Article

Discriminability of fingerprints of twins

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Abstract

A study of the discriminability of fingerprints of twins is presented. The fingerprint data used is of high quality and quan-tity because of a predominantly young subject population of 298 pairs of twins whose tenprints were captured using a livescan device. Discriminability using level 1 and level 2 features is independently reported. The level 1 study was to visually classify by humans each fingerprint into one of six categories (right loop, left loop, whorl, arch, twin loop, and tented arch). It was found that twins are much more likely (55%) to have the same level 1 classification when compared to the general population (32%). The level 2 study was to compare minutiae (ridge endings and bifurcations). This was done by a minu-tiae-based automatic fingerprint identification algorithm that provided a score (0-350) given a pair of fingerprints. Scores were computed for corresponding fingers from both twins and non-twins. Five distribu-tions of scores were determined: twins, non-twins, identical twins, fraternal twins, and genuine scores from the same finger. Using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to compare distributions, the following inferences are made: twins are different from genuines, twins are different from non-twins, and identical twins are the same as fraternal twins. The main conclusion is that, although the patterns of minutiae among twins are more similar than in the general population, they are still discriminable.

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... As the biometrics-based verification becomes more pervasive, there have existed some studies (e.g. Fingerprint [2] [5][6][7], Palmprint [8], Speaker [9], and Iris [10]) which determined the distinctiveness of the biometric characteristics in order to establish the performance limits of such systems. Jain et al. 0 analyzed the similarity between twins' fingerprints in a study using fingerprint images from 94 pairs of identical twins. ...
... In another analysis of fingerprints from 66 pairs of twins 0, Han et al. also found that fingerprints can be used to identify identical twins with an insignificant drop in the performance: the Equal Error Rate (EER) generally increased by 1-2% compared to nontwin impostor matching. Srihari et al. [6] analyzed the similarity between twins' fingerprints in a study using fingerprint images from 298 pairs of twins. The authors analyzed this similarity using two-level features. ...
... (1) Compared to all the methods [2][5] [7], two state-of-the-art fingerprint identification methods: P071 and VeriFinger 6.1 are used for twin fingerprint identification in this paper rather than one fingerprint identification method in [2][5] [7]. (2) Compared to Jain's [2] and Srihari's [6] methods, six impressions per finger were captured rather than just one impression, which makes the genuine distribution of matching scores more realistic. As we know, the genuine distribution of matching scores needs to be estimated from matching multiple fingerprint impressions of the same finger. ...
Article
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Fingerprint recognition with identical twins is a challenging task due to the closest genetics-based relationship existing in the identical twins. Several pioneers have analyzed the similarity between twins' fingerprints. In this work we continue to investigate the topic of the similarity of identical twin fingerprints. Our study was tested based on a large identical twin fingerprint database that contains 83 twin pairs, 4 fingers per individual and six impressions per finger: 3984 (83*2*4*6) images. Compared to the previous work, our contributions are summarized as follows: (1) Two state-of-the-art fingerprint identification methods: P071 and VeriFinger 6.1 were used, rather than one fingerprint identification method in previous studies. (2) Six impressions per finger were captured, rather than just one impression, which makes the genuine distribution of matching scores more realistic. (3) A larger sample (83 pairs) was collected. (4) A novel statistical analysis, which aims at showing the probability distribution of the fingerprint types for the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, has been conducted. (5) A novel analysis, which aims at showing which finger from identical twins has higher probability of having same fingerprint type, has been conducted. Our results showed that: (a) A state-of-the-art automatic fingerprint verification system can distinguish identical twins without drastic degradation in performance. (b) The chance that the fingerprints have the same type from identical twins is 0.7440, comparing to 0.3215 from non-identical twins. (c) For the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, the probability distribution of five major fingerprint types is similar to the probability distribution for all the fingers' fingerprint type. (d) For each of four fingers of identical twins, the probability of having same fingerprint type is similar.
... One of earlier ones used only a single pair of twins [25]. A more recent study [26] involves a large set of fingerprints from nearly 3,000 pairs of fingers involving 206 pairs of twins [26]. The question to be answered is whether there exists a higher degree of match between individuals who are twins rather than when the individuals are not twins. ...
... One of earlier ones used only a single pair of twins [25]. A more recent study [26] involves a large set of fingerprints from nearly 3,000 pairs of fingers involving 206 pairs of twins [26]. The question to be answered is whether there exists a higher degree of match between individuals who are twins rather than when the individuals are not twins. ...
... The twin study reported [26] was based on fingerprints of 297 pairs of twins. The data used in the study is of high quality and quantity due to: (i) young population considered, (ii) fingerprints were obtained using a live scan device, and (iii) there are 2,970 pairs of fingers. ...
Article
Over a hundred years, several attempts have been made to quantitatively establish the degree of individuality of fingerprints. Measurements have been made using models based on grids, ridges, fixed probabilities, relative measurements and generative distributions. This paper is a survey and assessment of various fingerprint individuality models proposed to-date. Models starting from that of Galton to recently proposed generative models are described. The mod- els are described in terms of their attributes, similarities and differences. A detailed discussion of generative models for fingerprints, which are based on modeling the distributions of finger- print features from a database, is given. Generative models with and without ridge information are compared. The probabilities of random correspondence arrived at by all the models are summarized. Finally, recent studies of fingerprints of twins, which strengthen the individuality argument, are discussed.
... An operational trial on an evaluative model has been carried out (128). Finally, twin studies show that twins' fingerprints are closer than randomly chosen ones, but distinguishable (129,130). With respect to level III features, several studies concern their integration into the matching process (77,(131)(132)(133)(134)(135)(136)(137), one study assesses fingerprint examiners' opinions on such features, and one study concerns the reproducibility of pore areas (138). ...
... Testing of the distributions of match scores shows that the distribution for twins is different than that for comparisons between impressions from the same finger. The distribution for fraternal twins does not differ from that of identical twins, and the statistical test used does not formally show a difference between the distribution for twins and non-twins; it is concluded however that the similarity of fingerprints of twins is different from the similarity between arbitrary fingers (130). ...
Conference Paper
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The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific literature from August 2007 to July 2010. The review is focused on more than 420 published papers. The review will not cover information coming from international meetings available only in abstract form.
... Failing to properly identify a subject who has a twin has many negative economic and security impacts as described by Sun et al. in [1]. However, experiments conducted by Daugman and Downing in [2], by Jain et al. in [3], by Srihari et al. in [4], and by Kong et al. in [5] have shown that biometric identifiers such as the iris, fingerprints, and palmprints can be used to tell identical twins apart. Recently, studies carried out in [6][7][8][9][10][11] have also proved that facial features and facial recognition systems can be used to tell identical twins apart. ...
... Fingerprint verification systems were studied by Jain et al. in [3] and they observed that similarity of fingerprints was highest in the case of identical twins, followed by siblings, parents and their children, and finally, unrelated people. Srihari et al. [4] analyzed the similarity of fingerprints based on minutiae and ridge flow in order to distinguish twins and concluded that the fingers of twins have a greater chance of being classified as belonging to the same person than the fingers of non-twins and that the similarity of fingerprints between both fraternal twins and identical twins is the same. Kong et al. [5] examined palmprints generated from 53 pairs of identical twins (1028 palmprint images). ...
Article
A reliable and accurate biometric identification system must be able to distinguish individuals even in situations where their biometric signatures are very similar. However, the strong similarity in the facial appearance of twins has complicated facial feature based recognition and has even compromised commercial face recognition systems. This paper addresses the above problem and proposes two novel methods to distinguish identical twins using: (1) facial aging features and (2) asymmetry decomposition features. Facial aging features are extracted using Gabor filters from regions of the face that typically exhibit wrinkles and laugh lines, while Facial asymmetry decomposition based features are obtained by projecting the difference between the two left sides (consisting of the left half of the face and its mirror) and two right sides (consisting of the right half of the face and its mirror) of a face onto a subspace. Feature vectors obtained using these methods were used for classification. Experiments conducted on images of five types of twins from the University of Notre Dame ND-Twins database indicate that both our proposed approaches achieve high identification rates and are hence quite promising at distinguishing twins.
... One of the new biometrical challenges is to encounter with similar objects that their identity can hardly be recognized, such as confronting twins and multiples [4]. Security systems, which are not able to tackle with twins and multiple biometric traits may be liable to penetration [4,5]. ...
... Due to unavailability of databases covering twins biometric traits, few twins studies have been carried out in biometrics. Srihari [5] studied the similarities of fingerprints of twins. He implied that there is more similarity between twin fingers than in the case of two arbitrary fingers. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper presents a new multimodal database from twins' biometric traits intended for twins and person authentication from multiple cues. The database consists of six unimodal biometric traits, namely two dimensional (2D) face images, fingerprints, offline handwritten texts, videos of moving faces, spectral and thermal face images. A total of 104 subjects corresponding to 52 pairs comprises the database from which 20 pairs are identical and the rest are fraternal twins. Besides biometric traits, personality traits and psychological characteristics of twins were also collected using two popular psychology questionnaires, Craig's Locus of Control (LOC) and the Big Five. Additionally, we conduct an experiment to measure human capability in distinguishing between identical twins. The result shows that untrained humans could classify identical twins with 82% accuracy using facial information and 76% accuracy using writing styles.
... The performance of the face recognition systems that are commercially available is reasonable [128], but they still have a number of challenges and to overcome such as weather changes, low illumination, subject distance from the camera [153] • Fingerprint: It represents the widely used biometrics in our today world. Fingerprint biometrics is deployed for both identification and authentication as it is unique and different even for twins using minutea algorithms [227] and its matching accuracy has been shown to be very high [157], [58], [274]. A fingerprint is the pattern of ridges and valleys on the surface of a fingertip, the formation of which is determined during the first seven months of fetal development . ...
Thesis
World has recently witnessed a surge of criminal and terrorist activities that took the lives of many innocent people. Although CCTV are becoming ubiquitous and intrusive being largely deployed to survey public and strategic areas such as airports, metro stations and shopping malls, the identification of suspects using automated methods is still a challenging task to stop further terrorist attacks or prevent crimes. Law enforcement agencies can make use of surveillance systems for the safety of our neighborhood and crime prevention or resolving. In fact, it is impossible regardless the size of manpower recruited to monitor and analyze the immense amount of CCTV footage recorded either offline or streamed at real time. The use of surveillance technology should without doubt assist to lessen the risks and number of crimes by serving as a deterrent. Biometric technologies can be a major milestone to improve the automation process of visual surveillance in order to recognize criminal offenders and track them across different places. Gait defined as the way we walk, is considered recently as a more suited modality for people recognition in surveillance scenarios. This is because it can be captured nonintrusively and covertly from a distance even with poor resolution imageries. Gait biometrics can be of benefits not only for identify recognition, but it can play a vital role to enhance the automation process for surveillance systems including reidentification and people tracking across different cameras. Moreover, a biometric signature constructed from the gait rhythmic motion pattern is considered the only likely identification method suitable for covert surveillance and reliably not prone to spoofing attacks and signature forgery. Numerous research studies haveconfirmed the potentials of using gait for people identification in surveillance and forensic scenarios, but only a few studies have investigated the contribution of motion- based features on the recognition process. we explore, in our work, the use of optical flow estimated from consecutive frames to construct a discriminative biometric signature for gait recognition. Set of different Local and global optical. flow based features have been proposed and a set of experiments are carried out using the CASIA-B dataset to assess the discriminatory potency of motion-based analyzed features for gait identification subjected to different covariate factors including clothing and carrying conditions. Further experiments are conducted to explore the effects of the dataset size, the number of frames and viewpoint on the classification process. Based on a dataset containing 1240 video sequences for 124 individuals, higher recognition rates are achieved using the KNN and neural network classifiers without incorporating static and anthropometric measurements. This confirms that gait identification using motion-based features is perceivable with acceptable recognition rates even under different covariate factors and real world environmental covariates.
... Identical twins differ in thumbprints (TP), hand geometry (HG), palm print (PP), iris images (II), finger veins (FV), palatal structure (PS), finger prints (FP) and gait signatures (GS). Therefore, either one of these biometrics or their combinations can be used for identical twins identification [Srihari, 2008] [Tao, 2012] [S3, 2013]. ...
Research
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This is the summary of my Ph.D. thesis titled "A Framework Towards Using Multibiometric System Based Techniques for Personal Identification"
... Designation of fingerprint minutiaeIn this paper the fingerprints in the ATVS-FFp database are matched with the Bozorth algorithm, which consists of three major steps [24][27]: ...
Article
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Fingerprint is a widely used biometrics. Its extensive usage motivates imposter to fabricate fake fingerprints. Vitality detection has been proposed to prevent counterfeit finger attack. Currently the detection can be done either during the process of acquiring fingerprint image or by comparing multiple sequentially acquired images. It is an ongoing research problem to detect whether a given fingerprint image is obtained from a real or a fake fingertip. In this paper we look into the differences between real and fake fingerprints as the first step to approach this problem. Specifically, we study the effects of different imaging sensors on the sizes of templates and on the matching scores between real and fake fingerprints. We also compare the fake fingerprints made from different materials. Experiments are carried out with two publicly available fingerprint databases and the findings are reported.
... It therefore provides an alternative, engineered method of pattern generation that is separate from, but that can be compared with, natural evolved mechanisms such as reaction-diffusion [6,7,30]. In Also, in both the engineered and natural systems, while the general character of the pattern (spots / stripes) can be deduced from starting conditions, the precise pattern is not predictable in detail and not reproducible (each run of our experiments produced a different detailed pattern; the natural fingerprints of even monozygotic twins are easily distinguished [31]). As well as allowing researchers to explore an alternative to common, evolved systems for de novo pattern generation in animal cells, the construction of a synthetic, inducible patterning system such as this is a step towards the engineering of self-organizing, multicellular synthetic tissues. ...
Article
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Synthetic biology provides an opportunity for the construction and exploration of alternative solutions to biological problems - solutions different from those chosen by natural life. To this end, synthetic biologists have built new sensory systems, cellular memories, and alternative genetic codes. There is a growing interest in applying synthetic approaches to multicellular systems, especially in relation to multicellular self-organization. Here we describe a synthetic biological system that confers large-scale de novo patterning activity on 2-D and 3-D populations of mammalian cells. Instead of using the reaction-diffusion mechanisms common in real embryos, our system uses cadherin-mediated phase separation, inspired by the known phenomenon of cadherin-based sorting. An engineered self-organizing, large-scale patterning system requiring no prior spatial cue may be a significant step towards the construction of self-assembling synthetic tissues.
... The two events operate on what developmental biologists call a 'field'a volume of a cell, or more commonly of a population of cells, in which elements are connected by some kind of communication link which might be chemical, mechanical or even electrical. In pattern formation, an initially uniform field of cells acquires a non-random inhomogeneity, predictable either in detail (e.g. the pattern of bones in the hand) or predictable in statistical character even though not in detail (e.g. the pattern of a fingerprint, which is unique to individuals even in identical twins [7]). In the related phenomenon of 'pattern elaboration' a simple pattern in a field becomes more complicated as when, for example, an alternation of two cell states becomes a repeating series of three cell states. ...
Article
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The development of natural tissues, organs and bodies depends on mechanisms of patterning and of morphogenesis, typically (but not invariably) in that order, and often several times at different final scales. Using synthetic biology to engineer patterning and morphogenesis will both enhance our basic understanding of how development works, and provide important technologies for advanced tissue engineering. Focusing on mammalian systems built to date, this review describes patterning systems, both contact-mediated and reaction-diffusion, and morphogenetic effectors. It also describes early attempts to connect the two to create self-organizing physical form. The review goes on to consider how these self-organized systems might be modified to increase the complexity and scale of the order they produce, and outlines some possible directions for future research and development.
... The individuality of fingerprints have been studied from various viewpoints, 1 including the probability of random correspondence 2 and the discriminability of twins. 3 These studies have dealt with well-registered fingerprint images where all features can be reliably extracted. In both biometric and forensic applications a perfect fingerprint image may not be available. ...
Article
The biometric verification task is to determine whether or not an input and a template belong to the same individual. In the context of automatic fingerprint verification the task consists of three steps: feature extraction, where features (typically minutiae) are extracted from each fingerprint, scoring, where the degree of match between the two sets of features is determined, and decision, where the score is used to accept or reject the hypothesis that the input and template belong to the same individual. The paper focuses on the final decision step, which is a binary classification problem involving a single score variable. The commonly used decision method is to learn a score threshold from a labeled set of inputs and templates, by first determining the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) of the task. The ROC method works well when there is a well-registered fingerprint image. The paper shows that when there is uncertainty due to fingerprint quality, e.g. the input is a latent print or a partial print, the decision method can be improved by using the likelihood ratio of match/non match. The likelihood ratio is obtained by modeling the distributions of same finger and different finger scores using parametric distributions. The parametric forms considered are Gaussian and Gamma distributions whose parameters are learnt from labeled training samples. The performances of the likelihood and ROC methods are compared for varying numbers of minutiae points available for verification. Using either Gaussian or Gamma parametric distributions, the likelihood method has a lower error rate than the ROC method when few minutiae points are available. Likelihood and ROC methods converge to the same accuracy as more minutiae points are available.
... For the comparison of populations, Loesch and Martin [7] gave the topological classification, and Jantz and Chopra [8] studied the genetics of the dermatoglyphic traits. The emphasis of anthropological work is to study inter-and intra-population variations rather than the individual and also a few dermatoglyphic traits are heritable in nature, hence useful in twin studies [9]. Previously, many studies have been conducted for digital and palmer dermatoglyphics giving dermatoglyphic variables model for different ethnic groups of various geographic origin [8,[10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]. ...
Article
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Background and aim The unique and persistent nature of dermatoglyphic features serves as a valuable tool for the inclusion and exclusion of the suspect at a crime scene. Moreover, dermatoglyphic characteristics have been used to study variations in different population groups and ancestries by researchers. The aim is to enquire whether an individual can be identified as belonging to Rajput or Brahmin ancestry on the basis of digital dermatoglyphics. Besides, whether the digital dermatoglyphic features can be utilized for the identification of a living or dead. Methodology The study was conducted on 512 healthy young adults residing in Districts Shimla and Solan of Himachal Pradesh state of north India. The rolled and plain prints of the finger balls were taken on a specially designed ten fingerprint card. The manual analysis involved identification of the pattern types using Henry's classification. For the analysis, core, triradii, and type lines were marked on the print and further, the ridge counts and indices were calculated. Appropriate statistical tests such as Shapiro-Wilk test, Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test and Simple Correspondence Analysis (CA) were applied to the data for achieving the aim of the study. Results and conclusion The most commonly occurring patterns are Loops followed by whorls, composites and finally arches in both the ethnic groups. Digit wise frequency is also reported in both the ethnic groups. The overall mean values of Furuhata’s Index, Dankmeijer’s Index, and Pattern Intensity Index are 140.85 and 155.20, 12.44 and 20.49, 13.74 and 13.64 for Rajputs and Brahmins respectively. All the three indices being calculated showed statistically insignificant (p > 0.05) differences for the Rajputs and Brahmins using Mann-Whitney U test Moreover, the Total Finger Ridge count and Absolute Finger Ridge count showed statistically significant bilateral differences (p < 0.05) in Rajputs using the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test. However, for Brahmins, only TFRC showed statistically significant bilateral differences. The significant association has been observed between the pattern types and finger digits using Correspondence Analysis. It has been concluded that such dermatoglyphic characteristics seem to be confined to ancestry identification, not individual identification. The results highlighting the sex, racial affinity, and bilateral differences may be further useful in the identification of two ancestries.
... The structural features such as the overall global pattern of ridges, singularity regions (core and delta), ridge Minutiae, ridge shape, width and sweat pores are used as mark of identification to distinguish between two fingerprints or find out the similarity. It has been found that no two individuals have same fingerprint features and even identical twins with similar DNAs have different ridge details and can be differentiated based on their fingerprint features [4][5]. The accidental injuries such as cuts and bruises on the finger surface only alter the ridge structure for the time being and reappear after the injury gets normal. ...
... Furthermore, and perhaps even more importantly, they help the assessment of whether or not the two groups of features compared (in most models minutiae) indeed correspond to what is expected if they were both left by the same finger. This last point is not necessarily addressed in all approaches that have been proposed in recent years in particular those centered mostly around fingerprint individuality [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23]. It is the consideration of the within-finger variability that assesses this expectation. ...
Article
In the context of the investigation of the use of automated fingerprint identification systems (AFIS) for the evaluation of fingerprint evidence, the current study presents investigations into the variability of scores from an AFIS system when fingermarks from a known donor are compared to fingerprints that are not from the same source. The ultimate goal is to propose a model, based on likelihood ratios, which allows the evaluation of mark-to-print comparisons. In particular, this model, through its use of AFIS technology, benefits from the possibility of using a large amount of data, as well as from an already built-in proximity measure, the AFIS score. More precisely, the numerator of the LR is obtained from scores issued from comparisons between impressions from the same source and showing the same minutia configuration. The denominator of the LR is obtained by extracting scores from comparisons of the questioned mark with a database of non-matching sources. This paper focuses solely on the assignment of the denominator of the LR. We refer to it by the generic term of between-finger variability. The issues addressed in this paper in relation to between-finger variability are the required sample size, the influence of the finger number and general pattern, as well as that of the number of minutiae included and their configuration on a given finger. Results show that reliable estimation of between-finger variability is feasible with 10,000 scores. These scores should come from the appropriate finger number/general pattern combination as defined by the mark. Furthermore, strategies of obtaining between-finger variability when these elements cannot be conclusively seen on the mark (and its position with respect to other marks for finger number) have been presented. These results immediately allow case-by-case estimation of the between-finger variability in an operational setting.
... Few twins studies have been already carried out in biometrics. They include Fingerprints [4], Handwriting [5], Palmprints [6] and Iris [7]. Table I summarizes the databases used in these works. ...
Conference Paper
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Variations in pose, expression, aging and disguise are considered as basic challenges in face recognition systems and several standard databases have been built to address these challenges. Twins face recognition, on the other hand, has not yet been studied because there is no database which includes face images of twins. In this paper we present a new unconstrained face database which contains 3,804 face images of 1,902 pairs of twins. These images were collected from different twins' festivals from the World Wide Web. We provided an analytical study to experiment the impacts of twins facial similarity on different face recognition algorithms. The results show that the algorithms are unable to meet an acceptable rate of identification performance on twins face database. In this paper descriptions of the database such as development process, organization as well as statistic information are also depicted in details.
... By analyzing 66 pairs of twins, Han et al 55 found that fingerprints can be used to identify identical twins with an insignificant error in the performance. Srihari et al 56 analyzed the similarity between twin fingerprints of 298 pairs and found that the similarity between the fingerprints of twins is higher than that of two arbitrary fingers. ...
Article
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p>Fingerprints have been the gold standard for personal identification within the forensic community for more than one hundred years. It is still universal in spite of discovery of DNA fingerprint. The science of fingerprint identification has evolved over time from the early use of finger prints to mark business transactions in ancient Babylonia to their use today as core technology in biometric security devices and as scientific evidence in courts of law throughout the world. The science of fingerprints, dactylography or dermatoglyphics, had long been widely accepted, and well acclaimed and reputed as panacea for individualization, particularly in forensic investigations. Human fingerprints are detailed, unique, difficult to alter, and durable over the life of an individual, making them suitable as lifelong markers of human identity. Fingerprints can be readily used by police or other authorities to identify individuals who wish to conceal their identity, or to identify people who are incapacitated or deceased, as in the aftermath of a natural disaster J Enam Med Col 2017; 7(1): 29-34</p
... Fingerprints as evidence are an effective means to associate an individual to a crime scene, in part because fingerprint impressions are readily available from many surfaces. Fingerprints are unique, even those from identical twins (Srihari, Srinivasan, & Fang, 2008). However, each impression is also unique, due to distortion, visual noise, color inversion, deposition medium, and pressure. ...
Article
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Holistic processing is often characterized as a process by which objects are perceived as a whole rather than a compilation of individual features. This mechanism may play an important role in the development of perceptual expertise because it allows for rapid integration across image regions. The present work explores whether holistic processing is present in latent fingerprint examiners, who compare fingerprints collected from crime scenes against a set of standards taken from a suspect. We adapted a composite task widely used in the face recognition and perceptual expertise literatures, in which participants were asked to match only a particular half of a fingerprint with a previous image while ignoring the other half. We tested both experts and novices, using both upright and inverted fingerprints. For upright fingerprints, we found weak evidence for holistic processing, but with no differences between experts and novices with respect to holistic processing. For inverted fingerprints, we found stronger evidence of holistic processing, with weak evidence for differences between experts and novices. These relatively weak holistic processing effects contrast with robust evidence for holistic processing with faces and with objects in other domains of perceptual expertise. The data constrain models of holistic processing by demonstrating that latent fingerprint experts and novices may not substantively differ in terms of the amount of holistic processing and that inverted stimuli actually produced more evidence for holistic processing than upright stimuli. Important differences between the present fingerprint stimuli and those in the literature include the lack of verbal labels for experts and the absence of strong vertical asymmetries, both of which might contribute to stronger holistic processing signatures in other stimulus domains.
... Some of these differences may be specified genetically, but studies of monozygotic twins have demonstrated that histogenesis can vary even when driven by exactly the same 'genetic programme'. This fact even finds application in the forensic sciences; while the 'DNA fingerprints' of monozygotic twins are the same, their literal fingerprints are readily distinguishable (Srihari et al. 2008;K€ ucken & Champod, 2013). Palatal rugae also differ between monozygotic twins (Herrera et al. 2017), while patterns of cortical gyrification and dentition can, but do not always, do so (Townsend et al. 2005;Kates et al. 2009). ...
Article
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The anatomy of healthy humans shows much minor variation, and twin-studies reveal at least some of this variation cannot be explained genetically. A plausible explanation is that fine-scale anatomy is not specified directly in a genetic programme, but emerges from self-organizing behaviours of cells that, for example, place a new capillary where it happens to be needed to prevent local hypoxia. Self-organizing behaviour can be identified by manipulating growing tissues (e.g. putting them under a spatial constraint) and observing an adaptive change that conserves the character of the normal tissue while altering its precise anatomy. Self-organization can be practically useful in tissue engineering but it is limited; generally, it is good for producing realistic small-scale anatomy but large-scale features will be missing. This is because self-organizing organoids miss critical symmetry-breaking influences present in the embryo: simulating these artificially, for example, with local signal sources, makes anatomy realistic even at large scales. A growing understanding of the mechanisms of self-organization is now allowing synthetic biologists to take their first tentative steps towards constructing artificial multicellular systems that spontaneously organize themselves into patterns, which may soon be extended into three-dimensional shapes.
... Computational forensic research generated a number of studies in the most recent years. Covered research topics and domains are diverse as for example information retrieval [18], data mining [19], digital forensics [20,21], device forensics [22], human identification (finger print [23] and speech recognition [24]), anthropology [25,26], linguistic [27,28], questioned documents [29], forensic statistics [30], and decision making [31]. ...
Conference Paper
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Cognitive abilities of human expertise modeled using computational methods offer several new possibilities for the forensic sciences. They include three areas: providing tools for use by the forensic examiner, establishing a scientific basis for the expertise, and providing an alternate opinion on a case. This paper gives a brief overview of computational forensics with a focus on those disciplines that involve pattern evidence.
... Perturbations in the initial configuration of the Merkel cells result in perturbed stationary patterns. This situation is analogous to the fingerprints in identical twins who have very similar fingerprints in terms of direction of the ridges and qualitative features of fingerprint lines, but the exact location of ridges and minutiae differs (Jain et al. 2002;Srihari et al. 2006;Tao et al. 2012). Since environmental (within the mother's womb) and genetic conditions are almost identical for twins the differences in defect location are solely due to small perturbations such as the initial configuration of the Merkel cells and the stress field in the epidermis (Kücken and Champod 2013), implying that the fingerprint patterns of underlying identical tensor fields are different but similar. ...
Article
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Evidence suggests that both the interaction of so-called Merkel cells and the epidermal stress distribution play an important role in the formation of fingerprint patterns during pregnancy. To model the formation of fingerprint patterns in a biologically meaningful way these patterns have to become stationary. For the creation of synthetic fingerprints it is also very desirable that rescaling the model parameters leads to rescaled distances between the stationary fingerprint ridges. Based on these observations, as well as the model introduced by K\"ucken and Champod we propose a new model for the formation of fingerprint patterns during pregnancy. In this anisotropic interaction model the interaction forces not only depend on the distance vector between the cells and the model parameters, but additionally on an underlying tensor field, representing a stress field. This dependence on the tensor field leads to complex, anisotropic patterns. We study the resulting stationary patterns both analytically and numerically. In particular, we show that fingerprint patterns can be modeled as stationary solutions by choosing the underlying tensor field appropriately.
... Further, Srihari et al. [53] performed an analysis of tencard, live-scan rolled fingerprint images from 224 sets of identical twins and 74 sets of fraternal twins. However, it was unclear as to the real number of sets because, throughout the paper, different counts are provided at different points. ...
Article
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Biometric techniques can differentiate identical twins, and this makes the techniques a subject of interest. Studies on biometric techniques have been conducted in many disciplines. Unimodal biometric systems with twins, however, have issues including intra-class variations, noisy data, limited freedom levels, non-universality, vulnerability to spoof attacks, and intolerable rates of error. Several of these limitations are manageable through the use of multimodal biometric systems that combine the evidence brought by many sources of information. This survey highlights the relevant literature, the accessible datasets for research, and the subjects of uncertainty, and proposes future research. Copyrights
... As a result, identical twins have some different biometrics such as fingerprint and retina. Several researchers have taken ad-vantage of this fact and have shown encouraging results in automatic recognition systems that use these discriminating traits: fingerprint [5,13], palmprint [6], iris [2], speech [1] and combinations of some of the above biometrics [14]. However, these biometrics require the cooperation of the subject. ...
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Zygosity diagnosis has been performed in 79 pairs of twins using three methods. Simple sequence repeat length polymorphism (SSLP) analysis allows an efficient classification (MZ or DZ) with only a few markers following a simplified technique of extraction and amplification. A method based on a full questionnaire completed by parents about twin similarity correctly classifies 97.46% of the pairs; 92.41% are correctly classified using only four questions as suggested by logistic regression analysis. The third method, using dermatoglyphic analyses, correctly classifies 86.76% of pairs. To lower the cost of DNA diagnosis we stress the possibility of limiting its use to pairs with scores in the overlap area between MZ and DZ twins with a validated questionnaire.
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Despite the decline in coronary heart disease in many European countries, the disease remains an enormous public health problem. Although we know a great deal about environmental risk factors for coronary heart disease, a heritable component was recognized a long time ago. The earliest and best known examples of how our genetic constitution may determine cardiovascular risk relate to lipoprotein(a), familial hypercholesterolaemia and apolipoprotein E. In the past 20 years a fair number of polymorphisms assessed singly have shown strong associations with the disease but most are subject to poor repeatability. Twins constitute a compelling natural experiment to establish the genetic contribution to coronary heart disease and its risk factors. GenomEUtwin, a recently funded Framework 5 Programme of the European Community, affords the opportunity of comparing the heritability of risk factors in different European Twin Registries. As an illustration we present the heritabilities of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, based on data from over 4000 twin pairs from six different European countries and Australia. Heritabilities for systolic blood pressure are between 52 and 66% and for diastolic blood pressure between 44 and 66%. There is no evidence of sex differences in heritability estimates and very little to no evidence for a significant contribution of shared family environment. A non-twin based prospective case/cohort study of coronary heart disease and stroke (MORGAM) will allow hypotheses relating to cardiovascular disease, generated in the twin cohorts, to be tested prospectively in adult populations. Twin studies have also contributed to our understanding of the life course hypothesis, and GenomEUtwin has the potential to add to this.
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Early mother-infant interaction and later security of attachment were assessed for 17 pairs of twins, 5 singleton survivors of twin pairs, and 20 singletons, all low-birth-weight preterm infants. Mother and infant behavior during home observations at 6 weeks and 3, 6, and 9 months was rated on scales developed by Ainsworth and Egeland and Brunquell. A, B, and C patterns of behavior in the Strange Situation conformed to the frequencies predicted from prior full-term samples and were not affected by twinship. However, the proportion of B1 and B4 dyads in the B group significantly exceeded that predicted from normative data. Mothers in B2 and B3 dyads were rated more sensitive and responsive than all others at all 4 observations. Contrary to our expectations that mothers in A and C dyads would receive the lowest ratings, this occurred only at 6 weeks. At later observations mothers in B1 and B4 dyads consistently received the lowest ratings. The discussion focuses on possible reasons for this unexpected finding.
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Fingerprints from 61 pairs of male monozygotic twins (MZ), 47 pairs of female MZ, 40 pairs of same-sex male dizygotic twins (DZ), 44 pairs of same-sex female DZ, 4 pairs of opposite-sex DZ, and 28 brothers and 31 sisters of those twins are used for the study of fingerprint similarities. Similarities of fingerprint pattern, ridge count, and minutiae are evaluated for two population groups genetically related to each other in different degrees. It is concluded that fingerprint similarities, including pattern, ridge count, and possibly minutiae, between MZ individuals are significantly higher than those between other population groups, including DZ twins.
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Analysis of multiple genetic loci using short tandem repeats (STR) is widely used in human identity testing because the extensive polymorphism at these loci allows for a high degree of discrimination among individuals. We recently received a forensic case that included several pieces of evidence and reference blood samples. Upon initial testing, one of the suspects had a DNA profile that included three alleles at four of the nine loci tested (vWA, FGA, TH01, and D5S818). At each locus, two of the alleles appeared to be "major" alleles with a third "minor" allele present. The profile appeared to be a mixture of two people. Contamination of this first reference sample was suspected and a second, unopened blood specimen was requested from this individual. The DNA profile from this second reference specimen was identical to that of the original specimen at each locus. One of the evidence samples also displayed an identical mixed DNA profile matching that of the reference specimens mentioned above. The relative peak heights of the two "major" and one "minor" allele remained constant in all three samples. Additional background information revealed that the suspect had not received a bone marrow transplant or blood transfusion. However, it was disclosed that this individual is a fraternal (dizygotic) twin. We hypothesize that an exchange of blood cells between the fetuses occurred in utero and that the additional alleles present in these reference samples are derived from cells contributed by his twin sibling. No additional specimens from the suspect or his twin could be obtained for confirmation, and our hypothesis remains untested. Forensic scientists should be aware of this possibility when faced with a DNA profile in which extra alleles at multiple loci are detected.
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As handwriting is influenced by physiology, training, and other behavioral factors, a study of the handwriting of twins can shed light on the individuality of handwriting. This paper describes the methodology and results of such a study where handwriting samples of twins were compared by an automatic handwriting verification system. The results complement that of a previous study where a diverse population was used. The present study involves samples of 206 pairs of twins, where each sample consisted of a page of handwriting. The verification task was to determine whether two half-page documents (where the original samples were divided into upper and lower halves) were written by the same individual. For twins there were 1236 verification cases -- including 824 tests where the textual content of writing was different, and 412 tests where it was the same. An additional set of 1648 test cases were obtained from handwriting samples of nontwins (general population). To make the handwriting comparison, the system computed macro features (overall pictorial attributes), micro features (characteristics of individual letters), and style features (characteristics of whole-word shapes and letter pairs). Four testing scenarios were evaluated: twins and nontwins writing the same text and writing different texts. Results of the verification tests show that the handwriting of twins is less discriminable than that of nontwins: an overall error rate of 12.91% for twins and 3.7% for nontwins. Error rates with identical twins were higher than with fraternal twins. Error rates in all cases can be arbitrarily reduced by rejecting (not making a decision on) borderline cases. A level of confidence in the results obtained is given by the fact that system error rates are comparable to that of humans (lower than that of lay persons and higher than that of questioned document examiners [QDEs]).
On the Discriminability of the Handwriting of TwinsAccepted for publication ) Journal of Forensic Identification 58 (1), 2008 \ 127 7 Pan kanti, S. Twin Test: On Discr imi nabilit y of Fi nger pr i nts. I n Lecture Notes in Computer Science
  • S N Srihari
  • C H Srinivasan
Srihari, S. N.; Srinivasan, C. H. On the Discriminability of the Handwriting of Twins. J. For. Sci. (Accepted for publication ) Journal of Forensic Identification 58 (1), 2008 \ 127 7. Jain, A. K.; Prabhakar, S.; Pan kanti, S. Twin Test: On Discr imi nabilit y of Fi nger pr i nts. I n Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Proceedings of the AVBPA International Conference, Halmstad, Sweden, June 6-8, 2001; Springer-Verlag: London, UK, 2001, pp 211-216.
Twin Test: On Discr imi nabilit y of Fi nger pr i nts. I n Lecture Notes in Computer Science
  • A K Jain
  • S Prabhakar
  • S Pan Kanti
Jain, A. K.; Prabhakar, S.; Pan kanti, S. Twin Test: On Discr imi nabilit y of Fi nger pr i nts. I n Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Proceedings of the AVBPA International Conference, Halmstad, Sweden, June 6-8, 2001; Springer- Verlag: London, UK, 2001, pp 211-216.
  • Nistir Nist
  • U S Dept
NISTIR 6813; NIST, U.S. Dept. of Commerce: Gaithersburg, MD, 2004.