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Is" as good as face-to-face" as good as it gets

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Abstract

We are constantly being asked to compare distance education to traditional education. But by striving to make distance education "as good as" face-to-face education what are we overlooking or sacrificing? In this paper we explore these issues by first reviewing background information from the literature about new teaching theories, methods and technology. We'll also look at the impact of online learning and whether it can support, or even expand, the new teaching theories and strategies, based on research. We'll then get a general overview of quality distance education principles and guidelines currently in use, finally addressing the question of whether our evaluation methods and questions serve to free or limit the potential of online learning, perpetuating "doing things differently or doing different things" [1].

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... Overall, Solimeno et al. (2008) confirm from their findings (n=170) that the collaborative online learning environment is an effective means to attaining high quality education. McDonald (2002) explains this by stating that the social distance apparent in online learning tends to promote discussions that would otherwise be inhibited, and so online engagement enhances social interaction amongst classmates. ...
... Deka and McMurry (2006) highlight this same point in their findings and suggest increasing flexibility in course completion targets as one of the solutions. McDonald (2002) and Barron (2003) also highlight the extra time that may be required to progress online courses. Online learning, they argue, is less responsive than face-to-face based course experiences and may inhibit some students who are not confident enough to articulate their views and ideas to a discussion board for their peer group to examine and question. ...
Article
Online education has developed over the past two decades, initially in response to a desire to provide distance learning opportunities at degree level for remote communities. The University of the Highlands and Islands [UHI] in Scotland has been at the forefront of this. It has been possible to gain degrees using wholly online learning and teaching processes since 1995. In recent years, institutions across the globe have developed learning materials for online learning in order to both supplement the teaching and learning in face-to-face classes and to enable students to undertake entire programmes using online communications. The most recent developments have been in the advent of MOOCS and SPOCS. This paper seeks to (1) give an overview of the past 20 years of developments in online education, (2) provide a detailed review of recent research relating to standards, satisfaction and effectiveness of online education, (3) consider the costs and benefits across a range of definitions of online education and (4) examine the primary challenges, conflicts and opportunities for online distance learning and teaching in relation to the issues faced by students, educators and institutions.
... Online education provides an opportunity for new development and understanding in teaching and learning (Foster & Carneavale, 2007;McDonald, 2002). There are three principal forces driving online initiatives: accessibility, flexibility, and cost-effectiveness (Oliver, 1999;Zhao, 2003). ...
... There are three principal forces driving online initiatives: accessibility, flexibility, and cost-effectiveness (Oliver, 1999;Zhao, 2003). Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is able to facilitate interactive, authentic, self-directed learning opportunities where social, affective and cognitive benefits of peer collaboration for critical thinking and active participation could be developed (McDonald, 2002). ...
... In keeping with McDonald (2002), research on videoconferencing should address how to enhance video-based collaborative working and learning, rather than to prove that video-mediated communication can be as good as face-to-face communication. Prior research that attempted to reveal the differences relied on notions such as social presence (Short, Williams, & Christie, 1976), cuelessness (Rutter & Robinson, 1981), and media richness (Daft & Lengel, 1984). ...
... As concluded earlier, support that meets the requirements of face-to-face communication is consequently the best result. In accordance with McDonald (2002) it can be assumed that innovation is overlooked or sacrificed. ...
Book
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Like tango dancers who cannot start their dance without a certain amount of shared understanding, design teams cannot begin their work. The combination of distance and a strong reliance on technology makes understanding between dispersed team members less than obvious. This book reports on distributed teams that collaborate on complex design tasks and communicate by means of videoconferencing. The goal is to enhance the potential of distributed teams by providing proper support. For this, a collaborative design approach is advocated. The underlying assumption is that proper support invites team members to learn and work together – similar to the right tango music that evokes the right mood and right tempo for a certain moment. The research concentrated on the assessment of collaborative learning and shared understanding in video-based communication and how it can be supported. It is concluded that not technology is the most obtrusive factor for the success of virtual teams. The most interfering factor is the perceived distance that seems to hamper many distributed team members. However, just as tango couples, distributed team members have the potential to engage in the spirit of collaboration. When support is directed to trigger this spirit, barriers for collaborative learning and shared understanding can easily be removed.
... Despite the increase in enrollments in online courses, many people remain skeptical of online learning (Allen, Seaman, Lederman, & Jaschik, 2012;Bidwell, 2013;Jaschik & Lederman, 2014;Parker, Lenhart, & Moore, 2011;Public Agenda, 2013;Samuels, 2013). They question whether online learning is as good as face-to-face instruction (Allen et al., 2012;McDonald, 2002)specifically, whether students learn as much in online courses as in face-to-face courses. This skepticism has fueled hundreds of "comparison studies" seeking to equate learning outcomes between face-to-face and online learning (Bernard et al., 2004;Meyer, 2002Meyer, , 2004Phipps & Merisotis, 1999). ...
... Many researchers have come to the conclusion that comparison studies like these are a waste of time because researchers cannot control for extraneous variables that may impact student achievement (Bernard et al., 2004;Lockee, Moore, & Burton, 2001;Meyer, 2004;Phipps & Merisotis, 1999;), instructors teach differently online (Palloff & Pratt, 1999;Salmon, 2000;Wiley, 2002), and this line of inquiry typically places face-to-face instruction inappropriately as the gold standard (Duffy & Kirkley, 2004;McDonald, 2002). ...
Article
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The concept of the massive, open, online course (MOOC) is not new, but high-profile initiatives have moved them into the forefront of higher education news over the past few years. Members of institutions of higher education have mixed feelings about MOOCs, ranging from those who want to offer college credit for the successful completion of MOOCs to those who fear MOOCs are the end of the university as we know it. We set forth to investigate the quality of MOOCs by using the Quality Matters quality control framework. In this paper, we present the results of our inquiry, with a specific focus on the implications the results have on day-today practice of designing online courses.
... Contrary to research that explains the advantages of synchronous platforms, there are studies that support the advantages of asynchronous platforms. Many researchers believe that online asynchronous interaction is more useful than online synchronous and traditional face-to-face interaction (Berge 1999;McDonald 2002;Koory 2003;Morse 2003;Wang 2004;Johnson et al. 2005). According to the literature, online asynchronous discussion has a positive impact on learning in traditional classrooms (Andresen 2009). ...
... This study found that Experimental Group II, which employed online collaboration tools with asynchronous techniques, achieved greater academic success than Experimental Group I, which made use of online collaboration tools with synchronous techniques. Similarly, Berge (1999) and McDonald (2002) support the opinion that online synchronous discussion is less effective than online asynchronous discussion. In contrast to the results of this research, academic success in our study was equal in both synchronous and asynchronous online platforms. ...
Article
Full-text available
The main purpose of this paper is to develop and integrate collaboration tools into an educational setting and examine the effect of online collaborative learning tools on students' academic performance. Synchronous and asynchronous techniques of online collaborative learning tools and different models are used for this paper. One technique focuses on creating work samples and sharing them with friends; the other focuses on correcting the samples that friends created. This research is quasi-experimental, and a final test-control group trial model was utilized. The working group for the research included one control and three experimental groups, all consisting of seventh-grade middle school students. The experiments were carried out by four collaborating student groups. One of the main findings of this paper is that the online collaborative tools can be an alternative to face-to-face collaboration. In addition, the paper demonstrates that the students who corrected the mistakes of others were more successful than the students that prepared samples; however, there is no statistical support for this outcome.
... Despite the increase in enrollments in online courses, many people remain skeptical of online learning (Allen, Seaman, Lederman, & Jaschik, 2012;Bidwell, 2013;Jaschik & Lederman, 2014;Parker, Lenhart, & Moore, 2011;Public Agenda, 2013;Samuels, 2013). They question whether online learning is as good as face-to-face instruction (Allen et al., 2012;McDonald, 2002)specifically, whether students learn as much in online courses as in face-to-face courses. This skepticism has fueled hundreds of "comparison studies" seeking to equate learning outcomes between face-to-face and online learning (Bernard et al., 2004;Meyer, 2002Meyer, , 2004Phipps & Merisotis, 1999). ...
... Many researchers have come to the conclusion that comparison studies like these are a waste of time because researchers cannot control for extraneous variables that may impact student achievement (Bernard et al., 2004;Lockee, Moore, & Burton, 2001;Meyer, 2004;Phipps & Merisotis, 1999;), instructors teach differently online (Palloff & Pratt, 1999;Salmon, 2000;Wiley, 2002), and this line of inquiry typically places face-to-face instruction inappropriately as the gold standard (Duffy & Kirkley, 2004;McDonald, 2002). ...
Conference Paper
The concept of the massive, open, online course (MOOC) is not new, but recent high-profile initiatives have moved them into the forefront of higher education news. The value of MOOCs, however, is yet to be seen. The purpose of this presentation is to report the results of a qualitative study conducted to investigate the design of MOOCs. Analyses of course documents were performed to evaluate the quality of these courses.
... There exists a large body of literature on instructional approaches to distance and online learning, with strong support for creating an active, engaged learning environment to enhance student learning (see Lim, 2004; Quitadamo & Brown, 2001. Instructional materials can engage and motivate students when they are userfriendly, interactive, and problemoriented (McDonald, 2002). McDonald also asserts that the distance education environment is fertile ground for developing new instructional practices, and further, that distance education may be able to extend learning in ways that traditional, facetoface education cannot. ...
... Based on a careful review of existing literature, Jowitt finds 10 main advantages and benefits in relation to educational podcasts. These advantages are (Jowitt, 2008): 1. Portability, flexibility and convenience (Belanger, 2005, Campbell, 2005, Graham, 2005) 2. Ability to asynchronously listen whenever, wherever on whatever device is chosen (Balleste, Rosenberg, & Smith-Butler, 2006, DeVoe, 2006, McDonald, 2002) 3. Multitasking while moving about, exercising and travelling (Campbell, 2005) 4. Access easily via the internet, at the time of need and outside normal opening hours (Belanger, 2005, Eash, 2006, Stephens, 2005) 5. Ability to repeatedly listen (Belanger, 2005, DeVoe, 2006) 6. Playback speed can be altered (beneficial for foreign students) (Stephens, 2005) 7. Subscriptions automatically load into the podcatcher (Balleste, Rosenberg & Smith-Butler, 2006, Graham, 2005) 8. Choose what you want to listen to (Abram, 2006, Eash, 2006) 9. Suits auditory learners (Eash, 2006) 10. Enhances services to distance and online students (Ralph & Olsen, 2007) It is important to note, that the list is based on advantages and benefits that in the different studies are seen as justifying the technology with regards to teaching and learning. ...
... In CMC conferences, the interaction is accomplished textually, whereas transcripts are extracts and reconstructions of conversational interactions that omit or selectively summarize contextual and extra-textual information (Korenman & Wyatt, 1996). Text-based conversation online is a new type of discursive interaction that is diff e rent from face-to-face classroom discussion, needing examination as interesting in its own right (Lapadat, 2002;McDonald, 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
Much has been written about the promise of online learning environments for higher education, and there is a rapidly growing body of research examining the nature of learning and interaction in such courses. This article presents a discourse analysis of an interactive, text-based, online, graduate education course, designed and taught according to constructivist principles. Qualitative analysis was used to describe the discourse devices and strategies that participants used in order to establish and maintain community, to create coherent academic discussions, and to negotiate agreements and disagreements over the length of the course. The results have implications for our understanding of how topical and social cohesion are established in online discussion, and demonstrate how participants use patterns of agreement and disagreement rhetorically to persuade and learn from others while also protecting the trust and inclusiveness of the online community.
... The emergence of distance education in the form of online or Web-based delivery has taken this challenge further and has added to its complexity and its ambiguity. Numerous studies over the past few years have sought to affirm that distance education is equally as effective (if not better) as face-to-face (F2F) learning (i.e., Hiltz, Coppola, Rotter, Turoff, & Benbunan-Fich, 2000;McDonald, 2002;Shachar & Neumann, 2003;Swan, 2003). Many studies have shown that there is no significant difference in the learning outcomes that occur in a distance environment versus F2F (i.e., Aragon, Shaik, and Palma-Rivas, 2000;Fallah and Ubell, 2000;Freeman & Capper, 1999;Russell, 1999;Wetzel, Radtke, & Stern, 1994). ...
Article
The paper proposes the student-centered, project-based assessment system as an alternative way of assessing complex learning tasks. It analyzes and identifies some of the implementation challenges in applying this alternative assessment system in the face-to-face (F2F) learning environments in order to explain how and in what ways such implementation challenges influence the adoption of alternative and performance-based assessment systems in F2F courses. The paper then argues that online learning is a better learning environment for assessing complex learning outcomes and for implementing alternative and performance-based assessment systems. It proposes a design framework for applying such an assessment system in online courses and demonstrates application of the model for designing, developing, and implementing alternative assessment system in online learning environments using an online course as an example. Finally, the paper reports some of the enablers and barriers in implementing the model and shares the lessons that learned. KEYWORDS Performance Assessment; Assessment in Online Learning; Assessment of Complex Learning.
... It can also improve educational outcomes and enhance the quality of instruction. Students in this form of instruction can participate in the educational process anytime and anywhere, thus, overcoming traditional barriers of time and place (McDonald, 2002). They can also study independently online and interact with the instructor and/or fellow students on an area of concern through online communication (Ryan, 2001). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The primary purpose of this study was to determine the level of internet use as it varies by gender among university students in Jordan. A random sample of 278 students from one university located in the Northern part of Jordan responded to a valid and reliable instrument developed by the researcher. Results of the study indicated that university students under study experienced excessive use of the internet as indicated by the overall mean value and the results indicated that the university students under excessive use of the internet neglect household responsibilities and neglect exams and courses to spend more time online. Results also indicated that there were no significant differences in the excessive use of the internet based on differences in gender. The study ended by offering a number of recommendations for the field of study.
... It is the responsibility of faculty to provide quality learning experiences for students. It is especially important for distance education faculty to provide quality learning experiences, because historically this form of education has been judged to be less capable of meeting traditional educational standards (McDonald, 2002). ...
Article
Higher education students can and do take courses delivered in a variety of ways. But, to date, little research has been done on the effectiveness of different delivery modes. This study sought to fill that void by comparing the effectiveness of three undergraduate course delivery modes: classroom, online, and video conference at a technical institute in a mid-Atlantic state. Students (N = 1,206) and faculty (N = 160) completed questionnaires on effectiveness, in terms of satisfaction, for each mode. The questionnaire response rates were 74% for students and 86% for faculty. In terms of student satisfaction, the results revealed that classroom delivery was more effective than technologically delivery with online being slightly more effective than video conference. The same results were found for faculty satisfaction. The results of this research should assist leaders in higher education to understand the benefits associated with different undergraduate course delivery modes. In addition, by developing and testing a framework that can be used for estimating effectiveness of different delivery methods, the study provides leaders with a useful tool for securing and applying this type of information when making decisions about the modes best suited to serve their academic communities.
... A growing body of literature suggests that when instructors venture out of the traditional classroom to engage in online teaching, they acquire new skills and competences [1,2,3] and perform roles different than those performed in the classroom [4]. For example, faculty who teach online gain familiarity with uses of technology, online pedagogical practices, alternative forms of accountability, and novel applications of techniques for collaborative learning [5,6,7,8,9]. The fact that experience in Internetbased distance education seems to facilitate the integration of online technologies into the classroom has been raised as a secondary finding in several studies [5,6,8,9,10,11,12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The integration of online technologies in educational practice is rendering new opportunities for teaching and learning. It is known that instructors who have taught fully online courses have acquired new skills and have had the opportunity to implement novel pedagogical practices in the online environment. However, it is unclear whether direct exposure to fully online teaching facilitates the integration of technology in traditional classrooms. This qualitative investigation examined the transfer of four experienced faculty members' pedagogical practices from online to face-to-face teaching. Results of this case study show that (a) the instructors' online teaching experience influenced their perceptions and understanding of online pedagogical strategies, and (b) the transfer of pedagogical strategies back to the classroom is a complex process influenced by the instructors' teaching style, satisfaction with working in the online environment, and the similarity of content and context between online and face-to-face courses. These findings have the potential to inform innovations in faculty training and development and to promote further research in this area.
... x • Time flexibility. The synchronous environment allows more flexibility in the ability to provide more than one session at different times to avoid schedule conflicts [89]. ...
... 92 www.hrmars.com/journals McDonald (2002) says that online education is based on anywhere and anyplace depending on shared interests that can create new peerage, family and groups of common interests. They may not be able to long last but they do exist and have an influence on personality of the learners. ...
Article
Full-text available
Curriculum is a set of planned tasks, learning experiences and behaviors proposed by an authority to achieve predetermined goals in form of behavioral change, academic achievements and learning outcomes within a particular time. The scholars are the people who have command and expertise in any of the curriculum components. The article focuses on the role of curriculum scholars in Pakistan and how and what type of changes they can initiate to bring harmony and tolerance, character and quality in development of curricula. The international issues, trends evolving globalization can be enhanced and incorporated to foster individual and social development. It is a qualitative study based on historical evidences and current researches highlighting the importance and role of curriculum scholars and meeting the world class education system. The issues and trends mentioned by developed countries curriculum experts paved way to synthesis them with local rising issues and trends . The study concluded that the curriculum developers have dynamic roles in curriculum debates because they have to work for bridging gaps of developing and developed nation, addressing local curriculum issues, Using pragmatic approach rather than ideological, reorganizing of recent curricula, solving language issue, facing controversies on curriculum change, making it unified and centralized, diverting curricula to research orientation, obtaining continuous feedback and developing harmony in society at the same time. It is imperative for scholars to have effective communication skills and dynamic personality to incorporate the future trends without creating conflicts and confusion in the society. They need to know the skill to motivate and mould high ups for future changes and bring changes without development of controversies.
... Distance education gives students the opportunity to interact with other students of diverse backgrounds and can provide access to outside speakers not otherwise available to the institution (Comeaux, 1995;McDonald, 2002;Wheeler, Batchelder, & Hampshire, 1996;Willis, 1992). ...
... Researchers have used computer efficacy as an indicator of students' perceptions of their success in using computer-mediated technology relative to their satisfaction with the online learning environment (Fletcher, 2005;Topuc & Ubuz, 2008). McDonald (2002) suggested that students will not engage in essential written communication, interact, or perform in online courses if they are not familiar with the required technology. ...
... Subsequently, researchers have investigated various issues surrounding cost, access, and quality of online nursing and allied health professions (Wright & Thompson, 2002). Distance learning relies heavily on the combination of appropriate instruction and students' personal discipline, cognitive learning style, and motivation for independent work (Alonso, Lopez, Manrique, & Vines, 2005;Hillman, 1999;McDonald, 2002). As Buckley (2003) recently pointed out, although many nursing programs use Information Communication Technology (ICT) for distance education programs, the effectiveness of using ICT is unknown, largely due to the complexity of conducting experimental studies. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare undergraduate nursing students' achievement on examinations for three groups in a mandatory microbiology course. The study represents one aspect of a larger research project designed to gain insight into factors that may influence online learning for distance education nursing students at a Canadian community college. Data were collected from full-time (n=206) and part-time (n=39) students in a traditional face-to-face learn-ing environment, and from part-time students in an online learning environment (n=54). Three examinations for all course sections (two midterms, one final) were used to evaluate students' outcomes. Data analyses showed no significant statisti-cal difference in students' outcomes on either of the midterm examinations, but on the final examination full-time students in the face-to-face instructional environ-ment outperformed students who took the course online. Further analysis of online students showed an interaction between age and examination performance over time, such that older online students outperformed their younger counterparts as they gained more experience in the online environment. A follow-up to this re-search study has been proposed that would incorporate more controls in order to increase internal validity.
... It is interesting to consider that views on online distance education may be limited by questions of whether this form of delivery can be "as good as face to face" instruction. Some researchers Swan (2004) , McDonald (2002 argue that this way of posing the question may lead to our ignoring some of the unique benefits of online distance learning. McDonald asks if online education has in fact "opened the door to enhanced strategies in teaching and learning". ...
Article
Full-text available
Distance education has become an important aspect of the education systems of many countries including the USA, Australia,Thailand etc.. Distance education allows greater access to education for those people separated from schools by physical distance, as well as those whose work, family life and lifestyles make it difficult for them to attend schools. There are many problems and challenges with this unique form of educational delivery. This paper explores three important areas in relation to distance education, 1) constructivist learning theories, 2) faculty issues, and 3) the role of culture in online distance education.
... She found that the use of multimedia tools (a) enhanced students' development of ideas, (b) increased students' motivation level, (c) increased peer collaboration, and (d) increased satisfaction level because students were proud of their work. McDonald (2002) emphasized that there are many benefits to using online distance learning environments: online education is available "anyplace, anytime" for global communities of learners based on shared interests. She claims that "online education with its group-based instruction and Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) provides an opportunity for new development and understanding in teaching and learning" (p. ...
Article
This study aimed at investigating the effect of using Islamic Education related websites on the King Faisal University students' achievement in methods of teaching Islamic Education subject. It attempted to answer the following question:-What is the effect of using Islamic Education related websites on students' achievement in methods of teaching Islamic Education Subject compared with conventional method? To answer the question of the study, sixty female students in Islamic Education Department, Education Faculty were randomly chosen in the first semester of the academic year 2009/2010. The participants of the study consisted of two assigned sections. The experimental group was taught by using Islamic Education related websites; while the control group was taught according to the conventional method (Lecture Method). The researcher prepared achievement test as the instrument of this study. To establish the validity for the test, the method of content validity was used. Means and standard deviations were computed to compare means of the two groups on the pre and post tests of Islamic education competences. Analysis of covariance ANCOVA was computed to detect any significant differences between the two groups on the Islamic education competences. The results revealed that the achievement of the students in the experimental group significantly improved.
... As with most things, eLearning has advantages and disadvantages. The research literature cites many advantages of eLearning, particularly the convenience and flexibility offered by the (asynchronous) 'anytime, anywhere, anyplace' education (McDonald, 2002), which gives learners time for research, internal reflection, and 'collective thinking' (Garrison, 1997). Moreover, the text-based nature of eLearning normally requires written communication from the learner, which along with reflection, encourage higher level learning such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation, and encourage clearer and more precise thinking (Jonassen, 1996). ...
Chapter
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Technology, and in particular the Web, have had a significant impact in all aspects of society including education and training with institutions investing heavily in technologies such as Learning Management Systems (LMS), ePortfolios and more recently, Web 2.0 technologies, such as blogs, wikis and forums. The advantages that these technologies provide have meant that online learning, or eLearning, is now supplementing and, in some cases, replacing traditional (face-to-face) approaches to teaching and learning. However, there is less evidence of the uptake of these technologies within vocational training. The aims of this chapter is to give greater insight into the potential use of educational technologies within vocational training, demonstrate that eLearning can be well suited to the hands-on nature of vocational training, stimulate further research into this area and lay foundations for a model to aid successful implementation. This chapter discusses the implementation of eLearning within a vocational training course for the engineering industry and provides early empirical evidence from the use of Web 2.0 technologies provided by the chosen LMS.
... The key findings in regard to the importance of active communication, engagement, and instructional guidance convey a message that learning is social in nature (Lei, 2010;McDonald, 2011;Meltzoff, Kuhl, Movellan, & Sejnowski, 2009;Wigfield, 1997). While students' behavioral traits and variables can predict academic success, we reiterate that other entities, such as administrators, faculty and sup-port personnel or staff members can help students perform and achieve better. ...
Article
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Aim/Purpose: This systematic literature review investigates the underlying factors that influence the gap between the popularity of online learning and its completion rate. The review scope within this paper includes an observation of possible causal aspects within the non-ideal completion rates in online learning environments and an identification of recommended strategies to increase retention rates. Background: While online learning is increasingly popular, and the number of online students is steadily growing, student retention rates are significantly lower than those in the traditional environment. Despite the multitude of studies, many institutions are still searching for solutions for this matter. Methodology: A systematic literature review was conducted on 40 studies published between 2010 and 2018. We established a set of criteria to guide the selection of eligible articles including topic relevance (aligned with the research questions), empirical studies, and publication time frame. Further steps were performed through a major database searching, abstract screening, full-text analysis, and synthesis process. Contribution: This study adds to expanding literature regarding student retention and strategies in online learning environments within the higher education setting. Findings: Revealed factors include institutional support, the level difficulty of the programs, promotion of a sense of belonging, facilitation of learning, course design, student behavioral characteristics, and demographic variables along with other personal variables. The recommended strategies identified for improving student retention are early interventions, at-all-times supports for students, effective communication, support for faculty teaching online classes, high-quality instructional feedback and strategies, guidance to foster positive behavioral characteristics, and collaboration among stakeholders to support online students. Recommendations for Practitioners: Since factors within the open systems of online learning are interrelated, we recommend a collective effort from multiple stakeholders when addressing retention issues in online learning. Recommendations for Researchers: We recommend that fellow scholars consider focusing on each influential factor and recommendation in regard to student retention in online learning environments as synthesized in this study. Findings will further enrich the literature on student retention in online learning environments. Future Research: Future research may investigate various data-mining and analytics techniques pertaining to detection and prediction of at-risk students, the efficacy of student support and faculty support programs, and ways to encourage struggling students to adopt effective strategies that potentially engender positive learning behaviors.
... According to McDonald (2002), computer-mediated communication encourages collaborative learning by not providing cues regarding appearance, race, gender, education, or social status bestowing a sort of anonymity to participants. Students and instructors can converse through a variety of forums, including e-mail, online discussion forums, bulletin boards, and web pages (Richter, 2001). ...
... Notably, much of this criticism came from the United States, which is one of the few major countries not to have a national open university, and thus the attitude towards distance learning tends to be informed by low-quality correspondence education. This also drastically over-romanticized the quality of faceto-face education, prompting McDonald (2002) to ask, "Is as good as face-to-face as good as it gets?" (p. ...
... Over a decade of comparing online and face-to-face instruction has resulted in what has been called the -no significant difference‖ phenomenon (Bernard et al., 2004;Russell, 1999); that is, research has consistently shown that there is no significant difference between online and face-to-face learning. One of the things that resulted from this line of research is the realization that we cannot criticize all online learning any more than we can hold all face-toface instruction up as the gold standard (see Duffy & Kirkley, 2004;McDonald, 2002). The emergence of MOOCs illustrates the varied nature of the online learning landscape. ...
Book
The number of students taking online courses continues to grow each year. Despite the growth, a large percentage of faculties still don't accept the value of online learning. Online educators find themselves in exciting times where they continue advancing the dialogue about online learning, beyond the discussions of "is it as good as face-to-face instruction?" to more nuanced issues such as some of the various benefits, challenges, and misconceptions that go along with learning online. The purpose of this book is to address the various benefits, challenges, and misconceptions that coincide with online teaching and learning. The audience includes anyone with an interest in online learning, whether they are researchers, designers, instructors, or trainers. This book is organized into several themes that are current and emerging in the field of online learning, including student and instructor supports, instructional approaches, current trends and emerging technologies, reaching new audiences, and planning for the online learning environment.
... Due to the new model communication technology, it makes it possible to have the whole enterprise business around the customer needs through the combinations of the traditional organization, supply chain management and enterprise resource for the increase of customer's loyalty, customer's purchase and profit with other enterprises benefit. [8] As CRM become the business strategic and tools for improving the firm productivity and maintaining their relationship with their customers as well. CRM also ensure that the right product is going to the customer at the right time for retaining good image of the firm. ...
Article
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The rapid development of internet user has made it easy and improved the online marketing in the global market, as a result the number of customer shopping online are increasing more than the number of customer using internet for others purposes, customer participations are the basic of every business success, because with customer, no business can survive or adapt with change that has been brought by new technology. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) can be understood as a revolving process during which companies interact with their customers, there by generate, aggregate, and analyze customer data, and employ the results for service and marketing activities, the purpose of this paper is to figure out the influence of Customer relationship management as motivational factor on online shopping in e-business environment.
... It will certainly increase their knowledge, understanding and talent in learning new concepts. Students in this form of instruction can participate in the educational process anytime and anywhere in overcoming traditional barriers of time and place [15]. Researchers have also indicated that CAI can be prospective for quality instruction in Mathematics. ...
Article
Full-text available
An experimental study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) and Conventional Method (CM) for retention of Mathematics in Higher Education. Instructional and measuring tools were developed for five units of Matrix Algebra, two units of Calculus & five units of Numerical Analysis. Pilot study was also conducted to examine reliability and validity of tools. Ninety undergraduates participated in final investigational study. Pre-test – Post-test Equivalent – Groups research design was used. SPSS v.16 was used for data analysis. Findings supported efficiency of CAI for retention of basic mathematical concepts. Administrators should encourage faculty members to develop Computer Assisted Instructional Material (CAIM) for retention of basic Concepts of Mathematics in Higher Studies.
... As McDonald (2002) noted, not only does teaching at a distance often prompt a closer examination of teaching practices, but online teaching has the potential to enhance face-to-face teaching. McDonald (2002) suggested that "in addition to reaching learners at a distance, distance education formats are increasingly being used to enrich, improve, and expand face-to-face instruction, thus resulting in a 'convergence' of educational practices" (p. 12). ...
Article
Technology and distance education are on the rise in community colleges, 4-year institutions, Ivy League colleges, research institutions, and technical colleges. One of the most significant phenomenon occurring in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) today is distance education. Academic leaders can better implement professional development plans to promote online programs if they understand faculty perceptions about teaching online. This phenomenological research paper presents the results of 12 lived the experience of higher education faculty members at a HBCU who transitioned from a face-to-face teaching modality to a distance education instructional delivery and subsequently returned to the face-to-face classroom.
... Elektronisches oder multimediales Lernen haben eine bedeutende Innovation im Bereich der Lerntechniken angestoßen, die das Potenzial haben, den Wissenstransfer zu verbessern. Diese Formate unterstützen die kognitiven Fähigkeiten von Studierenden besser und machen den Wissenstransfer daher effektiver als die traditionelle Lehre (Wegner, Holloway und Garton 1999;Joy und Garcia 2000;McDonald 2002). Online-Lehre ermöglicht eine Kombination aus kurzen Videosequenzen, Sprachaufnahmen und Animationen. ...
Thesis
Vor dem Hintergrund einer stetig wachsenden Menge wissenschaftlicher Veröffentlichungen wie Bücher oder Zeitschriftenartikel können Wissenschaftler eine zunehmende Menge an bestehendem Wissen als Grundlage für ihre eigene Forschung nutzen. Dies bedeutet allerdings auch, dass Wissenschaftler immer mehr Wissen verarbeiten müssen, um sich den aktuellen Wissensstand in ihrem Forschungsgebiet anzueignen, bevor sie selbst zu diesem beitragen können. Die möglichen Folgen der Wissensakkumulation bezeichnet Jones (2009) als Last des Wissens. Er postuliert, dass sich diese Last in den Lebensläufen, den Karrieren und Arbeiten von Wissenschaftlern widerspiegelt. Zur Überprüfung betrachtet er Daten zu Patent¬anmeldungen und kommt zu dem Ergebnis, dass sich Patentanmelder zunehmend spezialisieren, Patente von zunehmend großen Teams von Erfindern angemeldet werden und dass Erfinder bei ihrer ersten Patentanmeldung ein zunehmendes Alter aufweisen. Die vorliegende Arbeit greift diese Gedanken auf und erweitert Jones‘ Untersuchung von Patenten auf wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen. Dabei werden Publikationsdaten renommierter Zeitschriften der Disziplinen Betriebswirtschaftslehre und Finance, Geographie und Geologie, Mathematik, Psychologie (Beobachtungszeitraum jeweils 1960−2009), Volks¬wirt¬schafts¬lehre (1970−2014) sowie Artikel der Zeitschrift Science (1960−2011) ausgewertet. Ferner werden in den Disziplinen Mathematik und Volkswirtschaftslehre zusätzlich persönliche und institutionelle Informationen zu den Autoren der Artikel ergänzt und ausgewertet (z. B. Geburtsjahr, Geschlecht oder Institutszugehörigkeit). Die empirischen Ergebnisse der Arbeit zeigen unter anderem, dass die mittlere Anzahl der Quellenangaben und die mittlere Anzahl der Autoren pro Artikel in den untersuchten Disziplinen deutlich gestiegen sind. Die Ergebnisse stehen im Einklang mit Ergebnissen verwandter Arbeiten, welche ähnliche Maße untersucht haben, ohne jedoch den Zeitpunkt der abgeschlossenen Wissensakkumulation zu isolieren. Die vorliegende Arbeit schließt diese Lücke und ergänzt damit die bestehende Literatur um die Betrachtung dieser Maße zum Zeitpunkt des jeweils ersten Artikels eines Autors. Für diese neuen Maße zeigen sich deutlich steigende Trends. Die Daten belegen außerdem, dass das mittlere Alter von Autoren der Volkswirtschaftslehre und Mathematik bei ihrem ersten Artikel in den jeweiligen Be¬ob-acht¬ungs¬zeiträumen gestiegen ist. Ferner spezialisieren sich Autoren der Volks¬wirt¬schafts-lehre immer stärker, was sich darin äußert, dass sie zwischen ihren ersten beiden Einzelautor-Artikeln seltener das volkswirtschaftliche Teilgebiet (basierend auf den angegebenen JEL-Codes) wechseln. Diese Ergebnisse deuten auch für die Wissenschaft auf eine Last des Wissens hin, wie sie Jones für industrielle Erfindungen beschreibt. Über die Untersuchung der Last des Wissens hinaus wird in dieser Arbeit ein konzeptionelles Rahmenwerk entwickelt, das drei grundlegende Prinzipien zur Bewältigung der Last des Wissens umfasst. Diese Prinzipien sind die Erhöhung eines einzelnen Inputfaktors, der parallele Einsatz mehrere Inputfaktoren sowie die Problemreduktion. Sie ermöglichen eine Einordnung der empirischen Beobachtungen.
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This blended learning classroom (BLC) case study identifies and describes successful procedures and methodologies that widen the use of online tools in virtual environments. It provides a systematic and organized access to the plethora of free social software available online for the development of collaborative learning activities. The goal of this particular BLC professional development activity was to offer a face-to-face group of English teachers in Venezuela the opportunity to meet members of an international community of practice (CoP) and together review a packaged learning course material online. Blended technology, the mix and match of available tools, served to display the wide use of resources and each person's skills. By exploring online tools, participants gained an opportunity for learning about both educational theory and the use of technology. The experience described here shows a prototype of future pathways towards educational content use and development.
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High costs, increased number of students, and the exponential growth in information are among the most obvious challenges that confront higher education all over the world. In order to face such challenges, many universities are working on integrating online instruction into their mission. The success of this integration is related to students' acceptance of online instruction. Therefore, investigating students' attitudes toward using online instruction is imperative. This study surveyed 240 students enrolled in a web-based course at the Hashemite University. Students were taught in a mixed mode of instruction. Blackboard e-learning system was used to deliver the content of the course. A Likert-type instrument was developed to collect data for the study. Linear regression analysis was utilized to analyze data. The study explored the relationship between students' attitudes toward using online instruction and their prior years of experience in using the Internet. The findings revealed a linear relationship between the two variables such that as students' prior years of experience in using the Internet increases their attitudes toward using online instruction increases. The findings also indicated high positive students' attitudes toward using online instruction.
Conference Paper
The purpose of this paper is 1) to offer a case history of one university's attempt to rethink faculty development for teaching and learning and 2) to specifically detail the reorganization and consolidation of services related to online teaching and learning. Authors will outline the research and resulting data that informed the processes leading to a redesigned center for teaching and learning and will identify the resulting key features aligned to a needs assessment and research-based practice for effective faculty development for online teaching and learning.
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Psychology of Learning for Instruction, 2nd edition: by Marcy Perkins Driscoll The Art of Changing the Brain: Enriching the Practice of Teaching by Exploring the Biology of Learning: by James E. Zull
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This thesis describes research investigating the effectiveness of an online learning environment in a Saudi tertiary setting. A review of the literature examined the rationale and benefits of online learning and critical issues contributing to the effectiveness and quality of online learning environments, pertaining to learning theories and pedagogies associated with online learning, online instructional design, online communication, online instructor and online students. The examination of students’ and instructors’ experiences and perceptions of online teaching and learning assisted in gaining insights into the overall effectiveness of an online learning model, identifying the pedagogies and instructional design currently associated with online delivery, and determining a number of critical components that would construct an effective online learning environment in Saudi tertiary settings. Students’ experiences and perceptions of their online learning were discovered through quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative data on students’ experiences were gathered by using an adapted version of the Web-based Learning Environment Instrument (WEBLEI). The qualitative data on students’ experiences were collected by open-ended discussion questions attached to the WEBLEI survey. Instructors’ perceptions and experiences of their online teaching were investigated through a quantitative survey using written open-ended discussion questions. The study synthesised results from both qualitative and quantitative data and gives insight into constructing an effective online learning environment within Saudi tertiary sectors. Findings of this study served to generate recommendations to help tertiary instructors and institutions in Saudi Arabia to optimise online teaching practices and enhance the educational quality and outcomes. Overall, this study affirms that online learning has the potential to offer excellent learning and teaching experiences in Saudi higher education. However, the results of this study highlight the need for caution in maintaining academic quality and sense of community, which in turn, emphasises the necessity for a pedagogical transformation when designing and delivering online courses in Saudi tertiary environments. This study, form a synthesis of relevant literature, propose a conceptual framework outlining critical components of an effective online learning environment that could contribute to and guide future research considering the effectiveness of online education in Saudi tertiary contexts.
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p>El presente artículo presenta una propuesta de evaluación en la Educación Media Superior, específicamente para el Bachillerato General por Competencias Modalidad Semiescolarizada del Sistema de Educación Media Superior, de la UdeG. Dicha propuesta pretende tener congruencia con el modelo educativo con un enfoque por competencias, los procesos de aprendizaje y el proceso de evaluación que realmente evidencie y evalúe el desarrollo de las competencias en sus estudiantes.</p
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Objective This study aimed to evaluate undergraduate medical students' perceptions to Blackboard (Bb) utilization learning management systems in terms of benefits and difficulties. Methods The study was conducted at the College of Medicine, King Saud University. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the students. The questionnaire consisted of three parts including demographic information, utilization of Bb and difficulties while using Bb. Results A total of 808 questionnaires were distributed with 42% response rate. Among the participants, 224 (65.7%) were male and 116 (34.3%) were female students. Of them, 78.1% reported “disagreement and strong disagreement” on “Bb usefulness in communicating with the instructor”. However, 74.1% students reported “disagreed and strongly disagreed” on “Bb usefulness in communicating with other students”, whereas majority of the students (71.8%) did not use multimedia available in Bb system. Also, 61% students agreed that there is a “lack of formal training” on the use of Bb in the college, and 37.2% students agreed that the using “Bb system is a time consuming”. However, 39.2% students did not know about the Bb systems add any additional burden on the students. The disagreement trend of male and female students concerned with the Bb utility and difficulties were almost same. Conclusion The finding of the study showed a poor utilization of Bb learning features. Students faced technical difficulties while using Bb. The findings of this study indicate the need of compulsory students training of any newly introduced learning management systems including Bb in the educational institute.
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Chapter
This research explored the experiences of foreign students enrolled in the Canada eSchool distance learning program. The study included one secondary school in Nigeria and three in Malaysia that had students enrolled in a program based on a blended learning model. A mixed mode data analysis model including qualitative and quantitative data analysis was undertaken. The purpose of the study was to examine factors that influence student success in blended learning programs accessed by foreign students. Results indicated that students in the study were most successful if they were self-disciplined and had access to a variety of local supports including: an effective learning environment with access to quality technology; assistance in the development of English as a second language; and support in navigating pedagogical transitions between educational systems. In theory, the results of this study point to a connection between the local and Canadian support communities for foreign students enrolled in Canadian blended distance education programs, and their academic success.
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Chapter
This study approaches educational marketing from the perspective of the customers, the students. Instructors and instructional designers have designed online learning using a process that revolves around delivery. The process addresses meeting the needs of administrators and aligns well with the growing demands of the educational marketplace. But the growing failure of students to successfully complete online courses warrants further exploration than simply adding more interactivities or instructor interaction. The authors pose that advertising and marketing have addressed complex consumer relationships for almost a century and have created long term successful customer relationships which could provide insights to help with higher education student retention issues. A look at design development research and marketing semiotics could provide greater understanding and student involvement to help marketing semiotics provide a deeper understanding of the importance of inclusion of students' life experiences and cultural histories.
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Communicating with students and encouraging collaboration poses a major challenge in distance education. In this paper, the authors present lessons learned from an online master's degree program; each had successfully developed courses to teach engineers and managers project management at a distance. The first section introduces online learning and illustrates the tools and interactive technologies used to communicate with students. The second half describes the design and execution of three online project management courses, detailing the curricula and techniques utilized to encourage collaboration and discussions amongst students. We also include a special section that illustrates teaching project management through case studies. In each case, we describe the pedagogical approach and curriculum used to encourage collaboration and create an effective learning environment. The paper concludes with a narration of the challenges that remain when teaching online. The research results and experience shared in this paper will provide invaluable assistance to faculty and course designers interested in creating an online course.
Chapter
This research explored the experiences of foreign students enrolled in the Canada eSchool distance learning program. The study included one secondary school in Nigeria and three in Malaysia that had students enrolled in a program based on a blended learning model. A mixed mode data analysis model including qualitative and quantitative data analysis was undertaken. The purpose of the study was to examine factors that influence student success in blended learning programs accessed by foreign students. Results indicated that students in the study were most successful if they were self-disciplined and had access to a variety of local supports including: an effective learning environment with access to quality technology; assistance in the development of English as a second language; and support in navigating pedagogical transitions between educational systems. In theory, the results of this study point to a connection between the local and Canadian support communities for foreign students enrolled in Canadian blended distance education programs, and their academic success.
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Is « e-learning » efficient? An analysis of anglo-saxon literature This article provides a summary of current debates concerning the efficiency of e-learning as a teaching method. After clarifying the main concepts associated with e-learning, this article will lay out an analytical framework and definition. Despite the methodological and conceptual difficulties implicit to studies aiming to compare different teaching methods, the analysis of 35 studies will allow us to establish an e-learning/face-to-face comparison based on levels of performance. Other results however, most notably those of meta-analysis, can be used to show that the e-learning format can be considered equivalent to the face-to-face format with the deployment of adequate means.
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E-learning systems are required to provide universal access to educational resources regardless of the standards, protocols or platforms used. Such systems should allow maximizing the reuse of learning resources (objects) and supporting learning services via various technologies to enhance interoperability. For development of e-learning systems, architecture design is critical to ensure easy access to repositories of learning (services)/objects and (provide) robust discovery mechanisms. This paper has reviewed related work on e-learning and highlights the importance of adoption of SOA including REST to enhance reusability of learning resources for meaningful and interactive e-learning. As learning is resources oriented, we proposed REST architecture for delivery of e-learning resources on SOA platform. To deal with one of the major challenges of SOA in maintaining service registry & discovery of resources, we developed a framework for REST service registry and discussed the information required for learning services registration.
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Chapter
Education 3.0 is the confluence of known, effective throughputs in teaching and learning due to changed inputs and desired changes to output across higher education. From increasingly diverse student populations to the need for critical thinking by all, education has fundamentally changed. Practitioners must leverage technologies to scale learning and meet demands by families for more flexible, lifelong learning options. Gone are the days when student bodies had more on-campus, residential, homogeneity, as well as small cohorts from selective admissions. Such changes now require architects of learning to consider the efficacy of various teaching and assessment methods in promoting actual learning versus short-term memorization, as well as how to use technology to do all of this at scale. From neuroscience to learning psychology to education technology, there is an impressive body of research around authentic learning, yet most faculty are largely unaware of this scholarship, seeing instruction dominated by tradition rather than effectiveness.
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Despite widespread scepticism and occasional outright hostility from the educational establishment…Individuals desirous of enhancing their own opportunities and governments seeking greater returns on public investment in education have embraced the methods of distance education with enthusiasm. These methods make possible the rapid and inexpensive provision of instruction of consistent quality to large and scattered populations. (Daniel 1991, p. 38)
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Presents a case study of computer-mediated communication (CMC) in a group discussion course at Marist College (New York). Highlights include advantages of CMC, including more interaction and increased learner control; efficient information access, including access to the Internet; and student attitudes toward CMC, including differences between computer users and nonusers. (Contains 17 references.) (LRW)
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Describes two historical changes that enlarged and reorganized higher learning--the reading-writing revolution in Socrates' time and the campus revolution two thousand years later. Highlights the signs of the third revolution of improvement in access and quality. Discusses access proposals that can also improve quality and quality proposals that can improve access. (AEF)
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In this article Derek Rowntree of the Open University UK's, Institute of Educational Technology, examines the implications of quality assessment for distance education and other forms of materials‐based learning. He suggests that materials‐based teaching cannot properly be judged in quite the same terms as the conventional, face‐to‐face teaching that academic peers are most familiar with. So what might they be looking for when they come to assess the quality of a department's materials‐based teaching? And what might we expect to result from such assessments?
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Excerpts available on Google Books (see link below). For integral book, go to publisher's website : http://mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/item/default.asp?ttype=2&tid=7592 the book can be bought at https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/learning-networks
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From the Publisher:This groundbreaking volume offers a comprehensive introduction to educational computer-mediated communication (CMC) by presenting theoretical frameworks, design paradigms, and research methodologies for analyzing and shaping this new field of educational activity. The contributors provide a range of perspectives and approaches for understanding the educational applications of such innovations as electronic mail and computer conferencing networks and provide an extensive bibliography to assist those working on educational CMC.
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This paper explores the issues surrounding quality in higher education and its necessary adaptation to the online world of educational delivery. A historical perspective on quality standards is presented, and characteristics of recent models for quality control are outlined. Quality-related issues in Walden University's (Minnesota) two new online, course based programs--a Ph.D. in Professional Psychology and a Master of Science degree in Educational Change and Technology Innovation--are discussed. Highlights include: (1) managerial quality/organizational criteria, including leadership and record keeping; (2) functional quality/technological criteria, including student support via process teams; and (3) ethical quality/instructional criteria, including the relationship between students and faculty, faculty evaluation, and student and faculty empowerment. (Contains 33 references.) (AEF)
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Reports on the impact of using telecomputer communication for teaching an introductory course in management information systems. Topics include theories on education; the model shift in distance education; components of telecomputer communication, videoconferencing and computer-mediated communication; a telecomputer communication case study; and the telecomputer community and group development research. (AEF)
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Computer Mediated Conferencing (CMC) courses are attracting students with weak computer communication skills. This document describes a study which examines the outcomes for such students when they enrolled in a CMC course that required high levels of peer interaction. It was anticipated that students with weaker skills would miss important instructional events, have lower levels of task-relevant contributions, have less influence on group products, and engage in less demanding learning activities. In fact, lack of technical skill had only a marginal effect on participation, much less than gender or prior knowledge of course content. The generalizability of this good news is limited by several contextual factors, including student maturity, the provision of a CMC coach, the ethos emerging from the structure and content of the course, and the low skill threshold required for participation. (Contains 3 tables and 34 references.) (Author/BEW)
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A 135-item survey was administered to 279 students enrolled in tertiary distance education programs in Queensland, Australia. The study was intended to identify (1) factors that are highly predictive of positive and independent learning growth and (2) strategies that students and educators can adopt to help students achieve a high level of affinity with their distance study program. The following demographic factors were found to be predictive of high affective development: being 46 years old or older; living in the largest urban centers; experiencing the influence of family, physical handicap, and employment; and having 10 or more hours of leisure time. Living as a single adult with children and working 46 or more hours per week were predictive of negative affective development. Previous learning variables that were highly predictive of positive affective development by students were these: (1) studying continuously for periods from 1 to 10 years; and (2) having gained qualifications. Present learning variables that appeared predictive of positive affective development included experiencing a moderate effect for socioeconomic conditions, making one or more visits to the institution, having great study expectations, having personal development reasons for studying, studying in various places, and studying more than 10 hours per week. It appeared that the search for a suitable teaching model should be replaced by a mix of teaching and learning behaviors that will promote effective student control over their own learning. (MN)
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This project was designed to increase student access by addressing Western states' regulations on higher education programs delivered electronically across state lines, and to develop and get region-wide agreement on basic quality standards for distance education programs. The project achieved agreement on a set of "Principles of Good Practice for Electronically Offered Higher Education Degree and Certificate Programs," now the first generally accepted basis for evaluating distance learning programs throughout the nation. This report contains the following sections: (1) Paragraph summary of the report; (2) Executive Summary -- overview, purpose, background and origin, project description, evaluation, and summary and conclusion; (3) Body of the Report -- overview, purpose, how the purpose changed during the course of the project, background and origin, project description, evaluation, and summary and conclusion; and (4) Appendices -- information for FIPSE, and copies of publications: "Balancing Quality and Access. Some Principles of Good Practice for the Virtual University" (Sally M. Johnstone and Barbara Krauth); and "Principles of Good Practice for Learning Programs" (Barbara Krauth). (DLS)
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This chapter reviews the current status of accrediting agency policies and addresses the challenges facing the organizations that evaluate and review American community colleges.
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Three experiments explored the effects of computer-mediated communication on communication efficiency, participation, interpersonal behavior, and group choice. Groups of three members were asked to reach consensus on career choice problems; they communicated face-to-face and in simultaneous computer-mediated discussions or through computer mail. When groups were linked by computer, group members made fewer remarks than they did face-to-face and took longer to make their group decisions. Social equalization was higher in computer-mediated groups in that group members participated more equally in discussions. Computer-mediated groups also exhibited more uninhibited behavior—using strong and inflammatory expressions in interpersonal interactions. Decisions of computer-mediated groups shifted further away from the members' initial individual choices than group decisions which followed face-to-face discussions. We discuss the implications of these findings for extension of theories about group interaction and for analyses of the effects of Computers in organizations.
Article
Describes some of the issues raised by electronic communication, including time and information-processing pressures, absence of regulating feedback, dramaturgical weakness, paucity of status and position cues, social anonymity, and computing norms and immature etiquette. An empirical approach for investigating the social psychological effects of electronic communication is illustrated, and how social psychological research might contribute to a deeper understanding of computers and technological change in society and computer-mediated communication (CMC) is discussed. A series of studies that explored how people participate in CMC and how computerization affects group efforts to reach consensus is described; results indicate differences in participation, decisions, and interaction among groups meeting face to face and in simultaneous computer-linked discourse and communication by electronic mail. Findings are attributed to difficulties of coordination from lack of informational feedback, absence of social influence cues for controlling discussion, and depersonalization from lack of nonverbal involvement and absence of norms. (103 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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is Director of the Wisconsin Program for Providing Training for Regionally Employed Care Providers (WisTREC) and Clinical Assistant Professor at the University of Wisconsin Madison School of Nursing. Her research focuses on Distance learning for adult education
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Jeannette McDonald, DVM, PhD, is Director of the Wisconsin Program for Providing Training for Regionally Employed Care Providers (WisTREC) and Clinical Assistant Professor at the University of Wisconsin Madison School of Nursing. Her research focuses on Distance learning for adult education, web-based education and computer conferencing.
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The No Significant Difference Phenomenon: A Comparative Research Annotated Bibliography on Technology for Distance Education Examples can be seen at http
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The evaluation of theory in distance education
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QDE: Lessons Learned. Distance Education Clearinghouse. Online Available
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