A research relating to innovation activities on enterprises using advanced manufacturing technologies

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This study is aimed at determining and evaluating the usage levels of advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs) and their applications relating to innovation activities. In addition to this, determination of innovation types and causes are also considered. In the study, the screening method has been used and the study group is consisted of 265 small and medium scale enterprises using advanced manufacturing technologies, in provinces which are randomly selected in Turkey. The findings obtained via answering of the survey questions have been evaluated in accordance with frequency, mean and standard deviation. Wilcoxon test has been used in measuring the AMTs in enterprises to see if the change in the usage levels is significant. In the study, according to scale difference (small-medium) of enterprises, independent groups' t-test analysis relating to difference in evaluations has been used. In the scale used in this study, Friedman two-way Anova test has been done. In this study, in the evaluations relating to innovation activities of enterprises, Mann-Whitney U test analysis relating to difference in their evaluations according to variable of market areas (domestic; domestic + foreign) has been used. In reviews relating to innovation activities of enterprises using AMTs, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been conducted to determine if there were differences in evaluations according to variable of operating periods. LSD test has been used to determine in which groups, the possible differences of the groups lie between. In testing the differences between the groups, significance level has been considered as p < < < < 0.05. At the result of the study done, it is seen that there was a significant increase in the usage levels of AMTs in enterprises in the last three years. It can be stated that enterprises are more focused on marketing and service innovations. Changing customer demands and requirements is the leading of the innovation causes.

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... Customer satisfaction and experienced also improved with excellent and accurate apparel quality, leading to higher sale volumes. 25 The research of Okay 26 and Oppong et al. 27 stated that productivity effectiveness and efficiency of garment manufacturing industry increased by the adoption of CAD technology as it integrates many garment manufacturing processes starting from cutting of different garments parts, integration of multiple machines, and then sewing of these parts. CAD is uniquely fast and easy to use software, it makes garment production faster with accurate results in minimum required times. ...
... Other benefits of CAD identified 28 includes increased customer satisfaction, product performance, cost reduction and timely deliveries. Studies carried out by Okay, 26 Oppong et al. 27 and Tan and Vonderembse 29 reveal that using textile firms can yield more productivity by making conceptualization of designs easier and thus, has a positive impact on operational and cost performance of manufacturing firms. ...
... Customer satisfaction and experienced also improved with excellent and accurate apparel quality, leading to higher sale volumes. 25 The research of Okay 26 and Oppong et al. 27 stated that productivity effectiveness and efficiency of garment manufacturing industry increased by the adoption of CAD technology as it integrates many garment manufacturing processes starting from cutting of different garments parts, integration of multiple machines, and then sewing of these parts. CAD is uniquely fast and easy to use software, it makes garment production faster with accurate results in minimum required times. ...
... Other benefits of CAD identified 28 includes increased customer satisfaction, product performance, cost reduction and timely deliveries. Studies carried out by Okay, 26 Oppong et al. 27 and Tan and Vonderembse 29 reveal that using textile firms can yield more productivity by making conceptualization of designs easier and thus, has a positive impact on operational and cost performance of manufacturing firms. ...
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Textile and apparel manufacturing industry of India is second highest employment generator sector and largest contributor to India’s GDP. Unfortunately, it lacks behind in innovations and adoption of technology to meet the challenges. The basic problem remains as how to bring varied designs to market quickly with less efforts and cost. The adoption of CAD technology offering enormous benefits to apparel manufacturers in India. It makes quick and efficient revisions in apparel design changes including colour adjustments on fabric pattern and resizing garments. CAD system enable designers to produce more accurate designs with less chance of mistakes by saving cost and time. Its integration with CAM offers many advantages during manufacturing process and makes the apparel production faster with consistent and accurate results every time. As all information related to design and production are stored in file format, it makes very easy to produce the same design again without repetition of previous activities. The introduction of CAD technology in the industry resulted to improved efficiency of the design process due to automation of routine design tasks, increased employee productivity and shortened lead time in the product development process. This study highlights on adoption of CAD technology, limitations and its impact on business.
italic xmlns:mml="" xmlns:xlink="">Based on the method of system dynamics, analyzing the causal relationship among variables in the “advanced manufacturing technology (AMT)–product innovation” system, this article constructs the system dynamics model of dynamic evolution between AMT and product innovation and uses Vensim Personal Learing Edition (PLE) for simulation. The simulation analysis provided four major conclusions. First, the impact of AMT on the product innovation performance is characterized by dynamic changes. The initial implementation of AMT exerts a short-term inhibiting effect; however, it provides medium- and long-term benefits that occur 50-plus months after adoption. Second, the enhancement of the single dimension of design, manufacturing, and administrative AMT exerts a positive impact on knowledge absorptive capacity and product innovation performance; however, the impact of design AMT is the most noticeable. Third, the design, manufacturing, and administrative AMTs are complementary, and the product innovation benefit of combining multidimensional AMT is most apparent; the synergistic effect produced by it can markedly enhance the product innovation performance compared with one-dimensional AMT. Finally, prior technical level and organizational learning willingness positively moderate the correlation between AMT and product innovation. However, compared with the prior technical level, organizational learning willingness exerts a more notable moderating effect on the product innovation performance.</i
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In 1997, noting that the 50th anniversary of the publication of “Coefficient Alpha and the Internal Structure of Tests” was fast approaching, Lee Cronbach planned what have become the notes published here. His aimwas to point out theways in which his views on coefficient alpha had evolved, doubting nowthat the coefficientwas the bestway of judging the reliability of an instrument to which it was applied. Tracing in these notes, in vintage Cronbach style, his thinking before, during, and after the publication of the alpha paper, his “current thoughts” on coefficient alpha are that alpha covers only a small perspective of the range of measurement uses for which reliability information is needed and that it should be viewed within a much larger system of reliability analysis, generalizability theory.
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In the last several decades, the United States has experienced a decline in productivity, while the world has seen a maturation of the global marketplace. Nations have moved manufacturing strategy and process technology issues to the top of management priority lists. The issues surrounding manufacturing technologies and their implementations have assumed greater importance in overall manufacturing strategy. Practitioners and researchers have developed strong interest in how advanced manufacturing technology (AMT) can be used as a competitive tool in the global economy to combat the phenomena of fragmented mass markets, shorter product life cycle, and increased demand for customization. The combination of increased production flexibility and higher efficiency contradicts traditional manufacturing strategy. In traditional thinking, efficiency is possible only in the production of large volumes of standard products, while customization is associated with higher costs. Clearly, the impact of AMT is redefining the way multinational corporations are managing manufacturing operations; however, effective implementation of AMT has not occurred as rapidly as the development of technology due to organizational considerations. The key to successful AMT planning and implementation appears to be the choice of an appropriate manufacturing system and the attainment of an organizational infrastructure that will offer maximum support to the chosen system. To achieve the desired benefits from AMTs, marketing and manufacturing must work together to ensure that the marketing strategy reflects the manufacturing capabilities of the new technology. Closer working relationships among all other functions of the organization are also required if the firm is to achieve its innovation objectives. (Contains 1 table.)
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The author explores the relationship of industrial innovation and economic development in terms of economic investment in new processes and materials, the effects of technology on firm size, and the role of public policy in fostering technology and stimulating employment. Each of these areas is treated in a separate section. Excerpts from The Measurement of Scientific and Technical Activities appears in the appendix. 473 references, 30 footnotes, 13 figures, 35 tables (DCK)
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Recent studies argue that the spread-adjusted Taylor rule (STR), which includes a response to the credit spread, replicates monetary policy in the United State. We show (1) STR is a theoretically optimal monetary policy under heterogeneous loan interest rate contracts in both discretionay and commitment monetary policies, (2) however, the optimal response to the credit spread is ambiguous given the financial market structure in theoretically derived STR, and (3) there, a commitment policy is effective in narrowing the credit spread when the central bank hits the zero lower bound constraint of the policy rate.
This volume introduces a new concept - strategic entrepreneurship - which integrates the insights of entrepreneurship and strategic management. This volume describes a new concept - strategic entrepreneurship - which fuses the insights of entrepreneurship and strategic management. The editors have invited the world's finest entrepreneurship and strategic management scholars to contribute chapters on key issues that are influencing research in both fields, and to integrate findings across the two. Investigates the overlap between entrepreneurship and strategic management in the context of six distinct domains: resources and organizational learning, innovation, alliances and networks, internationalization, strategic leadership, and growth. The contributors use both traditional and new theoretical approaches in order to further the reader's understanding of wealth creation in the current business environment.
Innovation is closely linked to the development of technology. Hence it is often assumed that when an innovation fails it is the technology that is at fault. While this may be true in many instances, there are occasions when it is not the technology that is at fault, rather, it is managerial and organisational aspects that cause problems and lead to failure. Studies have shown that individuals who take on specific roles can play an important part in avoiding these problems. These roles include the technological gatekeeper, the product champion and the sponsor/coach. In addition to these roles, this paper argues that there is another, namely that of godfather. With this role a highly respected, senior figure within an organisation provides support that is critical in ensuring the project overcomes the hurdles that lie in the path of any major new development. The nature of the godfather role is explored through three case studies. These provide examples of the role and show how it can facilitate the innovation process.
Several theories have been developed and try to communicate to managers how innovation occurs in a firm and which factors affect the outcome of this process. These theories come from different perspectives that either focus on management, economic or social sciences and create a complex net. This complexity often makes managers take a decision, the outcome of which contradicts their original aims. The objectives of this paper are to communicate innovation theory to the different actors in the system under a common perspective and to reveal the complexity of innovation systems. The new concept has at its centre the firm, which is the generator and promoter of innovations in the market, the industrial sector and the nation. The model's main focus is the Knowledge Creation from public or industrial research; the New Product Design and Development process, and the Product Success in the market. This process is affected by other internal factors of the firm as well as by the National Innovation Environment. This innovation system has been codified, under a system dynamics approach, to create a model, the ‘Creative Factory’ that includes all the aspects that academia, a firm or the policy making bodies need to consider around innovation activity.
Innovation implies newness. To define and measure innovation better, we investigated three dimensions of newness: what is new, how new, and new to whom? Drawing on prior research by Schumpeter and Kirzner, we developed a scale that addresses six areas of innovative activity: new products, new services, new methods of production, opening new markets, new sources of supply, and new ways of organizing. Using factor analysis on data from two separate field studies – 684 firms from eight industries and 200 information technology firms – we found that innovation as newness represents a unidimensional construct, distinguished only by the degree of radicalness.
A survey of investment in new production technology and specific AMT techniques in larger UK firms are described. Though the majority of the responding firms were in the manufacturing sector, some were not. Interestingly, some of these considered that they had invested substantially in new production technology. Companies were also questioned about which factors they considered most important in making investment decisions. These showed an unexpected emphasis on the importance of “intangible” factors. Responses were analysed separately for manufacturing companies belonging to process industries and those classified as belonging to “general manufacturing”. As might have been expected, companies in the latter category had invested more heavily in AMT techniques. However, process industry companies had also invested significantly. Around two-thirds of companies in the general manufacturing category reported difficulties in assessing the benefits of AMT investment. About a quarter of process industries companies had experienced similar difficulties. However, few companies appeared to have altered their investment appraisal systems to treat AMT investments any differently to ordinary ones, despite the literature that suggests that this may be necessary.
Continued innovation of products, services, technology and the organization itself, is one way to keep a business on its feet during these turbulent times. The importance of innovation – the process during which leap-changes are effected – is generally recognized. However, in practice, the successful conclusion of a total innovation project is by no means matter-of-course. Many innovations end in failure. Research in the USA raises the questions of how successful Dutch companies and their managers are in terms of innovation. How many innovation projects succeed, how many fail? This study searches for an answer to this question. The logical next question then is, what are the differences between innovation projects that succeed and those that fail? In short, what are the factors that lead to success, and which factors lead to failure in the projects examined?
Where the accuracy of a measurement is important, whether for scientific or practical purposes, the investigator should evaluate how much random error affects the measurement. New research may not be necessary when a procedure has been studied enough to establish how much error it involves. But, with new measures, or measures being transferred to unusual conditions, a fresh study is in order. Sciences other than psychology have typically summarized such research by describing a margin of error; a measure will be reported followed by a "plus or minus sign" and a numeral that is almost always the standard error of measurement (which will be explained later). The alpha formula is one of several analyses that may be used to gauge the reliability (i.e., accuracy) of psychological and educational measurements. This formula was designed to be applied to a two way table of data where rows represent persons (p) and columns represent scores assigned to the person under two or more conditions (i). "Condition" is a general term often used where each column represents the score on a single item within a test. But it may also be used, for example, for different scorers when more than one person judges each paper and any scorer treats all persons in the sample. Because the analysis examines the consistency of scores from one condition to another, procedures like alpha are known as "internal consistency" analyses.
This article reports a study that was carried out in 6 German advanced mechanical engineering organizations. The research investigated the wider role of the CNC machine operator against the background of an increased focus on quality management issues and lean production. Fifty-one interviews were carried out with individuals from different professional groups. The results showed that operators had an important function in compensating for variations in the manufacturing process. The choice of operator actions was influenced by several production-related factors (e.g., tolerance limit). Furthermore, we identified several organizational boundaries that indicated a considerable potential for efficiency gains if collaboration across these boundaries could be improved. © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Strategic Considerations Organization Innovation Processes Conclusions Bibliography
The goal of this article is to assess empirically the connection between different operations management decisions and the use of practices aimed at promoting the involvement of workers in the company. More specifically, the three operations management issues considered are the use of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies, the application of Quality Management tools, and the establishment of close relationships with customers and suppliers. Information relating to an initial sample of 965 Spanish manufacturing plants with at least fifty employees was used. Information was gathered through face-to-face interviews with a senior manager of each plant. To achieve the objective of the study, two different analyses were taken. First, the determinants of adoption of employee involvement practices were analyzed. Second, the interactive effects of employee involvement and operation management on firm performance were examined. Results show that Advanced Manufacturing Technologies, Quality Management, and close relationships with other firms have positive effects on the number of employee involvement practices used. However, no interactive effect was detected on firm performance of the simultaneous application of participatory practices and Advanced Manufacturing Technologies, Quality Management, and the establishment of close connections with customers and suppliers. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Hum Factors Man 14: 117–134, 2004.
Purpose The aim of the paper is to provide an understanding of the various factors that enable intrapreneurship in established firms. The paper reports on a case study of intrapreneurship in a large knowledge‐intensive industrial firm. Design/methodology/approach Based on the existing literature, it is suggested that the use of different factors can either enable or inhibit intrapreneurship and five enabling factors that are identified. Based on interviews, on‐site observations and documents and reports the five factors with a potential influence on intrapreneurship are examined and alternative factors considered. Findings The five enabling factors that are identified in the literature are not sufficient to enable intrapreneurship in knowledge‐intensive companies, and it is concluded that three additional factors enabling intrapreneurship in established firms should also be taken into account. Practical implications The knowledge of what makes factors either enablers or inhibitors are incomplete and to enhance the intrapreneurial ability of an organisation, managers must learn which factors to use in different situations. Originality/value Only very few papers have studied intrapreneurship in specific organisations. This paper contributes with a synthesis of the literature in the area and with a suggestion of a model that is used in the empirical analysis and augmented based on that. The paper furthermore contributes to the body of literature on the factors enabling intrapreneurship in general.
The increasing importance of advanced manufacturing technology, total quality management, and just-in-time to manufacturing firms raises some basic questions as to the strategic use of these techniques in manufacturing. Does strategic use of these techniques influence performance? How is the impact of these techniques influenced by the competitive environment? Are the techniques actually being used strategically? A study in a large sample of manufacturing organizations confirms that the use of integrated manufacturing techniques—particularly total quality—influences performance, and that these effects are magnified or diminished by both the competitive environment and manufacturing strategy. It also shows that, in some cases, firms are missing opportunities to combine integrated manufacturing and strategy in ways that would substantially impact their performance.
The aim of this paper is threefold. First, it discusses a role of advanced manufacturing technology (AMT) within a strategic management context of a manufacturing organisation. Resource-based view is presented as a useful theoretical school for understanding strategic management of AMT. Second, a brief case from a manufacturing organisation is provided to illustrate the debate. In the reported case study, the relevant mechanisms for understanding capability accumulation process and the role of AMT within this process are depicted. Third, a framework of resources and capabilities is proposed in order to increase applicability of presented theoretical ideas.
This is the first edition of the European version of the classic introductory text.
This study examines antecedents and trajectories of advanced manufacturing technology (AMT) adoption in three categories: stand-alone, intermediate, and integrated technologies. Antecedents of adoption include prior investments in AMT, developments in firms’ manufacturing capabilities, technology strategy, absorptive capacity, and environmental pressures. Based on a sample of 87 Greek manufacturing SMEs, we find that AMT adoption follows an incremental, piecemeal progression from the least complicated through intermediate to integrated technologies. It is found that an increase in the firms’ quality and flexibility capabilities induces them to adopt further AMT, whereas advances in low-cost, innovation, and delivery capabilities appear negatively related to further AMT adoption. Absorptive capacity, technology strategy and environmental pressures play a central role in decisions for additional investments in AMT. In the context of a catching-up economy, these results support the notion of a ‘stepwise’ technology accumulation process as well as ‘satisficing’ technological change.
This paper is based on the initial findings of a nation-wide survey of technological innovation activities of 2100 firms in Turkish manufacturing industry. Our findings show that the innovation activities are more widespread in the firms having large sizes of employment. In some sectors of manufacturing industry 60–80% of the firms undertake innovation activities. Improving the product quality and opening up new markets rank at the top of the main objectives of innovation activities. In-house R&D turn out to be the main sources of information assisting innovation activities. 51.2% of the firms that are engaged in innovation carry out joint R&D with consultancy firms, and 52.3% of the firms with which Turkish firms co-operate are in the EU countries. In the majority of the manufacturing sectors, more than 50% of the total sales are derived from technologically new and improved products. Only 19% of the firms have had patent applications with a return of very few patented inventions. A correlation analysis of basic indicators of innovation activities shows that, for instance, sales of new products, R&D expenditures, and firm sizes correlate only weakly.
Research on innovation in organizations has generally examined the differences in the characteristics of innovative and non-innovative organizations, an endeavor that has often produced inconsistent results. In this paper, we propose that future research may resolve those inconsistencies by incorporating in the theory the differences between organizations that mostly generate innovations and those that mostly adopt innovations. We refer to the former, which are primarily producers or suppliers of innovation, as innovation-generating organizations, and to the latter, which are preponderantly users of innovations produced by innovation-generating organizations, as innovation-adopting organizations. Building on the notion that the processes of generating and adopting innovation are distinct phenomena that are facilitated by different organizational conditions, we discuss how the distinction between innovation-generating and innovation-adopting organizations would contribute to clarifying several inconsistent research findings, such as the relationship between innovation and size, the role of innovation radicalness, and the selection of appropriate measures of innovation.
Developing countries like India, where technological change is the thrust in manufacturing industries, have introduced advanced manufacturing technology (AMT) to have competitive edge in the global market. Despite the claims that attractive benefits can accrue through the use of AMT in manufacturing firms, only modest benefits are reported. The superior performance of AMT firm in terms of maximum labor productivity, superior quality, and high customer satisfaction has not been achieved. Firms in which AMT has already been introduced have not progressed to higher levels of AMT to achieve manufacturing prosperity. The main reasons attributed to how performance are human factors in the implementation of AMT that have been overshadowed and organizational structure of AMT firm, which remains mechanistic in the changed environment. This paper presents a framework to illustrate low superior performance can be achieved by a planned change process. A set of propositions is offered suggesting that superior performance will result when there is a positive change in work attitudes as a result of elimination of psychological barriers to technological change and change in organizational structure compatible with new technology by a planned change process.
A plethora of definitions for innovation types has resulted in an ambiguity in the way the terms ‘innovation’ and ‘innovativeness’ are operationalized and utilized in the new product development literature. The terms radical, really-new, incremental and discontinuous are used ubiquitously to identify innovations. One must question, what is the difference between these different classifications? To date consistent definitions for these innovation types have not emerged from the new product research community. A review of the literature from the marketing, engineering, and new product development disciplines attempts to put some clarity and continuity to the use of these terms. This review shows that it is important to consider both a marketing and technological perspective as well as a macrolevel and microlevel perspective when identifying innovations. Additionally, it is shown when strict classifications from the extant literature are applied, a significant shortfall appears in empirical work directed toward radical and really new innovations. A method for classifying innovations is suggested so that practitioners and academics can talk with a common understanding of how a specific innovation type is identified and how the innovation process may be unique for that particular innovation type. A recommended list of measures based on extant literature is provided for future empirical research concerning technological innovations and innovativeness. “A rose is a rose is a rose. And a rose by any other name would smell just as sweet.” Gertrude Stein & William Shakespeare
There is controversy over whether integrated manufacturing (IM), comprising advanced manufacturing technology, just-in-time inventory control and total quality management, empowers or deskills shop floor work. Moreover, both IM and empowerment are promoted on the assumption that they enhance competitiveness. We examine these issues in a study of 80 manufacturing companies. The extent of use of IM was positively associated with empowerment (i.e., job enrichment and employee skill enhancement), but, with the minor exception of AMT, bore little relationship with subsequent company performance. In contrast, the extent of empowerment within companies predicted the subsequent level of company performance controlling for prior performance, with the effect on productivity mediating that on profit. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Der österreichische Ökonom Joseph A. Schumpeter hat schon in der ersten Hälfte des vorigen Jahrhunderts auf den Prozess der „Schöpferischen Zerstörung“ hingewiesen, der das Wesen des modernen Kapitalismus ausmacht. Gemeint ist damit der Umstand, dass Unternehmen auf Gedeih und Verderb darauf angewiesen sind, nicht nur ständig neue Produktideen zu entwickeln und zu realisieren, sondern auch laufend ihre technischen und organisatorischen Strukturen und Abläufe zu verändern, um auf diese Weise ihre Produktivität weiterzuentwickeln. Bei organisatorischen Innovationen geht es dabei um die Entwicklung und Umsetzung neuer Kombinationen von Aufgaben und Kompetenzen, die einem verbesserten Mitteleinsatz und damit der Rationalisierung dienen. Schöpferisch ist dieser Vorgang, weil permanent neue Kombinationen geschaffen werden müssen; zerstörend wirkt er, weil dies nicht möglich ist, ohne dass Bestehendes in Frage gestellt und verändert wird.
Never a fad, but always in or out of fashion, innovation gets rediscovered as a growth enabler every half dozen years. Too often, though, grand declarations about innovation are followed by mediocre execution that produces anemic results, and innovation groups are quietly disbanded in cost-cutting drives. Each managerial generation embarks on the same enthusiastic quest for the next new thing. And each generation faces the same vexing challenges- most of which stem from the tensions between protecting existing revenue streams critical to current success and supporting new concepts that may be crucial to future success. In this article, Harvard Business School professor Rosabeth Moss Kanter reflects on the four major waves of innovation enthusiasm she's observed over the past 25 years. She describes the classic mistakes companies make in innovation strategy, process, structure, and skills assessment, illustrating her points with a plethora of real-world examples--including AT&T Worldnet, Timberland, and Ocean Spray. A typical strategic blunder is when managers set their hurdles too high or limit the scope of their innovation efforts. Quaker Oats, for instance, was so busy in the 1990s making minor tweaks to its product formulas that it missed larger opportunities in distribution. A common process mistake is when managers strangle innovation efforts with the same rigid planning, budgeting, and reviewing approaches they use in their existing businesses--thereby discouraging people from adapting as circumstances warrant. Companies must be careful how they structure fledgling entities alongside existing ones, Kanter says, to avoid a clash of cultures and agendas--which Arrow Electronics experienced in its attempts to create an online venture. Finally, companies commonly undervalue and underinvest in the human side of innovation--for instance, promoting individuals out of innovation teams long before their efforts can pay off. Kanter offers practical advice for avoiding these traps.
Conference Paper
Sustainable competitive advantage has become part of the jargon in the practise of management. Unfortunately the term has become diluted and is often used to describe organizational strengths that do not fully comply with the meaning of the term in traditional strategic management theory. This paper explains the concept of sustainable competitive advantage with a focus on the management of technology and innovation, comparing and contrasting the relevant theories grounded in extant research and scholarship.
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