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Development in Electronic Packaging–Moving to 3D System Configuration

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The electronic industry is reducing package dimensions of components as well as complete electronics systems. Surface mount device passives and semiconductor chips have to be mounted together bringing a functional system that must realize the required function with necessary reliability and acceptable price. To make up a reliable and cost effective system, the size and weight is being reduced by employing lower voltages and higher speeds. For example, the typical size of SMD passives 30 years ago was 1206 when they were first introduced. Generally, all components including electrical joints are becoming miniaturized and smaller. The industry is moving toward a reduced size of 0201 and 01005 for passives, new fine pitch packages for actives, but the PCB now feature limits for further integration. System on Package (SOP) is one way to reach the three-dimensional package concept where components will be placed in three-dimensional configuration. A similar concepts are "Package on Package" (PoP) or "Package in Package" (PiP).
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214 I. SZENDIUCH, DEVELOPMENT IN ELECTRONIC PACKAGING – MOVING TO 3D SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
Development in Electronic Packaging –
Moving to 3D System Configuration
Ivan SZENDIUCH
Dept. of Microelectronics, Brno University of Technology, Technická 10, 616 00 Brno, Czech Republic
szend@feec.vutbr.cz
Abstract. The electronic industry is reducing package
dimensions of components as well as complete electronics
systems. Surface mount device passives and semiconductor
chips have to be mounted together bringing a functional
system that must realize the required function with
necessary reliability and acceptable price. To make up
a reliable and cost effective system, the size and weight is
being reduced by employing lower voltages and higher
speeds. For example, the typical size of SMD passives
30 years ago was 1206 when they were first introduced.
Generally, all components including electrical joints are
becoming miniaturized and smaller. The industry is moving
toward a reduced size of 0201 and 01005 for passives, new
fine pitch packages for actives, but the PCB now feature
limits for further integration. System on Package (SOP) is
one way to reach the three-dimensional package concept
where components will be placed in three-dimensional
configuration. A similar concepts are “Package on
Package” (PoP) or ”Package in Package” (PiP).
Keywords
Electronic Packaging, Integration in Electronics,
System on Package (SoP), Package on Package (PoP),
3D Package.
1. Introduction
The current development in electronic packaging
tends to achievement of the higher integration by utilizing
new materials, processes and configurations. That requires
a new approach to electronic design and layout of semi-
conductor chips, circuits and systems. The roadmap of
modern packaging, which became the path to system
integration, is presented in this paper.
First, we need to define the term ‘electronics
packaging.’ A simple and logical definition is based on the
fact that packaging in electronics incorporates all
technologies used between the IC (semiconductor chip) and
the electronics system. The electronics packaging is also
the bridge between ICs and electronic systems. The
packaging design requires the most efficient solutions for
interconnections, which means that ICs and components
are assembled onto system level boards – requiring a base
substrate (PCB or ceramic) and assembly technologies such
as surface mount technology (SMT), low temperature co
fired ceramics (LTCC), high temperature co fired ceramics
(HTCC), polymers etc.
Modern electronics requires miniaturized but more
complex products (electronic devices). Moreover, the
quality and cost must be balanced. Consequently, an
increasing number of components, semiconductor chips
and passives need to be placed inside the system. All kinds
of problems must be solved – electrical (signal processing),
physical (heat transfer and cooling), mechanical, chemical
and also technological. The technology has to cope with
implementation of small connections and interconnection
to build high density circuits, and at the same time achieve
a competitive cost. Electronic packaging represents a wide
range of problems to be solved to achieve optimal system
integration.
Basically two types of packaging concepts emerge:
System on Chip (SoC)
System on Package (SoP).
In SoP the value of ‘package’ becomes even more
important because there are a countless number of
solutions. The basis of this concept is simply that while
CMOS is good / suitable for certain functions such as logic
and memory, it is not good / suitable for functions such as
filters, antennas, capacitors, resistors, power amplifiers,
switches, baluns, optical waveguides, surface acoustic, bulk
acoustic components, etc. [1]. Also usually As a rule, to
resolve the problem of modern packaging to create
a modern packaging system means to build a complete
electronic system in the 3D configuration.
2. The Role of Advanced Packaging
The approach to electronic packaging has dra-
matically changed during last decades. In the past,
semiconductor chip, integrated circuit (IC) design was
completely separate from the package design. IC was
designed first and then a suitable package selected for
assembly. Packages created a standardized set defined with
ISO registered outlines. Advanced IC and package
development was mainly driven by military, aeronautics
and space applications, and commercial design rules
RADIOENGINEERING, VOL. 20, NO. 1, APRIL 2011 215
followed these with reduced requirements. That means the
package type had only a very small effect on design and
performance of IC.
Fig. 1. Development of packages in the last decades (from
[5]).
However, it can be observed that as early as in the
1980s the move from Dual in Line (DIL) packages to
Leaded Chip Carrier (LCC) and other (PGA, QFP etc.) in
some cases dramatically affected components, especially
microprocessors, memories, etc. (Fig.1). This development
is going on this time with series of new solutions.
With development of semiconductor chips, where
Moore’s law plays a significant role, chips become more
complicated, which is featured by two major facts:
An increased number of terminals (pads) in chips,
terminals (pads) can have different shapes imple-
mented by various techniques.
The present-day advanced packaging has to meet the
following requirements [2]:
Increased performance is required (need for a con-
crete application),
package is designed specifically for an IC and
application (proliferation of package styles),
IC / Package co-design environment (some ICs now
being designed could not be repackaged into
a different format without complete re-design),
now emerging the request for memories and others
systems used for PoP stacking (communication sector
applications and other),
3D interconnection method (higher frequency re-
quirements related to new processors),
low cost becomes primary consideration.
Looking at advanced package development it is
obvious that electronic packaging is primarily driven by
demand for overall system cost reduction. The result is that
there is request for improved technology, but without an
increase of the cost. Consequently, improved technology is
required, but increased cost is not desirable. This situation
actually signalizes a lack of standard sizes and outlines
because demands for package performance vary and the
final solution results in compromise in parameters. That is
why a new market is emerging in this sector – OSAT
companies developing new packaging technologies
(PacTech, Amkor, Tessera etc.) [6].
3. Why Standardized Packages Are
Not Suitable
For a long time there were two types of packaging for
semiconductor chips non-hermetic (plastic) and hermetic
(metal and ceramic).
Plastic packages used to be very popular in com-
mercial applications for their low cost and small size
compared to ceramic and metal packages. The cost of
plastic packages is roughly one half to one tenth the cost of
comparable ceramic or metal packages. In a plastic pac-
kage, the chip is encapsulated in a polymer, usually called
encapsulant, which is an electrically insulating material that
protects the chip including lead frame assembly from the
adverse effects of handling and storage. At first the lead
frame with a 2,5 mm pitch was commonly used, until in the
late 1980s, the 1,27 mm pitch (surface mount technology)
became prominent. As device complexity increased, the
I/O count increased too. To keep electrical performance
and package size reasonable, the lead pitch decreased, and
fine-pitch leaded devices (lead pitch 0,65 mm and less)
were introduced. Encapsulation techniques include
molding, potting, glob-topping, and conformal coating, but
the majority of encapsulated packages are molded.
Hermetic packages have been used foremost for
military, space and medical applications because of their
perceived reliability advantage over plastic packages. They
have also been employed in some high power applications
where heat must be dissipated from the device. Metal
packages are typically used for small integrated circuits
with low lead count and in applications that require
electromagnetic shielding. Both metal and ceramic pac-
kages can be made nearly impervious to moisture when
hermetically sealed. A package is classified as hermetic if it
has a minimal leak rate (the rate at which gases can diffuse
into or out of the package). Typical acceptable helium leak
rates depend on the package size and helium pressure in the
package.
Today there are many producers and many more users
of semiconductor chips worldwide. Electronic circuits and
systems are used in nearly all economic sectors including
consumer electronics. Various types of chips in terms of
function have different requirements for package or
encapsulation. An alternative package is not an option to be
used without assessing the affected parameters. High
frequency ICs now require a package optimized for chip
topology. For example, potting can be suitable for chip
applications in the consumer sector, but in a medical
application the same chip requires more reliable packaging,
such as CSP (Chip Scale Package) [1] [10].
216 I. SZENDIUCH, DEVELOPMENT IN ELECTRONIC PACKAGING – MOVING TO 3D SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
Looking at Fig. 1 it is obvious that there are many
packages at disposal today, where the number of pins, size
and cost are the fundamental factors for an optimal
solution. Today’s packaging is not only one package but
more compositions put in order for this purpose. A new
approach to modern electronic system package construction
is shown in Fig. 2. The prime reason is the decreased size
of pads on first-level interconnection from (40–100) μm to
(10–20) μm pitch, which gives many various solutions.
Fig. 2. Modern electronics system interconnection.
4. Wire Bonding vs. Flip Chip
Two main types are characteristic after the first level
packaging interconnection performance for packaging
finalizing in the dependence of chip connection:
Wire bonded chips,
bump bonded chips (flip chip).
Wire bonding interconnection is formed by metal-
lurgical bonding a small-diameter wire, from the pad of
semiconductor device to the lead frame or pad on substrate.
The bonded wire creates a low resistance path for signal
propagation. Typical materials are aluminum (ultrasonic),
gold (thermocompresion and thermosonic), and copper
(thermosonic). Materials for pads on bondable surfaces
include aluminum, gold, silver, nickel, and copper. Silver
has been used as a bondable plating material on lead frames
and as a bondable thick-film metallization in alloy with
platinum or palladium. As mentioned above, there are three
bonding techniques in microelectronics:
Thermocompression (two metals are brought into
pressure-tight contact through a controlled time ap-
prox. 40 ms, in a temperature range 300 - 400°C,
and pressure cycle) producing through the capillary
a ball bond (first) and a wedge bond (second).
Ultrasonic (the source of energy is a transducer
vibrating the bonding tool parallel to the bonding
pad in a frequency range from 20 to 60 kHz)
producing wedge-wedge bonds.
Thermosonic (the capillary is not heated and
substrate temperatures are maintained between 100
and 150°C) combines ultrasonic energy with the
ball-bonding capillary technique of thermocom-
pression bonding.
In flip chip bonding (bump bonding) the chip is
connected face down onto the substrate (Fig. 3). There are
three main possibilities for attachment, solder bumps
(reflow to matching footprints of pads on a substrate),
solder less polymer adhesive (glued to footprints of pads on
a substrate by conductive polymer) and thermosonic
assembly process (gold to gold). Flip chip technology has
several advantages over wire bonding:
Self-alignment during die joining,
low lead inductances, due to shorter interconnection
lengths than in the case of wire bonding,
reduced need to attach precious metals,
increased productivity, due to the ability to make
higher numbers of bonds simultaneously.
The flip chip assembly performance is a composite of
multiple, thin layers of metals. On the die bond pads, the
pad structure is called under-bump metallurgy (UBM). On
the substrate bond pads, the connection structure is called
top-surface metallurgy (TSM). The space between the chip
and the substrate contains underfill, which interposes
adhesive creating mechanical and thermal coupling to
connect the chip to the substrate. Fig. 3 shows a typical flip
chip bond structure.
Fig. 3. Flip chip: a) general view, b) detail of solder bump.
The UBM structure and solder bump manufacturing
can be implemented using a variety of materials and
methods, including metal masking, photolithography,
electroplating, ultrasonic soldering, mask-less bumping,
copper bumping etc. The TSM structure is made of a metal
that increases wettability and has a surface suitable for
solder reflow and bonding. It means it is able to retain
wetting properties and provide an adequate shelf life prior
to die attachment. What is more, it can be created on
different substrate materials. It is obvious that there is
space for many various combinations of package solutions
and the designer can select an optimal solution for each
particular application.
Fig. 4. Development in Flip-chip bump implementation.
RADIOENGINEERING, VOL. 20, NO. 1, APRIL 2011 217
Plating and evaporating are the major methods of
bump formation. Evaporated bumps can be smaller and
more uniform than plated bumps. The dimensions of
bumps decrease as shown in Fig. 4 from approx. 125 μm
diameter and 100 μm height in 2003 to 80 μm diameter and
25-80 μm height in 2009. That is one of the reasons for the
current development in both, 1st and 2nd level packaging
technologies.
5. New Packaging Trends
Three-dimensional (3-D) packaging including inter-
connection provides increased electrical performance and
packaging density compared to two-dimensional (2-D)
approaches which have been used for a long time. Three-
dimensional packaging and interconnection can increase
density by a factor of more than 50 by stacking integrated
circuits (ICs). Schematically illustrated in time path, four
generations of integration stages are shown in Fig. 5: single
chip packaging, 2-D system packaging, 3-D system pac-
kaging and future polymer multi-functional solution.
Packaging development is accompanied by increasing
component I/O densities, substrate or package technology
is migrating to the high-density interconnection (HDI) and
new materials and principles are utilized. Currently
available are the following solutions for high-integration
constructions:
Die Stacking,
3D Design,
IC and Package co-design,
Embedding,
Direct die/wafer wafer/wafer bonding,
Optical Interconnect,
System in Package (SiP),
Package on Package (PoP),
Plastic packages for high-power,
Effects of Regulation / Legislation.
A characteristic feature of current packaging devel-
opment is utilizing the third dimension (z axis) to build
a complex 3D electronic circuit, block or system.
6. Three-Dimensional Packaging (3D)
Fig. 5 shows three stages of 3D packaging system
development. The first stage, creating the system on
package level, is composed of standard package techniques
or chips based on combination of film technology with
chips embedded in substrate. Conventional chips and
packages are stacked in 3D configuration on basic substrate
and encapsulated. The package to substrate interconnection
is usually solder bumps or pad arrays. Next generation is
based on stacking of chips and wafers, where precise
alignment is necessary as well as low temperature bonding.
The fundamental operation is forming of vias in single
wafers that are thinned to be used for interconnection of
stacked wafers. A future generation configuration is the 3D
structure built in Si epitaxial lateral growth based on low
temperature crystallized Si. As evidenced by Fig. 6, there is
a tendency to incorporate a significant part of the system in
each single level.
Fig. 5. Integration development of Electronic Packaging [5].
In 3-D packaging some new aspects in the behavior of
components have to be predicted, especially in their
interactions. Both single-level, horizontal cross-talk and
cross-talk between stacked layers can be a problem, which
may intensify in very high-speed applications. Further-
more, the approach may require use of heat spreaders in
multiple high-power devices to achieve thermal operating
specifications as well as thermal and thermo mechanical
stress design limits.
The manufacturing process for 3-D microelectronic
devices depends on the format chosen for the final product.
Different technologies are used, from challenging semi-
conductor to the less expensive non-vacuum technology.
The package elements of layered dies include the chips
themselves, dielectrics between the die, and interconnects.
The elements of dies stacked on edge, layered dies, and
a vertically stacked module include dies, attachments
between dies or components and interconnects between
dies or modules.
System-on-Package (SOP) technology has the
potential to provide modular design flexibility and high-
performance integration of heterogeneous chip tech-
nologies and to support robust chip and component
manufacturing with high-yield/low-cost chips for a wide
range of product applications. The SOP concept has two
fundamental drivers for miniaturization:
Miniaturization of system components (to ultrathin –
film embedded),
reduction of three level hierarchy (package-board) to
two level (system package).
218 I. SZENDIUCH, DEVELOPMENT IN ELECTRONIC PACKAGING – MOVING TO 3D SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
Fig. 6. Three stages of 3D package development [5].
Fig. 7. Directions in concepts of SOP development and
performance.
The key technology enables different parts as silicon
dies, chip and embedded components, high-density inter-
connection including wiring, thick/thin film and assembly
technologies to be incorporated (Fig. 7). It is obvious that
SOP can be focused on various aspects arising from an
application [3]. Two types are significant: the SOP that
continues on 1st level packaging (includes Flip chip, WLP,
SiP etc.) and a continuation of PCB technology - a non-
vacuum assembly in 2nd level packaging. Only the 2nd level
interconnect reliability is becoming a real concern where
I/O count, package size and cost considerations lead to
reductions in pitch and solder volume.
In the interposer-less structures and embedded
systems the silicon through-vias are the key features
permitting efficient area array signal, power, and ground
interconnection through these thinned silicon packages.
A common characteristic of them all is high-density wiring
and high-density chip I/O interconnection may be
significant for tight integration of heterogeneous chip
technologies. This approximates the performance of an
integrated System-on-Package (SOP). In addition to
heterogeneous integration, SOP may leverage integration
of passive components, active devices and electro-optic
structures to enhance system-level performance.
To make use of all the benefits of miniaturization and
integration, such as increased performance, low cost,
smaller footprint, power management, and time-to-market,
the chip or single package must be created with regard to
customers need. Now, electronic market demand is for
convergent and integrated microsystem functions such as
MPUs, graphics, memory (SRAM, Flash, DRAM), logic,
SRAM, mixed signal, Radio Frequency (RF), sensors
including MEMS, photonics and peripheral functions in
one single package. Our work is focused on second-level,
non-vacuum SOP construction, including interconnection
of chips, modules, substrates and other components in one
single package.
The first step to achieve a 3D construction by the non-
vacuum process is based on various combinations of
stacking, inorganic Al2O3 and organic flame resistant (FR-
4) substrates. These substrate configurations, also called
Package on Package (PoP), can be basically implemented
in two ways. First, by solder bumps deposited by stencil
printing and second, by bumps using a combination of
solder balls and paste. This three dimensional configuration
provides a good potential to make compact structures on
the basis of thick film and polymer technology, especially
RADIOENGINEERING, VOL. 20, NO. 1, APRIL 2011 219
for non-conventional applications (sensors, antennas,
components with distributed parameters etc.). Fig. 4 shows
a flip chip bump (1st level packaging interconnection),
Fig. 8 shows solder bumps formed on alumina substrate
(2nd level interconnection).
By stacking of substrates, both organic and inorganic,
it is possible to create various configurations of electronic
systems as one single package [4]. A smaller size and
higher reliability, in contrast to conventional PCBs, are the
main advantages of this solution. The very high routing
density, thin substrate and small form factor requirements,
driving innovations in substrate design, materials (es-
pecially for higher frequency) and lithography improve-
ments are challenges for future.
Fig. 8. 3D structure: a) alumina substrates and solder balls
created using paste, b) edging through bump con-
nection, c) combined by PCB and alumina, d) possible
configuration.
7. Conclusion
The role of packaging is changing from traditional
interconnections of discrete components to thick and thin
film component integration. The System on Package (SoP)
is a system concept with this package integration, in
contrast to SiP, a modular concept. The SoP, a system-
centric technology, is based on film components embedded
in organic boards or packages, and together with SiP
modules, SoC devices, battery and user interface, leads to
multi-functional systems in the short term and mega-
function systems in the end.
The future development of electronic packaging
promises accelerating changes. The most recent finding is
that cost is today the leading factor in nearly all ap-
plications and together with increased density of elements
on chip it is the main reason for creating variability in
package selection. The cost, a major driver in the advance-
ment of technology generally, is also driving the trend
toward electronics manufacturing specialized in packaging,
working as contract manufacturers OSAT (Outsourcing
Semiconductor Assembly Technology). The advantages of
OSAT include optimizing manufacturing cycle times,
reducing working capital, and improving quality. If the new
system integration technology cannot achieve cost parity
with existing component technologies, then industry
acceptance will be delayed.
Fig. 9 shows an electronic system production chain
where many interactions and connections between chip
performance and application area are evident.
Electronic packaging technology will continue during
the 21st century to offer many new and compact products,
above all for high-speed applications. The need for in-
novations in cost, yield and productivity will undoubtedly
represent a challenge for engineers and researches involved
in packaging. The resulting new products will contribute to
a better quality of life.
Fig. 9. Roadmap of system integration.
Acknowledgements
This work was supported by the research plan of the
Czech Ministry of Education MSM 0021630503
MIKROSYN „New Trends in Microelectronic Systems and
Nanotechnologies”, FRVS 250/2011 „Innovation of
Microelectronics Education Process” and FEKT-S-11-5
„Research of excellent technologies for 3D packaging and
interconnection”, and also the grant project of Czech
Science Foundation 102/09/1701 “Research and
Development of New Principles in Soldering to Increase
Solder Joints Reliability”. The author thanks to both
subjects for financial support.
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About Author ...
Ivan SZENDIUCH was born in 1944 in Brno. He received
his M.Sc. and PhD degrees in radioelectronics and
microelectronics from Brno University of Technology in
1967 and 1987, respectively. He also completed
a postgraduate study programme on semiconductor devices
at the Czech Technical University in Prague in 1973. Since
1980 he has been with the Department of Microelectronics
at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Com-
munication, Brno University of Technology, where he
became associate professor in 1990. His research interests
include a wide area of microelectronics assembly and
interconnection technology including thick and thin film
circuits and their non-conventional applications, surface
mount technology applications, soldering and packaging
processes. He is an author of five books and more than
100 publications worldwide. Since 1990 member of
ISHM/IMAPS Czech and Slovak chapter, where in the
period 1996 - 2002 he was President and now he is honor
member. In 2007 he received Fellow of the International
Microelectronics and Packaging Society in San Jose, as the
first Czech citizen.
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Input of data for administrative healthcare workflows is generally experienced in a hybrid form of organization and production, which concerns the human labor actions and computerization infrastructure. During the COVID-19 time, many healthcare organizations found themselves limited in terms of addressing the increased supply and demand and workload generated in hospitals and other healthcare services/products. This complicated scenario has in its base of analysis both the human capability of processing the information generated by new data concerning disease, methods, and technologies to prevent COVID-19 dissemination and computed data treatment of daily new information available in order to predict the behavior of supply chains. Concerning a stage before manufacturing and logistics, and after planning and policies, there is a lacuna where public healthcare organizations need to be able to predict how their infrastructure and daily routines respond to unusual and stressful conditions. For this problem, this chapter focused on the work productivity of the bidding sector responsible for delivering services/goods to the population during 2020–21 in the State of Paraná, Brazil and how it failed to provide correct responses under abnormal conditions imposed by COVID-19.
Thesis
Le développement de l’internet des objets et des services de vidéo en temps réel (streaming) a conduit à une augmentation continue du trafic des données au sein des data-centers. Celui-ci devrait être multiplié par trois entre 2012 et 2020 pour atteindre 15.3 zettaoctets/an. Cette évolution appelle parallèlement à un accroissement des performances des composants télécom en transmission optique monomode dont le standard s’établit aujourd’hui à 100-200 Gbits/s pour évoluer vers 400-800 Gbits/s dans un futur proche. Bien que les cœurs de technologies semiconducteurs soient aujourd’hui disponibles pour répondre à cette demande, les coûts élevés d’assemblage des puces électroniques (EIC) et photoniques (PIC) ainsi que l’alignement avec les fibres optiques monomodes limitent la pénétration de cette solution technologique sur le marché. Afin de relever ce défi, une structure originale d’interposeur en verre a été proposée dans le cadre du laboratoire commun IEMN-STMicroelectronics. Ce substrat d’assemblage en verre présente des avantages distinctifs majeurs tels que i) l'alignement passif de la fibre externe, ii) l'alignement optique passif du PIC sur l'interposeur, iii) le transfert des fonctions optiques passives du PIC sur l'interposeur de verre et iv) une approche conservative réutilisant les coupleurs à réseau du PIC.Le contexte du packaging électro-optique étant posé, ce travail de thèse s’est concentré sur la fonctionnalisation de substrats de verre par photo-inscription ou micro-usinage laser en régime femtoseconde afin de structurer les guides d’onde optique, les miroirs de redirection du faisceau guidé et la couche de redistribution électrique en cuivre. En premier lieu, des guides optiques monomodes à 1310 nm de bonne qualité ont été obtenus et caractérisés, permettant une mise en évidence franche des effets d’absorption non linéaire, d’auto-focalisation et de filamentation. Une étude expérimentale complète a permis de déterminer les paramètres d’exposition laser et de gravure chimique pour la fabrication de miroirs photoniques. Enfin, une méthode originale de structuration des interconnexions basée sur le fractionnement et le décollement de la couche de cuivre par effet thermo-mécanique a été développée.
Article
Use of low melting temperature solder (LTS) materials in interconnect devices is a recent application as they lower the challenges of high reflow peak temperature-induced package warpage during assembly. A good candidate to overcome this challenge is a eutectic Sn-Bi system solder, with a melting temperature of 138°C and a reflow peak assembly temperature of around 185°C. However, Bi causes joint hardening and is prone to brittle fractures under mechanical bend and shock. Therefore, it is critical to understand mechanical properties of Sn-58Bi solder joints under conditions of end-use condition and applications. In this study, a series of isothermally aged 300-μm-diameter solder balls attached to a NiAu pad surface finish, are subject to single-ball shear tests after up to 500 h aging at room temperature, 100°C and −25°C. Single-ball shear tests were performed using a multi-bond tester with 10-μm shear height and two shear speed condition, 10 μm/s and 100 μm/s. The maximum shear load and the distance to the peak shear load were measured to observe the deformation behavior change. Comparative testing was also conducted for Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu (wt.%) aged samples for comparison. A decrease in maximum shear strength and loss of ductility with 100°C isothermal aging, opposite to an increase in ductility with room temperature isothermal aging were observed. Isothermally aged Sn-58Bi samples reveal further loss of ductility compared to SAC105 which show increase in ductility. This phenomenon is due to the increased Bi solubility into Sn at a higher temperature range. The deformation behavior for both Sn-58Bi and SAC105 were observed and discussed on partially sheared solder joints using EBSD analysis.
Article
Diamond/SiC composites with high thermal conductivity are important materials for electronic industry, especially electronic packaging, but their complex structures and high-precision manufacturing are still challenging issues. Stereolithography-based manufacturing method combined with the reactive melt infiltration to make diamond/SiC composites with high-precision complex structures has been proposed in this paper. Diamond particles were used as the raw material, and as the particle size is a key factor affecting composite performance its influence was studied by means of measuring parameters, examining microstructure, and detecting components, whereas related mechanisms are discussed as necessary. Subsequently, a diamond/SiC composite with the thermal conductivity of 245.68 W/(m·K) has been prepared and used in experiment. The experiment shows that the precision is affected by light-scattering and bending in the printing plane and in the vertical plane respectively, with the size errors of 0.25 and 0.12 mm.
Chapter
In the past several decades, Moore’s law has successfully predicted integrated circuit (IC) technology advancement. However, IC technology began hitting both technology and cost barriers. Conventional die shrinkage and advanced deep-submicron semiconductor technology is no longer able to meet the cost-to-performance ratio that the world desires in the near future. Three dimensional (3D) packaging has caught broad attention and is poised to help continue the Moore’s law by vertically integrating multiple IC chips into same footprint. In order to enable highly integrated 3D packaging, both the substrate and the printed circuit board (PCB) receiving the 3D package need to meet the signal and power density requirements. Substrate material and fabrication technologies play critical role in succeeding the future needs of smaller size, lower cost, and higher performance. In this chapter, an overview of the substrate technology evolution in the past several decades will be discussed. The overview covers the substrates used in large varieties of packages, such as dual-in-line packages (DIP), quad flat package (QFP), area array package, and embedded wafer level ball grid array (eWLB) packages. The materials used in substrates will be discussed with a concentration on organic substrate materials. The discussion will cover key consideration points in material selection and application. The substrate fabrication technology will be also discussed in detail. The process technologies on the fabrication of cores, build-up dielectric layers, metal layers and traces, plated through holes (PTH) and vias, contact pads, solder mask, in addition to surface finishes will be covered. The general recommendation in selecting and applying the appropriate process technologies will be recommended.
Conference Paper
Thermal management is the critical issue in all present conventional 2D electronic packages, and is more crucial in the case staked dies of advanced 3D IC technology, because of increased power density and complex chip designs. The traditional methods are reaching their limits towards cooling requirement of 3D ICs. The liquid cooling micro-channel are the most attractive for high heat flux mitigation. However, the integration of such micro-channels across the stacked dies, is challenging. In this work, we are proposing a facile method of fabrication and integration of a high reliable, tight sealed inter-die microfluidic channels for 3D ICs. The integration of inter-die microchannel over three stacked layers has been developed with titanium silicide as a bonding interface by simultaneous application of optimal heat and force is matching towards CMOS compatibility. Here, we demonstrated the reaction mechanism of titanium (Ti) and importance of Ti thickness across the bonding interface. The temperature and load optimizations carried out using the surface profile of Ti using AFM before bonding, and interface inspection after bonding, by using, C-SAM and razorblade insertion. The interface reactions and thickness of Ti optimization has inspected using X-FESEM and EDS profile. After conforming void free high reliable bonding interface, at optimized conditions, we fabricated fine pitch ( 200 μm ) with 100 μm width and 40 μm depth micro-channels at inter-dies of three-layer stacked silicon structure using titanium as interlayer. Along with, we demonstrated the micro channel integration across the stacked wafers for future high performance 3D IC designs in a facile approach.
Article
Thick-film technology to implement passive elements, network and hybrid circuits has been widely used for four decades and its importance is still growing. While on one hand the technology has been improved to meet the requirements for more sophisticated circuits, on the other hand a better knowledge of its outstanding properties has promoted its application to a certain number of sometimes exotic devices, many of which are in the sensor and actuator area. This paper presents examples of a variety of applications to illustrate what thick film technology can offer outside the familiar area, and to stimulate the imagination of scientists towards possible new applications.
Article
Prosperity Games are an outgrowth and adaptation of move/countermove and seminar War Games. Prosperity Games are simulations that explore complex issues in a variety of areas including economics, politics, sociology, environment, education and research. These issues can be examined from a variety of perspectives ranging from a global, macroeconomic and geopolitical viewpoint down to the details of customer/supplier/market interactions in specific industries. All Prosperity Games are unique in that both the game format and the player contributions vary from game to game. This report documents the Prosperity Game conducted under the sponsorship of the Electronics Subcommittee of the Civilian Industrial Technology Committee (under the National Science and Technology Council), and the Electronics Partnership Project. Players were drawn from the electronics industry, from government, national laboratories, and universities, and from Japan and Austria. The primary objectives of this game were: To connect the technical and non-technical (i.e., policy) issues that were developed in the roadmap-making endeavor of the National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (NENI);to provide energy, enthusiasm and people to help the roadmap succeed; and to provide insight into high-leverage public and private investments. The deliberations and recommendations of these teams provide valuable insights as to the views of this diverse group of decision makers concerning policy changes, foreign competition, the robustness of strategic thinking and planning, and the development, delivery and commercialization of new technologies.
Book
Advanced Electronic Packaging, Second Edition reflects the changes in the electronic packaging industry, as well as feedback from students, engineers, and educators since the publication of the First Edition in 1999. Like the First Edition, each chapter is authored by one or more acknowledged experts and then carefully edited to ensure a consistent level of quality and approach throughout. Readers familiar with the First Edition will note several key changes. For example, organic and ceramic substrates are now covered in separate chapters. There are new chapters on passive devices, RF and microwave packaging, electronic package assembly, and cost evaluation and assembly. In addition, readers have access to the latest information and findings in such topics as: Packaging materials and applications Modeling and simulations Analytical techniques for materials MEMS packaging Fabrication technologies and package design Reliability Electrical, mechanical, and thermal considerations Three-dimensional packaging All the hallmarks of the First Edition , which became an industry standard and a popular graduate-level textbook, have been retained. Examples illustrate real-world applications, which are then reinforced by the extensive use of exercises to enable readers themselves to place their newfound knowledge into practice. In addition, references are provided that guide readers to more in-depth information and primary resources in specialized topics. Fully updated, this comprehensive reference remains the preeminent graduate-level textbook in its field as well as an essential reference for engineers and scientists.
Multi substrate modules – cheap solution for 3D packaging
  • I Sandera
  • J Bilek
SZENDIUCH, I., SANDERA, J., BILEK, J. Multi substrate modules – cheap solution for 3D packaging. In Proceedings of the IMAPS Nordic Annual Conference. Stockholm (Sweden), 2002, p. 114 – 122.
New trends of BGA soldering in education
  • M Adamek
  • J Prasek
  • M Nicak
ADAMEK, M., PRASEK, J., NICAK, M. New trends of BGA soldering in education. Electronics, 2009, vol. 18, no. 2, p. 26 -28.
Introduction to System on Package
  • R Tummala
  • M Swaminathan
TUMMALA, R., SWAMINATHAN, M. Introduction to System on Package. New York: McGraw Hill, 2004.
Fundamentals of Microsystems Packaging
  • R Tummala
TUMMALA, R., R. Fundamentals of Microsystems Packaging. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001.