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... The default land use/land cover (LU/LC) input data for LOTOS-EUROS were derived from the Global Land Cover (GLC2000) project [48], which includes 23 categories consistent with the Land Cover Classification System of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) classification. For South America, the mapping of these categories at spatial resolutions of 1 km x 1 km was done in [49], with contributions from some regional experts based on multi-resolution satellite data. In this work, the LU/LC data was updated with the 2009 Land Cover Climate Change Initiative (CCI) dataset [50], with 38 categories at a horizontal resolution of 300 m x 300 m. Figure 4 compares the default and updated LU/LC models for Aburrá Valley. ...
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This chapter book presents Medellín Air qUality Initiative or MAUI Project; it tells a brief story of this teamwork, their scientific and technological directions. The modeling work focuses on the ecosystems and human health impact due to the exposition of several pollutants transported from long-range places and deposited. For this objective, the WRF and LOTOS-EUROS were configurated and implemented over the región of interest previously updating some input conditions like land use and orography. By other side, a spinoff initiative named SimpleSpace was also born during this time, developing, through this instrumentation branch a very compact and modular low-cost sensor to deploy in new air quality networks over the study domain. For testing this instrument and find an alternative way to measure pollutants in the vertical layers, the Helicopter In-Situ Pollution Assessment Experiment HIPAE misión was developed to take data through the overflight of a helicopter over Medellín. From the data obtained from the Simple units and other experiments in the payload, a citogenotoxicity analysis quantify the cellular damage caused by the exposition of the pollutants.
... These wetlands not only contribute disproportionately to landscape-level diversity (Flinn et al., 2008), but are also complex ecosystems that are historically and ecologically related to both adjacent uplands (Ribeiro et al., 2013), as well as distant wetland areas (Lima and Ribeiro, 2011). Endemic species are scarce, and communities typically consist of widespread taxa, reaching their maximum level of diversity and abundance (Eva et al., 2002;Flinn et al., 2008;Albert and Reis, 2011;Lima and Ribeiro, 2011;Dagosta and de Pinna, 2019). Such distributional and macroecological attributes do not necessarily mean present-day hydrological connections, but past and eventually ephemeral connections along adjacent areas, including lowlands and uplands, over geological time scales. ...
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An alternative hypothesis concerning the paleoecological and paleoenvironmental depositional conditions of the Crato Konservat-Lagerstätte (CKL), Crato Formation, Aptian, NE Brazil, one of the most extraordinary Gondwana fossil sites, is proposed. Following an actualistic approach, the ecology of extant relatives of the most abundant and diverse fossil groups recorded in the CKL (i.e., vascular plants, arthropods, fishes, and tetrapods) is considered. Data is based on an extensive literature review followed by a re-examination of recently collected fossils. This approach allowed a detailed appraisal of the stratigraphic/ecological distribution of the main fossil groups preserved in the CKL. Plant and animal groups are recorded in three main stratigraphic intervals, named Intervals I–III in ascending order. Most fossils are to be considered autochthonous to parautochthonous and have been preserved in distinct stages of base-level fluctuations within a shallow lacustrine depositional system, subject to periodic flooding in large, depressed areas. Exceptional preservation in such environments was mediated by microbially-induced processes (i.e., microbial mat entombment), mostly in the coastal areas of the alkaline lake. Based on the distinct sedimentary facies and autecological attributes of dominant paleo-bioindicators, a new paleoenvironmental model for the CKL is proposed, encompassing a seasonal, semi-arid, shallow lacustrine wetland. Faunal and floral content were ecologically arranged in long-lasting aquatic zones, surrounded by periodically flooded mesophytic ecotones and outer xeric habitats, as in the modern alkaline lake Chad in Africa. Our data show the relevance of multiproxy analyses (i.e., paleontological, sedimentological, geochemical, and stratigraphic) of exceptional fossil sites for assessing paleoenvironmental conditions in depositional settings subject to continuous base-level changes, such as those existing in complex, present-day wetland ecosystems. The recognition of key parameters in ancient wetlands is of great importance concerning the formation of non-marine Konservat- Lagerstätten in the geological record.
... 植被图绘制 [47] . 随着卫星遥感影像空间分辨率的不断 [40] 印度植被图 1:5万 植被型/群系 100 卫星影像自动分类 1997~2012年 Roy等人 [41] 中国科学: 生命科学 物异谱"和"同谱异物"现象普遍存在 [48] . ...
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Vegetation maps serve as the key source information for ecological studies, biodiversity conservation, and vegetation management and restoration. The latest version of the Vegetation Map of China (1:1000000) was generated in the 1980s. Since then, the vegetation distribution pattern of China has changed dramatically during these 40 years. Classification errors and time lag have limited the applications of Vegetation Map of China (1:1,000,000), and it is in great demand to make the new generation of national vegetation map to fulfill the needs of ecological studies and government policy making. The development of satellite remote sensing technology provides a practical and economical approach to achieve vegetation mapping in large scale. In this article, we reviewed methods of vegetation mapping at national scale and the progress of satellite remote sensing technology on vegetation classification and mapping, and summarized the current bottleneck in vegetation mapping from satellite images. Further, we introduced a vegetation mapping strategy through the combination of crowdsource sample collection, object-based segmentation, and deep learning techinique from multi-source data. Over 50 taxonomists across China participated in the validation and calibration process through a self-developed online mapping system.
... Only the replacement component of the Baselga's framework (betaSim) is independent of richness difference, while the parallel components F I G U R E 1 (a) Geographic extension of the Amazon forest domain in South America (adapted from Veloso et al., 1991 andWWF, 2018) and (b) the spatial distribution of the 301 studied occurrence assemblages (shown as black dots). (c) Brazilian vegetation types, adapted from Eva et al. (2002) to the classification scheme proposed by Oliveira-Filho (2009) and (d) Ecoregions2017©Resolve map of ecoregions (modified from Dinerstein et al., 2017) for the Amazon forest domain limits (see Figures S1 and S2 in Appendix S1 to check the complete legends) [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary. com] introduced in the competing approaches are mathematically constrained by richness difference (Baselga & Leprieur, 2015). ...
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The Amazon forest covers 7.5 million Km2 in nine countries, hosts 25% of the global biodiversity and is a major contributor to the biogeochemical and climatic functioning of the Earth system. Despite its global importance, a regionalization of the Amazon tree flora is still lacking. Clear and data‐driven delimitation of subregions is important for macroecological studies, to the identification of metacommunities, and is a requisite for conservation planning. We aimed at identifying and mapping plant species subregions and investigated their relationships with environmental, historical, and human correlates. We provide the first woody plant regionalization of the entire Amazon forest using a data‐driven approach based on assemblage composition patterns. We compiled data on woody species composition from 301 assemblages based on species occurrences. We then used unconstrained ordination, interpolation and clustering techniques to identify and map discrete woody subregions. Hierarchical clustering analysis was conducted in order to investigate the relationships between the identified subregions. We used multinomial logistic regression model and deviance partitioning to investigate the influence of environmental, historical, and human factors on subregions distribution. We identified 13 woody subregions in the entire Amazon forest. The hierarchical subregion classification showed a broad Andean‐Cratonic east‐west division. Variation in subregions were explained jointly by human factors and spatial structure followed by environmental factors and spatial structure combined. Synthesis. Our woody plant subregions differed from WWF ecoregions and physiognomic‐based maps, highlighting the importance of basing regionalizations on taxon‐specific groups and confirming that vegetation maps should not be used as proxies to plant diversity subregions. Our findings also confirm the need for multiple and extensive protected areas in the Amazon forest. The relevance of current climate factors in our study alerts to a profound impact that climate change could have on the spatial organization of the Amazon flora.
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Climate change is currently considered one key threat to biodiversity. Species with a restricted distribution possibly will be more affected than those with wide ranges. Climate change can potentially affect both herbivores and their host plants and reduce their geographical ranges. The nature and intensity of their responses, however, may not necessarily match. We investigated the synergistic effects of climate change on two Neotropical butterfly species and their respective host plants at the end of twenty-first century. The species selected contrast in distribution extent, feeding habits and conservation status: Battus polystictus is widespread, oligophagous and common and Parides ascanius has a restricted distribution, is monophagous and is listed as vulnerable in the IUCN red list. Maps of the potential distribution of the butterflies and their host plants, as well as maps showing the changes in the ranges, in overlap area and direction of shifts were produced. Under forecasted climate change, all ranges and interaction areas decreased and the impacts were proportional to the intensity of change in future scenarios, either when compared all together or pairwise (p < 0.001). Based in our results estimation of climatically suitability, the monophagous butterfly with restricted distribution did suffer more severely these effects than the widespread generalist species. We did not anticipate, however, the possible strength of the predicted effects. Under the conditions modelled, P. ascanius would probably find no suitable conditions for occurrence, irrespectively of its host plant, and might go extinct. B. polystictus, on the other hand, suffered marked decreases in suitable area (46% for RCP4.5 and 91% for RCP8.5) and dramatic southward shifts (> 1439 km for RCP4.5 and > 1956 km for RCP8.5) on its range. This effect is further worsening because although most host plants are also much affected by the changes, the shift in their ranges is on average much smaller and each species responded in subtly different ways to the changing conditions, so that most of their future range may be spatially incompatible with the B. polystictus. We propose that the extinction risk of P. ascanius should be adjusted to critically endangered and point that species interactions and climate change must be accounted for in conservation planning. Implications for insect conservation The assessment carried out in this study contributes to the knowledge of climate change scenarios of butterfly species correlated with their host plants until the end of this century. These results can propose priority sites for conservation efforts like contribute to change status of P. ascanius to critically endangered, actually listed as vulnerable on the IUCN red list.
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Over the last 50 years, studies have shown a decline in the use of mountain lands, a phenomenon termed land abandonment. We investigate the causal mechanisms of land use change in a mountain catchment important for regional water supplies in the southwestern Cape of South Africa. Uniquely, we include nature-based recreational land use types typically excluded from land abandonment studies. We repeated a structured questionnaire originally conducted with landowners 38 years previously and analysed orthoimages from 1948, 1972 and 2014. To identify and contextualise causal mechanisms of change we used thematic analysis and generated narratives from in-depth interviews with landowners. The land use system in 1948 and 1972 was dominated by livestock-based, subsistence agriculture and small-scale farming. This transitioned to agricultural intensification on the lowlands and small portions of the mountains and the utilisation of mountains for non-economic nature-based recreation and ecotourism. The use of frequent small, low intensity-controlled fires was prevalent in the past. More recently, fires have been actively suppressed resulting in the build-up of biomass and the development of infrequent, extensive, high-intensity wildfires. Land use change in the mountains was driven primarily by socio-economic drivers, including socio-economic benefits related to globalisation and economic growth, and not by concerns over land degradation or resource depletion. Our findings support evidence that shows that people’s responses to economic opportunities drive local determinants of land use change and highlights the importance of perceptions in driving land use transitions. We show that existing models of land abandonment are likely overly deterministic in that they do not consider social and cultural factors that may cause a landowner to continue using their land for semi-economic or non-economic reasons. While there is merit in large-scale remote sensing studies, we emphasise the importance of using mixed remote sensing and social science methods for informing models of land use change.
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Accurate characterization of tropical moist forest changes is needed to support conservation policies and to quantify their contribution to global carbon fluxes more effectively. We document, at pantropical scale, the extent and changes (degradation, deforestation, and recovery) of these forests over the past three decades. We estimate that 17% of tropical moist forests have disappeared since 1990 with a remaining area of 1071 million hectares in 2019, from which 10% are degraded. Our study underlines the importance of the degradation process in these ecosystems, in particular, as a precursor of deforestation, and in the recent increase in tropical moist forest disturbances (natural and anthropogenic degradation or deforestation). Without a reduction of the present disturbance rates, undisturbed forests will disappear entirely in large tropical humid regions by 2050. Our study suggests that reinforcing actions are needed to prevent the initial degradation that leads to forest clearance in 45% of the cases.
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There is growing consensus that land degradation assessments should occur at local to regional scales, as global assessments fail to capture the complexity of land degradation processes, and how they manifest in different social‐ecological contexts. We have tested a statistically rigorous method for regional land degradation assessment in drylands, using fuzzy classification theory and techniques, that results in the creation of a habitat condition archetype for the Namaqualand Hardeveld bioregion of the Succulent Karoo biome in South Africa. The methodology initially groups field data into classes based on known indicators of land degradation, before predicting observed field cover with 16 remote sensing variables, derived from both Landsat 8 and Sentinel‐2A satellite data. Using fuzzy classification techniques, projections of field cover from the resulting model are combined with variables representing a potential change in cover to produce a map of the habitat condition of the bioregion. Approximately 17% of the bioregion had habitat condition values less than one standard deviation smaller than the mean and could therefore be considered degraded. To provide context, this map is presented with potential drivers of change for the bioregion. The map, and accompanying drivers of change, are ultimately presented in a Google Earth Engine app for easy interpretation and use. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Mauritia flexuosa dominated palm swamps are an important forest resource covering over 30,000 km2 across the Amazon basin. In Ecuadorean Amazonia, Mauritia flexuosa, a dioecious and arborescent palm species, forms small and isolated populations or large and dense stands on poorly drained soils. How these populations are genetically interconnected and how genetic diversity varies between cohorts of different ages remains little studied although they are important for conservation of these ecosystems. The genetic structure of Mauritia flexuosa was studied in five natural stands using eight microsatellite loci and two cohorts (seedling and adults). In addition, age structure and sex ratio within the stands were assessed using transects. The age structure of the studied Mauritia flexuosa stands is represented by a high number of seedlings (mean = 1,153.6/ha) and adults (mean = 563.2/ha), with a sex ratio favoring female individuals (1.42:1). These stands are also characterized by a fine-scale genetic structure, high observed heterozygosity (mean: HO seedlings =0.52; HO adults =0.52), high inbreeding (mean: FIS seedlings = 0.26; FIS adults = 0.26), low number of migrants (Nm =0.29), strong genetic differentiation (mean: pairwise RST/ D-values seedlings = 0.08/ 0.74; mean RST/D-values adults = 0.17/ 0.76), and an average effective population size (Ne) of 191.42 individuals. No intergenerational genetic variation was detected between seedlings and adults. We suggest that the high genetic diversity and inbreeding as well as the strong differentiation among stands of these populations could be explained, at least partially, by a low genetic connectivity among populations. Destructive harvesting of its fruits and defaunation will be major threats to Mauritia flexuosa populations in the future.
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This paper presents, at regional level, a physionomic-floristic description of extra-andean Patagonia. We analysed the information with the greatest regional synthesis obtained in the last decades, specially the one that provided cartographic data. As a result of this synthesis, phytogeographical districts were subdivided, ecotones were delimited and boundaries were either confirmed or modified. The result is a map where we propose 16 physionomic-floristic units: 12 included in the six districts of the Patagonian province, two in the Monte province and two in ecotones. Existing phytosociological information has been added to the description of each unit.
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