Article

Conzenian urban morphology and urban landscapes

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

Urban morphology began to take shape at the end of the nineteenth century as a field of study concerned with the urban landscape. Its origins were largely within central European geography. M.R.G. Conzen was much influenced by pioneers in the field, such as Otto Schlüter, and in the post-war period he authored publications that gave rise to a Conzenian school, first within anglophone geography and eventually more widely. Morphogenetic method, conceptualization of historical development, terminological precision and cartographic representation were characteristic of his work. During the last quarter of the twentieth century this was increasingly recognized as important for an appreciation of the development and significance of the historical grain of urban landscapes. Conzenian thinking has in recent years begun to influence urban landscape management and has been one of the principal stimuli in the origin and growth of an international, inter-disciplinary group of urban morphologists, the International Seminar on Urban Form (ISUF).

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Subsequently, Carl Ortwin Sauer introduced the term "cultural landscape" from Germany into the United States and founded the "Berkeley School" (Sauer, 1963), which mainly studies cultural landscape represented by rural settlements (Denevan & Mathewson, 2009). Conzen, the British historical geographer, focused on urban landscape and made an outstanding contribution that proposed theory of urban landscape (Oliveira, 2019;Whitehand, 2007). By studying Alnwick, a market town in Northumberland, Conzen (1960) expounded his approach and established a set of methodology and terminology systems on urban landscape (Whitehand, 2007). ...
... Conzen, the British historical geographer, focused on urban landscape and made an outstanding contribution that proposed theory of urban landscape (Oliveira, 2019;Whitehand, 2007). By studying Alnwick, a market town in Northumberland, Conzen (1960) expounded his approach and established a set of methodology and terminology systems on urban landscape (Whitehand, 2007). Conzen believes that urban landscape is a comprehensive reflection of street plan, building form pattern, and land use pattern, which also provided ideas on extraction and quantification of urban landscape elements in numerous studies. ...
... With our study area as example, Beijing's city wall demolition policy, greenbelt policy, and Shanghai's integrated development policy on both sides of the Huangpu River can be evaluated ( Figure 6). First, the city wall will exert a continuous effect on the urban landscape (Whitehand, 2007), and the landscape on both sides of the wall will be substantially different (Whitehand, 1988;Whitehand & Gu, 2017). After the demolition of the city wall, the difference in the urban landscape on both sides should be reduced. ...
Article
Full-text available
Diverse urban landscape is an important cultural driving force for urban sustainable development. Although characterizing landscape to protect landscape diversity is widely used in regional landscape and preservation practices, it is difficult to apply to urban landscape character assessment, which needs fine-scale data support, explicit study units, and effective clustering models. Therefore, this study uses urban big geospatial data and machine learning technology to establish a technical system for character assessment of urban landscape applicable to the block scale and complete the landscape assessment of urban areas of Beijing and Shanghai, China. A total of 64 landscape character types were identified in Beijing, and 61 in Shanghai. We find that (1) urban landscape characters are different with the ring road as the boundary, but each zone presents a combination of different proportions of landscape characters. (2) Beijing's city wall demolition policy is affected by historical protection policy. Landscape differentiation on both sides of the Huangpu River in Shanghai has yet to be realized. This study extends the theory of LCA and realizes the research exploration of urban built environment. It can also be used to guide urban zoning control, evaluate planning policy, and provide assistance in practice for sustainable urban development and management.
... An essential element of the morphogenetic approach from its early days was the mapping of the different physical forms within urban areas (Whitehand, 2007). Urban morphologists Birkhamshaw and Whitehand emphasise the fact that the recognition and delimitation of various types of urban form are fundamental in morphological studies (Birkhamshaw and Whitehand, 2012). ...
... It is one of the oldest structured roads of the city; its importance to the road network has been relatively resistant to change over time, and it is still recognizable in the landscape today. What the analyses reveal is that historical elements (the ring in our case) constitute a morphological framework that influences the development of the city's formation (Whitehand, 2007: 6); in contrast as the research has suggested land use and building utilization tends to be more temporary (Whitehand, 2007). What is contrasting though with the same theory is that in Tirana's case buildings are not always intermediate in their resistance to change; buildings did change their function briefly after most of them were built -that on the ground level indeed. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This research focuses on the urban transformation of Tirana, the capital of Albania, following the end of the communist regime in the early 1990s. While rapid urbanization fuelled by mass migration from the countryside to cities is commonly observed in many East European countries Albania's post-socialist urban form has been strongly influenced by the dramatic upheaval in land ownership that has taken place in the context of an inadequately developed legal system and involved the systematic appropriation of open space by developers. The impact of this urbanisation on Albanian society has been profound, but currently there are no systematic studies of the morphological processes that have transformed Albanian cities. This paper begins the process of addressing this deficiency. It identifies four distinctive patterns of informal growth in contemporary Tirana. The variety of post-socialist urban transformation morphologies can tell us much about the particular nature of urban growth in Albania under conditions of unrestrained, loosely regulated, development. The paper draws on the Tirana case study to comment on the nature of social change in the Albanian context, and the way in which 'planned 'and 'unplanned' urban environments have contributed to the emergence of distinctive modes of urban life. Conzenian and space syntax approaches provide the methodological basis for morphological research into Tirana's post-socialist built environment. The configurational data is mapped to geo-referenced datasets of Tirana at the building scale, including details of building age and legal status. An initial survey of land uses is done for the case study areas. This integrated methodology is intended to help elucidate both the morphological dynamics of post-socialist Tirana and the broader implications of this urban transformation for Albanian society.
... On the other hand, there is a clear predominance of its seminal traditions, the British historical-geographical school grounded on the work of Conzen, and being mainly developed by the Urban Morphology Research Group/UMRG, and the Italian school of urban morphology and building typology founded by Muratori, and being mainly developed by the Centro Internationale per lo Studio dei Processi Urbani e Territoriali/CISPUT. For additional information on the former see Larkham (2006) and Whitehand (2001Whitehand ( , 2007 and on the latter see Cataldi (2003) and Cataldi et al (2002). ...
... However, the channel of communication between them has been open. Leading proponents of both approaches have been participating in the conferences, or publishing in the journal of the 'other' approach -see for example Hillier and Hanson (1998), Marcus (2006), and Whitehand (2007). In addition, a number of papers has been sustaining a complementary utilization (Hanson and Zako, 2007;Larkham, 2006;Marcus, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is part of a wider on-going research project designed to identify and understand the determining factors of the urban change and metabolism of metropolitan areas and city regions. Oporto Metropolitan Area is the case study. Our analysis of this complex urban system combines three different approaches, an accessibility model recently developed at our Research Centre - the Structural Accessibility Layer/SAL, the Space Syntax techniques developed at the Bartlett School of the UCL after Bill Hillier's work, and a morphological approach close to the Conzenian School. The present paper specifically focuses on the interplay between the second and the third approaches. The complementary utilization of these approaches and the results so far obtained in the Oporto case study has been most stimulating. It is our strong believe that, according to each specific urban problem or situation, this utilization shall be considered. Our research involves the analysis of the past, the present and the likely future urban development of Oporto, considering both its planned and unplanned dimensions. GIS based redrawing of historic cartography, coupled with axial analysis, made possible the rigorous study of the evolution of the urban layout of the city throughout the 19th and the 20th centuries. These techniques enabled the identification and confrontation of, on one hand, the most important morphological periods identified in this time frame and, on the other hand, the particular time periods that have most contributed to the intelligibility of the city, producing the most integrated and connected streets and urban spaces.
... At the 6th International Space Syntax Symposium in Istanbul in 2007, space syntax itself hinted at a solution to this problem when Jeremy Whitehand gave an invited paper on Conzenian Urban Morphology and Urban Landscapes (Whitehand 2007). It is this Conzenian morphology, which provides the starting point for my use of space syntax in the analysis of medieval urban space and medieval economic urban space in particular. ...
Article
An early ascertainment of space syntax is that it establishes the correlation areas with a high to- movement potential (a high integration value) and urban economic space. Because of this feature, Hillier called the city 'a movement economy' in his 1996 publication Cities as Movement Economies. It is my hypothesis that the correlation between integration values and economic space (part. markets) is not just a characteristic of modern towns but also of medieval towns. This paper will build on the findings of previously published research in 2007, which explored this issue and showed that this correlation already existed in medieval settlements. In addition, this paper fixes the methodology for using space syntax in a medieval context and correlates particular trades, crafts and markets with particular levels of integration in order to illuminate our perceptions of the occupational division in a medieval town. However, space syntax can only be used when one has a complete street pattern as van Nes argues in her paper on Pompeii to be presented at this symposium. To obtain these for the medieval period is a significant problem for most towns as reliable plans are usually not available before the seventeenth century and as large-scale archaeological excavations can hardly take place because of economic or structural constraints. To overcome this problem, Keith Lilley's town-plan analysis methodology (published in Urban History in 2000) based upon Conzenian morphology is used, which enables us to recreate medieval town plans from the first cadastral plans of the nineteenth century by combining them with historical, archaeological, architectural and cartographic evidence. These reconstructed plans allow the use of space syntax in the analysis of a historic environment. The case-study for this paper is the town of 's-Hertogenbosch (the Netherlands) because of the town's importance during the medieval period and because of the large amount of archival and archaeological evidence available. This paper in essence synthesizes Conzenian morphology and space syntax. This method has not been applied by other researchers, even though Larkham has highlighted in the journal Urban Morphology in 2006 "the great opportunity for exploring the potential complementarities of space syntax and Conzenian morphology". Moreover, at the 6th International Space Syntax Symposium in 2007, Whitehand presented an invited paper on Conzenian Urban Morphology and Urban Landscapes. Both urban morphologists and spatial analysts have realized the potential for a methodology combining both. This combination builds upon the strengths of both, that is the historical element of Conzenian Morphology and the detailed level of analysis of space syntax. This new methodology provides the starting point for this paper on the analysis of the medieval urban movement economy.
... The Conzenian school (Conzen, 1960;Larkham, 2006;Whitehand, 2007) The Muratorian School (Muratori, 1959;Cannigia, 1963;Cataldi, 2009) approaches the urban form for prescriptive purposes, with the aim of developing a theory of city design resting on historical city-building traditions. The focus is on how cities should be built. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The functioning of current urban systems involves high levels of resource consumption and a huge number of flows. The fundamental concern of this paper is to understand how future urban systems can be designed to be consistently less damaging to the environment. Therefore, its main contribution for the sustainability debate is the design of a methodology for evaluating the urban development process from a metabolic perspective. After a brief introduction to the field of evaluation, the state-of-the-art on urban planning, urban form, impact assessment, environmental accounting, and urban metabolism, in an attempt to identify theories, concepts, and particularly methods and techniques, that can contribute to the purpose of the article. Based on this literature review – which highlights three particular methods – a set of principles for a metabolic evaluation of the processes of transformation of city-regions is outlined. The Metabolic Impact Analysis is proposed and characterized, its main influences are identified, and the procedure of evaluation is described in considerable detail.
... Processi Urbani e Territoriali/CISPUT. For additional information on the former two traditions see Larkham (2006) and Whitehand (2001Whitehand ( , 2007 and on the latter see Cataldi (2003) and Cataldi et al. (2002). ...
... J. W. R. Whitehand recognizes it explicitly, noting that, in the last quarter of the 20th century, morphogenetic methods, conceptualisation of historical development, terminological accuracy and cartographic analysis typical of his work have been increasingly recognised as essential for the development and the importance of research into the historic urban landscape. This has resulted in increased interest in morphological research on an international scale, such as the creation of International Seminar on Urban Form (ISUF), an international, interdisciplinary group of researchers, centred around their own magazine (Urban Morphology) and meeting in regular conferences (Whitehand, 2007). In Poland, the views of Conzen became known in 1960 when he presented his work entitled 'The Plan Analysis of an English City Centre' at the International Geographical Union Symposium in Lund, Sweden. ...
Article
Full-text available
The scientific heritage of M. R. G. Conzen, who is considered one of the most outstanding historical geographers and urban morphologists in the world, has made a huge impact on the contemporary urban historic morphology. Nowadays it would be very hard to imagine this scientific discipline without his achievements. He created a new point of view on the city, first within the Anglo-Saxon, and afterwards within European and world geography. Morphogenetic methods, the conceptualisation of historic development, terminological precision as well as cartographic analysis that were typical of his approach, more and more often were considered essential for the development and the role of research on historic urban landscape. This resulted in the increasing interest in morphological studies on an international scale. In Poland, M. R. G. Conzen’s opinions have become recognizable since 1960, finding permanent place in urban historic morphology and providing stimuli for its significant development in the following decades.
... It is possible to describe different urban patterns and forms in many ways. Qualitative methods as one of methods which describe different urban patterns and forms, include morphological and morphographic description [2][3][4][5]. The structure of each city includes a set of paths and nodes, the overall structure of the city and its main activities. ...
Article
Abstract: At present, in major cities, the lack of urban structure cohesion and connectivity promoted by the expansion of street network dominated by cars has increased dramatically. Hence, social life and citizen rights considering anthropocentric and human scale have been put at risk in many cities. “Old Towns” are perceived as urban structures of the past that are revitalized and given new significance in contemporary cities. The geometrical order of the cities structures shape diverse urban tissue and promote the development in several directions. However, the main activities of the cities occur in the places with the most social interactions. This paper presents an ongoing research that compares the main areas of Porto (Portugal) and Qazvin (Iran), based on the growth of the cities around their historic centers, i.e. “Old towns”. In-depth review and qualitative analysis are two research approaches for the aim of this research. The obtained results are analyzed and discussed, with potential conclusions identified. The urban form of the cities is analyzed and assessed a methodology based on street pattern identification. Moreover, the outcomes reveal a new pattern for pedestrian network. Moreover, research findings show that the main areas of both cities require new pattern solutions in order to promote connectivity through pedestrian network.
... Üçüncüsü mülkiyet deseni üzerinde şekillenen ve fiziksel yapıyı ortaya koyan üç boyutlu izlerdir (building fabric) (J. W. R. Whitehand, 2007). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Kentlerde hızlı gelişme ve artan yoğunluk, insanların yaşam alanlarına karşı besledikleri aidiyet duygularının önemini giderek düşürmektedir. Bu durum özellikle gelişmekte olan ülkelerdeki kentlerin geleneksel merkezi formlarının, daha az yeşil alan ve çok merkezli bir yapı etrafında yayılmalarına neden olmakta ve sadece rant kavramının ön plana çıktığı bir yapılaşma sürecini hızlandırmakta ve kentlerin kimliklerini değiştirmektedir. Bu çerçevede rant odaklı kentsel yenileme projelerinin yerel otoritenin desteği ile özel sektör elinde çöküntü alanlarından ‘’prestijli’’ konut alanlarına doğru yönlenmektedir. Bu da dönüşümü gerçekleştirilecek alanda yaşayan insanların problemlerine çözüm bulmak ya da bu alanı sağlıklılaştırmaktan ziyade kentsel arazi rantını en iyi şekilde kullanarak bu durumdan pay almaktadır. Bu süreç kentlerin bütüncül planlama sistemi içerisinde parçalı değişikliklere yol açmakta ve plan bütünlüğünü daha çok tartışılır bir noktaya taşımaktadır. Bu çalışma özellikle geçtiğimiz 10 yıl içerisinde Konya şehrindeki ekonomik yatırımların artması ile birlikte hız kazanan kentsel yenileme projelerinin kent formu üzerine etkilerini yorumlamaktadır. Bu çerçevede bahsedilen etkiler belirli morfolojik parametreler (sokak dokusu, yapı parsel ilişkisi, açık alan kullanımı ve yapısal yoğunluk) ve ekonomik kriterler (mülkiyet dokusunun değişiminde etkili olan gayrimenkul değerleri) bakımından incelenmiştir. Çalışmada yöntem olarak yenileme bölgelerindeki değişimi anlamak için önceki durum ile sonraki durum karşılaştırmalı mekânsal analizler şeklinde uygulanmıştır. Bu bağlamda Konya şehrinin Meram ilçesinden biri 15 ha diğeri 60 ha büyüklüğünde olan iki yenileme projesi alanı örneklem olarak seçilmiş ve analiz edilmiştir. Sonuç olarak seçilen örneklem alanlarının yenileme sonrası morfolojik yapıları ve ekonomik durumları yenileme öncesi durumları ile karşılaştırıldığı zaman nerdeyse tamamen değiştiği görünmektedir. Bu değişim kaçınılmaz bir şekilde kentin mekânsal kimliğini ve morfolojik yapısını etkilemektedir. Bu kapsamda araştırma, yenileme projeleri ile birlikte ortaya çıkan yeni mekânsal yapıyı kent morfolojisi kavramı çerçevesinde tartışmaktadır.
... We use Space Syntax methodology [4] and the established representational methods of Urban Morphology [7] to describe the changes. Our aim is not only to describe the spatial characteristics of new developments but also to show how new spatial relationships and architectural expression correlate with social solidarity of inhabitants. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the paper we analyse the character of spatial boundaries of buildings and examine their correlation with social changes. For a case study we use Holesovice, a quarter of Prague, Czech Republic. This city part is a typical example of originally industrial suburb with a large number of factories, docks and railway station, all built mainly in 19. century. In the last 15 years the area has gone through gentrification that significantly changed its urban and architectural face. The transformation also affected the character of services and cultural facilities available in the area. We compare boundaries of the original construction and boundaries of the new developments built in the last 15 years. The analysis is done at the scale of buildings. Our methodological framework is based on the Space Syntax theory and Urban Morphology. The studied characteristics are integration of accessible spaces and design of boundaries. The paper identifies urban and architectural features that correspond and reflect the lifestyle of the gentrified part of population.
... Town plan analysis took a firm hold in geographical practice on account of Conzenian urban morphology (Moudon 1997;Whitehand 2007). Its combination of streets, plots, uses and fabrics, was grounded specifically in spatial and historical rather than immediately social interests. ...
Chapter
This chapter introduces Boundary Line Type (BLT) mapping, a vector GIS based cross-culturally and diachronically comparative method, used for mapping the socio-spatial significance of urban built environments. This new research method is related to other methods currently used to study contemporary as well as historical urban built environments such as urban morphology, space syntax, and GIS based approaches. BLT mapping uses GIS technology in order to apply an ontology of formal boundary conceptualisations expressing the constitutive differences among the materially constructed subdivisions which shape built environments and are inhabited by urban society. This ontology resulted from a firm socio-spatial theoretical grounding (Vis in Sp Flows: Int J Urb ExtraUrb Stud 2(4): 15–29, 2013a; Vis 2013b; Vis in J Borderland Stud, forthcoming) and is here operationalised on the basis of contemporary, historical, historically reconstructed, and archaeological ground-level city plans of the historic city of Winchester (UK) and Chunchucmil (Classic Maya, Mexico). The research processes of data preparation and the analytical mapping of BLTs by identifying them in empirical data contexts are presented. This alerts the prospective user to the challenges and practical measures involved in using spatial datasets of different origin. The interpretive opportunities of the resultant formal redescription of the urban landscape and the potential of the BLT data structure for both advanced spatial analysis and visualisation is explained. Facilitating this interpretive and analytical mapping practice is expected to stimulate future research to systematically explore society-space relations as manifest and developing in cities over time and in socio-culturally contrasting urban traditions. Devising and conducting this methodology advances the qualitative GIS research agenda for the spatial humanities and social sciences by marrying theoretically informed ideational concepts to quantifiable empirical units of information.
... Conzen) laid down the foundations for the research methods of contemporary urban morphology. Morphogenetic method, cartographic representation and terminological precision were the main characteristics of his urban landscape studies [15]. Conzen's morphogenetic method comprised the study of the three layers of urban landscape: the town plan (the two-dimensional matrix), the urban tissue (building fabric, the three-dimensional form of space) and land and building utilisation. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the scientific context of the 20 th century, the concept of landscape was related to the phenomenon of the city which brought new layers of meaning compared to the previous epochs in which landscape denoted natural and rural land and their representations. This research deals with changes in meaning and content of the concept of landscape in the field of architecture and urbanism of the second half of the 20 th century, relying on the results of theoretical studies in the field of urban and cultural geography as the sciences of space where landscape is one of the primary concepts of research. The survey aims to identify the paradigmatic change in the explanation of the concept of landscape and its use in the field of urban design. Research method is a method of content analysis of theoretical, critical and historical texts of relevant authors in the two areas involved in reflection on this concept and the ways of landscape design and construction in social and cultural contexts.
... The paper reviews methods and theories for the analysis of urban edges. The urban fringe is one of the theories introduced to understand the growth belts (edges) around cities (Whitehand, 2007; Conzen, 2009; Gallent et al, 2004). In addition, realizing the context as one entity is Archnet-IJAR, Volume 10 -Issue 2 -July 2016 -(67-86) – Original Research Articles Copyright © 2016 Archnet-IJAR, International Journal of Architectural Research common in the literature in terms of using selective points or indicators for analysis (Bruce and Creighton, 2006; Abada, 1999); others use SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis with different indicators (Doratli et al, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyzes the urban edges of historic cities. Managing these edges would enhance the success of any intervention projects inside the historic fabric. The paper develops and tests a method of analytical assessment framework that is applicable for quantitative analysis within an urban edge. It is capable of measuring micro and macro levels of analysis of historic urban edges with reference to their spatial configuration. In addition, the paper searches for repetitive spatial configuration patterns. The main case study is Historic Cairo. The paper reveals that there are apparent patterns of cause and effect of both spatial configurations and related activities along the urban edges, forming different type of barriers. The paper discovers the repetitive spatial, architectural, and land-use patterns that exist on various edges. These patterns enable the possibility of learning and acquiring from other successful interventions that have been applied to similar patterns, without being limited to cultural or contextual differences.
... Um desses casos é o trabalho desenvolvido por Karl Kropf em torno do conceito de tecido urbano, fazendo convergir duas escolas de pensamento morfológico, a Escola Muratoriana e a Escola Conzeniana. (CATALDI; MAFFEI; VACCARO, 2002; WHITEHAND, 2007). Kropf (1996) afirma que o tecido urbano é um todo orgânico cuja forma pode ser descrita a vários níveis de resolução, cada um deles centrado em diferentes elementos da forma urbana: ruas e quarteirões (séries de parcelas); parcelas; edifícios; salas ou espaços; estruturas, como paredes ou telhados (incluindo detalhes da construção), e materiais. ...
Article
Full-text available
Este artigo descreve a aplicação da metodologia Morpho na análise da forma e paisagem urbana de Lisboa. Para além de uma avaliação morfológica da capital portuguesa, centrada nos principais elementos de forma urbana (ruas, parcelas e edifícios), desenvolve-se neste artigo uma apreciação do Plano Diretor Municipal de Lisboa de 2012 e do Plano de Urbanização do Alto do Lumiar de 1998, tendo em consideração a coerência interna das suas propostas e o papel dos objetivos e a relevância das propostas do plano para a capital do país.
... To him, landscape classifies to: (i) the original and (ii) the manmade landscapes (Calcating, 2012). Other early researches also have been explained cultural landscape as some patterns created through physical environments by human activities and cultural systems (Whitehand, 2007). More recently, UNESCO (2008) provided a definition of cultural landscapes as the cultural properties representing the "combined works of the nature and of the man". ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent decades, modernization is extensively changing the face of Iranian cities. Besides, urban places are losing their traditional features, identity and cultural characteristics. Conservation of cultural heritage resources rescued historical parts of the cities; hence, other traditional urban spaces do not receive enough attention and protection due to economic concerns. Mashhad, as one of the main religious touristic destinations in Iran, is unfortunately losing its traditional features due to extensive attractions of physical transformations. Economic profits fascinating constructions into the city center of Mashhad, specially surrounding areas of the holly shrine. This issue has been led to demolishment of the old texture of the city center. Sarshoor bazaar is one of rescued traditional urban public spaces in city center of Mashhad with characteristics of an Iranian ancient bazaar. This study mainly focuses on cultural and aesthetical patterns of traditional Iranian bazaars in order to provide a conceptual strategy for revitalization of Sarshoor bazaar. To this aim, a theoretical review is provided through main representative factors of cultural landscape to decide about a proper strategy for improving cultural quality of the selected case study. We also provide a practical analysis through social and behavioral patterns of the citizens and pilgrims in public spaces to realize material and immaterial features of Sarshoor bazaar, and consequently, find out any possible opportunity of improving tangible and intangible characteristics of this case study area. To capture cultural landscape qualities of Sarshoor bazaar, a final design is provided to envelope a light traditional surface representing the visual landscape of the bazaar. Main passage and piazzas are also equipped for the movements of pilgrims and setting up annual traditional and social events.
... Este artigo fundamental desenvolve a linha de investigação sobre o plano da cidade iniciado por Fritz, incluindo a identificação das diferentes partes ou zonas que constituem o centro da cidade. Whitehand (2007a) sustenta que este trabalho foi pioneiro daquilo que, anos mais tarde, se viria a designar por 'abordagem morfogenética'. Um outro aspeto importante no trabalho deste geografo é a convicção de que o estudo da cidade passa necessariamente pelo estudo da paisagem mais abrangente onde ela se insere. ...
Book
Full-text available
Morfologia Urbana é a ciência que estuda a forma física das cidades, bem como os principais atores e processos de transformação que moldam essa forma. Dada a complexidade do objeto de estudo, a Morfologia Urbana tem uma clara natureza multidisciplinar, recebendo contributos de diferentes disciplinas e de diferentes ‘abordagens’ dentro da mesma disciplina. Este livro é constituído por seis capítulos. Para além da introdução e das conclusões, o livro é composto por quatro capítulos centrais, cada um deles dedicado a uma abordagem especifica, cada um deles assinado por um ou mais autores – alguns dos maiores especialistas, nestas quatro abordagens, no contexto luso-brasileiro.
... To depict the configuration of cities, we need to significantly shift our view away from the ground to a synoptic perspective so that the typology of physical patterns can be systematically examined (Longley, 2002;Miller & Small, 2003;Taubenbock et al., 2009). Viewing cities from above is mainly rooted in the pioneering effort of German geographers Otto Schlüter and Michael Robert Günter Conzen in mapping urban morphology as a part of a wider landscape to trace modifications and development of urban form (Whitehand, 2007). In Conzen's morphological study in the English market town of Alnwick, the patterns of streets, plots and buildings are related to historical socioeconomic transitions by close surveying of town planning maps through time (Conzen, 1960;Whitehand, 1994). ...
Article
Urbanization processes are manifested by the change in the physical morphology of cities. Gaining knowledge about cities through their morphology is naturally linked to the capability of remote sensing (RS) that can monitor city forms with a synoptic view. Yet, our knowledge of the urban form does not linearly increase with the increase of image data. Thus, the role, challenges and potentials of RS in deriving knowledge about urban morphology are worth investigating. We argue that ongoing efforts of mapping urban elements in RS are only marginally contributing to the understanding of cities in terms of urban morphology. We further reason that magnifying the role of RS depends on a suggested workflow involving steps that are external to RS, mainly including characterizing urban morphology through meaningful measurements of mapped elements, and interpreting the measured physical forms as proxies of the socioeconomic status. To exemplify the major steps, we focus on urban poverty (deprivation), and examine its manifestation through the morphology of buildings. Our findings show that challenges appear as soon as the collection of building information from RS images starts. This is mainly caused by inconsistent, incomplete and inaccurate GIS based representation of buildings on images, as well as low quality predictions, hidden from accuracy metrics. Although the potential of deriving meaningful urban morphological patterns from building maps for explaining socioeconomic patterns still holds, several uncertainties remain unsolved, such as the way urban processes are manifested morphologically and how the morphology is captured with the influence of building map quality. Our main conclusion is that as RS image-based morphological information propagates and fluctuates along the process of knowledge derivation, causing difficulties in quantifying the exact amount of urban knowledge derived. Nonetheless, useful knowledge could already be obtained even with suboptimal data sources and model performances, which opens the opportunity to facilitate transferable and reproducible urban morphology studies by using widely accessible data despite their suboptimal quality.
... Both are, mostly, unaware of basic morphological concepts that have the potential to deepen their understanding of the built environment. This is related to the problem of the gap between research and practice, which may be due to the lack of a common language (McCormack 2013;O'Connell 2013), the unpopularity and misreading of urban morphology as a source for practice (Scheer 2008), the lack of awareness on urban morphology by many agents involved in the process of shaping the urban landscape (Samuels 1990;Whitehand 2007), the long time periods that need to be devoted to research (Larkham 2006), the insufficient emphasis on urban morphology within the curricula of planning and architecture schools (Whitehand 2005(Whitehand , 2012 and the inadequate communication between varying professions. ...
Chapter
The general dissatisfaction about the quality of the urban built environment gave rise to questions on the link between practice and research on urban form in the last decades. Within these two sides of inseparable relation, research is related to understanding and explanation of physical form and its functioning through an investigation of the change of urban form throughout long periods, while practice is concerned with shaping the physical form of the urban fabric through creating an urban composition. This study examines the relation between research and practice on urban form with a particular attention to the development of planning decisions and their implementation. Turkish planning practice is taken into consideration for such a discussion. It is seen that morphological research is not the basis for the prescription of the future development, and practitioners are not aware of the essence of the subject that they are dealing with. There is a need for an education strategy to develop responsive planning policies. © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018.
... From the 1960s to the present, urban morphology has been developed by geographers based on morphogenetic research in central Europe (Hofmeister, 2004), among these Germany-born Conzen (1969) was the founder of the British Morphological School. Together with his followers, he has created a conceptual rather than descriptive framework for the transformation of urban forms, (Whitehand, 2001(Whitehand, , 2007. The framework divides a townscape into three research objects: the 'town plan', 'building form' and 'land use'. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyses the historical process of transformation of the urban blocks, plots and building fabrics in Suzhou, China from the tenth century to the present day using a typomorphological approach, and offers some design suggestions for urban designers and policy-makers based on the examination of the local context. The study aims to propose the western typormorphological concept in Chinese urban design, to maintain local cultural identity in an era of rapid globalisation. The study reveals that typormorphology is an effective tool to solve the current problems in urban developments, and should be adopted in both the urban analysis and urban design of Chinese cities.URBAN DESIGN International (2009) 14, 36-54. doi:10.1057/udi.2009.6
... Este artigo fundamental desenvolve a linha de investigação sobre o plano da cidade iniciado por Fritz, incluindo a identificação das diferentes partes ou zonas que constituem o centro da cidade. Whitehand (2007a) sustenta que este trabalho foi pioneiro daquilo que, anos mais tarde, se viria a designar por 'abordagem morfogenética'. Um outro aspeto importante no trabalho deste geografo é a convicção de que o estudo da cidade passa necessariamente pelo estudo da paisagem mais abrangente onde ela se insere. ...
Book
Full-text available
Morfologia Urbana é a ciência que estuda a forma física das cidades, bem como os principais atores e processos de transformação que moldam essa forma. Dada a complexidade do objeto de estudo, a Morfologia Urbana tem uma clara natureza multidisciplinar, recebendo contributos de diferentes disciplinas e de diferentes ‘abordagens’ dentro da mesma disciplina. Este livro é constituído por oito capítulos. Para além da introdução e das conclusões, o livro é composto por seis capítulos centrais, cada um deles dedicado a uma abordagem especifica, cada um deles assinado por um ou mais autores – alguns dos maiores especialistas, nestas seis abordagens, no contexto luso-brasileiro.
... They are historical products of economic society and human civilization to a certain extent and at a certain stage [6][7]. Urban landscapes are characterized by locality, historicity and complexity, and the ecological garden landscape is a very complex practical application system [8]. To improve the quality of plant landscapes in cold urban areas, domestic researchers have conducted extensive explorations of cold and urban plant landscapes from different angles and different levels, and with the rapid development of urban greening construction, some cold urban green areas are applied [9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyzes the distribution of plant resources in the test plots, and aims to optimize the allocation of plants and improve the follow-up construction plan for the cold land ecological park. We provide basis and reference for plant species selection and diversification in the construction of cold land urban Greenland plant landscape, and further improve the urban environment. Taking Jiamusi City as an example, the plant species, ecological distribution and utilization of plant resources in Jiamusi City Park were investigated and investigated by sample method and field investigation method. The data were analyzed by the analytic hierarchy process, and the ornamental value of the regional plants was analyzed. According to the survey, there are 41 species of plants in the park in Jiamusi City, belonging to 15 families and 35 genera. Their use involves three aspects, such as edible medicinal, and has high application value. As a typical cold city, Jiamusi proposes to consider the concept of ecological balance and sustainable development while considering the ornamental nature of plant resources, to play a role in supporting the image of the city.
... More important than this division of urban form are the concepts Conzen developed to refer to the process of urban development (Whitehand 2007). One of these concepts was the burgage cycle, which consists of the progressive fillingin with buildings of the backland of burgages, 1 terminating in the clearing of buildings and a period of urban fallowness prior to the initiation of a redevelopment cycle (Whitehand 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
China’s historic cities have experienced drastic transformations since the socialist revolution of 1949. One essential change in this regard is the reconstruction of the prevalent land plot pattern; the historic plot pattern has been heavily damaged by constant urban renewals, as oversized plots, deriving from amalgamation of previous small plots, have become a prominent feature of contemporary historic urban areas. The damage to the historic plot pattern has shown that the current plot division mechanism does not support the conservation of historic cities. Taking Nanjing’s old south area as an example, this research analyses the changes in and problems with the plot division mechanism since 1949 and its impact on urban forms. Changes in the plot division mechanism show that megaplots have been a constant in the ever-changing land development system since 1949, leading to elimination of historic land subdivisions and to inefficient regulatory planning with limited affordances. In this sense, it is necessary to establish a set of smart plot division strategies to promote the restoration of this historic urban area. The essence of the strategy proposed here involves five patterns of plot division, corresponding to different land development requirements and morphological zones.
... Technical means mainly include cultural reading and interpretation, cultural mapping, urban morphology, historic townscape characterisation (HTC) and heritage impact assessment (HIA) (Patiwael et al., 2019;Sarlöv Herlin, 2016;Solecka, 2019;Turner & Singer, 2015;Whitehand & Gu, 2010). As an applied theory, urban morphology was introduced and experimented with in urban rehabilitation projects in European cities in the 1950s (Whitehand, 2001(Whitehand, , 2007. After Conzen successfully applied the morphogenetic layering approach in historic townscape management in the 1970s, the method was integrated into landscape assessment in a broader sense and became a HTC tool applied in the 1990s (Swanwick, 2002). ...
Article
Although the historic urban landscape (HUL) approach has been highly focused on values connecting conservation and development, contextualising the approach in relation to local heritage discourses and the dynamics of heritage governance still requires more adaptive assessment tools. Mrauk-U in Rakhine State, Myanmar, was selected as a case study. Through the method of participatory historical map translation (PHMT), the spatial evolution of the city was reproduced to identify the key elements of the landscape structure as urban heritage. These elements were converted into space vector layers in the urban geographical information system (GIS) and underwent a three-step assessment using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) method to visualise the morphological patterns of their heritage value, availability and vulnerability. The results indicated that a holistic conservation strategy should be adopted to build a dynamic heritage management framework and that priority should be given to solving military conflict and preventing flood.
... A compreensão das formas urbanas como área de conhecimento remonta ao final dos anos 1800, notadamente na Alemanha, onde geógrafos começaram a aplicar os conceitos desenvolvidos para o estudo da paisagem às questões inerentes ao meio construído (WHITEHAND, 2007). Porém, é a partir da segunda metade do século passado, já com a cidade moderna consolidada, que são aprofundadas as principais teorias morfológicas sobre o espaço urbanizado. ...
Article
Full-text available
As the criminality can no longer be interpreted solely by individual criminal motivation, approaches to landscape and city vitality should be incorporated into its discussion. However, rare studies relate morphological elements to vital sites in Brazil, understood as those effectively appropriated by users. The objective is, therefore, to structure theoretical-conceptual panels on these analysis variables. The work was developed in two methodological phases: exploratory-descriptive, supported by documentary and bibliographic review, and analytical-relational, focused on the interaction of the three main themes. The results highlight the fundamental components in the macro and microscale, both for public and private space. Finally, it is concluded that, despite the fact that the contemporary debate on crime is universal and multidisciplinary, delicts are dependent on the specific context and its respective socio-spatial dynamics.
... The growth of the city was made up of series of outward expansions in residential area separated by marked pauses. This gave rise to a fringe belts which are of great variety in shapes and sizes [2]. The changes over time in the number of buildings and its associated fluctuations in land values and cover, majorly influences the formation of urban fringe belts. ...
Article
The nature of urban development in Port Harcourt Metropolis makes for the study of urban evolution dynamics across the metropolis. Land-Sat Tm of 30m x 30m of 1986, 2000 and 2015 were employed to examine the changes in urban development across the study area. The direction of urban growth as revealed by the image analysis was digitized in the Arc GIS 10.4 environment. Findings revealed that, the morphology of the city is in the form of a non-regular polygon. The analysis also reveals that, there is an increase in the growth of the city from 1986 through 2000 and, then 2015. The growth direction of the city grew more north-ward rather than south-ward. The growth in the city population and the expansion of networks of roads, resulted in the transformation of the city form, and as development evolved, industrial locations were now focused in the Northern fringe of the city occupying extensive land areas which gave rise to other micro industrial and residential buildings extending northward hence, the visible level of anthropogenic activities or alterations. The study therefore recommends that, geographical boundaries should be given great emphasis by planning authorities in plan preparation in other to accommodate developmental growth and expansions.
Article
Currently, there is a development proposal being put forward for Moore Street, Dublin. The site of the Provisional Irish Government during the 1916 Rising is now subject to a large redevelopment project that will mainly incorporate retail and residential development. This subject area merits research now more than ever as the critical issue that must be addressed in the development outlined above is; how is a site that represents so much to the Irish psyche addressed respectfully? Therefore, there is an inherent tension involved in allowing much needed retail/commercial development in town and city centres to maintain vibrancy and vitality and this is commonly stated in Development Plans across the country, when equally, Irish towns and cities are normally where the greatest concentrations of our built and cultural heritage are found. Inevitably, as urban areas progress, more and more pressure builds on historic areas to deal with the rigours of development. Adaptation and a willingness to protect and introduce longevity to our built and cultural heritage is essential where profitability is not the only primary goal. This paper seeks to review the literature supporting the significance of built and culture heritage in society and its importance within the Planning Process.
Thesis
Full-text available
Como parte integrante de um grupo de pesquisa que objetiva subsidiar políticas públicas para a prevenção dos percursos de violência nas cidades, esta tese é apoiada em três pressupostos principais. O primeiro se refere ao preceito de que locais “vazios”, onde existem poucas interações sociais das áreas privativas com as comuns, e dos seus usuários entre si, são mais suscetíveis à ocorrência de crimes. O segundo se relaciona com o princípio de que grande quantidade de pessoas utilizando ambientes coletivos é resultado da adequada forma urbana, e não apenas um fator promotor da sua dinâmica. O terceiro se baseia em postulado da criminologia ambiental de que fatores morfológicos fornecem indicativos para a compreensão desse fenômeno Dessa maneira, é possível inferir que a vitalidade é um aspecto fundamental para a verificação de vínculos entre morfologia e violência. Face à problemática exposta, o objetivo geral desta investigação é avaliar relações entre paisagem, vitalidade e criminalidade, a partir da estruturação de indicador e validadores para espaços públicos em diferentes escalas de análise morfológica da urbe. Com abordagem qualiquantitativa, natureza exploratória e estrutura multimétodos, o trabalho foi apoiado em estudo de caso no bairro Cidade Industrial de Curitiba (CIC), na capital do estado do Paraná, e em dois eixos metodológicos: de aproximação teórico-metodológica e de experimentação empírico-processual. No primeiro, partiu-se da identificação de variáveis potencializadoras de áreas vitalizadas na paisagem urbana para posterior hierarquização daquelas selecionadas para a construção do indicador. No segundo, procedeu-se a aplicação empírica das mesmas em duas escalas analíticas (macro e micro), com integração dos resultados para interpretação do potencial de vitalidade e validação dos parâmetros do índice por meio da sua análise integrada com a espacialização da ocorrência de crimes em vias com circulação de pedestres. A aplicação na macroescala definiu a seleção de quatro pontos do bairro como recorte de análise para utilização de 27 variáveis específicas na microescala, vinculadas a quatro classes gerais (espaços públicos, áreas privadas, condições efêmeras e cenários noturnos). Os resultados apontam que aspectos relacionados às segundas possuem comportamento mais próximo aos tipos de delitos estudados (furtos e roubos). Excetuando-se a tipologia criminal, é possível identificar elementos da forma da cidade que potencializam a promoção da vitalidade espacial e a prevenção do crime no espaço público, corroborando a hipótese formulada. Conclui�se, então, pela viabilidade metodológica da pesquisa, considerando as necessárias adaptações das variáveis e critérios em cada caso, com indicativos para o processo de planejamento e gestão de paisagens seguras.
Article
In recent years, the debate on urban morphology has been polarized by two different perspectives, the first developed within the International Seminar on Urban Form (ISUF), based on the Conzenian and the Muratorian traditions, and the second – space syntax – developed particularly in University College London. Both approaches are being further developed in a wide international context. The first and the second parts of this paper describe the origins, main characteristics, and contributions of these approaches, which are illustrated by the authors on‐going research on Oporto urban form in Portugal. The last part presents some suggestions for bridging the gap between these approaches.
Chapter
While previous chapters focused on urban forms, the sixth chapter focuses on those studying these forms. The chapter is in three parts. The first part addresses some classics in urban morphology and urban studies. The first of these books was written in the late 1950s, five books were prepared in the 1960s, two were written in the late 1970s, one was prepared in the early 1980s, and the last one in the early 1990s. The second part of this chapter presents the main morphological approaches that have been developed over the last decades, from the historico-geographical approach (promoted by the Conzenian School) to the process typological approach (promoted by the Muratorian School), from space syntax to the various forms of spatial analysis (including cellular automata, agent-based models, and fractals). This part is complemented by an overview of some emerging approaches. Finally, the last part of this chapter introduces a key topic—against a background of different theories, concepts, and methods—the need to develop comparative studies. The knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of each approach will certainly enable those who want to develop a morphological study, to select the most appropriate options given the specific nature of the object under analysis.
Chapter
Full-text available
En el presente capítulo se tomará como punto de partida el constructo teórico de forma urbana, el cual cuenta con una larga tradición dentro de los estudios urbanos y geográficos, aunque el interés por regresar a las aproximaciones que de él se derivan es reciente. Se encuentra de la mano de las reformulaciones teóricas que legitiman la superación de su estadio descriptivo (análisis y teorizaciones parciales de usos de suelo, redes viales, densidad constructiva, entre otras) y narra sus intenciones para posicionarse como un concepto integrador, a partir del cual se generen modelos estructurales que coadyuven a la planificación y desarrollo sustentable de las urbes. A sabiendas de que los espacios urbanos se modifican con el paso del tiempo bajo diversas circunstancias y dinámicas, proponemos a continuación el estudio de Tijuana, ciudad fronteriza del estado de Baja California, localizada en el extremo noroeste de México, limitando con la frontera de Estados Unidos de América.
Book
Full-text available
A inicios de 2020 es usual encontrar referencias literarias formuladas desde el ámbito político y académico en las cuales se hace hincapié en las responsabilidades ambientales a las que actualmente se debe hacer frente ante la imperante necesidad de contar con ciudades sustentables, sin embargo, habrá que cuestionar si el complejo sistema urbano en el que habitamos coincide con la viabilidad que se ambiciosa. En este sentido, la obra Ciudad y sustentabilidad. Estructura Urbana integra diversas investigaciones longitudinales y transversales con las que se pone en evidencia el pasado, evolución y funcionamiento actual de distintas ciudades mexicanas. Con ellas se hará evidente una pluralidad de abordajes teóricos y metodológicos implementados para el estudio de la estructura urbana, mismos que resultan tan diversos como complicadas y cambiantes resultan las urbes, pero será justamente dicha heterogeneidad, suministrada por cada uno de los autores implicados en la realización de este libro colaborativo la que contribuirá a una comprensión amplia del funcionamiento de nuestras ciudades –tanto en su dimensión ambiental, espacial, social, económica e histórica-, ofreciendo al lector los insumos para un mejor entendimiento de ciudades no metropolitanas, enfocándonos en ellas dado que su protagonismo en el desarrollo urbano de México se ha tornado más significativo desde finales del siglo XX. Así, invitamos a recorrer las páginas de este libro en busca de las características formales, funcionales y organizativas del espacio urbano, mismas que sin lugar a dudas resultaran clave para aproximarnos a la planeación de ciudades más sustentables.
Conference Paper
The present day street layout in Vienna's historical center is a product of the construction boom in the 13th Century, being the city's most present and also unnoticed medieval heritage. At the end of the 12th Century the city of Vienna occupies the area within the ancient fortification of roman Vindobona. Financially backed up through the ransom for Richard I, Babenberger Duke Leopold V decides to raise a new city wall, expanding the urban area by ca. 450%. As a consequence, the already commenced functional development to a late medieval city increases. By the end of the late Middle Ages Vienna has a complex hierarchically structured public space with several functional centers. The first planimetric representations of the city show it at the break of Renaissance (the plans of Bonifaz Wolmuet - 1547 - and Augustin Hirschvogel - 1547), with a new fortification system to improve the one severely damaged during the Ottoman siege 1529. The paper at hand presents a new digital reconstruction of the late medieval street pattern of Vienna and a brief analysis of the public space at the beginning of the 16th century. The city plan is based on the GIS supported overlay of existing punctual research results on the urban development of Middle Age Vienna with the information content of several historical maps and the preserved medieval architecture. In doing so it represents a useful tool for further research on the city layout employing digital methods (e.g. the Space Syntax analysis mentioned in this paper). This paper is part of current PhD-research on the urban development of medieval Vienna and new means of interpretation and presentation of the medieval Viennese cultural heritage.
Article
Full-text available
Throughout the history, the urban development of towns in Bosnia and Herzegovina has been strongly influenced by different social systems that were transponed into the urban space giving it general characteristics common for the most cities. The character of the urban form of cities also pointed to the influence of various individual factors which can be generally classified into three groups: the natural characteristics of the urban space, created physical structure and the socio-economic factors. They are permanently shaping the urban space acting interactively with different intensity and impact giving each city the specifics that underlie its urban identity. The most intensive development occurred during the last two periods, the period of socialism (1945 - 1992) and the period of social transition into the liberal democratic system, where the factors in the socio-economic sphere have achieved an especially large impact on the urban form. This paper presents the general characteristics of urban development and influential factors on the urban form of Banjaluka and Trebinje from 1945 until today.
Chapter
In this chapter, I describe space syntax, a recent configurational approach to urban morphological studies that shows some conceptual similarities to the network analysis of structural sociology. First, I describe the basic concepts, methods, and measures of this configurational approach, focusing on the axial and segment map analyses—the two most commonly used methods of space syntax related to urban morphological studies. After this, I describe some of the recent mathematical developments of space syntax methods and measures. These mathematical developments include various normalization techniques for integration and choice—the two most important measures of space syntax; various clarifications on the relationships between the metric, geometric, and topological measures of axial and segment maps; various universal properties including scaling laws observed in axial and segment maps; various ways to reduce and/or eliminate the effects of boundary on space syntax measures; various ways to take into account the shape as well as the 3D of the built environment within space syntax; and, finally, various ways to integrate space syntax with GIS. Following mathematical developments, I describe various applications of space syntax methods and measures in urban morphological studies. Here, I discuss how space syntax methods and measures have been applied to describe the syntactic types and cores, and the whole and the parts relationships of spatial configurations; the processes of spatial production and reproduction of social relations, functions, and knowledge; the generative functions of spatial configurations; the relationships between spatial configurations and social capital; and the experiential aspects of urban morphological history. I conclude the chapter by highlighting the fact urban morphological studies, though an important part of the space syntax corpus, are only one of many areas of research where space syntax methods and measures have been applied in recent years.
Article
Streets in India have traditionally been the public spaces around which social life has revolved. They constitute the urban public realm where people congregate, celebrate and interact. The hypothesis that forms the basis of this thesis is that there is a need to understand and design these urban streets as living corridors through which one perceives and understands the city, and the places where one has daily social encounters. Using Bangalore as a case study, this thesis analyzes spatial and social forces that shape street experience and culture at the scale of the city, the locality, and the street itself. By performing a reconnaissance study and an analysis of the street patterns in fifteen localities within the city, along with a detailed spatial analysis and interpretation of four different types of streets, I shed new light on the social life of different types of streets, and suggest ways in which the stimuli for these social lives can be understood and used to formulate design guidelines for streets in Indian cities that are currently undergoing similar transitions in their development. Through this process, l propose a method to identify urban typologies that relate to the physical and social conditions that occupy the city, along with a set of criteria that can be used to assess, plan and design streets that are more contextual in nature.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
İstanbul’un tarihi çekirdeğinin morfolojik dönüşümünün incelendiği bu çalışmada; Tarihi yarımadanın kentsel biçiminin, din ve kültürün etkisi altında geliştiği ve bu etkilerin kentin sembolik ögelerini de oluşturduğu gerçeğinden hareketle, tarihi yarımadanın en önemli sembolik unsurlarından olan külliyelerin ve çevresindeki mahalle dokularının üzerinde yoğunlaşılmıştır. Seçilen alanların tarihi yarımadanın siluetinde etkin olmalarının yanısıra; Roma, Bizans, Osmanlı dönemlerine ait birçok anıt eser, yer altı ve yerüstü zenginliklerini de barındırıyor olmaları önemlidir. Kentsel morfoloji, kentlerin fiziksel formunu analiz eden bir yaklaşımdır. Morfolojik değişim, sosyal ve ekonomik bağlamlarla meydana gelmekte, şehrin yapılanması ve mimari dokusu üzerinde doğrudan etkisi bulunmaktadır. Bu bağlamda bu çalışmanın amacı, farklı medeniyetlerin kent biçimi üzerindeki yansımalarını araştırmak ve değişen mekânların morfolojik yapı üzerindeki etkilerini belirlemek üzere; sokak, parsel ve yapı dokusu üzerindeki değişim sürecini, çeşitli ve karşılaştırmalı yöntemler eşliğinde kavramayı ve sonuçlar üretmeyi amaçlamaktadır.Tarihi yarımada içerisinde seçilen özgün karaktere sahip olan kentsel alanların biçimsel değişimleri, farklılıkları ve benzeşen özellikleri; Kentsel Morfoloji alanında önemli katkılar sağlamış coğrafyacı ve plancılardan oluşan “Conzen ekolü’nün düşünce tarzı”; bina tipolojilerinden yola çıkan “Moudon’un yaklaşım tarzı”; ve kent biçimi çalışmalarına matematiksel bir yorum kazandıran “Mekânsal Dizim yöntemi”, gibi farklı kentsel morfoloji yöntemleri ve yaklaşımları kullanılarak analiz edilmiş ve yorumlanmıştır. Ayrıca, tarihi haritaların sayısallaştırılması ve daha sonrasında farklı dönemlerin katmanlar halinde görüntülenebilmesi ve analiz edilebilmesi için Tarihi belgeleri inceleyen Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemleri (Historical GIS) aracı olarak kullanılmıştır. Bu çalışmanın, kentlerin morfolojik değişimini farklı yöntemler kullanarak karşılaştırmalı olarak değerlendiren ilk girişim olduğuna, bu yönü ve elde ettiği sonuçları ile Kent Morfolojisi alanına katkı sağlayacağına inanılmaktadır.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, the morphological transformation of historical peninsula in Istanbul is investigated. Urban form of historical peninsula evolved under the predominant influence of religion and culture; therefore, it bears this symbolic imprint. For this study, particular attention is given to Islamic social complexes and their surrounding settlements. These areas have ground and underground remains from different time periods (Roman, Byzantine, Ottoman and Republican), which play an important role in the dominating silhouette. To the best of authors’ knowledge, it is the first attempt to analyze these study areas in terms of examining urban morphology in more detail. Urban morphology is an approach to analyze physical form of the cities, which is always transformed and developed by its inhabitants. Morphological change of region is related with social and economic context, which has a direct impact on town plan and building fabric. The study area is analyzed by adapting three different methods of urban morphology; 1) Conzenian school of thought based on the field surveys and large-scale plans, 2) an approach to block size and form proposed by Moudon, subject to typology of house forms and lots, and 3) space syntax theory based on natural roads, axial lines and angular segment analyses recently introduced by space syntax community to interpret changes, differences and similarities on urban form. Furthermore, historical GIS is utilized as a tool in order to create a database. The three concepts are applied in historical peninsula. The area includes considerable variety of urban form and archeological layers. The main purpose of the study is to understand how to perform and combine these approaches so as to investigate reflection of different civilizations on urban form and reveal the interactions of spaces on morphological structure for dealing with change. As a result, identification of unique characteristics of urban form, building pattern and transformation of town-plan is evaluated with combination of the different methods of Urban Morphology.
Chapter
Many metropolitan cities have been faced with sustainability issues at the beginning of the twenty-first century. The problems are related to several subjects. Two of them are essential for the sustainability of townscapes: one is the subject of visual sustainability of the character of a townscape, and the other is the sustainable development of the city and its relation with the urban form. Overcoming the difficulties arising from the improper use of city’s resources can be possible by understanding the true nature of its urban form, how urban landscapes have developed historically, and which processes have shaped their forms. Typomorphology is a method for understanding the character of the urban form. It reveals the physical and spatial structure of cities. In this work, typomorphological method will be introduced, and its importance will be discussed according to sustainability of townscapes.
Chapter
Many metropolitan cities have been faced with sustainability issues at the beginning of the twenty-first century. The problems are related to several subjects. Two of them are essential for the sustainability of townscapes: one is the subject of visual sustainability of the character of a townscape, and the other is the sustainable development of the city and its relation with the urban form. Overcoming the difficulties arising from the improper use of city’s resources can be possible by understanding the true nature of its urban form, how urban landscapes have developed historically, and which processes have shaped their forms. Typomorphology is a method for understanding the character of the urban form. It reveals the physical and spatial structure of cities. In this work, typomorphological method will be introduced, and its importance will be discussed according to sustainability of townscapes.
Chapter
While the previous chapters focused on the urban forms (and on the agents and processes ) the sixth chapter focuses on those studying these urban forms. It is divided into three parts. The first part addresses a number of works that are classics in urban morphology and in urban studies . The first of these books was written in the late 1950s, five books were prepared in the 1960s, one was written in the late 1970s and the last of these books was prepared in the early 1980s. The eight books are: Studi per una operante storia urbana di Venezia by Saverio Muratori ; ‘Alnwick Northumberland. A study in town plan analysis’ by MRG Conzen ; ‘The image of the city ’ by Kevin Lynch ; ‘Townscape’ by Gordon Cullen ; ‘The death and life of great American cities ’ by Jane Jacobs ; L’architettura della cittá by Aldo Rossi ; Formes urbaines: de l’îlot à la barre by Jean Castex , Jean Charles Depaule and Philippe Panerai ; and, finally, ‘The social logic of space ’ by Bill Hillier and Julienne Hanson . The second part of this chapter presents the main morphological approaches that have been developed over the last decades, from the historico-geographical approach (promoted by the Conzenian School ) to the process typological approach (promoted by the Muratorian School ); from space syntax to the various forms of spatial analysis (including cellular automata , agent-based models and fractals ). Finally, the last part of this chapter introduces a key topic—against a background of different theories, concepts and methods—the need to develop comparative studies. The knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of each approach will certainly enable those who want to develop a morphological study, to select the most appropriate options given the specific nature of the object under analysis.
Chapter
Over recent decades, the historico-geographical approach has been prominent in the debate on the physical form of cities and the agents and processes shaping that form over time. With origins in the work of German-speaking researchers—particularly MRG Conzen—this approach has been systematically developed since the 1960s by researchers in various parts of the world. JWR Whitehand structured an innovative and comprehensive school of urban morphological thought grounded on the invaluable basis provided by Conzen. This is the main argument of this book, published on the 80th anniversary of Whitehand’s birth. The development of several dimensions of the concepts of fringe belt and morphological region and the systematic exploration of the theme of agents of change are identified in this chapter as key contributions by Whitehand to the development of this school of thought.
Article
As cities face increasing pressure to develop long-term sustainability strategies, the need for detailed quantitative data on urban resources, and their behaviour over time, has become critical. Building stocks are a city’s largest socio-cultural and economic resource and account for around 40% of total energy consumption in developed countries. Despite ongoing problems with access to data on stock composition and dynamics, advances are now being made, particularly within sustainability science. Automated approaches to the analysis of historical building attribute data are also allowing long-term patterns of change in cities to be better understood. This is of significance to the conservation sector, and to the development of effective conservation strategies. At the same time, knowledge held by the conservation sector is of growing importance to sustainability science. This paper selects specific advances within this new research landscape, and identifies their importance in developing a more scientific, data-driven approach to the analysis of older stock. It concludes with an introduction to a new type of data collection and visualisation platform being developed for London, as a result of this review.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Brazilian contemporary urbanization is setting a new scenario: the growth and expansion in the number of medium-sized cities, which were consolidated in the last 20 years as strategic locations for urban development and economic clout. This study aims to further the discussion on the relationship of open spaces in the configuration of urban form and structure of medium-sized cities in Brazil, identifying its main formal and spatial aspects, examining this relationship in Uberlandia, an important mid-size city in Minas Gerais, pole economic region known as the Triangulo Mineiro, in central Brazil. The article discusses the main determinants of morphological Brazilian medium-sized cities, focusing on spatial characteristics, and main patterns of tissue growth, and then analyzes the morphological aspects of Uberlandia, from its founding until the new peripheral subdivisions, relating them with different types of open spaces produced by the process of urbanization. Conflicts of this relationship resulted in quantitative and qualitative loss of open spaces in urban as well as more favorable to the creation of other qualitative and relational, creating a system identified by spaces that constitute both the center and edges of the city. 1. Brazilian Medium Sized Cities: the research on urban form and open spaces systems The consolidation of medium-sized cities as strategic places in urban and regional planning broadens the discussion and knowledge about the development model that many cities have adopted in their structure.
Article
Full-text available
This paper is concerned with the question of identifying and describing the general and historical character of human settlements. Beginning with a brief overview of the subject, the paper examines some basic issues concerning the perception of character and its historical dimension, highlighting a number of fundamental principles. The central argument of the paper is that the concept of urban tissue offers an effective framework for identifying and describing the physical characteristics that contribute to the general and historical character of towns. Specific, detailed procedures for identifying tissues are outlined, and an example is given. Applications in planning and urban design are also discussed: in particular, application to character assessment and conservation area definition. Further, the necessity of seeing character as only the outward aspect of a process involving humans and their environment is noted. This underlines the need to put any account of physical characteristics within the context of other aspects such as activities and intentions in order to move towards a better account of character.
Article
Full-text available
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Birmingham, 1993.
Chapter
«Landscape» seems to be going out of fashion as a key concept in geography. This is the case also in central Europe, the core area of landscaper studies and landscape philosophy. The changing outlook is still more obvious elsewhere. A recent five-year catalogue of doctoral dissertations in geography, submitted to North American universities, only six titles out of about six-hundred include the word landscape. A new Dictionary of the Environment, printed in London, does not even list landscape among its title-words, which is very surprising.
Article
Methodological problems in urban morphology are discussed and a strategy for a more coherent development of the field is outlined. A theoretical framework, in which the explanation of urban form is firmly rooted in the wider realm of social and economic processes, is proposed as a basis for more specific studies and as a stepping-stone to a more fully developed theory. This framework relates to 'western', especially British, society during the industrial era and is supported in part by reference to empirical studies. Innovation, diffusion and constructional activity play major roles in the theoretical argument and the implications of their interrelationship for the arrangement of forms within the city are outlined. Regional variations in the adoption of innovations and in constructional activity are considered and their significance for the forms that characterize different towns is discussed.
Article
Relatively little has been written about urban conservation in China, despite the fact that it is facing great challenges in both research and practice. It developed from a focus on individual sites and structures in the early 1920s to a concern with entire historic cities and sizeable historical areas within cities by the end of the twentieth century. A major defect, however, is that morphogenetic and analytical approaches are largely Jacking. Conservation of individual buildings is poorly connected to appreciation of the wider historico-geographical environments in which those buildings are located. A morphological approach of a type developed by M. R. G. Conzen, hitherto largely limited in its application to Europe, provides a means of rectifying this defect. This approach is illustrated by an examination of a historical area in Beijing. It demonstrates the way in which an understanding of urban areas as historico-geographical entities can strengthen the theoretical basis of conservation.
Article
It has been well established by urban morphologists that fringe-belt development is an integral part of the historico-geographical development of cities, but such development has attracted little attention from planners. Despite the physical distinctiveness of Birmingham's Edwardian fringe belt, decisionmaking about its development is largely site-by-site. Its survival as a concentric zone with a high incidence of green space partly reflects the fact that the character and occupation of the individual sites of which it is composed have become deeply rooted in the mental maps of those able to influence change. Awareness of the fringe belt as an entity is rare: few landowners, developers, or planners see individual sites as integrated parts of the historical and ecological development of the city as a whole. Initially, pressure to redevelop fringe-belt plots has come largely from landowners. The proposed changes are often at variance with the predilections of local planners. Planners have a sectional perception, strongly related to the land use of cities. For developers, an interest in sites other than the one to which their planning application relates is almost entirely limited to the effects that adjacent sites might have on the viability of their proposal. The integrative quality of the fringe-belt concept is an important aspect of its potential as a citywide planning construct.
Geography and Townscape Conservation
  • M R G Conzen
Conzen, M.R.G., 1975, “Geography and Townscape Conservation”, H. Uhlig, C. Lienau (Eds.), Anglo-German Symposium in Applied Geography, Giessen-Würzburg-München, Lenz, Giessen, pp.95-102
Die Deutsche Stadt: ein Beitrage zur Morphologie der Kulturlandschaft
  • W Geisler
Geisler, W., 1924, " Die Deutsche Stadt: ein Beitrage zur Morphologie der Kulturlandschaft ", Forschungen zur Deutschen Landes-und Volkskunde 22, Engelhorn, Stuttgart.
The Metrological Analysis of Early Modern Planned Towns Urban Historical Geography: Recent Progress in Britain and Germany
  • J Lafrenz
Lafrenz, J., 1988, " The Metrological Analysis of Early Modern Planned Towns ", D. Denecke, G. Shaw (Eds.), Urban Historical Geography: Recent Progress in Britain and Germany, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp.273-84.
Die Städtegründungen der Herzöge von Zähringen in Südwestdeutschland
  • E Hamm
Hamm, E., 1932, Die Städtegründungen der Herzöge von Zähringen in Südwestdeutschland, Freiburg, i.B..
Townscape Changes and Local Planning Management in City Conservation Areas
  • H J Barrett
Barrett, H.J., 1996, " Townscape Changes and Local Planning Management in City Conservation Areas ", unpublished PhD thesis, University of Birmingham.
Chinese Urban Form: A European Perspective The Planned City?
  • J W R Whitehand
  • K Gu
Whitehand, J.W.R., Gu, K., 2003, " Chinese Urban Form: A European Perspective ", A. Petruccioli, M. Stella, G. Strappa (Eds.), The Planned City?, Uniongrafica Corcelli, Bari, pp.731-6.
Die Geographische Gliederung von Gross-Berlin
  • H Louis
Louis, H., 1936, " Die Geographische Gliederung von Gross-Berlin ", H. Louis, W. Panzer (Eds), Landerkundliche Forschung: Krebs-Festschrift, Engelhorn, Stuttgart, pp.146-71.
Kunsthistorischer Atlas von
  • H Hassinger
Hassinger, H., 1916, Kunsthistorischer Atlas von Wien Österreichische Kunsttopographie 15 (Vienna).
The Role of History in Conzen's and Caniggia's Approaches to Urban Morphology
  • N Marzot
Marzot, N., 1998, " The Role of History in Conzen's and Caniggia's Approaches to Urban Morphology ", Urban Morphology, 2, 54-5.
Bemerkungen zur Siedlungsgeographie
  • O Schlüter
Schlüter, O., 1899a, " Bemerkungen zur Siedlungsgeographie ", Geographische Zeitschrift, 5, 65-84.
Deutsche Stadtanlagen
  • J Fritz
Fritz, J., 1894, " Deutsche Stadtanlagen ", Beilage zum Programm 520 des Lyzeums Strassburg, Heitz & Mündel, Strassburg.
Architectural Practice and Urban Morphology The Built Form of Western Cities: Essays for M.R.G. Conzen on the Occasion of his Eightieth Birthday
  • I T R Samuels
  • Slater
Samuels, I., 1990, " Architectural Practice and Urban Morphology ", T.R. Slater (Ed.), The Built Form of Western Cities: Essays for M.R.G. Conzen on the Occasion of his Eightieth Birthday, Leicester University Press, Leicester, pp.415-35.
Understanding Urban Form?
  • P Larkham
Larkham, P., 2005, " Understanding Urban Form? ", Urban Design, 93, 22-4.
English Medieval New Towns with Composite Plans: Evidence from the Midlands The built Form of Western Cities: Essays for M.R.G. Conzen on the Occasion of his Eightieth Birthday
  • T R Slater
Slater, T.R., 1990, " English Medieval New Towns with Composite Plans: Evidence from the Midlands ", T.R. Slater (Ed.), The built Form of Western Cities: Essays for M.R.G. Conzen on the Occasion of his Eightieth Birthday, Leicester University Press, Leicester, pp.60-82.