Folia biologica (Kraków), vol. 53 (2005), Supplement
Comparison of Craniometric Features and Cranial Cavity Volume
in Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa forma domestica) and Wild Boar (Sus scrofa)
in View of Development
Accepted November 4, 2005
BRUDNICKI W. 2005. Comparison of craniometric features and cranial cavity volume in
domestic pig (Sus scrofa forma domestica) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) in view of
development. Folia biol. (Kraków) 53 (Suppl.): 25-30.
The research involved 130 boar and 104 domestic pig skulls. The skulls were divided into sex
and age groups and craniometric measurements were determined for each; the cranial cavity
volume was determined. In boars, in both age groups, a greater cranial cavity volume was
noted as compared with that of the domestic pig. The cranial cavity volume is correlated
mostly with the length of the neurocranium base.
Key words: Craniometric features, domestic pig, wild boar.
Witold BRUDNICKI, Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting University of Technol-
ogy and Agriculture, Bernardyñska 6, 85-039 Bydgoszcz, Poland.
The morphological structure and craniometric
features of skulls in different mammalian species
is described in many papers in the literature. Most
frequently these papers concern representatives of
carnivores or rodent orders. Research into the de-
velopment cycle of Micromammalia was initiated
by DEHNEL (1949). WASILEWSKI (1956) investi-
gated the volume of the cranial cavity in Microtus
described by RUPRECHT (1974). EMPEL (1958)
carried out observations of the cranial cavity vol-
PAGE (1980), REIG and RUPRECHT (1989) – into
In artiodactyla, craniometric features were de-
scribed by MYSTKOWSKA (1966) in red deer,
KOBRYÑCZUK and ROSKOSZ (1980) in European
pean bison and domestic cattle, and WUSTINGER
et al. (2005) in roe deer.
Data on craniometric features in representatives
Information on the cranial cavity in Suidae has
only been reported by ADAMETZ (1925), who de-
termined the anatomy of the cranial cavity and
differences in the anatomy of both forms. Accord-
ing to this author, a change in the structure of the
cranial cavity caused an increased pressure of
resulted in an increased rate of metabolic transfor-
mations and, foremost, an increased growth and
development rates of domesticated forms.
Taking the above into consideration, investiga-
tions were carried out involving extensive re-
search material on the cranial cavity volume in
Material and Methods
The research covered 130 skulls in boar and 104
skulls in domestic pig, WBP breed, obtained from
individuals of different sex and age. The animal
skulls were macerated by cooking, and then mus-
and immersed into 5% hydrogen peroxide for
The boar and pig skulls were divided into two
was determined based on the Brandt method fol-
lowing HABER (1969), while the age of pigs was
known from the breeding documentation.
Data that metrically compare the cranial cavity
volume in both forms, wild and domesticated, are
lacking. ADAMETZ (1925), however, provides
photographs of the sagittal section of both forms
and an applicable description, which suggested
that in boar the cranial cavity volume is greater.
This was confirmed by research on the body
weight and the cerebrum size, which was usually
greater in boar.
A comparison of the cranial cavity volume in
elongated in boar with a more developed visceral
part. Comparisons can be made only based on the
indices of relative volume, assuming the length of
is similar, as the basis. Additionally, it should be
of the braincase was most highly correlated with
the cranial cavity volume.
nial cavity volume in boar, both in piglets and in
than the corresponding values for the appropriate
age and body weight groups of domestic pig.
The present research confirms other observa-
volume and the cerebrum greater in size as com-
pared with closely related domestic animals.
For that reason the research into the cranial cav-
ity volume should be carried out as closely con-
nected with the skull size, mainly
cranium. This size is usually expressed by ade-
quate craniometric measurements. In order to il-
volume and the skull size, correlation matrixes
were calculated, showing the cranial cavity vol-
ume both in boar and domestic pig groups is
mostly correlated with the length of the braincase,
pecially in boar, the cranial cavity volume is
slightly correlated with the length of the cranial
cially older boars, with a clearly developed
In the porker group special attention should be
paid to two measurements, namely the length of
the base of the braincase and the height of the
braincase. The latter in the corresponding age
group in domestic pig always attained a higher
value, unlike in boar where, usually, the length of
the braincase was greater.
The correlation coefficient attained considera-
the angular height of the braincase, justifiable as
over this period of life in pigs extensive frontal si-
fore braincase growth is not directly related to an
increase in the height of the cranial cavity (Tables
5 & 6).
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