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In developing countries, poor geographical accessibility due to poor quality of roads and ineffective public facility locations has made a negative impact on rural residents' welfare. The lack of proper planning of these public infrastructures is also a major problem. The objective of this study is to investigate an integrated model to design an optimal rural road network considering financial and spatial constraints. The rural road network and new multi public facility locations are to be optimally designed simultaneously to achieve least total cost spent by government and residents. Having defined a specific objective and a set of constraints, an optimal rural road network configuration is determined endogenously by searching for an optimal combination value of the decision variables. The model is going to provide the decision makers with useful information of the rural infrastructure investment to explore the validity and effectiveness of capital allocation through the sensitivity analyses.

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This study describes the problem of finding suitable sites for additional health facilities in a rural area in Bangladesh. The objective is to improve the accessibility of people to the health care system given the existing set of facilities. As is frequently the case in developing countries, activities designed to develop and improve differing sectors of the infrastructure are poorly integrated and ill-coordinated. As a result, decision-makers may make independent and individual decisions about locating new service facilities. Often, as has been the case in Bangladesh, these decisions are taken at a relatively low level, by officers of local government or by elected leaders in a region, or by a combination of these. In the absence of any formal analysis and generation of alternatives, the final decision may be made on political or pragmatic considerations. As a result the decisions are often far from optimal. Ultimately, better health care will enhance many sectors of a regional economy, and so the decision about where to invest in new or better resources is important for reasons over and above that of providing health care for the population. In this paper, the role of location-allocation modelling in developing countries is considered, and the specific Bangladeshi problem is considered as a maximal covering location problem which is solved by an efficient heuristic method.
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There is considerable evidence that because of poor geographical accessibility, basic health care does not reach the majority of the population in developing nations. Despite the view that mathematical methods of locational analysis are too sophisticated for use in many of these nations, several studies have demonstrated the usefulness of such methods in the locational decision-making process. This paper reviews the use of location-allocation models in health service development planning in the developing nations. The purpose of this review is to examine the suitability of these methods for designing health care systems and their relevance to overall development problems in such countries.
In many developing countries, the poor geographical accessibility has made rural residents isolated from opportunities which improve quality of life. The objective of this study is to provide an integrated model for optimal road network and multi-type public facility location design considering budget constraint. The model is simulated with the real road network in puok district, Cambodia. It is found that investment in many small size facilities distributed among villages along with a provision of a good basic earth road seems to be the most cost-effective approach in the study area.
Public facilities planning normally applies a planning standard, such as how many hectares of open space are required for a certain number of people in a district. But planning standards only specify the area required and seldom specify where the public facility should be located. A location-allocation model that attempts to find the best sites for facilities is a more useful tool for public facilities planning. Although its application has been limited by the availability of data, even this has changed with the availability of land information systems in many cities. Accordingly, this paper discusses the integration of GIS and a location-allocation model for public facilities planning, using open space planning in Hong Kong as an example. It demonstrates how such a spatial decision support system can provide a set of solution spaces on which decision makers can focus their discussions and make collective choices. It can also enable decision makers to have a better view of the problem and to test different scenarios by varying the objectives, constraints, and parameters of the models.
Network location models have been used extensively for siting public and private facilities. In this paper, we investigate a model that simultaneously optimizes facility locations and the design of the underlying transportation network. Motivated by the simple observation that changing the network topology is often more cost-effective than adding facilities to improve service levels, the model has a number of applications in regional planning, distribution, energy management, and other areas. The model generalizes the classical simple plant location problem. We show how the model can be solved effectively. We then use the model to analyze two potential transportation planning scenarios. The fundamental question of resource allocation between facilities and links is investigated, and a detailed sensitivity analysis provides insight into the model's usefulness for aiding budgeting and planning decisions. We conclude by identifying promising research directions.
Contemporary methodologies are not conducive to requirements of the district level transportation planning. Therefore this paper proposes a computer-aided methodology for planning and prioritizing district transportation networks. The methodology has two versions, one for developed areas and another for underdeveloped areas. Establishing interactive relationships among transport networks, costs and benefits are unique features of the methodology designed for developed areas. A simplified version of the methodology is introduced for underdeveloped areas. The GIS supported and spreadsheet based methodology is useful for planning the district level road networks in Nepal and other developing countries.
The impetus for this research paper stems from the current deterioration of the rural road networks, and the limited research on the cost-benefit impacts of alternative rural road investment strategies in the U.S.A. With the co-operation of the Minnesota DOT and Polk County DOT officials, a large size and sparse structure rural road transport network in NW Polk County is used for the evaluation of the existing and proposed road network design and investment strategies. Deterministic and probabilistic traffic simulation models are evaluated in practice, and a set of selected cost-efficient rural road management strategies is identified.
In this paper we work on a multi-level network optimization problem that integrates into the same model important aspects of: (i) discrete facility location, (ii) topological network design, and (iii) network dimensioning. Potential applications for the model are discussed, stressing its growing importance. The multi-level network optimization problem treated is defined and a mathematical programming formulation is presented. We make use of a branch-and-bound algorithm based on Lagrangean relaxation lower bounds to introduce some new powerful auxiliary algorithms to exactly solve the problem. We conduct a set of computational experiments that indicate the quality of the proposed approach.
The paper first critically reviews past and current practices in how rural road investments are selected. An attempt is then made to develop an operational approach that is grounded in a public economics framework in which efficiency and equity concerns are inseparable, information is incomplete in important ways, and resources are limited. A key problem addressed is that a potentially important, though unknown, share of the benefits to the poor from rural roads cannot be measured in monetary terms. The proposed method aims to identify places where poverty, inaccessibility and economic potential are high. The method is illustrated for Vietnam.
The interaction between accessibility and rural development is a subject of current concern. The degree of accessibility determines the ability of individuals to participate in development and other social activities. The paper describes the development of a numerical method for quantifying accessibility-benefits suitable for application in developing countries. The methodology provides an integrated approach to analysing accessibility by considering all constraints faced by individuals, particularly their income. The method can be used to evaluate different accessibility-enhancing strategies, and to quantify the benefits derived by different groups of individuals under various states of socio-economic development in rural areas of developing countries. The application of the accessibility-benefits model is demonstrated using two hypothetical case studies featuring the effects of improving intermediate means of transport and improving temporal strategies. The purpose of the case studies is to demonstrate how different accessibility-enhancing strategies can be related to the key model parameters, and to show the likely magnitude of the benefits, in monetary terms, that can be attained by individuals with different income levels.
The statistics are stark: an estimated 10·5 million children aged under 5 years die every year from largely preventable conditions. That is a number roughly equivalent to the entire population of Portugal. Some 40% of these deaths occur within the first month of life. About half a million women die each year as a result of pregnancy most during delivery or in the first few days thereafter. The death toll is only part of the overall disease burden. Hundreds of millions more women and children are undernourished have an illness or a long-term disability. The two Lancet series on child and neonatal survival published in 2003 and 2005 reminded us of these harsh realities and helped galvanise international attention. If current trends continue the 60 countries with the highest under-5 mortality rates will fail by a wide margin to reach the Millennium Development Goal (MDG-4) of reducing under-5 mortality rates by two-thirds by 2015. (excerpt)
In developing countries, including India, the role of the private sector in the provision of basic healthcare services is gradually expanding, since the public sector provides limited services and covers only limited areas. Using location-allocation models (LAM), this paper (1) examines the changing geographic access to and locational efficiency of basic public healthcare vis-à-vis private healthcare services in two districts located in northwestern part of India, and (2) interrogates the factors that govern their geographic accessibility and locational-efficiency. Although this research confirms regional inequalities in geographic accessibility and locational efficiency of both public and private healthcare services in the selected districts, the locational efficiency of private health services is significantly lower than that of public health services. This paper further demonstrates the use of LAM for new site identification (keeping the existing healthcare sites intact) that will, in the future, improve locational efficiency of these services. This paper not only recommends improved geographic access to both public and private health services and their enhanced complementary role, but also stresses the need to evaluate geographic access from the service-users' perspective and the use of more realistic data on demand and supply in future research. The findings of this paper can be extended to areas with similar geographic settings, and socio-economic and demographic conditions.
The problem of health facilities location is explored under a mathematical optimization approach. Several models are developed for the location of a generalized health facility system in a region in a manner that the selected criteria are optimized. Locational criteria are structured as a hierarchy of social, economic and political attributes and defined analytically using economic and utility theory. A planning framework, based on the models developed, is presented to aid the health planner in the formulation of health facility location decisions.
We introduce a combined facility location/network design problem in which facilities have constraining capacities on the amount of demand they can serve. This model has a number of applications in regional planning, distribution, telecommunications, energy management, and other areas. Our model includes the classical capacitated facility location problem (CFLP) on a network as a special case. We present a mixed integer programming formulation of the problem, and several classes of valid inequalities are derived to strengthen its LP relaxation. Computational experience with problems with up to 40 nodes and 160 candidate links is reported, and a sensitivity analysis provides insight into the behavior of the model in response to changes in key problem parameters.
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