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Provocation study using heart rate variability shows microwave radiation from 2.4 GHz cordless phone affects autonomic nervous system

  • Electromagnetic Safety Alliance, Inc. USA


Aim: The effect of pulsed (100 Hz) microwave (MW) radiation on heart rate variability (HRV) was tested in a double blind study. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five subjects in Colorado between the ages of 37 to 79 completed an electrohypersensitivity (EHS) questionnaire. After recording their orthostatic HRV, we did continuous real-time monitoring of HRV in a provocation study, where supine subjects were exposed for 3-minute intervals to radiation gener-ated by a cordless phone at 2.4 GHz or to sham exposure. Results: Question-naire: Based on self-assessments, participants classified themselves as extremely electrically sensitive (24%), moderately (16%), slightly (16%), not sensitive (8%) or with no opinion (36%) about their sensitivity. The top 10 symptoms experienced by those claiming to be sensitive include memory prob-lems, difficulty concentrating, eye problems, sleep disorder, feeling unwell, headache, dizziness, tinnitus, chronic fatigue, and heart palpitations. The five most common objects allegedly causing sensitivity were fluorescent lights, antennas, cell phones, Wi-Fi, and cordless phones. Provocation Experiment: Forty percent of the subjects experienced some changes in their HRV attribut-able to digitally pulsed (100 Hz) MW radiation. For some the response was extreme (tachycardia), for others moderate to mild (changes in sympathetic nervous system and/or parasympathetic nervous system). and for some there was no observable reaction either because of high adaptive capacity or because of systemic neurovegetative exhaustion. Conclusions: Orthostatic HRV combined with provocation testing may provide a diagnostic test for some EHS sufferers when they are exposed to electromagnetic emitting devices. This is the first study that documents immediate and dramatic changes in both Hearth Rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) associated with MW exposure at levels 18-havas:18-havas 11-10-2010 9:14 Pagina 273 well below (0.5%) federal guidelines in Canada and the United States (1000 microW/cm 2).
Aim: The effect of pulsed (100 Hz) microwave (MW) radiation on heart rate
variability (HRV) was tested in a double blind study. Materials and Methods:
Twenty-five subjects in Colorado between the ages of 37 to 79 completed an
electrohypersensitivity (EHS) questionnaire. After recording their orthostatic
HRV, we did continuous real-time monitoring of HRV in a provocation study,
where supine subjects were exposed for 3-minute intervals to radiation gener-
ated by a cordless phone at 2.4 GHz or to sham exposure. Results: Question-
naire: Based on self-assessments, participants classified themselves as
extremely electrically sensitive (24%), moderately (16%), slightly (16%), not
sensitive (8%) or with no opinion (36%) about their sensitivity. The top 10
symptoms experienced by those claiming to be sensitive include memory prob-
lems, difficulty concentrating, eye problems, sleep disorder, feeling unwell,
headache, dizziness, tinnitus, chronic fatigue, and heart palpitations. The five
most common objects allegedly causing sensitivity were fluorescent lights,
antennas, cell phones, Wi-Fi, and cordless phones. Provocation Experiment:
Forty percent of the subjects experienced some changes in their HRV attribut-
able to digitally pulsed (100 Hz) MW radiation. For some the response was
extreme (tachycardia), for others moderate to mild (changes in sympathetic
nervous system and/or parasympathetic nervous system). and for some there
was no observable reaction either because of high adaptive capacity or because
of systemic neurovegetative exhaustion. Conclusions: Orthostatic HRV
combined with provocation testing may provide a diagnostic test for some EHS
sufferers when they are exposed to electromagnetic emitting devices. This is the
first study that documents immediate and dramatic changes in both Hearth
Rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) associated with MW exposure at levels
Provocation study using heart rate variability shows
microwave radiation from 2.4 GHz cordless phone
affects autonomic nervous system
Magda Havas*, Jeffrey Marrongelle**, Bernard Pollner***,
Elizabeth Kelley****, Camilla R.G. Rees*****, Lisa Tully******
* Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, Peterborough, Canada
** 1629 Long Run Road, PO Box 606, Schuylkill Haven, PA, USA
*** Haspingerstrasse 7/2, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
**** International Commission for Electromagnetic Safety, Venice, Italy
***** 350 Bay Street, #100-214, San Francisco, California, 94133, USA
****** 27 Arrow Leaf Court, Boulder, Colorado 80304, USA
Address: Magda Havas BSc, PhD, Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University,
Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8, Canada - Tel. 705 748-1011 x7882 - Fax 705-748-1569
18-havas:18-havas 11-10-2010 9:14 Pagina 273
well below (0.5%) federal guidelines in Canada and the United States (1000
Key Words: heart rate variability, microwave radiation, DECT phone, auto-
nomic nervous system, provocation study, sympathetic, parasympathetic, cord-
less phone, 2.4 GHz, electrohypersensitivity
A growing population claims to be sensitive to devices emitting electromagnetic
energy. Hallberg and Oberfeld1report a prevalence of electrohypersensitivity (EHS)
that has increased from less than 2% prior to 1997 to approximately 10% by 2004 and
is expected to affect 50% of the population by 2017. Whether this is due to a real
increase in EHS or to greater media attention, is not known. However, to label EHS as
a psychological disorder or to attribute the symptoms to aging and/or stress does not
resolve the issue that a growing population, especially those under the age of 60, are
suffering from some combination of fatigue, sleep disturbance, chronic pain, skin, eye,
hearing, cardiovascular and balance problems, mood disorders as well as cognitive
dysfunction and that these symptoms appear to worsen when people are exposed to
electromagnetic emitting devices2-7.
The World Health Organization (WHO) organized an international seminar and
working group meeting in Prague on EMF Hypersensitivity in 2004, and at that meeting
they defined EHS as follows8:
“. . . a phenomenon where individuals experience adverse health effects while using
or being in the vicinity of devices emanating electric, magnetic, or electromagnetic
fields (EMFs) . . . Whatever its cause, EHS is a real and sometimes a debilitating
problem for the affected persons . . . Their exposures are generally several orders of
magnitude under the limits in internationally accepted standards.”
The WHO goes on to state that:
“EHS is characterized by a variety of non-specific symptoms, which afflicted indi-
viduals attribute to exposure to EMF. The symptoms most commonly experienced
include dermatological symptoms (redness, tingling, and burning sensations) as well
as neurasthenic and vegetative symptoms (fatigue, tiredness, concentration difficul-
ties, dizziness, nausea, heart palpitation and digestive disturbances). The collection
of symptoms is not part of any recognized syndrome.
Both provocation studies (where individuals are exposed to some form of electro-
magnetic energy and their symptoms are documented) and amelioration studies (where
exposure is reduced) can shed light on the offending energy source and the type and rate
of reaction.
Several amelioration studies have documented improvements in the behavior of
students and the health and wellbeing of teachers9, among asthmatics10, and in both
diabetics and those with multiple sclerosis11,12 when their exposure to dirty electricity is
reduced. Dirty electricity refers to microsurges flowing along electrical wires in the kHz
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range that can damage sensitive electronic equipment and, it appears, affect the health of
those exposed.
In contrast to amelioration studies, provocation studies, examining the response of
people with self-diagnosed EHS, have generated mixed results.
Rea et al.13 were one of the first to show that sensitive individuals responded repeat-
edly to several frequencies between 0.1 Hz and 5 MHz but not to blank challenges. Reac-
tions were mostly neurological and included tingling, sleepiness, headache, dizziness,
and - in severe cases - unconsciousness, although other symptoms were also observed
including pain of various sorts, muscle tightness particularly in the chest, spasm, palpi-
tation, flushing, tachycardia, etc. In addition to the clinical symptoms, instrument
recordings of pupil dilation, respiration, and heart activity were also included in the
study using a double-blind approach. Results showed a 20% decrease in pulmonary
function and a 40% increase in heart rate. These objective instrumental recordings, in
combination with the clinical symptoms, demonstrate that EMF sensitive individuals
respond physiologically to certain EMF frequencies although responses were robust for
only 16 of the 100 potentially sensitive individuals tested.
In a more recent review, Rubin et al.14concluded that there was no robust evidence to
support the existence of a biophysical hypersensitivity to EMF. This was based on 31
double-blind experiments that tested 725 EHS subjects. Twenty-four studies found no
difference between exposure and sham conditions and of the seven studies that did find
some evidence that exposure affected EHS participants, the research group failed to repli-
cate the results (two studies) or the results appeared to be statistical artifacts (three studies).
Those who live near antennas and those who suffer from EHS often complain of
cardiovascular problems such as rapid heart rate, arrhythmia, chest pain, and/or changes
in blood pressure3,7,15,16.
Indeed, the doctors who signed the Freiburger Appeal17 stated the following:
“We have observed, in recent years, a dramatic rise in severe and chronic disease
among our patients especially . . . extreme fluctuations in blood pressure, ever harder
to influence with medications; heart rhythm disorders; heart attacks and strokes
among an increasingly younger population . . .”
Based on these findings we decided to study the affect of microwave (MW) radiation
generated by a digital cordless phone on the cardiovascular system by monitoring heart
rate variability (HRV). Unlike cell phones that radiate microwaves only when they are
either transmitting or receiving information, the cordless phone we used radiates
constantly as long as the base of the phone is plugged into an electrical outlet. The phone
we used was an AT&T digitalally pulsed (100 Hz) cordless telephone that operates at
2.4 GHz or frequencies commonly used for microwave ovens and Wi-Fi. It resembles its
European version know as a Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT)
phone that operates at 1.9 GHz18.
HRV is increasingly used for screening cardiovascular and neurological disorders19-24.
We wanted to determine whether HRV could be used as a tool to diagnose EHS and
whether it could be used to predict probability and/or intensity of the reaction to a MW
provocation. The HRV analysis, using NervExpress software25, 26, provides information
about the functioning of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system with real
time monitoring and provides additional information including a pre-exposure fitness
score based on the orthostatic test.
M. Havas, et al: Microwave radiation affects autonomic nervous system
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Materials and methods
Background electromagnetic environment
Testing was done in two locations, one in Golden and the other in Boulder, Colorado,
on three separate weekdays during a 6-day period (Table 1). Background levels of low
frequency magnetic fields, intermediate frequency radiation on electrical wires, and
radio frequency radiation were monitored at each location and the values are provided
in Table 1. All testing of the electromagnetic environment was done in the area where
volunteers were tested for their heart rate variability during the provocation study.
The extremely low frequency magnetic field was measured with an omni-directional
Trifield meter. This meter is calibrated at 60 Hz with a frequency-weighted response
from 30 to 500 Hz and a flat response from 500 to 1000 Hz. Accuracy is ± 20%.
Power quality was measured with a Microsurge Meter that measures high frequency
transients and harmonics between 4 and 150 kHz (intermediate frequency range). This
meter provides a digital reading from 1 to 1999 of dv/dt expressed as GS units with a +/-
5% accuracy27. Since we were trying to ensure low background exposure, we installed
GS filters to improve power quality. The results recorded are with GS filters installed.
Within at least 100 m of the testing area, all wireless devices (cell phones, cordless
phones, wireless routers) were turned off. Radio frequency radiation from outside the
testing area was measured with an Electrosmog Meter, which has an accuracy of ±2.4
dB within the frequency range of 50 MHz to 3.5 GHz. Measurements were conducted
using the omni-directional mode and were repeated during the testing. This meter was
also used to determine the exposure of test subjects during provocation with a digital
cordless phone. This cordless phone emits radio frequency radiation when the base
station is plugged into an electrical outlet. This happens even when the phone is not in
use. We used the base station of an AT&T 2.4 GHz phone (digitally pulsed at 100 Hz)
to expose subjects to MW radiation18. The emission of MWs at different distances from
the front of the base station is provided in fig. 1.
Testing of subjects
Subjects were recruited by word-of–mouth based on their availability during a short
period of testing. Of the 27 people who volunteered to be tested, two were excluded, one
based on age (less than 16 years old) and another based on a serious heart condition.
Subjects were asked to complete a wellness and EHS questionnaire. They were then
asked questions about their age, height, weight, blood type, time of last meal, and occu-
pation (in the event of occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields/radiation).
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Table 1 - Measurements of the electromagnetic environment at each testing location
Location Date Magnetic Field Power Quality Radio Frequency Radiation
30 - 1000 Hz 4 - 150 kHz 50 MHz – 3.5 GHz
Colorado mG GS units microW/cm2
Golden 10/16/08 3 – 15 140 0.8
Boulder 10/20/08 0.4 37 <0.01
Boulder 10/21/08 0.4 80 <0.01
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We measured resting heart rate and blood pressure using a Life Source UA-767 Plus
digital blood pressure monitor; saliva pH with pH ion test strips designed for urine and
saliva (pH range 4.5-9.0), and blood sugar with ACCU-CHEK Compact Plus.
In an attempt to address the question: “Is there a simple test that relates EHS with the
electrical environment of the human body?”, we measured galvanic skin response (GSR),
body voltage, and the high and low frequency electric and magnetic field of each subject.
Wrist-to-wrist galvanic skin response was measured as an indicator of stress using a
Nexxtech voltmeter (Cat. No. 2200810) set at 20 volts DC and attached to the inner wrist
with a Medi Trace 535 ECG Conducive Adhesive Electrodes Foam used for ECG moni-
toring. Capacitively coupled “body voltage” was measured with a MSI Multimeter
connected to a BV-1 body voltage adaptor. The subject’s thumb was placed on one
connector and the other connector was plugged into the electrical ground, which served
as the reference electrode. High frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) electric and
magnetic fields were measured with a Multidetektor II Profi Meter held at approximately
30 cm from the subject’s body, while the subject was seated.
HRV testing
Two types of HRV testing were conducted. The first was an orthostatic test and the
second was continuous monitoring of heart rate variability with and without provocation
(exposure to MW frequencies from a digital cordless phone). NervExpress software was
used for HRV testing25. NervExpress has both CE and EU approval and is a Class Two
Medical Device in Canada and in the European Union. An electrode belt with transmitter
was placed on the person’s chest near the heart, against the skin. A wired HRV cable
with receiver was clipped to the clothing near the transmitter and connected to the COM
M. Havas, et al: Microwave radiation affects autonomic nervous system
Fig. 1. Radiation near a 2.4 GHz AT&T digital cordless phone when the base station of the phone is
plugged into an electrical outlet and the phone is not in use
18-havas:18-havas 11-10-2010 9:14 Pagina 277
port of the computer for acoustical-wired transmission (not wireless). This provided
continuous monitoring of the interval between heartbeats (R-R interval).
For the orthostatic testing subject laid down on his/her back and remained in this
position for 192 R-R intervals or heartbeats (approximately 3 minutes), at which time a
beep from the computer indicated that the person stand up and remain standing until the
end of the testing period, which was 448 intervals (approximately 7 minutes depending
on heart rate).
For the provocation testing, subject remained in a lying down position for the dura-
tion of the testing. A digital cordless phone base station, placed approximately 30 to 50
cm from subject’s head, was then connected randomly to either a live (real exposure) or
dead (sham exposure) extension cord. It was not possible for the subject to know if the
cordless phone was on or off at any one time. Continuous real-time monitoring recorded
the interval between each heartbeat. Data were analyzed by timed stages consisting of
192 R-R intervals (heartbeats).
The sham exposures are referred to as either pre-MW exposure or post-MW exposure
to differentiate the order of testing. Since type of exposure was done randomly in some
instances either the pre-MW or the post-MW is missing. Subjects who reacted immedi-
ately to the cordless phone were retested with more real/sham exposures. When subject
was exposed multiple times, only the first exposure was used for comparison. Provoca-
tion testing took between 9 to 30 minutes per subject.
After the initial testing, treatments (deep breathing, laser acupuncture, Clean Sweep)
that might alleviate symptoms were tried on a few subjects but these results will be
reported elsewhere.
Interpretation of HRV results
The results for the orthostatic testing and provocation testing were sent to one of the
authors (JM) for interpretation. An example of the type of information send is provided
in fig. 2 (orthostatic) and fig. 3 (provocation). No information was provided about the
subject’s self-proclaimed EHS and the information about exposure was blinded. JM did
not examine the provocation results until he reviewed the orthostatic results. No attempt
was made to relate the two during this initial stage of interpretation.
Predicting response and health based on orthostatic test
For the orthostatic testing JM provided a ranking for cardiovascular tone (CVT),
which is based on the blood pressure and heart rate (sum of systolic and diastolic blood
pressure times heart rate) and provides information on whether the cardiovascular
system is hypotonic (<12,500) or hypertonic (>16,500). We used a 5-point ranking scale
as follows: Rank 1: < 12,500, hypotonic; Rank 2: 12,500 to 14,000; Rank 3: 14,000 to
15,500; Rank 4: 15,500 to 16,500; Rank 5: > 16,500, hypertonic.
Non-Adaptive Capacity (NAC)awas ranked on a 5-point scale with 1 indicating
highly adaptive and 5 indicating highly non-adaptive. This was based on a balanced
sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic (PSNS) nervous system (average orthostatic
response within ±1 standard deviation from center on graph) and on the overall fitness
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aLater Adaptive Capacity (AC) was used, which is the inverse of NAC.
18-havas:18-havas 11-10-2010 9:14 Pagina 278
score. The closer to normal value of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in a given
subject, the less likely they are to react, since their adaptive capacity is high. “Normal”
refers to the balanced SNS/PSNS and the appropriate direction of movement under
stress, in this case when person stood up. Direction of movement is shown in the
NervExpress graph (fig. 2). Appropriate direction of movement would be either up 1
standard deviation (small increase in SNS and no change in PSNS); up and to the left
1 standard deviation each (small increase in SNS and small decrease in PSNS); or to
left (no change in SNS and slight decrease in PSNS). For those who move further to the
left (greater down regulation of PSNS) or further up and to the left (greater up regula-
tion of SNS combined with a greater down regulation of PSNS), the less likely they are
to adapt and the more likely they are to react. Likewise, if the fitness score is high or
adequate, the individual would be capable of resisting the stressor. An adequate phys-
ical fitness score is between 1:1 and 10:6. The first number refers to the functioning of
the physiological system and the second is the adaptation reserve. The lower the
numbers the greater the level of fitness in each category. Note, if a subject with good
or adequate fitness was to be a reactor to MW stress, his/her reaction would be both
rapid and strong.
Probability of Reaction (POR) was ranked on a 5-point scale with “1” indicating low
probability of a reaction and “5” indicating high probability of a reaction to stress of
any kind. Criteria were similar to the NAC. However, greater consideration was given
to the Chronotropic Myocardial Reaction Index (ChMR) value and the dysautonomic
M. Havas, et al: Microwave radiation affects autonomic nervous system
Fig. 2. Orthostatic HRV information provided for blinded analysis of Subject 18
18-havas:18-havas 11-10-2010 9:14 Pagina 279
status (average of orthostatic test is more than two standard deviations from center or
up to the right) of the subject, whereby individuals with compromised ANS and a poor
ChMR ranking (outside the range of 0.53 to 0.69) would be most likely to react and vice
A potential non-responding reactor is someone with low energy, average orthostatic
response in lower left quadrate, and a physical fitness score between 10:6 and 13:7.
Subject 18 in fig. 2 is a borderline non-responding reactor. Note, this does not neces-
sarily imply that this person is hypersensitive, only that he probably does not have
enough energy to mount a reaction even if he was EHS.
JM also provided his comments on the health status of the subject based on the
rhythmogram, autonomic nervous system assessment (changes in the SNS and PSNS),
Fitness Score, Vascular Compensation Reaction (VC), ChMR, Compensation Response
(CR), Ortho Test Ratio (OTR), Parameters of Optimal Variability (POV), Index of
Discrepancy (ID); and Tension Index (TI). The interpretation of the HRV parameters is
dependant to a certain degree on the integration of all the data provided as a whole with
value being given to the total ANS picture presented. Those skilled in the art and
science of HRV analysis should reach similar interpretive assessment of the data
presented here26.
Blinded analysis of provocation results
The blinded data for the continuous monitoring of heart rate variability with real and
sham exposure were sent to JM for analysis (fig. 3). JM attempted to identify the stage
during which exposure took place, stage during which the subject reacted, and then
ranked symptom probability (5-point scale) and intensity (non-reactive, mild, moderate,
intense). The assessment is provided in Appendix A.
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Fig. 3. Continuous monitoring of HRV with real and sham exposure to MW radiation from a digital cord-
less phone. Information provided for blinded analysis of Subject 18
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Wellness and EHS Questionnaire
Prior to any testing, each subject was asked to complete a wellness and EHS question-
naire. This was designed on surveymonkey ( and was adminis-
tered in paper format. This questionnaire was analyzed separately from the HRV data.
Background electromagnetic environment
The two environments, where we conducted the testing, differed in their background
levels of EMF and electromagnetic radiation (EMR). The Golden site had high magnetic
fields (3-15 mG), high levels of dirty electricity (140 GS units) despite the GS filters
being installed, and elevated levels of radio frequency (RF) radiation (0.8 microW/cm2)
coming from 27 TV transmitters on Lookout Mountain within 4 km of our testing envi-
ronment. Despite RF reflecting film on windows the RF levels inside the home were
elevated. The Boulder environment was relatively pristine and differed only with respect
to power quality on the two days of testing (Table 1).
The cordless phone, used for provocation, produced radiation that was maximal at the
subject’s head (3 to 5 microW/cm2) and minimal at the subject’s feet (0.2 to 0.8
microW/cm2) depending on height of subject and the environment. The cordless phone
did not alter magnetic field or power quality.
A total of 25 subjects were included in this pilot study, ranging in age from 37 to 79
with most (40%) of the subjects in their 50s (Table 2). Eighty percent were females.
Approximately half of the participants had normal body mass index and the other half
were either overweight (28%) or obese (16%)28. Mean resting heart rate for this group
was 70 (beats per minute) and ranged from 53 to 81. Blood pressure fell within a
normal range for 40% of participants and fell within stage 1 of high blood pressure for
16% of the subjects29. None of the subjects had pacemakers, a prerequisite for the study.
Forty percent had mercury amalgam fillings and 28% had metal (artificial joints,
braces, etc.) in their body. This is relevant as metal implants and mercury fillings may
relate to EHS30.
Self-perceived Electrosensitivity
One third of participants did not know if they were or were not electrically sensitive,
40% believed they were moderately to extremely sensitive, 16% stated that they had a little
sensitivity, and 8% claimed they were not at all sensitive. Their sensitivity was slightly
debilitating for 24% and moderately debilitating for 20% of participants (fig. 4).
Reaction time for symptoms to appear after exposure ranged from immediately (12%)
to within 2 hours (4%) and was within 10 minutes for the majority of those who believe
they react (28%) (fig. 5). Recovery time ranged from immediately to within 1 day with
M. Havas, et al: Microwave radiation affects autonomic nervous system
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only 4% claiming to recover immediately. Several participants noted that the rate of
reaction and recovery is a function of the severity of their exposure and their state of
health. The more intense the exposure the more rapid their response and the slower their
rate of recovery. These results may have a bearing on the provocation study as we are
testing an immediate reaction/recovery response (~3 minutes) to a moderate intensity
exposure (3 to 5 µW/cm2) and the percent that claims to respond quickly is low among
this group.
The most common symptoms of exposure to electrosmog, as identified by this group
of participants, included poor short-term memory, difficulty concentrating, eye prob-
lems, sleep disorder, feeling unwell, headache, dizziness, tinnitus, chronic fatigue and
heart palpitations (fig. 6, upper graph). Of the symptoms commonly associated with
EHS, heart palpitations (10th), rapid heartbeat (18th), arrhythmia (21st), and slower heart-
beat (23rd) are the only ones we would be able to identify with HRV testing. For most
participants who claim to react, reactions are mild to moderate.
All of the symptoms, except high blood pressure, arrhythmia, and slower heartbeat,
were experienced several times per day (daily) or several times per week (weekly) by at
least one or more participants. The patterns for symptom severity and frequency are
similar (fig. 6, upper vs lower graph). Some of the symptoms (feeling unwell, pain,
chronic fatigue, gas/bloat, skin problems) were experienced several times each month
(monthly) may relate to menses in pre-menopausal or peri-menopausal women (16
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Table 2 - Information about participants
Gender Male 5 20%
Female 20 80%
Age Mean and Range 60 years 37-79 years
Age Class 20s 1 4%
30s 1 4%
40s 2 8%
50s 10 40%
60s 5 20%
70s 7 28%
BMIaobese 4 16%
overweight 7 28%
normal 13 52%
underweight 1 4%
Resting Heart Rate Mean and Range 70 bpm 53-81 bpm
Blood PressurebNormal 10 40%
Pre-hypertension 11 44%
High Blood Pressure 4 16%
Metal in Body Pace maker 0 0%
Mercury fillings 10 40%
Other metal 7 28%
aBMI = Body Mass Index based on height and weight28
bBlood Pressure (BP) according to National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (nd)29
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A large percentage of participants had food allergies (64%), mold/pollen/dust aller-
gies (48%), pet allergies (20%), and were chemically sensitive (36%) (fig. 7).
Some also had pre-existing health/medical conditions (fig. 8). The top five were
anxiety (28%); hypo-thyroidism (24%); autoimmune disorder (20%), depression (16%)
and high blood pressure (16%). Note these may be self-diagnosed rather than medically
diagnosed conditions.
Objects contributing or associated with adverse health symptoms
Among the objects identified as contributing to adverse health symptoms, tube fluo-
rescent lights were at the top of the list with more than 40% of participants reacting often
or always (fig. 9). The next 4 items on the list (antennas, cell phones, Wi-Fi, cordless
phones) all emit microwave radiation. According to this figure 16% of subjects respond
to cordless phones often or always and their responses may include headaches, dizziness,
depression, which we are unable to monitor with HRV.
Fifty-two percent stated they are debilitated by their sensitivity, 24% slightly, 20%
moderately, and 8% severely. Some have difficult shopping, which may relate to
M. Havas, et al: Microwave radiation affects autonomic nervous system
Fig. 4. Self-proclaimed electrosensitivity of participants (n=25)
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lighting in stores. Others have difficulty flying or traveling by car, perhaps due to
microwave exposure on highways and in airplanes. A few subjects are unable to use
mobile phones and computers and are unable to watch television. Some are unable to
wear jewelry because it irritates the skin and/or watches because they often malfunction
(fig. 7).
EHS and person’s EMF
The body voltage, as measured by the potential difference between the subject and the
electrical ground, differed at the two sites. Subjects at Golden had much higher values
than those at Boulder. This was also the case for the high and low frequency electric field
and for the HF and LF magnetic field (Table 3). Galvanic skin response was highly vari-
able among subjects prior to testing and did not relate to either sensitivity or the envi-
ronment. There was no association between any of the EMF measurements (body
voltage, GSR, electric field or magnetic field) that we conducted prior to testing and
EHS of the subjects tested. In a follow-up study it would be useful to monitor each
person’s EMF before, during, and after exposure.
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Fig. 5. Self-proclaimed response time of participants to electro-stress and recovery (n=25)
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Blind assessment of responses: orthostatic HRV provocation HRV
The Orthostatic HRV provided us with the state of the ANS and the relative fitness
score of the individual prior to exposure, which is important for predicting the intensity
outcome of exposure.
A summary of the orthostatic HRV (blinded analysis) along with the self-assessment
and the provocation HRV (blinded and unblinded) are provide in Appendix A for each
subject. For those individuals who had either a moderate or intense response, the blinded
predictions show good agreement for stage of exposure and for intensity of exposure.
Based on the orthostatic test, those with high adaptive capacity had a lower proba-
bility of reacting to stress, but if they did react, their reaction would be moderate to
M. Havas, et al: Microwave radiation affects autonomic nervous system
Fig. 6. Severity and frequency of symptoms associated with electrosmog exposure (n=25)
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Fig. 7. Response to specific questions that may contribute to or be associated with electrical sensitivity
Fig. 8. Existing medical conditions of participants (n=25)
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intense. Conversely, those with low adaptive capacity had a higher probability of
reacting but they didn’t always have the energy to react and hence their reactions would
be mild.
Provocation HRV
Most of the subjects (15/25, 60%) did not respond appreciable to the MW radiation
generated by the cordless phone when it was plugged into a live outlet. The rhythmo-
gram was unchanged and the heart rate, parasympathetic and sympathetic tone remained
constant (figs. 3, 10, 12).
However, 10 subjects (40%) did respond to the MW challenge. Fig. 13 shows the
response for six of those 10. Response and the recovery were immediate. MW provoca-
M. Havas, et al: Microwave radiation affects autonomic nervous system
Fig. 9. Objects contributing to adverse health symptoms. Those marked with a dot generate microwave
frequencies (n=25)
Table 3 - Personal electromagnetic environment (mean ± standard deviation) of subjects tested includ-
ing galvanic skin response (GSR), body voltage, electric (E-field) and magnetic fields (M-field) at both
high and low frequency (HF and LF) [* P ≤0.05].
Location Date GSR Body E-field E-field M-field M-field
Voltage HF LF HF LF
mV mV mV mV mG mG
Golden 10/16/08 3.5 ± 1.8 3.4 ± 0.5* 88 ± 85* 333 ± 71* 4.6 ± 5.7* 17 ± 14*
Boulder 10/20/08 3.2 ± 2.5 0.5 ± 0.5 13 ± 33 63 ± 94 0.2 ± 0.6 2.7 ± 0.7*
Boulder 10/21/08 4.1 ± 1.3 0.2 ± 0.1 2 ± 0.8 57 ± 50 0.1 ± 0.4 1.7 ± 0.6*
18-havas:18-havas 11-10-2010 9:14 Pagina 287
tion differed noticeably compared with sham exposure. Heart rate increased significantly
for four of the subjects, resulting in tachycardia for three. The heart rate for subject 25
jumped from 61 bpm to 154 bpm (with real provocation) and returned to 64 bpm (with
sham provocation) (fig. 11). The increase in heart rate was accompanied by up regula-
tion of the SNS and down regulation of the PSNS during cordless phone exposure for
four subjects in Table 4 (fig. 13). Response of the one subject (Subject 27) was para-
doxical in that the heart rate increased from 72 to 82 bpm during which time the
parasympathetic tone increased and the sympathetic tone remained constant.
Fig. 14 shows the range of responses of some non- or slightly reactive subjects to
Eur. J. Oncol. Library, vol. 5
Fig. 10. Continuous monitoring of HRV during provocation part of this study for one subject who was
Fig. 11. Continuous monitoring of HRV during provocation part of this study for one subject who react-
ed to the MW radiation from a digital cordless 2.4 GHz phone
18-havas:18-havas 11-10-2010 9:14 Pagina 288
The pre- and post-MW cordless phone response (SNS & PSNS) differed significantly
for this group (fig. 15) with up regulation of the SNS and down regulation of the
PSNS with MW exposure and the reverse for post-MW exposure suggesting a recovery
The severe and moderate responders had a much higher LF/HF ratio than those who
either did not respond or had a mild reaction to the MW exposure from the cordless
phone (fig. 16B). This indicates, yet again, a stimulation of the SNS (LF) and a down-
M. Havas, et al: Microwave radiation affects autonomic nervous system
Table 4 - Real-time monitoring of heart rate, sympathetic and parasympathetic tone before, during, and
after exposure to a 2.4 GHz digital cordless phone radiating 3-5 microW/cm2
EHS Subject EHS Heart Rate (bpm) Sympathetic Response Parasympathetic Response
Code Ranked bgrnd pre MW post bgrnd pre MW post bgrnd pre MW post
Intense 25 1 61 61 154 64 -1 -1 40 0 0-4 -1
17 2 66 68 122 66 0040 0-2 -3 0
26 3 59 61 106 61 -1 -1 30 1 2-3 1
27 4 72 nd 82 69 0 nd 00-3 nd 2 -2
Moderate 5566 66 66 65 1130-1 -1 -3 -1
9677 75 75 73 1101-2 0 -3 -1
3748 50 53 nd 2 -2 0 nd 200nd
16 8 61 nd 62 63 0 nd -2 0 -2 nd -2 -2
8981 nd 81 80 1 nd 11 0nd -2 -1
10 10 69 68 70 70 00 00-2 -2 -3 -1
Mild 2 11 54 54 55 56 -2 -3 -2 -2 -3 -3 -3 -3
23 12 59 nd 58 60 -1 nd 0 -2 -2 nd -2 -3
12 13 71 nd 69 74 0 nd 10-1 nd -1 -1
18 14 60 61 61 61 -2 -1 -2 -1 -3 -3 -3 -2
19 15 63 62 62 61 -1 0 -1 -1 -3 -3 -3 -2
6 16 65 66 66 65 0000-3 -3 -4 -3
4 17 61 62 61 61 -2 -1 -1 -2 -3 -2 -3 -2
24 18 71 72 71 69 0000-3 -2 -1 -2
None 1 19 71 70 71 71 0001-3 -1 -1 -1
11 20 57 nd 57 58 0 nd 00 3nd 32
21 21 78 78 78 nd 111nd -2 -3 -3 nd
7 22 70 71 70 69 0000-3 -3 -3 -3
14 23 69 68 67 66 0000-1 -2 -2 -1
20 24 67 nd 66 66 0 nd 00-1 nd -1 -1
13 25 80 78 76 nd 111nd -3 -2 -2 nd
Response Mean Heart Rate Mean Sympathetic Mean Parasympathetic
(bmp) Response Response
Intense 65 63 116 65 -0.5 -0.7 2.8 0.0 -0.5 0.0 -2.0 -0.5
Moderate 67 65 68 70 0.8 0.0 0.3 0.4 -0.8 -0.8 -2.2 -1.2
Mild 63 63 63 63 -1.0 -0.8 -0.6 -1.0 -2.6 -2.7 -2.5 -2.3
None 70 73 69 66 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.2 -1.4 -2.2 -1.3 -0.8
All 66 66 74 66 -0.1 -0.3 0.4 -0.2 -1.5 -1.7 -2.0 -1.4
EHS categories described in text: bgrnd = background; pre=sham exposure before real exposure;
MW=microwave exposure; post=sham exposure after real exposure; nd=no data
18-havas:18-havas 11-10-2010 9:14 Pagina 289
regulation of the PSNS (HF). The up regulation was greater for LF2 than for LF1 (fig.
Based on self-assessment and the results from the provocation study, 2 subjects (8%)
underestimated their sensitivity and 5 subjects (20%) overestimated their sensitivity to
the cordless phone provocation. However, only two of the 5 claim to experience mild
heart palpitations and only one of those responds “sometimes” to cordless phones.
The most intriguing result in this study is that a small group of subjects responded
immediately and dramatically to MW exposure generated by a digital cordless DECT
phone with blinded exposure. Heart rate (HR) increased significantly for 4 subjects (16%)
(10 to 93 beats per minute) and the sympathetic/parasympathetic balance changed for an
additional 6 subjects (24%) while they remained in a supine position. This is the first
study documenting such a dramatic change brought about immediately and lasting as long
as the subject was exposed and is in sharp contrast to the provocation studies reviewed by
Levallois5, Rubin et al.14, and Bergqvist et al.31. Authors of these reviews generally
conclude that they were unable to establish a relationship between low or high frequency
fields and electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) or with symptoms typically occurring
Eur. J. Oncol. Library, vol. 5
Fig. 12. Subject 7: no changes in heart rate, sympathetic, and parasympathetic tone before, during, and
after blind provocation with a 2.4 GHz cordless phone generating exposure of 3 to 5 microW/cm2
18-havas:18-havas 11-10-2010 9:14 Pagina 290
among such afflicted individuals. Furthermore, several studies report no effect of mobile
phones (various exposure conditions) on human HRV-parameters32-39.
Our results clearly show a causal relationship between pulsed 100 Hz MW exposure
and changes in the ANS that is physiological rather than psychological and that may
explain at least some of the symptoms experienced by those sensitive to electromagnetic
frequencies. Dysfunction of the ANS can lead to heart irregularities (arrhythmia, palpi-
tations, flutter), altered blood pressure, dizziness, nausea, fatigue, sleep disturbances,
profuse sweating and fainting spells, which are some of the symptoms of EHS.
When the SNS (fight or flight response) is stimulated and the PSNS (rest and digest)
is suppressed the body is in a state of arousal and uses more energy. If this is a constant
state of affairs, the subject may become tired and may have difficulty sleeping (unable
to relax because of a down regulated PSNS and/or up regulated SNS). Interestingly,
Sandstrom40 found a disturbed pattern of circadian rhythms of HRV and the absence of
the expected HF (parasympathetic) power-spectrum component during sleep in persons
who perceived themselves as being electrically hypersensitive.
If the dysfunction of the ANS is intermittent it may be experienced as anxiety and/or
panic attacks, and if the vagus nerve is affected it may lead to dizziness and/or nausea.
Our results show that the SNS is up regulated (increase in LF) and the PSNS is down
regulated (decrease in HF) for some of the subjects during provocation. The greatest
M. Havas, et al: Microwave radiation affects autonomic nervous system
Fig. 13. Reactive Subjects: changes in heart rate, sympathetic, and parasympathetic tone before, during,
and after blind provocation with a 2.4 GHz cordless phone that generates exposure of 3 to 5 microW/cm2
18-havas:18-havas 11-10-2010 9:14 Pagina 291
increase is in LF2, which is the adrenal stress response, although LF1 also increases. We
not know the degree to which this is due to the 100 Hz pulse, the MW carrier, or their
Several studies lend support to our results.
Lyskov et al.41 monitored baseline neurophysiological characteristics of 20 patients
with EHS and compared them to a group of controls. They found that the observed group
of patients had a trend to hypersympathotone, hyper-responsiveness to sensor stimula-
tion and heightened arousal. The EHS group at rest had on average lower HR and HRV
and higher LF/HF ratio than controls. We found that subjects with intense and moderate
reactions to the MW provocation also had higher LF/HF ratios than those who did not
Kolesnyk et al.42 describes an “adverse influence of mobile phone on HRV” and Rezk
et al. 43 reports an increase of fetal and neonatal HR and a decrease in cardiac output after
exposure of pregnant women to mobile phones.
Andrzejak et al.44 reports an increased parasympathetic tone and a decreased sympa-
thetic tone after a 20-minute telephone-call. While these results are contrary to our find-
ings, the effect of speaking cannot be ruled out in Andrzejak’s study. In our study the
subject remained in a supine position, silent and still during the testing.
Eur. J. Oncol. Library, vol. 5
Fig. 14. Non or slightly reactive subjects: patterns of response for before, during, and after blind provo-
cation with a 2.4 GHz cordless phone that generates exposure of 3 to 5 microW/cm2
18-havas:18-havas 11-10-2010 9:14 Pagina 292
Workers of radio broadcasting stations have an increased risk of disturbances in blood
pressure and heart rhythm. They have a lower daily heart rate, a decreased HR vari-
ability, higher incidences of increased blood pressure and disturbances in parameters of
M. Havas, et al: Microwave radiation affects autonomic nervous system
Fig. 15. Response of 25 subjects to blind provocation by a 2.4 GHz digital cordless phone that generates
exposure of 3 to 5 microW/cm2
Fig. 16. A. Mean high frequency (parasympathetic) and low frequency (sympathetic) spectral distribu-
tion as a function of response intensity of 25 subjects exposed to a 2.4 GHz cordless phone. B. Low fre-
quency (LF1 + LF2) to high frequency (HF) ratio for different exposures
18-havas:18-havas 11-10-2010 9:14 Pagina 293
diurnal rhythms of blood pressure and HR-all of no clinical significance, but showing a
certain dysregulation of autonomic cardiac control45-48.
Bortkiewicz et al.49 reported that exposure to AM radio frequency EMF within
hygienic standards affects the functions of the ANS of workers. Workers had higher
frequency of abnormalities in resting and 24-h ECG than controls and an increased
number of heart rhythm disturbances (ventricular premature beats). As in our study, RF
exposure was associated with a reduced HF power spectrum suggesting that the EMF
field reduce the influence of the PSNS on circulatory function.
Several studies report changes in blood pressure with electromagnetic exposure50, 51.
Others show an increase of oxidative stress and a decrease of antioxidative defense-
systems in heart-tissue irradiated with 2.45 GHz and 900 MHz respectively52, 53. Still
others show a stress-response reaction following exposure to radio frequency radiation
either in the form of heat shock proteins (hsp) or changes in enzymatic activity. Irradia-
tion of rats with a low-intensity-field (0.2-20 MHz) resulted in an increase of myocar-
dial hsp7054. Similarly 1.71 GHz MW exposure increased hsp70 in p53-deficient embry-
onic stem cells55. Abramov and Merkulova56 report pulsed EMFs increase the enzymatic
activity of acetylcholinesterase in the animal heart, which suppresses the parasympa-
thetic and allows the sympathetic to dominate.
Most of the studies on humans, that did not show any effects of MW radiation in some
of the studies mentioned above, were conducted with young, healthy subjects, giving
rise to the question whether the experiments would have yielded different results with
subjects with a “higher level of pathologic pre-load” and thus fewer possibilities to
acutely compensate the possible stressor of radiation.
The studies on work-exposure to MW radiation were able to show different levels of
effects on the cardiovascular system, and this could be interpreted as the necessity to
remain regularly, repeatedly, and for a longer time under the influence of a certain EMF
exposure, hence pointing out the great importance of the electromagnetic exposures in
the work and home environment. Perhaps only chronic exposure to MW-EMF can influ-
ence various rhythms (e.g. cardiovascular biorhythms) sufficiently to cause detectable
effects. Perhaps it is these individuals who become EHS and then respond to stressors if
they have sufficient energy to mount a reaction.
In our study, half of those tested claimed to be moderately to extremely sensitive to
electromagnetic energy and they ranged in age from 37 to 79 years old. The symptoms
they identified are similar to those reported elsewhere and include poor short-term
memory, difficulty concentrating, eye problems, sleep disorder, feeling unwell,
headache, dizziness, tinnitus, chronic fatigue, and heart palpitations2, 7, 57.
The common devices attributed to stress generation included fluorescent lights,
antennas, cell phones, Wi-Fi, and cordless phones. The last 4 items all emit MW radia-
Many of those claiming to have EHS also had food allergies, mold/pollen/dust aller-
gies and were chemically sensitive. With so many other sensitivities it is difficult to
determine whether the sensitivity to electromagnetic energy is a primary disorder attrib-
utable to high and/or prolonged EM exposures or a secondary disorder brought about by
an impaired immune system attributable to other stressors.
Interestingly, the younger participants (37 to 58) displayed the most intense responses
presumably because they were healthy enough to mount a response to a stressor. Those
who did not respond to the MW exposure were either not sensitive, or they had a low
adaptive capacity coupled with a poor fitness score and did not have enough energy to
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mount a reaction. Orthostatic HRV combined with provocation monitoring may help
distinguish these three types of responses (sensitive, not sensitive, non-responsive reac-
The term EHS was deemed to imply that a causal relationship has been established
between the reported symptoms and EMF exposure and for that reason the WHO8has
labeled EHS as Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance (IEI) to indicate that it is an
acquired disorder with multiple recurrent symptoms, associated with diverse environ-
mental factors tolerated by the majority of people, and not explained by any known
medical, psychiatric or psychological disorder. We think this labeling needs to be
changed especially in light of this study.
The orthostatic HRV provides information about the adaptive capacity of an indi-
vidual based on fitness score and on the state of the SNS and PSNS. A person with high
adaptive capacity is unlikely to respond to a stressor (because they are highly adaptive)
but if they do respond the response is likely to be intense. Orthostatic HRV was able to
predict the intensity of the response much better than the probability of a response to a
stressor, which in this case was a 2.4 GHz digital cordless phone that generated a power
density of 3 to 5 microW/cm2.
Forty percent of those tested responded to the HRV provocation. Some experienced
tachycardia, which corresponded to an up regulation of their SNS and a down regulation
of their PSNS (increase in LF/HF ratio). This was deemed a severe response when the
HR in supine subjects increased by 10 to 93 beats per minute during blinded exposure.
HR returned to normal during sham exposure for all subjects tested. In total, 16% had a
severe response, 24% had a moderate response (changes in SNS and/or PSNS but no
change in HR); 32% had a slight response; and 28% were non-responders. Some of the
non-responders were either highly adaptive (not sensitive) or non-responding reactors
(not enough energy to mount a reaction). A few reactors had a potentiated reaction, such
that their reaction increased with repeated exposure, while others showed re-regulation
with repeated exposure.
These data show that HRV can be used to demonstrate a physiological response to a
pulsed 100 Hz MW stressor. For some the response is extreme (tachycardia), for others
moderate to mild (changes in SNS and/or PSNS), and for some there is no observable
reaction because of high adaptive capacity or because of systemic neurovegetative
exhaustion. Our results show that MW radiation affects the ANS and may put some indi-
viduals with pre-existing heart conditions at risk when exposed to electromagnetic radi-
ation to which they are sensitive.
This study provides scientific evidence that some individuals may experience
arrhythmia, heart palpitations, heart flutter, or rapid heartbeat and/or vasovagal symp-
toms such as dizziness, nausea, profuse sweating and syncope when exposed to electro-
magnetic devices. It is the first study to demonstrate such a dramatic response to pulsed
MW radiation at 0.5% of existing federal guidelines (1000 microW/cm2) in both Canada
and the US.
M. Havas, et al: Microwave radiation affects autonomic nervous system
18-havas:18-havas 11-10-2010 9:14 Pagina 295
We thank those who offered their homes for testing and those who volunteered to be tested. Special
thanks goes to Evelyn Savarin for helping with this research.
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APPENDIX A: Summary of data based on blind assessment.
1 Electrohypersensitivity (EHS) response categories are based on HR = heart rate; SNS = sympathetic
nervous system; PSNS = parasympathetic nervous system.
2 EHS was ranked based on changes in HR and changes in the SNS and PSNS during exposure to
microwave (MW) radiation.
3 Self-assessment of sensitivity based on questionnaire response.
4 Cardiovascular (CV) Tone is based on the HR times the sum of the systolic and diastolic blood pres-
sure; values at 1 or lower are hypotonic and values at 5 are hypertonic.
5 Intensity of reaction (IOR); adaptive capacity (AC), which is 6 - non adaptive capacity (NAC); and
probability of reaction (POR) are based on the orthostatic heart rate variability (HRV) results and
are described in the text.
6 Subjects were exposed to MW radiation at different stages. Stages in parentheses were not used in
the study as they reflect multiple exposures with interference from other agents.
7 Blind assessment was based on the HRV during continuous monitoring with real and sham expo-
sure to MW radiation from a 2.4 GHz digital cordless phone radiating and at a power density
between 3 and 5 microW/cm2.
8 Excellent subject.
9 Symptomatic at stage 3, parasympathetic rally begins to recovery but feels anxiety, stage 3 faint or
dizziness predicted. Decent Chronotropic Myocardial Reaction Index (ChMR) and vascular
compensation reaction (VC). Middle of bell curve.
10 The healthier a subject the more likely the reaction. This person has the energy to become sympto-
11 Mildly inflamed. Mildly fatigued but highly adaptive. ChMR and VC good. Has ability to react.
12 Adaptive person. Could use Mg and/or K based on high standing HR.
13 Has plenty of energy. Moderate response due to weakening. Stage 7 body re-regulating from expo-
14 Shows a weakening reaction (down regulation of SNS). Positive reactor. Very healthy for age.
Highly adaptive geriatric.
15 Lot of adaptive capacity. If she is exposed her reaction would be a fairly strong reaction.
M. Havas, et al: Microwave radiation affects autonomic nervous system
18-havas:18-havas 11-10-2010 9:15 Pagina 299
16 Has diminished energy capacity (11:6). This person doesn’t have enough energy to have a robust
17 Potentiated reactor, time sensitive, couldn’t tolerate re-exposure. If she reacts it will be moderately
strong because of ChMR. Needs minerals for VC factor slowed her down.
18 May be on heart medication. Cardiac rate and rhythm non-adaptive. CV tone hypertonic.
19 Any neurological insult will be met with a hard reaction since she has inverted response when she
stands up.
20 If reactor, it will be strong because of ChMR strong. Highly adaptive capability and reserve. Slow
VC could be mineral or vitamin D deficiency.
21 Don’t have a strong PSNS resistance. Reactivity is based on inability to go parasympathetic, and
then they will go more sympathetic if they have the energy to do so. No energy. Either a delayed
reaction or a weak reaction.
22 Afibrillation, palpitations of heart probable. Strong girl. 11:6 fitness is OK for a person this age.
23 May have dental problems based on S/P response. Neurologically compromised.
24 Neurologically compromised. May be overmedicated on CV drug.
25 Strong gal. Decent reserve capacity but temporary fatigue. Doesn’t feel bad but poor health for her
26 Normal reaction to stress, mild non-toxic reaction. Potential for reaction: moderately high because
of the 10.4 but may tolerate an amount of exposure before they react because of the reserve capa-
27 Ridiculously healthy. Poster boy for his age. He can take a lot based on fitness of 6:5.
28 Lower end of bell curve. Doesn’t have energy to react although may be symptomatic.
29 Either highly adaptive or non-reactive. Orthostatic response indicates that person doesn’t have
enough energy to have a robust response.
30 Normal CV tone for age, Decent Tension Index (TI). Good geriatric pattern. If she reacts it would
be moderate to mild.
31 Strong girl. Has strong adrenal capacity. If she reacts it will be strong. May have chronic fatigue.
32 Moderate inflammation. Tired and has low adaptive reserve. If stressor comes along it will produce
more stress. If reacting it would be medium.
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... The recommendations of the ICNIRP establish the maximum levels of radiation at 450 µ W/cm 2 [3,[9][10][11]. However, the BioInitiative working group, together with other researchers [8,10,[12][13][14][15][16], suggest that adverse health effects are observed at low levels of exposure 0.1 µ W/cm 2 . Studies suggest that RF-EMF exposures with powers below the recommendations of the ICNIRP have effects related to changes in brain activity [17], affecting cognitive and motor performance [12,13], infertility problems in the male reproductive system [18,19], DNA damage [20,21], association to different brain tumors and intensity of RF-EMF, and having a greater effect in children and teenagers than in adults [4,6,12,[22][23][24][25]. ...
... In this study, the regulations established by ICNIRP [3] were not followed, the measurements of the maximum received power levels were considered (not the average). The non-thermal effects are not considered in the establishment of the exposure limits, and the BioInitiative working group, together with other researchers [8,10,[12][13][14][15][16], suggest that adverse health effects are observed at low levels of exposure and suggest that using the SAR criterion alone is not the most appropriate for this purpose. Conventional exposimeters are not suitable for differentiating between multiple electromagnetic field sources because their resolution bandwidth is determined by the full desired frequency band to be measured, avoiding the detection of the sources responsible for the greatest contribution of electromagnetic fields [34]. ...
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A novel compact device with spectrum analyzer characteristics has been designed, which allows the measuring of the maximum power received in multiple narrow frequency bands of 300 kHz, recording the entire spectrum from 78 MHz to 6 GHz; the device is capable of measuring the entire communications spectrum and detecting multiple sources of electromagnetic fields using the same communications band. The proposed device permits the evaluation of the cross-talk effect that, in conventional exposimeters, generates a mistake estimation of electromagnetic fields. The device was calibrated in an anechoic chamber for far-fields and was validated against a portable spectrum analyzer in a residential area. A strong correlation between the two devices with a confidence higher than 95% was obtained; indicating that the device could be considered as an important tool for electromagnetic field studies.
... Leaks in the lysosomes (small tissue containing digestive enzymes which can destroy DNA) cause breaks in DNA [36]. Microwave radiation causes serious issues to humans, animals, birds, and other living organisms [37]- [43]. Nair Sravan Surendran, Nihal Anwar S, etc. reveals the radiation's harmful effects on Sparrows, Pigeons, Swans, etc [45]. ...
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This is an Open Access Journal / article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. All rights reserved. Microwave radiation causes serious issues to humans, animals, birds, and other living organisms. In this study, we examined experimentally whether mobile tower radiation has any relevant relationships with the breeding of birds. Two methods are accustomed to determine the relation between the breeding of birds and cell tower radiation. In the first experiment, collected fertilized eggs of four birds-chicken, duck, quail, and crow. Repeated thrice at three locations in India and Finland. In the case of chicken and duck, no meaningful relation was found between their breeding and cell tower radiation. But mobile tower radiation plays a major role in damaging the eggs and embryos of quail and crow. Difficulties aroused in collecting large quantities of eggs of other bird species from the wild. Moreover, we never intended to disturb their lives. So we tried another method to look at the relationships in other birds. Shielding effectiveness measurement could be a proven scientific method to search out the capacity of an enclosure to scale back the share of penetration by microwave radiation. Collected broken egg shells after hatching from sixteen bird species and determined their shielding effectiveness. Compared with the primary experimental results. Our study confirmed that tiny birds having lesser egg shell thickness have lesser shielding effectiveness and their don't seem to be safe even at a distance of 1 km from a cell tower.
... Heart rate variability is gaining popularity as an analytical tool in the scientific/medical literature (Fig.2B). We used HRV previously, in a double-blind provocation study, showing that exposure to microwave radiation from a cordless phone, at exposures well below international guidelines, disturbs the autonomic nervous system (ANS), generates a stress response and indicates sensitivity to radio frequency radiation 18 . Just as the number of HRV publications are increasing so are the studies using PEMF ( Fig. 2A). ...
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Frequency therapy, in the form of pulsed electromagnetic fields, is becoming increasingly popular within the scientific/medical community as is heart rate variability for assessing wellness. These two techniques were combined to determine if a particular pulsed electromagnetic field treatment (Seqex, Theta) had any beneficial effects (based on Brain Tap HRV) on 20 volunteers ranging in age from 21-81. Treatment consisted of a 36-minute exposure to 4–8 Hz with a magnetic flux density between 12 to 68 mG and several proprietary waveforms. Treatment was conducted at a wellness clinic that had low levels of electromagnetic fields/radiation and heart rate variability was tested immediately before and immediately following treatment. Significant benefits were documented for 72% of the participants and these were associated with reduced stress and a lower biological age (vs. chronological age) as indicators on Brain Tap HRV. Indices for cardiovascular health; LF/HF balance, neurohormonal regulation and psychoemotional state all improved overall as did energy resources and energy balance (catabolic vs. anabolic). Individuals who believed they were sensitive to electromagnetic fields (i.e. had electrohypersensitivity) also improved. Some of the beneficial results persisted over a 24-hour period. Despite this positive outcome, 28% of the participants either showed no objective change or were worse (based on heart rate variability) immediately following treatment. We conclude that pulsed electromagnetic field treatments may be highly beneficial even among those who have electrohypersensitivity resulting in reduced stress and improved homeostasis. However, treatments should be provided in an electromagnetic clean environment for optimal results and objective testing with heart rate variability, or some other assessment tool, should be used to ensure that the patient is receiving a treatment that is beneficial.
... However, the results of these studies are controversial. Some studies obtain some convincing results [37,38], but many of them do not show any particular ability of EHS people to distinguish between real and sham exposure. This feeds another controversy surrounding provocation studies: the relevance of relying on objective rather than subjective measurements [39]. ...
Patients’ experiential knowledge is increasingly recognised as valuable for biomedical research. Its contribution can reveal unexplored aspects of their illnesses and allows research priorities to be refined according to theirs. It can also be argued that patients’ experiential knowledge can contribute to biomedical research, by extending it to the most organic aspects of diseases. A few examples of collaboration between medicine and patient associations are promising, even if there is no single, simple methodology to apply. This article provides feedback on a project involving the experiential knowledge of electrohypersensitive persons with a view to developing an experimental protocol to study their condition. It presents the participatory approach with focus groups that was implemented and reflects on ways to take advantage of experiential knowledge. It also demonstrates the complexity of the electrohypersensitivity syndrome and reflects on the difficult transition between the experiential knowledge and the experimental design of provocation studies. • KEY MESSAGES • Experiential knowledge is a valuable source of information for research and the design of investigation protocols. • The participatory approach allows co-designing protocols by drawing on experiential knowledge. • The controversial dimension of EHS reveals the complexity of translating experiential knowledge into an experimental protocol.
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Aim of this work is to observe some epidemiological pattern related heart pathology like pericarditis and myocarditis in last decades and the toxicological effect played by various WRC wireless communication radiations as described by scientific literature. All this related the class age distribution of some Rare ADR by various covid-19 vaccine like Pericarditis and miocarditis (more frequent in young) and the use of electronic device WCR among the subpopulation. Of interest to observe that sars cov-2 spike protein, derivates and WCR are able to affect the heart as showed by literature in direct or indirect way. What information can be obtained studying this phenomena?
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Electromagnetic signals from everyday wireless technologies are an ever-present environmental stressor, affecting biological systems. In this article, we substantiate this statement based on the weight of evidence from papers collated within the ORSAA database (ODEB), focusing on the biological and health effects of electromagnetic fields and radiation. More specifically, the experiments investigating exposures from real-world devices and the epidemiology studies examining the effects of living near mobile phone base stations were extracted from ODEB and the number of papers showing effects was compared with the number showing no effects. The results showed that two-thirds of the experimental and epidemiological papers found significant biological effects. The breadth of biological and health categories where effects have been found was subsequently explored, revealing hundreds of papers showing fundamental biological processes that are impacted, such as protein damage, biochemical changes and oxidative stress. This understanding is targeted toward health professionals and policy makers who have not been exposed to this issue during training. To inform this readership, some of the major biological effect categories and plausible mechanisms of action from the reviewed literature are described. Also presented are a set of best practice guidelines for treating patients affected by electromagnetic exposures and for using technology safely in health care settings. In conclusion, there is an extensive evidence base revealing that significant stress to human biological systems is being imposed by exposure to everyday wireless communication devices and supporting infrastructure. This evidence is compelling enough to warrant an update in medical education and practice.
Much of the controversy over the cause of electrohypersensitivity (EHS) lies in the absence of recognized clinical and biological criteria for a widely accepted diagnosis. However, there are presently sufficient data for EHS to be acknowledged as a distinctly well-defined and objectively characterized neurologic pathological disorder. Because we have shown that 1) EHS is frequently associated with multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) in EHS patients, and 2) that both individualized disorders share a common pathophysiological mechanism for symptom occurrence; it appears that EHS and MCS can be identified as a unique neurologic syndrome, regardless its causal origin. In this overview we distinguish the etiology of EHS itself from the environmental causes that trigger pathophysiological changes and clinical symptoms after EHS has occurred. Contrary to present scientifically unfounded claims, we indubitably refute the hypothesis of a nocebo effect to explain the genesis of EHS and its presentation. We as well refute the erroneous concept that EHS could be reduced to a vague and unproven “functional impairment”. To the contrary, we show here there are objective pathophysiological changes and health effects induced by electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure in EHS patients and most of all in healthy subjects, meaning that excessive non-thermal anthropogenic EMFs are strongly noxious for health. In this overview and medical assessment we focus on the effects of extremely low frequencies, wireless communications radiofrequencies and microwaves EMF. We discuss how to better define and characterize EHS. Taken into consideration the WHO proposed causality criteria, we show that EHS is in fact causally associated with increased exposure to man-made EMF, and in some cases to marketed environmental chemicals. We therefore appeal to all governments and international health institutions, particularly the WHO, to urgently consider the growing EHS-associated pandemic plague, and to acknowledge EHS as a new real EMF causally-related pathology.
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This is a double-blind, placebo-controlled replication of a study that we previously conducted in Colorado with 25 subjects designed to test the effect of radio frequency radiation (RFR) generated by the base station of a cordless phone on heart rate variability (HRV). In this study, we analyzed the response of 69 subjects between the ages of 26 and 80 in both Canada and the USA. Subjects were exposed to radiation for 3-min intervals generated by a 2.4-GHz cordless phone base station (3–8 microW/cm2). Prior to provocation we conducted an orthostatic test to assess the state of adrenal exhaustion, which interferes with a person’s ability to mount a response to a stressor. A few participants had a severe reaction to the RFR with an increase in heart rate and altered HRV indicative of an alarm response to stress. Based on the HRV analyses of the 69 subjects, 7% were classified as being “moderately to very sensitive”, 29% were “little to moderately sensitive”, 30% were “not to a little sensitive” and 6% were “unknown”. These results are not psychosomatic and are not due to electromagnetic interference. Twenty-five percent of the subjects’ self-proclaimed sensitivity corresponded to that based on the HRV analysis, while 32% overestimated their sensitivity and 42% did not know whether or not they were electrically sensitive. Of the 39 participants who claimed to experience some electrical hypersensitivity, 36% claimed they also reacted to a cordless phone and experienced heart symptoms and, of these, 64% were classified as having some degree of electrohypersensitivity (EHS) based on their HRV response. Novel findings include documentation of a delayed response to radiation. This protocol underestimates the reaction to electromagnetic radiation and may provide a false negative for those with a delayed reaction and/or with adrenal exhaustion. Orthostatic HRV testing combined with provocation testing may provide a useful diagnostic tool for some sufferers of EHS when they are exposed to electromagnetic radiation. It can be used to confirm EHS but not to reject EHS as a diagnosis since not everyone with EHS has an ANS reaction to electromagnetic radiation.
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Electromagnetic hypersensitive persons (EHS) attribute their nonspecific health symptoms to environmental electromagnetic fields (EMF) of different sources in or outside their homes. In general, causal attribution is not restricted to specific EMF frequencies but involves a wide range from extremely low frequencies (ELF) up to radio frequencies (RF) including mobile telecommunication microwaves and radar. EHS argue that existing exposure limits were not low enough to account for their increased sensitivities. Results of measurement campaigns are summarized. They demonstrate that environmental fields in the ELF and RF range are usually orders of magnitudes below exposure limits. The rational and biological background of recommended exposure limits are described. The existing scientific studies are reviewed, including investigations on the prevalence of EHS among the general population, ability of EHS to perceive and/or react to exposures to weak EMF (assessed in laboratory provocational studies or to the vicinity of EMF sources studied by epidemiologic approaches), and the existence of a specific symptom cluster, which could characterize a suspected EHS syndrome, or individual EHS-specific factors such as electric perception thresholds, neurophysiologic parameters, and cognitive performance and behavior. However, in spite of the variety of scientific attempts, a causal role of EMF remains yet unproven. This does not mean that the suffering could be ignored. It is recognized that EHS cases deserve help. Therapeutic approaches are described and the conclusion of the World Health Organisation (WHO) is summarized.
We investigated the effects of green tea catechin on oxidative damage in microwave-exposed rats. The microwave-exposed rats received one of three diets: catechin-free (MW-0C), 0.25% catechin (MW-0.25C), or 0.5% catechin (MW-0.5C). Rats were sacrificed 6 days after microwave irradiation (2.45 GHz, 15 minutes). Cytochrome P-450 levels in the MW-0C group was increased by 85% compared with normal, but was 11% and 14% lower in the MW-0.25C and MW-0.5C groups than in the MW-0C group. NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase activity in the MW-0C group was increased by 29%, compared with the normal group, but was significantly less in the MW-0.25C and MW-0.5C groups. Superoxide dismutase activity in the MW-0C group was decreased by 34%, compared with the normal group, but in the MW-0.25C and MW-0.5C groups was 19% and 25% higher. The activity of glutathione peroxidase in the MW-0C group was decreased by 28% but remained near normal with catechin supplements. Superoxide radical concentrations in the MW-0C group were increased by 35%, compared with the normal group. However, superoxide radicals in the MW-0.25C and MW-0.5C groups were 11% and 12% lower, respectively, compared with the MW-0C group. Microwave irradiation significantly increased levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, carbonyl values, and lipofuscin contents, but green tea catechin partially overcame the effects of the microwave irradiation. In conclusion, the mixed function oxidase system was activated, the formation of superoxide radical. lipid peroxide, oxidized protein, and lipofuscin was increased, and the antioxidative defense system was weakened in heart tissue of microwave-exposed rats, but the oxidative damage was significantly reduced by catechin supplementation.
The use of DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunication) cordless phones has been a major health and environmental concern in Europe and especially in Germany for years. The biological concern arose from studies on HF (high frequency) sources such as GSM cellular phones and towers. Digital cordless phones are also available in the USA - marketed as 2.4 GHz digital technology. A digital cordless phone was placed in a representative private home in California and HF measurements were conducted at different locations inside, using frequency selective spectrum analysis to obtain the cordless phone power densities. The results showed that the radiation patterns and levels emitted by the small cordless phone base station are almost identical to the DECT technology - also digitally pulsed and permanent microwave radiation. The power density values presented for each room inside the home can be compared to average DECT cordless phone radiation exposures found in German homes. The maximum power density was found to be over 500,000 µW/m 2 at a normally encountered distance (about 1 - 2 feet) if the base station is placed on an office desk or bedside table. The radiation peak values in the same room are higher than those encountered in proximity to cellular base stations located near residential buildings.
Question of the study We investigated the influence of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields emitted by digital mobile telephones on heart rate variability (HRV) during sleep in healthy young men. Subjects and methods For each subject, two polysommographies were carried out in the sleep laboratory under field and sham exposure, respectively. Field intensity was weak so that thermal effects could be excluded. HRV was assessed from the electrocardiogram both in the time and in the frequency domain. Results For most HRV parameters, significant differences between sleep stages were found. Particularly, on the basis of spectral analysis of the RR intervals, slow wave sleep was characterized by a low LF/HF ratio of the low- and high-frequency components of HRV, indicating a predominance of the parasympathetic over the sympathetic activity in autonomic cardiac control. During REM sleep, the balance was shifted in favour of the sympathetic tone. For all HRV parameters, no significant differences were found between field and sham exposure. Conclusions Under the given experimental conditions, no influence of weak radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on cardiac autonomic activity could be proven.
A survey study using a questionnaire was conducted on 530 people (270 men, 260 women) living or not in the vicinity of cellular phone base stations, on 18 Non Specific Health Symptoms. Comparisons of complaint frequencies (CHI-SQUARE test with Yates correction) in relation to the distance from base stations and sex show significant (p <0.05) increase as compared to people living > 300 m or not exposed to base stations, up through 300 m for tiredness, 200 m for headache, sleep disruption, discomfort, etc., 100 m for irritability, depression, loss of memory, dizziness, libido decrease, etc. Women significantly more often than men (p < 0.05) complained of headache, nausea, loss of appetite, sleep disruption, depression, discomfort and visual disruptions. This first study on symptoms experienced by people living in the vicinity of base stations shows that, in view of radioprotection, the of minimal distance of people from cellular phone base stations should not be < 300 m. © 2002 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS base station / bioeffects / cellular phone 1. INTRODUCTION Chronic exposure to high frequency electromagnetic fields or microwaves brings on bioeffects in man such as headaches, fatigue, and sleep and memory disruptions [1, 2]. These biological effects, associated with others (skin problems, nausea, irritability, etc.) constitute what is known in English as "Non Specific Health Symptoms" (NSHS) that characterize radiofrequency sickness. [3] Cellular mobile phone technology uses hyperfrequencies (frequencies of 900 or 1800 MHz) pulsed with extremely low frequencies (frequencies < 300 Hertz) [4]. Even though the biological effects resulting from mobile phone use are relatively well known and bring to mind those described in radiofrequency sickness [5, 6], to our knowledge no study exists on the health of people living in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations. We are reporting here the results pertaining to 530 people living in France, in the vicinity or not, of base stations, in relation to the distances from these stations and to the sex of the study participants.