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Rigidly pre-planned business processes are applied in the field of production planning and product development to coordinate the collaboration of single enterprises. Each step in these workflows is precisely scheduled, accounting for external constraints such as availability of material, delivery dates, and efficiency of humans and machines. However, finally all these steps are performed, or at least controlled, by humans and it is likely that in human-operated environments failures happen, and misunderstandings require adaptations and ad-hoc interference to avoid delays in workflow executions. In this paper, we discuss the role of human interaction sup-port in traditional process-oriented environments, and present new approaches to dynamic involvement and interactions with collaboration partners. We highlight a typical use case where human experts are flexibly involved in certain steps of workflows that assist single tasks owners to solve emerging problems. In our approach, experts are discovered based on dynamically changing contextual constraints, such as problem areas and required expertises, and enable their fast involvement by using Web 2.0 communication facilities.
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... The notion of context appears in publications addressing the problem of virtual organization formation (Do, et al., 2000) (Gonga, et al., 2009). Examples of contextual information relevant to inter-organizational collaboration are (Skopik, et al., 2010): desires, goals and needs of collaborators, ability of service providers to satisfy service consumer requirements, or competences of interacting parties. To enhance inter-organizational collaboration, context analysis is said to be crucial for (Skopik, et al., 2010): ...
... Examples of contextual information relevant to inter-organizational collaboration are (Skopik, et al., 2010): desires, goals and needs of collaborators, ability of service providers to satisfy service consumer requirements, or competences of interacting parties. To enhance inter-organizational collaboration, context analysis is said to be crucial for (Skopik, et al., 2010): ...
Thesis
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The main idea of the Recommendation Method for Virtual Organizations (the RMV method), proposed in this dissertation, is automatic discovery of activity patterns and ad-hoc generation of recommendations for Virtual Organization (VO) collaborative process instances performed within a Service-Oriented Virtual Organization Breeding Environment (SOVOBE). An activity pattern is a set of partially ordered activities performed by collaborators that frequently occurs in many instances of VO collaborative processes. Activity patterns discovered in the RMV method combine two important perspectives on the process: control flow perspective and social perspective. Four ideas are the basis of the RMV method. First, VO collaborative event logs contain information about interactions among collaborators that appear during executions of various VO collaborative process instances. Second, contexts influence behavior of collaborators. Third, frequently repeatable collaborators’ behavioral patterns, called activity patterns, can be discovered through analysis of data stored in the VO collaborative events logs. Forth, discovered activity patterns can be evaluated as good or bad practices and then used in other instances of VO collaborative process instances to improve their efficiency. Table of contents 1. Introduction 9 2. Inter-Organizational Collaboration 14 2.1. Collaborative Processes 15 2.2. Virtual Organizations and their Breeding Environments 16 2.3. Partner Selection for Virtual Organizations 18 2.4. Basic Definitions 19 3. Computer Support for Collaborative Processes 23 3.1. Process-Aware Information Systems 23 3.2. Context-Aware Recommender Systems 29 4. Process Mining 43 4.1. Operational Support 44 4.2. Process Recommendations 47 4.3. Mining Behavioral Patterns in Collaboration 55 4.4. Event Log Formalization 57 5. Conceptual model of the RMV method 59 5.1. RMV Method Requirements 59 5.2. RMV Method Motivation 60 5.3. RMV Method Outline 62 5.4. RMV Method Formal Model 70 5.5. RMV Method Partner and Service Selection Technique 81 5.6. RMV Method Parameterization 118 5.7. RMV Method Computational Complexity 120 6. Integration of the RMV Method with the ErGo System 125 6.1. RMV Method Prototype Architecture 125 6.2. ErGo System Concept 127 6.3. ErGo Applications 129 6.4. Integration of the RMV Method with the ErGo system 134 6.5. RMV Method Real Case Evaluation 143 7. Conclusions 162 Bibliography 167 List of Figures 177 List of Tables 179 List of Listings 180 Appendix A. Service Protocols Formal Model 181 Appendix B. RMV Method Prototype Modules and Classes 188 Appendix C. Table of Symbols Used in Dissertation 208
... Para el caso de los roles, (Saidani y Nurcan, 2009) proponen un modelo de contexto para delegar funciones con base en las competencias y experiencia, ya que una operación puede ser ejecutada o no por un rol, dependiendo de los cambios en los requerimientos manifestados por los clientes del proceso. En relación con las interacciones de los roles (Skopik et al. 2010) proponen un modelo de contexto colaborativo, que permite el descubrimiento de personas en la organización a partir de restricciones de tipo contextual. Respecto a la ejecución de instancias del proceso, (Ghattas et al. 2009) presentan un modelo para el aprendizaje del contexto; su idea se basa en la ejecución de los modelos de proceso en todos los posibles contextos del negocio. ...
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Se propone una aproximación metodológica de la integración de procesos de negocio, a través de fases, herramientas y técnicas, utilizando la información relacionada con el contexto y eventos históricos. Se pretende ofrecer una solución bastante genérica para ser aplicada en diversos dominios de ejecución. El método empleado para alcanzar el objetivo se compone de las siguientes fases: i) especificación del objetivo de integración, ii) búsqueda y recuperación de procesos y iii) integración y ejecución. La validación del método es realizada mediante un caso de estudio orientado al proceso de producción del café Colombiano. Entre las principales conclusiones se tiene que durante la integración de procesos es indispensable brindar información detallada del contexto y de los eventos históricos pues resultan determinantes al momento de realizar la integración de procesos.
... Considerando las interacciones de los roles Skopik et. al en [19] proponen un modelo de contexto colaborativo, que permite el descubrimiento de personas en la organización a partir de restricciones de tipo contextual, de perfil y de relaciones personales, de esta manera es posible detectar experiencias con base en cambios en las restricciones. ...
Chapter
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INTRODUCCIÓN Un Proceso de Negocio o BP (Business Process) se define como la descripción lógica de una secuencia de actividades relacionadas directamente con el negocio, que una vez modeladas y automatizadas permiten agregar a sus productos o servicios [1]. Un modelo de proceso es la descripción abstracta de un proceso de negocio, donde se tiene en cuenta la secuencia de acti-vidades, los roles que intervienen, los datos, las funciones y la gestión del proceso; adicionalmente pueden ser codificadas mediante lenguajes técnicos apropiados como XML para su almacenamiento en repositorios de modelos de proceso [2]. Distintas situaciones se pueden presentar durante la ejecución de un proceso de negocio, para lo cual es necesario realizar adaptaciones; lo ante-rior conlleva a que se generen varias versiones del mismo proceso y deban ser almacenadas para un posterior uso. Un ejemplo es el caso que consiste en realizar una venta a un cliente corporativo, para lo cual la empresa solo está preparada para realizarlo con pequeñas y medianas empresa. Por lo tanto se requiere modificar el proceso que conlleva a generar una variación del mismo. *
... al, 2011] or web data environments [Perdana y Purnama, 2010]. The area of business processes has research that consider context awareness mainly to: (1) roles and responsibilities (2) execution domain variants (3) activities and information flows. Saidani and Nurcan (2009) propose a model of context to delegate tasks based on skills and experience. Skopik et al. (2010) propose a model of collaborative context that enables the discovery of people in the organization from restrictions related to contextual profile. Tavares et al. (2011) present an approach for managing the flexibility of business processes with contextual information collected from the environment. In the same way Mattos et al. (2012) p ...
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