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Evaluation of the Nutrient Matrix Values for Phytase in Broilers

Authors:
  • Lamb Weston

Abstract

Primary Audience: Nutritionists SUMMARY Microbial phytase has been shown to increase the availability of Ca, P, ME, and amino acids (AA) in diets for broilers. However, much more research has been conducted on the Ca and P effects than on the ME and AA effects. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of phytase on the release of ME and AA from corn-soybean meal diets for broilers. Experiment 1 was a battery study that lasted for 14 d and included diets adequate in all nutrients, diets deficient in ME and AA, and these later 2 diets with and without added phytase. Experiment 2 was a floor-pen study that lasted 42 d and included diets with reduced levels of ME and AA with added phytase. Growth performance, meat quality, and tibia ash were not affected by using the ME and AA values for phytase. Total P, soluble P, and inorganic soluble P in the litter were reduced when phytase was added to the diets. These data indicate that ME and AA values for phytase can be used in diet formulations for broilers with no loss in growth or yield performance, but a decrease in the P content of the litter will be observed.
2004 Poultry Science Association, Inc.
Evaluation of the Nutrient Matrix
Values for Phytase in Broilers
J. L. Shelton,* L. L. Southern,*
,1
L. A. Gaston,† and A. Foster†
*Department of Animal Sciences, and †Department of Agronomy,
Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803
Primary Audience: Nutritionists
SUMMARY
Microbial phytase has been shown to increase the availability of Ca, P, ME, and amino acids
(AA) in diets for broilers. However, much more research has been conducted on the Ca and P
effects than on the ME and AA effects. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to evaluate the
effect of phytase on the release of ME and AA from corn-soybean meal diets for broilers. Experiment
1 was a battery study that lasted for 14 d and included diets adequate in all nutrients, diets deficient
in ME and AA, and these later 2 diets with and without added phytase. Experiment 2 was a floor-
pen study that lasted 42 d and included diets with reduced levels of ME and AA with added
phytase. Growth performance, meat quality, and tibia ash were not affected by using the ME and
AA values for phytase. Total P, soluble P, and inorganic soluble P in the litter were reduced when
phytase was added to the diets. These data indicate that ME and AA values for phytase can be
used in diet formulations for broilers with no loss in growth or yield performance, but a decrease
in the P content of the litter will be observed.
Key words: phytate, soybean meal, phosphorus, nutrient matrix
2004 J. Appl. Poult. Res. 13:213–221
DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM
Phytate has be en shown to b ind t o catio ns,
including Ca, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Mg, Co, and Fe
[1]. It also has been shown to have nega tive
effects on digestive e nzy mes [ 2], protein [3] ,
amino acid (AA) [4], and carbohydrate [5]
availabil ity . Phytate is found in fee d ing red i-
ents, s uch as c orn (C) and s oybe an meal (SBM),
and it can caus e a de cre ase in nutri ent availabil-
ity in diets contai nin g these ingredi ents .
Microbial phytase has been shown to in-
crease the availabili ty of phytat e P for swine
and pou ltr y [6, 7]. Phytas e also ha s been sh own
to incr eas e energy [8, 9] a nd AA [10, 11, 12]
digestibi lit y in diets for poultry. The amount
1
To whom correspondence should be addressed: lsouthern@agctr.lsu.edu.
of Ca and av ail able P (aP) that phytase rele ase s
has been studied exten siv ely [13, 14, 15], and
the values range from appr oxim ate ly 0 .09 t o
0.10%. Howeve r, to fully reali ze the econo mic
potential of phytase, the amount of ME and
AA release d by phytase needs to be eval uate d.
The nut rie nt matri x values for phytase indicates
the amount of a nutr ien t (C a, P, ME, or A A)
that wi ll b e released w hen phytase is added to
the diet. Havi ng corre ct nutri ent matrix values
allows for more acc ura te formulat ion of diets
that in clu de phytase. These formulat ions allow
the producer t o add les s Ca, P, AA, a nd ME
in diet s fo r poultry, thus, reducing the co st o f
feed. For e xam ple, adding phytase in t he di ets
for pou ltr y ca n reduce the amount of li mest one,
JAPR: Research Report214
TABLE 1. Nutrient matrix values of Natuphos 1200 for
broilers
A
Amount
provided
Nutrient Value in the diet
Available phosphorus, % 188 0.094
Calcium, % 188 0.094
Crude protein, % 427 0.214
Lysine, % 29 0.015
Methionine, % 5 0.003
Cystine, % 10 0.005
Sulfur amino acids, % 15 0.008
Tryptophan, % 5 0.003
Threonine, % 24 0.012
Valine, % 26 0.013
Isoleucine, % 22 0.011
Leucine, % 33 0.017
Arginine, % 16 0.008
Phenylalanine, % 21 0.011
Histidine, % 11 0.006
ME, kcal/kg 61,937 30.969
A
Natuphos 1200 was added at 0.05% of the diet, which
provided 600 FTU (phytase units)/kg. Amino acids are on
a true digestible basis.
monocalci um phosp hat e, SBM, c rys talline AA,
and fat added in the diets.
As a result of the aforemen tion ed e ffe cts
of phyt ase on n utri ent availabili ty, phytase also
may have posit ive e ffe cts on th e en vironme nt.
This increase d availabil ity resu lts in less P and
N in the feces and less to be placed on soil,
when poultry waste is used as a f ert ili zer. To
fully util ize and r ece ive the bene fits of the add i-
tion of phytase to the diets, the objective of
these experiments (EXP) was to evalua te the
nutrient matrix values for phytas e in broi ler s.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
General
All method s used in these EXP were ap-
proved by t he Louisiana St ate University A g-
ricultura l Ce nter (LSU) Animal Ca re and Us e
Committee . Two EXP were co nduc ted wit h
Ross × R oss com merc ial broilers (EXP 1 ) [16]
or (EXP 2) [17] to evaluate the accurac y of t he
nutrient m atr ix va lue s fo r Nat uph os 1 200 [ 18]
(Table 1).
Experimen t 1
In EXP 1, broilers were fed the same die t
(C-SBM in Tabl es 2 and 3) adequate in al l
TABLE 2. Description of diets used in experiment 1
Treatment Description
A
1 C-SBM control diet
2 C-SBM deficient in AA
3 C-SBM diet deficient in AA but with
added phytase at 600 FTU/kg using
the matrix values for Ca, aP, and AA
4 As diet 3 with no added phytase
5 C-SBM diet low in ME
6 C-SBM diet low in ME but with added
phytase at 600 FTU/kg using the
matrix values for Ca, aP, and ME
7 As diet 6 with no added phytase
A
C-SBM = corn-soybean meal; AA = amino acids; FTU =
phytase units; aP = available P.
nutrients from 0 to4dposthatching [19]. T hey
were he ld o ver nigh t without fe ed and water
on the day befo re allotment to treatme nt. The
broilers were then weighed, wingband ed, and
allotted to treatm ent s in a completel y random -
ized design. There wer e 7 r epli cat ion s (4 m ale
and 3 female) w ith 6 bro ile rs per re pli cation.
The ini tia l and final BW w ere 72 and 574 g,
respectiv ely , and the EXP lasted 1 4 d. They
were housed in ther mos tat ical ly cont rolled
starter ba tte ries with raised wire floors an d co n-
tinuous li ght ing. Feed and wat er w ere offered
ad libi tum through out the expe rim ent al pe rio d.
At the end of the experi men t, all broilers were
weighed individually , and pen feed in take
was mea sur ed.
Diets 1 to 4 (Table 3) evaluated the AA
matrix values of Natup hos 1200. Di et 1 (bas al)
was adequate in all nut rie nts. Die t 2 (LAA)
was deficien t in AA, prov idi ng 0.82% true di-
gestible L ys, and all o the r AA m et o r exceed ed
the ratio to Lys [20]. Diet 3 (LAA+Phy) was
similar to diet 2 but formu late d with phyta se
nutrient matr ix value s fo r AA, Ca, and aP. Diet
4 (LAA-Phy) was sim ila r to diet 3 but wi th
supplemen tal Ca an d P to re ach adequat e levels
and no a dde d phytase. Diet 1 and diets 5 to 7
evaluated the energy matr ix value of Natuphos
1200 (T abl e 3). Die t 5 ( LME ) was low in en-
ergy, providing 2,937 kcal ME/kg. Diet 6
(LME+P hy) was similar to diet 5 but formu-
lated with phytase nutrient matrix values for
energy, Ca, an d aP. Diet 7 (LME-Phy ) was
similar to diet 6 but with suppleme nta l Ca a nd
SHELTON ET AL.: PHYTASE NUTRIENT MATRIX VALUES 215
TABLE 3. Composition of diets for experiment 1
A
Diet 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Ingredient Basal LAA LAA+Phy LAA-Phy LME LME+Phy LME-Phy
Corn 52.47 66.53 67.23 67.23 56.72 56.72 56.72
Soybean meal (47.5% CP) 36.85 24.83 24.24 24.24 36.53 36.53 36.53
Soy oil 6.46 4.34 4.24 4.24 1.00 1.00 1.00
Monocalcium phosphate 1.52 1.61 1.16 1.61 1.51 1.06 1.51
Limestone 1.66 1.72 1.65 1.72 1.66 1.59 1.66
Salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Mineral premix
B
0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Vitamin premix
C
0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
Choline chloride
D
0.04 0.04 0.04
DL
-Methionine 0.19 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.18 0.18 0.18
Rice hulls 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
Phytase
E
0.05 0.05
Cornstarch 1.55 0.78 0.78
Sand 0.51 1.29 0.78
Calculated composition
F
ME, kcal/kg 3,200 3,200 3,200 3,200 2,937 2,937/(2,906) 2,906
Crude protein, % 22.44 17.74 17.73/(17.51) 17.51 22.65 22.65 22.65
Lysine, % 1.12 0.82 0.82/(0.81) 0.81 1.12 1.12 1.12
Sulfur amino acids, % 0.81 0.59 0.59/(0.58) 0.58 0.81 0.81 0.81
Threonine, % 0.76 0.60 0.60/(0.59) 0.59 0.76 0.76 0.76
Valine, % 0.96 0.77 0.77/(0.76) 0.76 0.97 0.97 0.97
Tryptophan, % 0.24 0.18 0.18/(0.18) 0.18 0.24 0.24 0.24
Isoleucine, % 0.86 0.66 0.66/(0.65) 0.65 0.86 0.86 0.86
Calcium, % 1.00 1.00 1.00/(0.91) 1.00 1.00 1.00/(0.91) 1.00
Available phosphorus, % 0.45 0.45 0.45/(0.45) 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45
Total phosphorus, % 0.72 0.70 0.70/(0.61) 0.70 0.73 0.73/(0.64) 0.73
A
Amino acids (AA) formulated on a true digestible basis. LAA = corn-soybean meal (C-SBM) diet low in AA; LAA+Phy
= C-SBM diet low in AA but with 600 FTU (phytase units)/kg; LAA-Phy = the LAA+Phy diet without phytase but with
adequate Ca and aP; LME = C-SBM diet low in ME; LME+Phy = C-SBM diet low in ME but with 600 FTU/kg; LME-
Phy = the LME+Phy diet without phytase but with adequate Ca and aP.
B
Provided the following per kilogram of diet: Fe, 50 mg; Mn, 100 mg; Cu, 7 mg; Se, 0.15 mg; Zn, 75 mg; I, 1 mg, as
ferrous sulfate monohydrate, manganese sulfate, copper sulfate, sodium selenite, zinc sulfate, ethylenediamine dihydriodide,
respectively, with calcium carbonate as the carrier.
C
Provided the following per kilogram of diet: vitamin A (retinyl palmitate), 8,000 IU; vitamin D
3
, 3,000 IU; vitamin E (
DL
-
α-tocopherol acetate), 25 IU; vitamin K, 1.5 IU; riboflavin, 10 mg; pantothenic acid, 15 mg; niacin, 50 mg; vitamin B
12
,
0.02 µg; biotin, 0.1 µg; folic acid, 1 mg; pyridoxine, 4 mg; thiamin, 3 mg.
D
Contains 600,000 mg/kg choline.
E
Phytase (as Natuphos 1200) provided 600 FTU/kg. Actual analysis was 670 FTU/kg for diet 3 and 855 FTU/kg for diet
6.
F
Numbers not in parentheses are the calculated composition using the analyzed values for the ingredients and the nutrient
matrix values for phytase. Numbers in parentheses are the calculated composition using the analyzed values for ingredients
but as if phytase was not added.
P t o reach adeq uate levels and no ad ded phy-
tase. In all diets, vitami ns and miner als met or
exceeded the requirem ent for broi ler s fro m 0
to 21 d p ost hat chin g [19]. The c ontrol and the
low-energ y diets were formulated to provide
1.12% true digestible Lys and all other AA met
or exceeded the ratio to Ly s [20]. Natuphos
1200 was in clu ded in the diet at 0.05%, which
provided 600 F TU/k g. Actual an aly sis of di ets
indicated tha t phy tas e provid ed 6 70 FTU/kg
for diet 3 and 855 FT U/k g fo r diet 6. All diets
were C- SBM and produce d in mash for m.
Data were analyzed by ANOVA proced ure s
appropria te f or completely ra ndo miz ed de sig ns
[21]. For e ase of presentation , th e da ta we re
analyzed as 2 EXP. The AA subset included
broilers fed diets 1, 2, 3, and 4 . The ME subset
included broi lers fed diets 1, 5, 6, and 7. F or
the AA subs et, treatment a nd se x we re i ncluded
in the model. There wer e no trea tme nt × sex
JAPR: Research Report216
TABLE 4. Description of diets used in experiment 2
Treatment Description
1 C-SBM control diet
2 C-SBM diet with added phytase at 600
FTU/kg using the nutrient matrix values
for Ca, aP, and ME
3 C-SBM diet with added phytase at 600
FTU/kg using the nutrient matrix values
for Ca, aP, ME, and AA
interacti ons , so it wa s re move d from the an aly -
sis. For the ME subset, tre atme nt, sex, and the
treatment × sex int era cti on were included in
the model. Pen of br oil ers was t he e xpe rimenta l
unit fo r all data.
Experimen t 2
In EXP 2, 1,575 broiler s were allot ted on
d 0 to 3 trea tme nts (Table 4) with 10 replica-
tions (5 male and 5 female) per treatme nt and
50 (male) or 55 (fem ale ) broilers per replica-
tion. The initial a nd final BW were 44 and
2,203 g, respectively , and the EXP las ted 42
d. The broi ler s wer e ho use d in 1.52 - × 3 .05- m
pens at the LSU Poultry Farm in 1 roo m of a
ventilate d tu nnel house equip ped with cool
cells a nd f ans [22]. Th e litter was reused after
raising 1 group of broilers and topped with 6
to 8 cm o f new sh avin gs before the experimen t
began. Fee d and wat er w ere offered ad libit um
throughou t the experi men tal peri od. The broil-
ers wer e fe d a 3-phase f eed ing p rogram con-
TABLE 5. Mineral and amino acid content (%) of the
ingredients used in experiment 2
Soybean
Item Corn meal
Calcium 0.02 0.37
Phosphorus 0.29 0.62
Lysine 0.34 3.03
Methionine 0.21 0.68
Cystine 0.22 0.79
Tryptophan 0.08 0.69
Threonine 0.35 1.81
Valine 0.45 2.31
Isoleucine 0.32 2.16
Leucine 1.06 3.63
Arginine 0.51 3.48
Phenylalanine 0.48 2.41
Histidine 0.27 1.32
sisting of starting (0 to 15 d), gro win g (16 to
35 d), a nd finishing (36 to 42 d) pe rio ds. At
the end of EXP 2, all broile rs were weig hed
by pen, and pen feed intake was m eas ure d.
Natuphos 1200 was include d in the d iet at
0.037%, wh ich adde d 60 0 FTU/kg of diet (ac-
tual analy sis of th e Na tup hos 1200 indicated
an activity of 1,620 FT U/k g). Actual analysis
of diets indicated that phytase provi ded 878
FTU/kg for diet 2 an d 60 0 FTU/kg for diet 3.
Corn and SBM were an aly zed for A A, Ca, and
P [23], and their va lue s were used i n diet fo rmu -
lations (Table 5).
During the sta rtin g period (0 to 15 d), the
diets (Table 6) were formu late d to provide
3,075 kcal /kg , 0.9 5% Ca, 0.45% aP, 1.25%
total L ys, and 0.94 % TS AA. During the grow-
ing period (16 to 35 d), the diets we re f ormu -
lated t o pr ovi de 3,150 kca l/kg , 0. 85% Ca,
0.41% a P, 1.11 % total L ys, and 0.87% TSAA.
During the finishing period (36 to 42 d), the
diets were formulated to provi de 3 ,20 0 kca l/
kg, 0.7 7% Ca, 0 .35% aP, 0.9 4% total Lys, and
0.76% TSAA . Al l nut rie nts met or exceeded
the requir eme nt [1 9] f or b roil ers . Be caus e th e
AA matrix for phytase i s ba sed on digestibl e
AA values, diet 3 was fo rmu late d to meet the
true diges tib le Lys perce ntag e as in diets 1
and 2. A ll diets were C- SBM and prod uce d in
mash fo rm.
At the termina tion of t he E XP, final weig hts
were taken, an d 6 br oil ers per p en were ran-
domly s ele cte d for proces sing [24, 25]. In addi-
tion, litt er sampl es w ere take n fr om 9 locatio ns
within each pe n at the t erm inat ion of t he EX P
to determi ne total P [26] and soluble P [27, 28]
in waste fr om the broilers fed p hyt ase com-
pared w ith those fed a c onv enti ona l di et.
Data were analyzed by ANOVA proced ure s
appropria te for a complet ely randomized d e-
sign [21, 2 9]. There were n o tre atm ent × sex
interacti ons , so this paramet er was remov ed
from the model. Final BW wa s used as a covari-
ate for the carcass data.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Experimen t 1
Table 7 presents the performance data of the
AA portion of EXP 1. Daily gain and gain:feed
were decreased (P < 0.03) in broilers fed the diet
SHELTON ET AL.: PHYTASE NUTRIENT MATRIX VALUES 217
TABLE 6. Diet composition for the starter phase in experiment 2
A
Diet 1 2 3
Ingredient Control
B
ME
B
ME and AA
B
Corn 58.53 60.21 60.88
Soybean meal (47.5% CP) 33.38 33.19 32.62
Tallow 3.52 2.55 2.45
Monocalcium phosphate 1.56 1.11 1.11
Limestone 1.15 1.09 1.09
Salt 0.50 0.50 0.50
BMD+3
C
0.50 0.50 0.50
Mineral premix
D
0.25 0.25 0.25
Vitamin premix
E
0.05 0.05 0.05
Choline chloride
F
0.14 0.14 0.14
DL
-Methionine 0.20 0.19 0.19
L
-LysineHCl 0.05 0.05 0.05
Monteban
G
0.08 0.08 0.08
Rendox
H
0.05 0.05 0.05
Rice hulls 0.04
Phytase
I
0.04 0.04
Calculated composition
J
ME, kcal/kg 3,075 3,075/(3,044) 3,075/(3,044)
Crude protein, % 21.33 21.38 21.37/(21.16)
Lysine, % 1.25 1.25 1.25/(1.24)
Sulfur amino acids, % 0.94 0.94 0.94/(0.93)
Tryptophan, % 0.28 0.28 0.27/(0.27)
Threonine, % 0.81 0.81 0.80/(0.79)
Calcium, % 0.95 0.95/(0.86) 0.95/(0.86)
Available phosphorus, % 0.45 0.45/(0.45) 0.45/(0.45)
Phosphorus, % 0.71 0.61/(0.52) 0.61/(0.52)
A
AA = amino acid. The ME diet used the phytase matrix values for ME. The ME and AA diet used the phytase matrix
values for ME and AA.
B
The control diets during the growing and finishing phases were similar to the starter diet but contained the following: corn,
63.91 and 71.64%; soybean meal, 28.03 and 21.68%; tallow, 3.82 and 3.19%; limestone, 1.00 and 1.03%; monocalcium
phosphate, 1.41 and 1.16%;
DL
-Met, 0.18 and 0.13%; monteban, 0.08 and 0%; bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD)+3
nitro, 0.50 and 0%, respectively. The diets using the phytase nutrient matrix values for ME during the growing and finishing
phases were similar to the starter diet but contained the following: corn, 65.79 and 73.52%; soybean meal, 27.82 and 21.47%;
tallow, 2.74 and 2.10%; limestone, 0.93 and 1.06%; monocalcium phosphate, 0.90 and 0.65%;
DL
-Met, 0.17 and 0.13%;
monteban, 0.08 and 0%; BMD+3 nitro, 0.50 and 0%, respectively. The diets using the phytase nutrient matrix values for
AA and ME during the growing and finishing phases were similar to the starter diet but contained the following: corn, 66.54
and 74.24%; soybean meal, 27.17 and 20.86%; tallow, 2.63 and 2.00%; limestone, 0.93 and 1.06%; monocalcium phosphate,
0.91 and 0.66%;
DL
-Met, 0.17 and 0.12%; monteban, 0.08 and 0%; BMD+3 nitro, 0.50 and 0%, respectively.
C
Provided per kilogram of diet: BMD, 0.022 g and 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid, 0.025 g. Nutra Blend Corporation,
Neosha, MO.
D
Provided the following per kilogram of diet: Fe, 50 mg; Mn, 100 mg; Cu, 7 mg; Se, 0.15 mg; Zn, 75 mg; I, 1 mg, as
ferrous sulfate monohydrate, manganese sulfate, copper sulfate, sodium selenite, zinc sulfate, ethylenediamine dihydriodide,
respectively with calcium carbonate as the carrier.
E
Provided the following per kilogram of diet: vitamin A (retinyl palmitate), 8,000 IU; vitamin D
3
, 3,000 IU; vitamin E (
DL
-
α-tocopherol acetate), 25 IU; vitamin K, 1.5 IU; riboflavin, 10 mg; pantothenic acid, 15 mg; niacin, 50 mg; vitamin B
12
,
0.02 g; biotin, 0.1 µg; folic acid, 1 mg; pyridoxine, 4 mg; thiamin, 3 mg.
F
Contains 600,000 mg/kg choline.
G
Active ingredient is 0.825 g/kg narsin.
H
Used as an antioxidant (Kemin Industries, Des Moines, IA).
I
Phytase (Natuphos 1200) provided 878 phytase units (FTU)/kg in diet 2 and 600 FTU/kg in diet 3.
J
Numbers not in parentheses are the calculated composition using the analyzed values for the ingredients and the nutrient
matrix values for phytase. Numbers in parentheses are the calculated composition using the analyzed values for ingredients
but as if phytase was not added.
JAPR: Research Report218
TABLE 7. Growth performance of broilers in the AA portion of experiment 1
A
Treatment ADG ADFI GF
1. C-SBM control diet 41.35
a
51.39
a
0.805
a
2. C-SBM deficient in AA 33.86
b
49.02
a
0.691
b
3. C-SBM diet deficient in AA but with 600 FTU/kg 33.24
b
48.98
a
0.679
b
4. Diet 3 without phytase but adequate in Ca and aP 33.08
b
48.59
b
0.682
b
SEM 0.67 0.82 0.009
a,b
Data in columns with different superscripts differ, P < 0.03.
A
Data are means of 7 replications of 6 broilers per replication with an initial and final BW of 72 and 574 g. AA = amino
acid; ADG = average daily gain; ADFI = average daily feed intake; GF = gain:feed; C-SBM = corn-soybean meal; FTU =
phytase units; aP = available phosphorus. The Ca and aP was reduced by 0.094% in the diet with phytase.
deficient in AA with or without added phytase
relative to those fed the control diet. Daily feed
intake was decreased (P < 0.03) in broilers fed
the diet deficient in AA with no added phytase
but adequate in Ca and aP (treatment 4) relative
to those fed the C-SBM control. Table 8 presents
the performance data of the ME portion of EXP
1. Daily gain and gain:feed were decreased (P
< 0.04) in broilers fed the diet low in energy
with or without added phytase relative to those
fed the control diet. Broilers fed the diets with
phytase using the nutrient matrix for ME or AA
resulted in similar growth performance com-
pared with broilers fed the deficient diets. Re-
moving the phytase from the diets low in AA
or ME did not decrease the AA or ME content
low enough to cause a significant decrease in
growth performance in the broilers.
Experiment 2
Diet did not affect (P > 0.05) final BW, daily
gain, daily feed intake, gain:feed, mortality, or
tibia ash percentage, when broilers were fed the
control diet or the diets with added phytase (Ta-
ble 9). This response suggests that the nutrient
matrix values used for phytase are accurate when
TABLE 8. Growth performance of broilers in the energy portion of experiment 1
A
Treatment ADG ADFI GF
1. C-SBM control diet 41.26
a
51.36 0.804
a
5. C-SBM low in energy 38.08
b
51.87 0.735
b
6. C-SBM low in energy but with 600 FTU/kg 39.26
b
52.63 0.746
b
7. Diet 6 without phytase but adequate in Ca and aP 38.79
b
52.66 0.737
b
SEM 0.61 0.91 0.007
a,b
Data in columns with different superscripts differ, P < 0.04.
A
Data are means of 7 replications of 6 broilers per replication with an initial and final BW of 72 and 574 g. ADG = average
daily gain; ADFI = average daily feed intake; GF = gain:feed; C-SBM = corn-soybean meal; FTU = phytase units; aP =
available phosphorus. The Ca and aP was reduced by 0.094% in the diet with phytase.
growth performance and tibia ash are used as
response variables. The nutrient matrix values
for phytase used in this EXP included Ca, aP,
ME, and AA. The availability of calcium [30,
31, 32], aP [6, 7], energy [8, 9], and AA [10,
11, 12] has been reported to be increased in
broilers when phytase is supplemented to the
diet.
Diet did not affect (P > 0.05) live weight,
eviscerated weight, chill weight, carcass yield,
moisture gain due to chill, breast weight as a
percentage of live weight, or 24-h moisture loss
in broilers fed the control diet or diets with added
phytase using the nutrient matrix values (Table
10). Broilers fed the diets with phytase using
the matrix values for ME, Ca, and aP had a
decreased (P < 0.03) breast weight as a percent-
age of chill weight compared with those fed the
diet with phytase using the matrix values for
ME, AA, Ca, and aP. This response in breast
weight was unexpected because the diet using
the matrix values for ME, Ca, and aP actually
had more AA in the diet than the diet using the
nutrient matrix values for ME, AA, Ca, and aP.
No effect on moisture loss in the breast meat
was observed when broilers were fed the diets
SHELTON ET AL.: PHYTASE NUTRIENT MATRIX VALUES 219
TABLE 9. Effect of phytase on growth performance of 42-d-old broilers, experiment 2
A
Diet 1 2 3
Item Control ME ME and AA SEM
Final weight, g 2,219.7 2,200.9 2,188.8 13.2
Average daily gain, g 51.7 51.3 51.0 0.3
Feed intake, g 94.1 92.8 92.0 1.0
Gain:feed, g:kg 549 550 552 5
Mortality, chicks/replication
B
0.60 1.00 0.80 0.25
Tibia ash, % 57.27 58.02 57.12 0.56
A
Data are means of 10 replicates of 50 or 55 broilers per replicate. Average initial BW was 44 g. AA = amino acids. The
ME diet used the phytase matrix values for ME. The ME and AA diet used the phytase matrix values for ME and the AA.
B
Mortality was analyzed using the square-root transformation of (y + 0.5). Treatment means are actual means from original data.
TABLE 10. Effect of phytase on carcass traits of 43-d-old broilers, experiment 2
A
Diet 1 2 3
Item Control ME ME and AA SEM
Live weight, kg 2.20 2.15 2.17 0.03
Eviscerated weight, kg 1.58 1.53 1.55 0.02
Chill weight, kg 1.62 1.57 1.58 0.02
Carcass yield, %
B
72.1 71.8 71.3 0.3
Moisture gain due to chill, %
C
2.54 2.35 2.32 0.27
24-h moisture loss, %
D
1.10 1.07 1.05 0.08
Breast weight PLW, %
E
13.0 12.7 13.1 0.14
Breast weight PCW, %
E
17.6
a,b
17.4
b
17.9
a
0.18
a,b
Means in a row with different superscripts differ, P < 0.03.
A
Data are means of 10 replicates of 6 broilers per replicate. The growth trial lasted 42 d. The broilers were processed on d
43 after a 12-h fast. AA = amino acids. Average initial BW was 44 g. The ME diet used the phytase matrix values for ME.
The ME and AA diet used the phytase matrix values for ME and the AA.
B
Carcass yield calculated as eviscerated weight divided by live weight × 100.
C
Moisture gain calculated as chill weight minus eviscerated weight divided by eviscerated weight × 100.
D
Moisture loss calculated as 24-h breast weight minus initial breast weight divided by initial breast weight × 100.
E
PLW = percentage of live weight; PCW = percentage of chill weight.
TABLE 11. Effect of phytase on P levels in the litter, experiment 2
A
12 3
Item Control ME ME and AA SEM
Total P, mg/kg 14,295
a
12,928
b
12,411
b
233
Inorganic soluble P, mg/kg 1,563
a
1,348
b
1,223
b
93
Total soluble P, mg/kg 1,881
a
1,664
b
1,525
b
90
a,b
Phytase, P < 0.03.
A
Data are means of 10 replicates. Litter samples were taken from 9 locations within each pen at the termination of the
experiment. AA = amino acids. Average initial BW was 44 g. The ME diet used the phytase matrix values for ME. The
ME and AA diet used the phytase matrix values for ME and the AA.
with phytase. This response disagrees with a
report by Rienstra et al. [33] who reported a
decrease in drip loss of loin chops when phytase
was added to diets for swine. On the other hand,
Gebert et al. [34] reported no effect on water-
holding capacity when phytase was added to
diets for swine.
Total P, soluble P, and inorganic soluble P
in the litter were decreased (P < 0.03) in the
litter of broilers fed the diets with added phytase
relative to those fed the control diet (Table 11).
DeLaune et al. [35] reported an increase in solu-
ble P in the litter of broilers fed phytase. How-
ever, it is well documented that phytase in-
JAPR: Research Report220
creases P retention in broilers [36, 37, 38]. In
addition, our data agree with data by Moore et
al. [39] who reported numerical decreases (not
always significant) in both total and soluble
CONCLUSIONS AND APPLICATIONS
1. Reducing the AA or ME concentrations in the diets for broilers in EXP 1 resulted in a decreased
growth performance. The addition of phytase did not affect growth performance of broilers fed
diets deficient in AA or ME.
2. In EXP 2, using the nutrient matrix values for phytase in formulating C-SBM diets for commercial
broilers resulted in similar growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and tibia ash
percentage compared with broilers fed a conventional C-SBM diet.
3. Phytase addition to broiler diets reduces the levels of total and soluble P in the litter.
4. The nutrient matrix values presented in these EXP are accurate and can be used in formulating
diets for commercial broilers that incorporate Natuphos 1200.
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22. The lighting system consisted of 3 d of 24-h light, followed
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broilers were conditioned to the dark period over 3 d by increasing the
periods of dark until 8 h of dark were reached. The temperature in
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23. The AA composition (Table 5) of C and SBM was determined
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eviscerated, and placed in an aerated chill tank (ice and water). After
the broilers were chilled to 6 to 8°C, they were removed and allowed
SHELTON ET AL.: PHYTASE NUTRIENT MATRIX VALUES 221
to drain for at least 15 min and then weighed. The broilers were
then deboned and individual breast weights were recorded. After the
chilled breast weight was recorded, the individual breasts were placed
into a poultry meat tray that contained 2 absorbent pads, sealed, and
placed in a refrigerator (4 to 6°C). After approximately 24 h, the
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Acknowledgments
The authors thank Rob Payne, Bob Taylor, Manuel Persica, Chris-
tine Pollet, Amy Guzik, Brandy Watson, Trey Harding, and Tanika
O’Connor-Dennie for their assistance with data collection. The au-
thors thank BASF Corporation (Wyandotte, MI) for supplying Na-
tuphos 1200.
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... Phytic acid is known to bind with minerals such as calcium, magnesium and other nutrients like protein, carbohydrate and ether extract (Lesson, 1993), and it is, therefore, obvious that phytate-bound nutrients will also be released along with the free phosphorus. This effect known as an 'extra phosphoric effect' resulted in improved digestibility of crude fibre, protein and ether extract attributed to phytase compared to the control (Shelton et al., 2004). Thus, it could be inferred that even if the phytase is used for the primary aim (to release phosphorus), its positive effect on fibre, crude protein and ether extract must also be taken into consideration. ...
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... Phytase may increase water consumption and contribute to wet droppings when formulated into diets without using nutrient matrix values. Phytase is normally assigned nutrient matrix values for amino acids/protein and energy in addition to Ca and P to incorporate it into least cost formulations (Shelton et al., 2004). The level of Na in basal diets and Na matrix for phytase are often overlooked during formulation. ...
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