redefined
to accommodate broader lifelong educational outcomes
including healthy well-being. Nevertheless, there re-
mains an orientation towards sports-dominated compe-
tition- and performance-related activity programmes as
seen in the proportion of time devoted to games, track
and field athletics and gymnastics, which collectively
account for over 70% of PE curriculum content in both
primary and secondary schools (Tab. 1). Such orienta-
tion runs counter to societal trends outside of school
and raises issues surrounding meaning and relevance to
young peoples lifestyles as well as quality issues of
programmes provided and delivered. What is, however,
8
08HM01_005_018_Hardmann_Situationd.indd 9 2008-06-12, 09:37:35
15.0 0
10.00
5.00
0.00
otor skill development
Personal and social
development
Healt-related fitness
Active lifestyle
Moral development
Sport skill development
Enjoyment
Theory of sport
Aethetic/expressive
25.00
Primary
20.00 Secondary
Games Dance Outdoor
adventure
Other
HUMAN MOVEMENT
K. Hardman, The situation of Physical Education in schools
Table 1. PE curriculum activity areas
Primary Schools Secondary Schools
Activity Area Countries % Curriculum % Countries % Curriculum %
Games 97 41 100 42
Gymnastics 97 17 100 13
Dance 80 78 74 5
Swimming 80 7 74 6
Outdoor adventure 71 4 69 7
Track & Field 94 14 100 17
Other 51 9 63 10
primarily to the development of motor skills (24% and
21% in primary and secondary schools respectively)
and when added to the refinement of sport-specific
skills represents a significant component of thematic
aims.
The trend towards including broader lifelong educa-
tional outcomes is evident in the importance of PE in
developing health-related fitness (15% of both primary
M
and secondary schools’ curricula) as well as promoting
active lifestyles (12% and 14% of primary and second-
ary schools’ PE curricula respectively). Substantial rec-
ognition is also apparent in PE’s contribution to promot-
ing a pupil’s personal and social development (22% and
24% of primary and secondary schools’ curricula re-
spectively and moral (9% and 3% of primary and sec-
Figure 1. PE curriculum thematic aims
ondary schools’ PE curricula respectively). However,
100.0 0 100.0 0
80.00 80.00
60.00
Percentag e (%)
40.00
20.00 20.0 0
0.00 0.00
Games Dance Outdoor Other
adventure
Gymnastics Swimming Track&Field
Figure 2. Primary curriculum activities taught across Figu re 3. Secondar y curriculum activities taught
the EU countries across EU countries
Gymnastics Swimming Track&Field
Percentag e (%) Percentage (%)
also evident, is increasing attention devoted to quality
physical education (QPE) programmes.
From examination of thematic aims of PE curricula,
it is possible to discern a number of patterns. These pat-
terns are shown in Fig. 1, which reveals an orientation
9
60.00
40.00
08HM01_005_018_Hardmann_Situationd.indd 10 2008-06-12, 09:37:37
0.00
HUMAN MOVEMENT
K. Hardman, The situation of Physical Education in schools
50.00 40.00
40.00
30.00
Percentage (%)
Percentage (%)
30.00
20.00
20.00
Inadequate Inadequate
10.00
Excellent Good Adequate Below
average
Figure 4. Assessment of the quality of facility provision
curricular activity areas in EU countries (see Fig. 2, pri-
mary schools, and Fig. 3, secondary schools) reinforce
the predisposition to the performance sport discourse
mentioned earlier: primary and secondary schools have
a predominantly Games (team and individual) orienta-
tion followed by Track and Field athletics and Gymnas-
tics. Games and Gymnastics feature in all countries in
both primary and secondary schools and they are close-
ly followed by Track and Field athletics in 88% coun-
tries (primary schools) and 94% countries (secondary
schools).
The proportion of time devoted to each activity area
in EU countries is shown in Fig. 2 and 3. This is a situa-
tion which is not only seen in the content of curricula
but also in structures related to extra-curricular activity
and emphasis on school sport.
Illustrative examples underscore the sports discourse
emphasis: in Bulgaria, programme documents indicate
a broadly based curriculum but in practice PE content
covers only basketball and volleyball in secondary
schools; in Germany, from analysis of the content of PE
lessons, the Sprint Study (2006) reveals a traditional
sports discourse, which is also gendered with boys play-
ing football and basketball, doing track and field and
German Turne n, whilst girls are mainly confronted
with Tu r nen, volleyball, basketball and track and field
disciplines. This scenario of a discrepancy between
what the school offers and what the pupils are looking
for regarding sports-related activities is not untypical of
the situation in other countries hence, there is little won-
der that “drop out” of sport rates continues. For young
population groups, the traditional content of PE and/or
10.00
0.00
Excellent Good Adequate Below
average
Figure 5. Assessment of the quality of equipment
sports activity has little relevance to their lifestyle con-
text. Collectively, such “joyless experiences” [32] ac-
quired from unwilling engagement in competitive
sport-related PE are a “turn-off” and only serve to in-
crease the “drop-out” rate of participants from school-
based and post-school sports-related activity. If PE is to
play a valued useful role in the promotion of active life-
styles, it must move beyond interpretations of activity
based upon performance criteria: its current frame of
reference should be widened. The preservation of PE in
its old state is not the way to proceed; it is time to move
into the 21st century!
Monitoring of PE
Marked variations are evident in monitoring PE in
schools. They vary from regular to irregular or random
or not defined. Inspection of PE is a legal and generally
practised requirement in around 70% of countries.
Countries in which inspections are not undertaken in-
clude Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania
and Malta. In Cyprus, Italy and Poland there are intima-
tions of a difference between official and actual imple-
mentation realities. In Ireland, Luxembourg, Portugal
and Slovakia, inspections are not a legal requirement.
Monitoring is variously undertaken by national inspec-
tors (50%), regional inspectors (25%), local inspectors
(8%), school head teachers (8%), or combinations of
two or more of these groups (9%). Frequency of moni-
toring varies from every 6 months to beyond every
5 years with a main cluster (31%) of annual monitoring.
The scope of monitoring embraces a range of aspects
10
08HM01_005_018_Hardmann_Situationd.indd 11 2008-06-12, 09:37:39
30.00
20.00
HUMAN MOVEMENT
K. Hardman, The situation of Physical Education in schools
Sufficient Limited Insufficient
50.00 50.00
40.00 40.00
Percentage (%)
10.00
0.00
Intensive Above
average
Figure 6. Assessment of the quantity of facility provision
but predominantly the extent of curriculum implemen-
tation and quality of teaching, quality control and/or
advisory guidance are given as the reasons for monitor-
ing in over 90% of countries where this occurs.
Resources
Facilities and equipment
A pervasive feature of concern is related to quality
and quantity of provision of facilities and equipment
because levels of provision can detrimentally affect
quality of physical education programmes. Around one-
third of countries indicate below average/inadequate
quality of facility (Fig. 4) and equipment provision (Fig.
5).
Additionally, nearly half of countries have limited/
insufficient quantity of facilities (Fig. 6) and two-fifths
of countries have limited/insufficient quantity of equip-
ment (Fig. 7).
There is a marked geopolitical differentiation in
quality and quantity of facilities and equipment in Eu-
rope. In the more economically prosperous northern
and western European countries, quality and quantity
of facilities and equipment are regarded as at least ade-
quate and in some instances excellent; in central and
eastern European countries inadequacies/insuff iciencies
in both quality and quantity of facilities and equipment
are prevalent. Hence, there is an east-west European di-
vide with central and eastern European countries gener-
ally far less well endowed with facilities and equipment,
perhaps typically represented in a Serbia-Montenegro
Sufficient Limited Insufficient
Percentage (%)
30.00
20.00
10.00
0.00
Intensive Above
average
Figure 7. Assessment of the quantity of equipment provision
government official’s observation that…Quality of fa-
cilities is below average and quantity of equipment is
limited”. Transcending this east-west divide is the view
that in 67% of countries, there are problems of low lev-
els of maintenance of existing PE sites and whilst there
are higher expectations of levels and standards of facili-
ties and equipment in more economically developed
countries, even here there are indicators of inadequacies
and shortages in facilities and equipment as one PE
teacher in otherwise generally well resourced England
affirms: “…Quantity and quality of EQUIPMENT is
very poor. … Damaged equipment is used frequently;
quality and quantity of facilities is very poor; and facili-
ties inadequate or poorly maintained”.
PE teaching personnel
Across the region, the quality of teacher preparation
for PE is variable and there are examples which suggest
lack of commitment to teaching as well as pedagogical
and didactical inadequacies in some countries. As pre-
vious research [see 9] has also shown, generally
throughout Europe, PE teaching degree and diploma
qualifications are acquired at universities, pedagogical
institutes, national sports academies or specialist PE/
Sport institutes. For primary school teaching, qualifica-
tions tend to be acquired at pedagogical institutes and
or universities, whilst for secondary school teaching,
qualifications are predominantly acquired at university
level institutions, including specialist Academies and
Faculties. In approximately half of the countries, PE/
sport teacher graduates are qualified to teach a second
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HUMAN MOVEMENT
K. Hardman, The situation of Physical Education in schools
subject at least. A common scenario (94% of countries)
is qualified “specialist” PE teachers at secondary level,
(though some German Länder and Hungary indicate
that, in practice, some generalists are also employed to
deliver PE) and “generalist” teachers at primary/
elementary level (85%); some countries (67%) do have
specialist physical educators in elementary (primary)
schools, but the variation is wide and there are marked
intra-regional differences. In some countries, the gener-
alist teacher in primary schools is often inadequately or
inappropriately prepared to teach PE, especially as
minimal hours may be allocated for PE teaching initial
training (in some higher education institutions in Eng-
land, for example, this can be as low as 8–10 contact
hours). The former point is well illustrated in Germany
by the Sprint Study [14]: in order to teach PE in schools,
the successful completion of a PETE programme and
the associated qualified teacher status (according to the
specific type of school) are prerequisites for all teach-
ers; the reality in schools reveals a different picture be-
cause whilst 80% of all state qualified teachers who
teach PE lessons have a PE subject degree qualification,
every fifth teacher has no formal qualification in the
subject; with regard to different school types, the prob-
lem is more salient in primary schools (Grundschule),
where 49% of the teachers delivering the PE curriculum
have no specific education in PE subject matter; in the
different branches of the secondary school, the figures
of formally unqualified teachers decrease considerably
Hauptschule (secondary general schools) 30%, Real-
schule (secondary modern schools) 11%, and Gymna-
sium (grammar schools) 2–3% [14].
In 63% of EU countries, there are opportunities for
in-service training (INSET)/continuing professional de-
velopment (CPD) but there are substantial variations in
frequency of provision, which ranges from free choice
through nothing specifically designated, every year,
every two years, every three years to every five years.
Duration of INSET/CPD also reveals differences in
practice between countries: those with annual training
range from 12 to 50 hours, from 3 to 25 days; biennial
and triennial training courses of 4 weeks; and five years
range from 15 days to 3 weeks or 100 hours over the
five year period. Annual INSET/CPD is indicated in
50% of countries, every 2 years in 15% of countries and
greater than two years in 35% of countries. No opportu-
nities or strictly limited provision are evident in Bul-
garia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Finland, France,
Germany, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Neth-
erlands, Poland, Romania, Sweden)3. In some coun-
tries, inadequate promotional infrastructure and finance
can inhibit participation in INSET/CPD; a Swedish
physical educator reports “…Often I have to find in-
service training myself and I have also often to pay for
it with my own money”.
On a more positive note, there have been significant
developments in CPD in the form of European Master’s
programmes in Physical Education and Adaptive Physi-
cal Activity and in national professional development
programmes such as in England. CPD has a key role
raising and/or enhancing educational practices and
standards and yet, related data presented above show
that in some European States CPD can be irregular and
unstructured and in some cases may not even be availa-
ble or accessible and this despite the need for profes-
sional development as a continuous process throughout
a teacher’s professional career. In primary/elementary
schools in particular, where generalist practitioners are
often responsible for PE teaching, this represents a po-
tential problem. In such contexts, CPD is not only es-
sential but it also needs to be delivered with appropriate
expertise and with up-to-date content that is relevant to
practice.
In the light of AEHESIS4 PE Area recommendations
pertaining to CPD, European-wide developmental chang-
es linked with democratisation processes, political in-
cluding intergovernmental agencies’ (Council of Europe
2002/2003 and European Parliament 2006/2007) inter-
ventions, increasingly widespread recognition of CPD
need and value for career development especially since
the Bologna Declaration, and emergence of various
pathway routes to qualification (linked with employa-
bility), an issue in terms of future directions within
CPD is consideration of revisiting the European PE
Master’s Programme.
3 Emboldened text denotes those countries where there is a discre-
pancy between survey responses.
4 As part of the post-Bologna process in harmonising Higher Edu-
cation provision, an ERASMUS Thematic Network project was in-
itiated in October 2003 to “Align a European Higher Education
Structure in Sport Science” (the AEHESIS Project). Amongst other
initial objectives, the PE sector’s overarching aim “having in mind
the necessity of enhancing the process of recognition and European
integration of qualifications” was to formulate a model curriculum
for Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE), which could
have applicability across higher education institutions in Europe
involved with preparation of teachers and hence, represent a degree
of harmonisation within the context of the intention and spirit of the
Bologna Agreement.
12
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K. Hardman, The situation of Physical Education in schools
Financial issues
With increasing demands by a range of social insti-
tutions and services for financial support, prioritisation
of government financial resource investment occurs
and PE with its initial high capital costs of facilities and
recurrent maintenance, apparatus and equipment costs
can be an expensive enterprise. In European countries,
funding for school PE/sport provision emanates from
several sources: national government; regional/provin-
cial/local government only; joint national and regional/
local government; joint national, regional/local govern-
ment and other mainly private/commercial sectors.
The complexities of funding in education with na-
tional budgets and devolvement variously to regional,
local and even individual schools together with the add-
ed problems of disaggregating amounts invested in, or
expended on, PE and school sport render it difficult to
provide any definitive information on the financial re-
sources. However, from information derived from sur-
vey-generated data and supported by the literature [12,
13], it is possible to report on some aspects of PE fund-
ing for school PE and sport5. Over half of European
countries indicate reductions in financial support for PE
in recent years. Reasons given for this situation include
low status in relation to other subjects with minimal sig-
nificance not worthy of support, diversion of financial
resources to other subjects and areas of the school, ex-
pensive maintenance, low societal value in personal and
national development and perceived lack of academic
value of the subject, often linking this to the belief that
the subject is just another “play time” or recreational
experience. Such reductions have had, and continue to
have, consequential impacts on school PE and sport.
As already intimated in an earlier section, inade-
quate funding for facilities, equipment and their mainte-
nance and teaching materials is widespread in central,
eastern and southern Europe (Bulgaria, Czech Repub-
lic, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Romania,
Slovakia and Slovenia): there is a shortfall of 600 gym-
nasia halls and facilities generally are not up to health
standards’ requirements in Hungary, where under-fund-
ing of extra-curricular activities is also evident. In the
Czech Republic, it is alleged that proclaimed objectives
cannot be fulfilled because of absence of funds, extra
5 Quotations in this section on Financial Issues have been drawn
from PE practitioners and academic experts in the domain of PE in
Europe. In the interests of confidentiality, names of sources have
been withheld.
activities have ceased and the third lesson usually is not
delivered because of lack of finance [33]. In Estonia
“one of the main problems is that the equipment is very
expensive. Also, most of the facilities require recon-
struction”. In Lithuania, (despite Article 38 of the Sports
Law), PE “is not sufficiently financed” and is reflected
in multi-class use of facilities (60–90 pupils) as well as
in a shortfall for teachers’ salaries (low PE teachers’
salaries are reported in Poland and Romania). In Po-
land, many extra-curricular lessons are cancelled be-
cause of lack of money to finance teachers/coaches; fi-
nance for PE is a low regional/local authority priority
and impacts negatively on facility provision (there is no
PE audit) – in 1999, 80% gymnasia did not conform to
regulations; “lack of financial resources has also led to
retreat from the Physical Culture and Sport Statute goal
of 225 min by 2000” [34]. In Slovakia there are “prob-
lems with lack of finances for maintenance of sports
facilities and for reconstruction and acquisition of new
sports materials. There are schools existing also without
sufficient sports facilities… there is a decrease of finan-
cial areas to PE; leave of PE teachers into other, better
paid areas; change of structure of pupils’ interest”.
Even in more economically developed western and
northern EU countries, there is teacher-based anecdotal
evidence to suggest deficiencies in provision due to in-
adequate or under-funding. Representative illustrations
include:
Austria
– equipment shortfalls: “There is a very low budg-
et, the financial support for PE is limited; there
are big problems to buy new equipment”; “This
school has a low budget – therefore, the financial
support for PE is very limited; we annually col-
lect money from students to keep our equipment
up-to-date”
Belgium (Flanders)
In Flanders “financial support for physical edu-
cation is minimal”; “financial provision is less
than for other subjects (e.g. computer classes)”
In Walloniafinancial support given to PE in
comparison to other subjects is very poor” and
“there is a lack of financial means allocated to
sport in schools”
Finland
“a decrease in educational resources (has) led to
larger PE classes and one impact of financial
constraints has been reduction of PE in lower
schools from 3 to 2.5 lessons per week”
13
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HUMAN MOVEMENT
K. Hardman, The situation of Physical Education in schools
Ireland
facilities and teachers: “…Facility provision and
teachers employment are adversely affected by
financial constraints. Many schools have been
built with no indoor PE facilities”
Italy
– financial support: recurrent financial support is
reported as less in PE in comparison with other
subjects
Luxembourg
financial support: “financial support to PE (is
seen as) poor supply compared to other subjects”
Spain
financial support: “financial support is inade-
quate; PE is a mistreated subject compared with
others – it received below average money”
The considerable financial investment of maintain-
ing, or gaining access to, swimming facilities exposes
this important component of the PE curriculum to can-
cellation of lessons or even omission from curricula in
many countries. Two examples will suffice to illustrate
the point: in Denmark, swimming was a compulsory
subject for all pupils, now “… Many communities tend
unfortunately to save the money. Today only 2/3 of all
pupils get adequate swimming lessons (Swedish PE
teacher); and in the Netherlands, swimming was re-
moved from the curriculum because of “financial rea-
sons” (Dutch PE teacher).
As the above overview demonstrates, financial con-
siderations have had a number of impacts on school PE/
sport in Europe: failure to refurbish/reconstruct/replace/
maintain (out)dated and/or provide new facilities; short-
ages of equipment; inadequately trained teachers; em-
ployment of lower salaried unqualified teaching person-
nel; exit of physical educators to better paid jobs; reduc-
tions in numbers of PE lessons, timetable allocation and
extra-curricular sports activities; omissions of curricu-
lum activity areas and large class sizes. Part resolution
of inadequacies in facilities and equipment and mainte-
nance lies with wider community sharing of resources
through multi-purpose and use provision with schools
seen as one community entity in a wider community
setting. Such provision implies shared cross-sector
funding including operational and management costs.
The physical education environment
Within the PE environment, teacher networks exist
at schools’ level in most countries; municipal, region/
county and national levels networks exist in around
70% of countries; less widespread are networks of PE/
sport teachers, sports clubs and other outside school
community providers. This is a situation which can be
summarised by apparent inadequate links between
school PE and the sports communities in some coun-
tries and regular co-operation in others. Voluntary links
between school PE and sport and wider community
physical activity are reported in only around 36% of
countries and, in total, direct school-community links
are indicated in only 51% of countries. There are sug-
gestions that many children are not made aware of the
multifarious pathways to out-of-school and beyond
school physical activity opportunities. Nevertheless,
varied and differentiated models linking school activity
with out-of-school activity do exist throughout Europe,
examples of which are: schools sport federations etc. in
France; extra-curricular and out-of-school sport in the
Czech Republic; integrated school-community and
sport club action projects in Sweden; PE, School Sport,
Club Links (PESSCL) in England, where the focus is on
links between school PE and sport in the wider commu-
nity; and the “one stop shop”; “Sport Service Punt”
scheme involving vested interest partners from public,
voluntary and education sectors in the Netherlands,
which provides an exemplar of a coherently implement-
ed multi-sector collaborative co-operation programme.
The school is the principal agent for initiation into
organized general public sport and is in a prime position
to eradicate excesses (drugs, aggression, violence,
money etc.) evident in the sporting spectacle. This fea-
ture has particular resonance in the light of PE in
schools no longer remaining a “stand alone” option in
the resolution of the healthy well-being, active lifelong
engagement in physical and sports-related activity con-
cerns of this early part of the 21st century. Professionals
and the large-scale European volunteer numbers alike
are necessary to the process of facilitating inclusive par-
ticipation. With more than 70 million members of sports
associations, the voluntary-based “Sport for All” move-
ment is one of Europes largest social movements. It is
served by millions of volunteers, who represent the
main resource of the movement and as national studies
[see 13] show, they form the “backbone” of sport asso-
ciations and clubs with around 10% of the 70 million
members serving as volunteer coaches, association
leaders, assistants etc. In Germany, for example, where
27 million people are members of sports clubs some 2.7
million serve as volunteers in over 90.000 sports clubs.
14
08HM01_005_018_Hardmann_Situationd.indd 15 2008-06-12, 09:37:44
HUMAN MOVEMENT
K. Hardman, The situation of Physical Education in schools
Volunteerism in sport varies from country to country.
Highest levels of volunteerism tend to be located in
northern Europe and lowest levels in southern Europe
[35].
Conclusions
Arguably, the data provide a distorted continental
regional and individual national picture of PE in
schools, particularly where questionnaire responses are
based on policy principles and as such may mask the
truth about actual practice. However, what the various
surveys and literature review do reveal are congruent
features in several areas of school PE policy and un-
doubtedly in some specific areas of practice. It is clear
that in some countries there have been positive develop-
ments, which have contributed to an improved situation
in the status of school PE, and there are instances of fa-
vourably implemented programmes and good practices.
Equally there is evidence to generate sustained consid-
erable disquiet about the situation. Thus, the review of
the current situation of PE in Europe is marked by
“mixed messages” with indicators of stabilization in
some countries juxtaposed between positive, effective
policy initiatives in other countries and reticence or lit-
tle political will to act and continuing concerns in oth-
ers. Many governments have committed themselves
through legislation to making provision for PE but they
have been (or are being) slow in translating this into ac-
tion. The gap between policy and practice intimated by
the Council of Europe Deputy Secretary General [36] in
September 2002 in her comment “the crux of the issue
is that there is too much of a gap between the promise
and the reality” (p. 2) remains. The “gap” is seen in the
rhetoric of official documentation on principles, policies
and aims and actual implementation into practice,
which exposes a range of deficiencies in PE in schools
in Europe. There are considerable inadequacies in facil-
ity and equipment supply frequently associated with
under-funding, especially in economically underdevel-
oped and developing countries and regions at a time of
concern over falling fitness standards of young people,
increased levels of obesity and related health issues and
continuing youth dropout rates from physical/sporting
activity engagement. There is evidence of general un-
der-funding of PE/school sport as well as the low remu-
neration of PE/sport teachers in some countries. There
is disquiet about teacher supply and quality: insuffi-
ciency and inadequacy of appropriately trained and
qualified PE teachers are widely evident. Curriculum
time allocation is a concern in some countries and the
overall reduction in average time allocation for school
PE curricula in both primary and secondary schools
across Europe is a worrying trend.
The amount of curriculum time allocation represents
an important issue for the delivery of quality PE. There
is considerable scientific evidence to suggest that at
least 60 min daily moderate to vigorous physical activi-
ty is necessary to sustain a healthy active lifestyle.
EUPEA recommends daily PE in the early years of
schooling (elementary grades, up to 11 or 12 years of
age and 3 hours (180 min) per week in post-elementary
(secondary/high schools) grades. In the United States,
the National Association for Sport and Physical Educa-
tion (NASPE) recommends a minimum of 150 min per
week for physical education in elementary schools and
225 min per week for middle and high school students.
Recommendations by the Council of Europe Commit-
tee of Ministers on 30 April 2003 included a significant
reference to physical education time allocation: an
agreement to “move towards a compulsory legal mini-
mum of 180 min weekly, in three periods, with schools
endeavouring to go beyond this minimum where this is
possible” [10] and a call for one hour of daily physical
activity in or out-of-school settings.
There are notable features concerning differential
variations between central and eastern European EU
Member states and the “older” 15 Member States. The
“east-west divide” highlighted in references to facilities
and equipment extends beyond this resource issue to
embrace post-2000 PE curriculum time allocation re-
ductions and provision for pupils with disabilities. Com-
pared with the older, “western” Member States (over
two thirds report stabilisation), the level of stabilisation
of curriculum time allocation (2000–2006) is less in
“newer” central and eastern EU Member States and
since 2000, PE time allocation has been reduced more
extensively in central and eastern EU States than in
counterpart “western” EU States. Similarly in the do-
main of disability, survey data indicate that there are
fewer opportunities (only 12% of countries) to “do” PE
and for inclusion in “Mainstream” schools in central
and eastern EU countries than in other parts of Europe.
Moreover in central and eastern Europe inclusion in
“normal” PE lessons is less than the overall EU average
(32% as opposed to 45%). Also, facility provision for
pupils with disabilities is a more acute problem in cen-
tral and eastern Europe (60% of countries report defi-
15
08HM01_005_018_Hardmann_Situationd.indd 16 2008-06-12, 09:37:45
HUMAN MOVEMENT
K. Hardman, The situation of Physical Education in schools
ciencies, whereas only 25% report deficiencies in west-
ern Europe). Conversely, lack of staff expertise is per-
ceived to be greater in western Europe than in eastern
European countries.
Countries, via the relevant agency authorities, should
identify existing areas of inadequacies and should strive
to develop a basic needs model in which physical educa-
tion activity has an essential presence and is integrated
with educational policies supported by governmental
and non-governmental agencies working co-operatively
in partnership(s). Satisfaction of these basic needs re-
quires high quality conceptually and contextually ad-
justed PE curricular programmes, provision of equip-
ment and basic facilities, safe environments and appro-
priately qualified/experienced personnel, who have the
necessary relevant knowledge, skills and general and
specific competences according to the level and stage of
involvement together with opportunities for enrichment
through continuing professional development.
As a school’s role extends to encouraging young
people to continue participation in physical activity,
through the provision of links and co-ordinated oppor-
tunities for all young people at all levels and by develop-
ing partnerships with the wider community to extend
and improve the opportunities available for them to re-
main physically active, there is a need for wider com-
munity-based partnerships, for which PE should be
seen as the cornerstone of systematic physical activity
promotion in schools and recognised as the foundation
base of the inclusive participation pyramid. Participa-
tion Pathway Partnerships is a key term for future direc-
tions in the best interests of PE and sporting, (particu-
larly recreational) activity in and out of schools. If chil-
dren are to be moved from “play stations” to
“play-grounds” [37], bridges and pathways to commu-
nity provision need to be constructed, especially to
stimulate young people to participate in physical activi-
ty during their leisure time. The post-school gap is as
much in the system as in participation, for many chil-
dren are not made aware of, and how to negotiate, the
multifarious pathways to opportunities. Physical educa-
tors are strategically well placed to reach the widest
range of young people with positive experiences in, and
messages about, participation in physical activity. They
have key roles as facilitators and intermediaries be-
tween the school and wider local communities. They
should identify and develop pathways for young people
to continue participating in physical activity after and
outside school and ensure that information is available
to young people within school on the opportunities
available in the local community. However, it is naïve to
assume that the PE professional can take on and fulfil
all of these responsibilities. Support, particularly of the
human resource kind, is fundamental to the realisation
of such ideals. It can be achieved through collaborative,
co-operative partnership approaches involving other
professionals and committed, dedicated and properly
mentored individual and group volunteer enthusiasts.
With the increase in rates of inactivity and associat-
ed risk factors of overweight, obesity and personal
health amongst children of school age and the limited
time allocations to school PE and sport, the sport move-
ment will represent a significant supplementary (and
complementary) domain of efforts to stimulate engage-
ment of this target group of young people in physical
and sport-related activity across Europe. International
non-governmental agencies such as the International
Sport and Culture Association (ISCA) and the European
Non-Governmental Sports Organisation (ENGSO) as
well as national and local sports bodies can (and should
be encouraged to) contribute to the process of motiva-
tion of young people to regularly participate in recrea-
tional sport and so adopt physically active lifestyles.
Such voluntary sector organisations have important
roles in assisting in the transition from school to com-
munity-based sport throughout the region [35]. A cause
of some concern is that many volunteers lack formal
training to work with young people and in a world of
rising levels of child abuse as well as the propensity of
some volunteers to inculcate perceived and actual nega-
tive attitudinal and behavioural norms and values, this
is an issue to be addressed. Indeed, the ENGSO incor-
porated recommendations pertinent to volunteer in-
volvement in its 1998 Guidelines for Children and
Youth Sport [38]. Nevertheless, volunteers can bring
knowledge, skills, commitment and dedication as a free
time resource and there is a need to have a balanced
view of their work by key actors and appropriate frame-
works to work within, not least of which might be ad-
herence to Codes as Ethics, such as those proposed by
the European Physical Education Association in 2002.
EUPEA’s Code of Ethics and Good Practice Guide [39]
has adopted the principles contained in the Council of
Europe’s Code of Sports Ethics. The Code offers
a framework of guidelines and is intended for use in
conjunction with similar guides on ethics produced by
governments, education authorities and recognised na-
tional governing bodies of sport. It outlines some of the
16
08HM01_005_018_Hardmann_Situationd.indd 17 2008-06-12, 09:37:46
HUMAN MOVEMENT
K. Hardman, The situation of Physical Education in schools
key issues that need to be addressed in school PE and
sport by teachers and helpers (volunteers), who need to
operate within an accepted ethical framework of good
practice, which guides the individual. Issues include:
integrity and respect in relationships, various forms of
child abuse and protection there from, bullying, anti-so-
cial behaviours, equality and inclusion, stress and burn-
out, fair play and a balanced approach to winning, stress
and burn-out, fun and enjoyment.
There is a narrow and unjustifiable conception of the
role of PE merely to provide experiences, which serve to
reinforce achievement-orientated competition perform-
ance sport, thus limiting participatory options rather
than expanding horizons. Also of some concern are lev-
els of curriculum implementation and monitoring and
large class sizes. The falling fitness standards and high
youth dropout rates from physical/sporting activity en-
gagement are exacerbated in some countries by insuffi-
cient and/or inadequate school-community co-ordina-
tion and problems of communication. Physical educa-
tion delivery will benefit from re-orientation towards
placing more responsibility on students for their learn-
ing with the managerial responsibility of the teacher
progressively transferred to pupils. The enhanced pupil
involvement generated by this process will assist in fa-
cilitation of opportunities for individual meaningful
and socially relevant experiences [40]. Reflective prac-
titioners will translate into reflective students! Initial
and in-service training/further professional develop-
ment should properly address these pedagogical devel-
opments. This is particularly important in primary/
elementary schools, preparation for which is often gen-
eralist rather than specialist.
Finally, it is imperative that monitoring of develop-
ments in physical education across the world be main-
tained. The Council of Europe, UNESCO and the WHO
have called for monitoring systems to be put into place
to regularly review the situation of physical education in
each country. The Council of Europe [10] referred to the
introduction of provision for a pan-European survey on
physical education policies and practices every five
years as a priority! The European Parliament’s entry
into the PE arena with its Current Situation and Pros-
pects for Physical Education in the European Union
Study is one example of the monitoring process in ac-
tion and importantly provides an opportunity to assist
in converting “Promises” into “Reality” and so helps in
the process of surmounting threats to a sustained safe
future for physical education in schools. Otherwise with
the Council of Europe Deputy Secretary General’s inti-
mation of a gap between “promise” and “reality”, there
is a real danger that the well intentioned initiatives will
remain more “promise” than “reality” in too many
countries in Europe and indeed across the world.
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EP.S., Paris 2007.
23. Tsangaridou N., Yiallourides G., Physical Education and Edu-
cation through Sport in Cyprus. In: Klein G., Hardman K.,
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ion. Editions Revue EP.S., Paris 2007.
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Education, December 2–3, 2005, Magglingen, Switzerland.
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tion in Schools in the EU. 2006 Unpublished Paper.
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Paper received by the Editors: November 2, 2007.
Address for correspondence:
Prof. Ken Hardman, PhD. Visiting Professor
School of Sport Science & Exercise
University of Worcester
Henwick Grove, Worcester, WR2 6AJ
United Kingdom
e-mail: ken.hardman@worc.ac.uk
18
... physical education and sports a large number of methods are used aimed at developing physical qualities, one of which is the game (Danish, 2002;Vilʹchkovsʹkyy & Kurok, 2005;Hardman, 2008;Vilʹchkovsʹkyy, 2009;Deyneko, 2017;Deyneko et al., 2022). It is well known that children of 6-7 years old, due to ontogenetic features of development, are characterized by increased motor activity and a pronounced need for it (Danish, 2002;Bohinich, 2003;Vilʹchkovsʹkyy & Kurok, 2005;Bar -Or, 2009;Kraemer, 2011;Isayeva & Konyk, 2018;Deyneko et al., 2022). ...
... An analysis of scientific literature has shown that most specialists in Western European countries recognize the important role of the motor activity of a child aged 5-8 years with the help of games (Kraft, 1987;Danish, 2002;Bar-Or, 2009;Turchyk, 2017). In many European countries, especially in England, since the end of the last century, in order to strengthen the gaming orientation of children's and youth sports, it has been proposed to use not only traditional outdoor games, but also folk, story, adventure, sports-dynamic and intellectual games, relay races and national sports, etc. (Williams, 1985;Kraft, 1987;Hardman, 2008). In almost all European countries (England, France, Germany, Denmark, Ireland, Austria, etc.), in educational programs related to the physical education of children in preschool education and primary school, there are outdoor and sports games, which are regulated by classroom and extracurricular forms of taking into account the interests of children (Williams, 1985;Kraft, 1987;Balz et al., 2005;Dallermassl, 2007;Hardman, 2008;Turchyk, 2017). ...
... In many European countries, especially in England, since the end of the last century, in order to strengthen the gaming orientation of children's and youth sports, it has been proposed to use not only traditional outdoor games, but also folk, story, adventure, sports-dynamic and intellectual games, relay races and national sports, etc. (Williams, 1985;Kraft, 1987;Hardman, 2008). In almost all European countries (England, France, Germany, Denmark, Ireland, Austria, etc.), in educational programs related to the physical education of children in preschool education and primary school, there are outdoor and sports games, which are regulated by classroom and extracurricular forms of taking into account the interests of children (Williams, 1985;Kraft, 1987;Balz et al., 2005;Dallermassl, 2007;Hardman, 2008;Turchyk, 2017). It is important to emphasize that in each program of play activities about 50-70% of the total study time is devoted. ...
Article
Purpose: to substantiate the effectiveness of the use of Ukrainian outdoor games to increase the level of physical preparedness of 6-7 year old gymnasts. Material & Methods: the study involved 22 female athletes aged 6-7 years old involved in artistic gymnastics. The main and control groups included 11 female gymnasts each. Ukrainian outdoor games were included in the training process of the main group. Results: the results of the study indicate that the proposed methodology, by which female gymnasts of the main group (MG) trained, contributed to a more pronounced (p
... Razvoj motoričkih sposobnosti donekle je determinisan genotipom (genskom strukturom nasleđenom od roditelja), a u velikoj meri razvija se pod uticajem transformacionih kinezioloških procesa i uslova sredine u kojoj jedinka živi i razvija se (Pelemiš, Mitrović, Pelemiš i Rankić, 2013). Broj časova fizičkog vaspitanja konstantno opada, kako zbog nedovoljnog angažovanja prosvetnih radnika, tako i zbog nedovoljne brige odgovarajućih institucija, što utiče na kvalitet i sam način realizacije nastavnih planova i programa (Hardman, 2008). Fizička aktivnost, naročito ona koja je usmerena i kvalitetno vođena, predstavlјa značajan stimulans (Eliakim & Yoram, 2003). ...
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Problems of practice, in order to make business as optimal as possible, often require us to determine a location that is connected to three or four given destinations by communications of the total minimum length. That there is an answer to this challenge, we owe gratitude to the remarkable book: “What is Mathematics” ?, (An Elementary Approach to Ideas and Methods) – “What is Mathematics” (Elementary Approach to Ideas and Methods), by Richard Courant and Herbert Robbins - Richard Courant and Herbert Robins, which in one part actualizes the work of Jakob Steiner, a Swiss mathematician. We owe a special momentum and new contributions to the solutions to this problem to the emergence of Informatics, which, thanks to the unprecedented development of its hardware and software components, easily and accurately solves the challenge for more than four destinations. The aim of this paper is to solve complex problems with a better approach and ways of solving tasks so that students can improve their quality through development.
... Razvoj motoričkih sposobnosti donekle je determinisan genotipom (genskom strukturom nasleđenom od roditelja), a u velikoj meri razvija se pod uticajem transformacionih kinezioloških procesa i uslova sredine u kojoj jedinka živi i razvija se (Pelemiš, Mitrović, Pelemiš i Rankić, 2013). Broj časova fizičkog vaspitanja konstantno opada, kako zbog nedovoljnog angažovanja prosvetnih radnika, tako i zbog nedovoljne brige odgovarajućih institucija, što utiče na kvalitet i sam način realizacije nastavnih planova i programa (Hardman, 2008). Fizička aktivnost, naročito ona koja je usmerena i kvalitetno vođena, predstavlјa značajan stimulans (Eliakim & Yoram, 2003). ...
Article
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Društvene mreže kao snažan medij omogućavaju dvosmjernu komunikaciju ipojavu influencera sa značajnim utjecajem na druge ljude, posebice djecu i mlade u vrijeme njihovog intenzivnog razvoja. Influenceri svoje djelovanje ostvaruju konceptima parasocijalne povezanosti i identifikacije želja kao i influence marketingom. Medijske ličnosti danas preuzimaju jednu od socijalizacijskih uloga u odgoju te je iz tog razloga jedna od važnih uloga roditelja pomoći djeci u „odgoju za medije“ kako bi minimizirali manipulaciju djecom i njihovo uvođenje u neki iluzorni svijet koji im se prezentira kao „suvremena neminovnost“. Jedan od ciljeva istraživanja bio je problemu utjecaja influencera pristupiti s pedagoškog stajališta budući ovakav način ispitivanja na nacionalnom i širem planu izostaje. Putem posebno kreiranog anketnog upitnika ispitalo se mišljenje učenika 7. i 8. razreda (N = 51) osnovnih škola i njihovih roditelja (N = 26) o spoznajama influencerskog utjecaja i mogućih posljedica na djecu. Istraživanje je provedeno u 5 riječkih osnovnih škola. Rezultati pokazuju snažan influencerski utjecaj među učeničkom populacijom koji se ostvaruje kroz fenomene parasocijalne povezanosti, identifikacije želja i influence marketinga. Istovremeno roditelji pokazuju neinformiranost o problemu, nepoznavanje utjecaja influencera na djecu, dok neki ne uviđaju negativne utjecaje ili su prema problemu indiferentni. Istraživanje ukazuje na potrebu poticanja intenzivne komunikacije roditelja i djece o medijskom sadržaju i medijskim ličnostima kako bi se djecu osposobilo za kritički odnos prema njima. Istraživanje otvara i niz drugih istraživačkih pitanja na koje bi pedagogijska znanost trebala odgovoriti, a prvenstveno kreirati suvremene načine educiranja i osnaživanja roditeljskih odgojnih kompetencija posebice iz područja medijske pismenosti.
... Razvoj motoričkih sposobnosti donekle je determinisan genotipom (genskom strukturom nasleđenom od roditelja), a u velikoj meri razvija se pod uticajem transformacionih kinezioloških procesa i uslova sredine u kojoj jedinka živi i razvija se (Pelemiš, Mitrović, Pelemiš i Rankić, 2013). Broj časova fizičkog vaspitanja konstantno opada, kako zbog nedovoljnog angažovanja prosvetnih radnika, tako i zbog nedovoljne brige odgovarajućih institucija, što utiče na kvalitet i sam način realizacije nastavnih planova i programa (Hardman, 2008). Fizička aktivnost, naročito ona koja je usmerena i kvalitetno vođena, predstavlјa značajan stimulans (Eliakim & Yoram, 2003). ...
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INTRODUCTION TO THE EMOTIONOLOGY OF CHILDHOOD (WITH AN APPENDIX TO CHILDREN'S LITERATURE) The paper provides an overview recent literature of the emotionology of childhood in historiography and in the history of children's literature, in reviewing the history of childhood emotionology in the Middle Ages and parents' feelings towards children to Stearns' reading of modern children's emotions, problematized by the notion , , Happy Children” as a product of popular American emotional culture. Correlated with the historical overview, emotiology will be explored as a modern method of approaching the literary text of children's literature. Since the field of children's literature has not been researched in Croatian literary studies by using emotionology as a methodological framework, the aim of this paper is to increase interest in literary emotionology, expand the overview of research methodology in the scientific community and thus popularize the field, especially in terms of new emotional research of children's literature in Croatia, which are given a guide by this introduction. Following the example of the history of emotions in historiography, the aim is to encourage literary emotionology to write a systematic emotionological study of literary-historical periodization of (dominant) emotions in various periods of children's literature, from the beginning of children's literature to the present day (emotionology has evidently been lacking so far). The possibility of scientific resistance is expected due to the introduction of the literary theoretical discipline of emotion, as a modern research paradigm, in the study of children's literature (as advocated by the author of this paper), just as resistance arose due to several different works of children's literature. , no longer just a moral component, but also a child’s psyche, like Pippi Longstocking (1945) by Astrid Lindgren, although it was clear that a whole new and very successful genre was emerging. Always, when it comes to newspapers, there is resistance to the new and different (Piskač, 2018), and in the world of the Internet Y and Z generation (children of the 21st century) and the growing insistence on artificial intelligence - emotional literacy, emotional intelligence, ultimately , emotional science, is also important as a predilection for maintaining a healthy childhood. The conclusion is that neither methodological, terminological or interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary problems in the study of feelings should distract us from the continuous research of emotionology at various social levels, a topic that is important in itself (Stearns and Stearns, 1985) and which - if we look at emotionology as a valent anti-essentialist feature of identity (whether real or literary) - begins its development in early childhood, which gives the topic a specific merit.
... This survey has revealed the appearance of three clear clusters. One cluster is represented by the Nordic European countries, the wealthiest having reported the existence of good facilities, which is in agreement with other reports (Hardman, 2001(Hardman, , 2007(Hardman, , 2008Klein & Hardman, 2008). Another one is constituted by the majority of countries, from different parts of Europe, classified by having regular facilities. ...
... Razvoj motoričkih sposobnosti donekle je determinisan genotipom (genskom strukturom nasleđenom od roditelja), a u velikoj meri razvija se pod uticajem transformacionih kinezioloških procesa i uslova sredine u kojoj jedinka živi i razvija se (Pelemiš, Mitrović, Pelemiš i Rankić, 2013). Broj časova fizičkog vaspitanja konstantno opada, kako zbog nedovoljnog angažovanja prosvetnih radnika, tako i zbog nedovoljne brige odgovarajućih institucija, što utiče na kvalitet i sam način realizacije nastavnih planova i programa (Hardman, 2008). Fizička aktivnost, naročito ona koja je usmerena i kvalitetno vođena, predstavlјa značajan stimulans (Eliakim & Yoram, 2003). ...
Conference Paper
The family as a natural support provider is an indispensable factor in a child's development. The birth of a child brings happiness to every family, but also a certain amount of stress. Special attention should be paid to the families of children with disabilities who are exposed to additional levels of stress. However, it often happens that the families of children with disabilities are left to fend for themselves in a system that does not allow them to meet their own needs and the needs of their own child and ultimately exercise basic human rights. The aim of this research was to examine the self-confidence in parenting abilities of parents of children with disabilities in the city of Mostar and the surrounding area. The study involved 25 parents of children with disabilities. Descriptive statistics methods and appropriate nonparametric statistical methods were used for data processing. The obtained results indicate that there is no statistically significant difference in the level of self-confidence of parents of children with disabilities about their age. The obtained results indicate that there is no statistically significant difference in the level of self-confidence in parenting abilities of parents of children with disabilities with regard to the age and working status of parents. Knowledge of parents' self-confidence is important not only for science, but also for the development and selection of appropriate intervention support programs for children with disabilities and their families. Due to the fact that the adverb was used in the research, the generalization of the obtained results is limited and there is a need for further research on this issue.
... Razvoj motoričkih sposobnosti donekle je determinisan genotipom (genskom strukturom nasleđenom od roditelja), a u velikoj meri razvija se pod uticajem transformacionih kinezioloških procesa i uslova sredine u kojoj jedinka živi i razvija se (Pelemiš, Mitrović, Pelemiš i Rankić, 2013). Broj časova fizičkog vaspitanja konstantno opada, kako zbog nedovoljnog angažovanja prosvetnih radnika, tako i zbog nedovoljne brige odgovarajućih institucija, što utiče na kvalitet i sam način realizacije nastavnih planova i programa (Hardman, 2008). Fizička aktivnost, naročito ona koja je usmerena i kvalitetno vođena, predstavlјa značajan stimulans (Eliakim & Yoram, 2003). ...
Conference Paper
The World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020. Soon, the classic way of attending schools, including Bosnia and Herzegovina, was interrupted all over the world. With the interruption of the classic way of attending school, distance learning began. So school, parents, and pupils were forced to a more intensive cooperation and coordination. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences in the frequency of contact between parents and professionals in regular primary schools and primary schools for children with disabilities. The sample consisted of two groups of respondents. The first group of respondents was 23 parents of children with disabilities attending regular primary schools and primary schools for children with disabilities. The second group of respondents was 34 educational staff. Parents of children attending regular primary schools and parents of children attending school for children with disabilities were found to be equally satisfied with the online support received given the frequency of support and the availability of professionals outside working hours. In addition, the results showed that parents of children with disabilities attending regular schools and parents of children attending schools for children with disabilities had equally frequent contact with professionals and the school in general.
... However, strategies to promote inclusive education vary widely depending on the country in which specific conditions exist. Within the EU, each country has established its own legislation implementing inclusive education in different ways, reflecting its social, cultural, and historical contexts [15]. Given that, it is imperative to reflect on the possibilities and challenges that can occur by utilizing an evaluation scale across cultural arenas by outlining the special features of the German-language education system in the context of physical education. ...
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Overcoming participation barriers of students with disabilities in physical education is of great importance and an internationally recognized goal. Research highlights that students with disabilities have mixed feelings about their inclusion experiences in physical education. Physical education teachers often do not feel prepared to appropriately support all students. In German-speaking countries in particular, there is a strong tradition of segregation, with varying interpretations of inclusion. In this light, an instrument to reliably assess the inclusive potential of physical education is needed, thereby providing data on the efficacy of teachers’ practices. Such an assessment scale would be important to identify barriers to inclusive physical education while providing teachers with data that could potentially enhance the learning environment. The purpose of this study was to outline initial insights into the cross-cultural translation process of the Lieberman/Brian Inclusion Rating Scale for PE in German-speaking countries. The translation process followed suggestions for transcultural validation. Expert review was provided to check content and face validity. Major item challenges centered around paraeducators, gym management, and conceptual differences regarding physical education.
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RESUMEN: En este trabajo se realiza un análisis crítico de los currículos relacionados con la Educación Física y su profesorado en el sistema educativo español, centrándose concretamente en el caso de la Comunidad Autónoma de Galicia, quedando reflejado el tratamiento legal que se otorga a la EF y su profesorado, que está lejos de ser compatible con una visión igualitaria con el resto de las materias. Como consecuencia de todo ello, se hipotetiza que el factor normativo influye también en la baja percepción del estatus de la misma por parte de los diferentes agentes del hecho educativo. ABSTRACT: In this work, a critical analysis of the curricula related to Physical Education and its teaching staff in the Spanish educational system is carried out, focusing specifically on the case of the Autonomous Community of Galicia, reflecting the legal treatment given to PE and its teaching staff, which is far from being compatible with an egalitarian vision with the rest of the subjects. As a consequence, it is hypothesized that the normative factor also influences the low perception of its status by the different agents of the educational fact.
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O estatuto da Educação Física (objetivos, meios, instrumentos) tem tido acompanhamento científico, porque traduz o investimento político na disciplina e permite acompanhar o seu grau de integração/marginalização no sistema educativo. Contudo, os professores são livres para interagir e fazer emergir um estatuto informal (valores e crenças) capaz de influenciar as práticas letivas e sobre o qual pouco sabemos. Para preencher este vazio, implementamos uma investigação interpretativa, de abordagem qualitativa, na modalidade Grounded Theory e recorremos à análise documental, a partir de dois momentos de crise: a exclusão (a classificação da disciplina esteve excluída do acesso ao ensino superior) e a pandemia. Os resultados sugerem que o Estatuto emergente determina paridade com as restantes disciplinas e adaptação permanente dos processos, de tal forma que a Educação Física parece perder limites. Conclui-se que esse Estatuto pode agudizar a marginalização da Educação Física, o que aconselha ao investimento em processos reflexivos sobre as suas consequências.
Physical Education and Sport Edu­ cation in the European Union: The Netherlands Physical Education and Sport Education in the European Union
  • A Broeke
  • G Van Dalfsen
Broeke A., Van Dalfsen G., Physical Education and Sport Edu­ cation in the European Union: The Netherlands. In: Klein G., Hardman K., Physical Education and Sport Education in the European Union. Editions Revue EP.S., Paris 2007.
Physical Education and Edu­ cation through Sport in Cyprus Physical Education and Sport Education in the European Un­ ion
  • N Tsangaridou
  • G Yiallourides
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Physical education in schools
  • K Hardman
Hardman K., Physical education in schools. In: Bell F.I., Van Glyn G.H. (eds.), Access to active living, Proceedings of the
Phys­ ical Education in Lithuania
  • E Puisiene
  • V Volbekiene
  • S Kavaliauskas
  • I Cikotiene
Puisiene E., Volbekiene V., Kavaliauskas S., Cikotiene I., Phys­ ical Education in Lithuania. In: Pühse U., Gerber M. (eds.), In­ ternational Comparison of Physical Education. Concept–Prob­ lems–Prospects. Meyer & Meyer Verlag, Aachen 2005, 440– 459.
Update on the State and Status of Physical Education Worldwide. 2 nd World Summit on Physical Education
  • K Hardman
  • J J Marshall
Hardman K., Marshall J.J., Update on the State and Status of Physical Education Worldwide. 2 nd World Summit on Physical Education, December 2–3, 2005, Magglingen, Switzerland.
Physical Education and Health in Sweden International Comparison of Physi­ 08HM01_005_018_Hardmann_Situationd:37:48 HUMAN MOVEMENT K. Hardman, The situation of Physical Education in schools cal Education. Concept–Problems–Prospects
  • C Annerstedt
Annerstedt C., Physical Education and Health in Sweden. In: Pühse U., Gerber M. (eds.), International Comparison of Physi­ 08HM01_005_018_Hardmann_Situationd.indd 18 2008-06-12, 09:37:48 HUMAN MOVEMENT K. Hardman, The situation of Physical Education in schools cal Education. Concept–Problems–Prospects. Meyer & Meyer Verlag, Aachen 2005, 604–629.
Visiting Professor School of Sport Science & Exercise University of Worcester Henwick Grove
  • Ken Prof
  • Phd Hardman
Prof. Ken Hardman, PhD. Visiting Professor School of Sport Science & Exercise University of Worcester Henwick Grove, Worcester, WR2 6AJ United Kingdom e-mail: ken.hardman@worc.ac.uk