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Factor Effecting Students' English Speaking Skills

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British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences
ISSN: 2046-9578, Vol.2 No.1 (2011)
©BritishJournal Publishing, Inc. 2011
http://www.bjournal.co.uk/BJASS.aspx
34
Factor Effecting Students’ English Speaking Skills
Marriam Bashir
Assistant Professor
University of Education
Bank Road Campus, Lahore
Marriambashir39@yahoo.com
Muhammad Azeem
Assessment Expert
Punjab Education Assessment System (PEAS)
University of Education
College Road, Township,
Lahore, Pakistan
0092-300-7612015
knowledge_jhumra@yahoo.com
Dr. Ashiq Hussain Dogar
Controller Examinations
University of Education
College Road, Township
Lahore, Pakistan
drashiq10@yahoo.com
0092 345 6289220
British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences
ISSN: 2046-9578
35
Introduction
The language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols, which permit all people in a given
culture, or other people who have learnt the system of that culture, communication or to interact.
By speaking, we do not mean merely uttering words through mouth. It means conveying the
message through the words of mouth. This skill is also neglected in our class rooms. Students do
not get any chance either in the class room or outside to speak English. Speaking is not a part of
our examinations. Learning to speak also demands a lot of practice and attention. We learn to
speak our mother tongue just by listening and repeating. The teacher can adopt the same natural
way. He can give them certain structures and ask them to repeat. This will remove their shyness.
He can give those drills in the basic patterns of language. Asking short questions and the use of
short dialogues in the class room can also develop this skill.
Review of Related Literature
What is Language?
Language is a formal system of signs governed by grammatical rules of combination to
communicate meaning. This definition stresses the fact that human languages can be described as
closed structural systems consisting of rules that relate particular signs to particular meanings
(Bloomfield, 1914). Language is basically speech. Its written form developed later on. It is
universal among human beings who use it for carrying out various activities of life. It is such a
common phenomenon that we always take it for granted. We never bother to think about it: we
never try to into the depth of the meaning of this word. Definition of language is not difficult to
find. Almost all well-known linguists have tried to define language in their own way. John Lyon
(2002), in his famous book "Language and Linguistics" has discussed five famous definitions of
Language
i. According to E.Sapir (1921): “Language is u purely human and non-instinctive method
of communicating ideas, emotions unit desires by means of voluntarily produced
symbols”.
ii. B. Bloch and G.L. Trager (1942) write: “A language is a system of arbitrary vocal
symbols by means of which a social group
co-operates”.
iii. R.A. Hall (1968) tells us that language is “the institution whereby humans communicate
and interact with each other by means of habitually used oral-auditory arbitrary symbols".
iv. R.H. Robins (1979) does not give a formal definition of language but points out certain
facts related to language, saying that “languages are symbol systems, almost wholly
based on pure or arbitrary conventions".
v. According to N. Chomsky (1969) a language is “a set of sentences, each finite in length
and constructed out of a finite set of elements”.
Most of them have taken the view that languages are systems of symbols designed for the
purpose of communication. So an operational definition of language may by:
“Language is a system of arbitrary symbols for human beings’ communication in speech
and writing, that is used by the people of a particular community”. In this definition, the
various components of language, or certain words need explanation:
System: Written words or spoken sounds arranged in a particular order.
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Communication: Hearing or reading and responding to the spoken or written words
Arbitrary: The word “arbitrary” means not based on a reason, system or plan
Symbol: A symbol is a letter or a word or a sound that suggests an idea.
Another simpler definition may be:
“Language is « system of arbitrary symbols which help the people of a particular
community to communicate and to interact”.
This definition means that
1. Every language operates within its own system.
2. Every language has its own arbitrary symbols.
3. The words “communicate and interact” mean to understand and to speak.
Stages of Language Learning
Individuals learning a second language use the same innate processes that are used to
acquire their first language from the first days of exposure to the new language in spite of their
age. They reach similar developmental stages to those in first language acquisition, making some
of the same types of errors in grammatical markers that young children make, picking up chunks
of language without knowing precisely what each word means, and relying on sources of input
humans who speak that language-to provide modified speech that they can at least partially
comprehend (Collier, 1998). Second language learners are usually observed developing a new
language system that incorporates elements from the native language and elements from English
they recently learned.
Inter-language actually helps second language learners test hypotheses about how language
works and develop their own set of rules for using language.
Stage I: Pre-production
This is the silent period. Beginners only listen but rarely speak. English language learners
may have some words in their receptive vocabulary but they are not yet speaking. Some students
will be able to repeat only everything that someone says. They are not really producing language
but are imitating. Students may duplicate gestures and movements to show comprehension.
Teachers should focus attention on listening comprehension activities and on building a receptive
vocabulary because English language learners at this stage will need much repetition of English.
Speaking Skills
The learner can hardly understand anything at all, unless the speaker is talking about
things the learner is observing, or unless the language being learned is closely related to some
other language the learner knows. Through comprehension activities the learner can internalize
some vocabulary and some grammatical structures, which will help the learner to understand
more in stage two, when she or she knows enough to actually converse in a simple way. The
result of getting through stage one is that the learner has acquired enough of the basic building
blocks of the language to begin to function in real communication situations in a halting way. In
stage one there is very little real speaking ability, apart from some words and sentences that can
be built on the comprehension exercises. In real communication situations the learner has to
depend on memorized survival phrases to meet the most immediate needs.
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Stage II: Early production
At this stage students try to speak some words. Students can use short language chunks
that have been memorized although these chunks may not always be used correctly. Learner
listen more their talkative classmates and extend his vocabulary.
Speaking Skills
In stage two inputs is comprehensible if the learner already knows the nonlinguistic
content what he or she is hearing or if the communication situation is very predictable. There are
more genuine two-way conversations with speakers of the language, although it takes a very
patient native speaker to persevere in trying to communicate with a learner at this stage. The
result of getting through stage two well is quite a bit of "fluency" in comprehending language
which uses a variety of structures in connected discourse, with an ever growing vocabulary. In
stage two, the learner is able to speak well in tasks that are fairly structured and predictable.
Stage III: Speech emergence
At this stage, Students have a good vocabulary of words and uses simple phrases and
sentences in his communication with others. They are able to ask simple questions, which may
be grammatically correct or wrong. Students try to initiate short conversations with classmates.
They are able to read and understand easy stories.
Speaking Skills
In stage three the learner can understand new information, but it still helps if that
information is still specially geared to a new speaker's needs. This means that meanings must
often be negotiated. In order to keep increasing in comprehension fluency during this stage, the
key ingredient is coming to understand the background information that everyone in the culture
knows about, and in particular, learning this information in connection with the language that is
associated with them. Because the learner can by now understand a lot of the linguistic content, it
is possible to develop more ability for top-down processing of "new" information of the non-
linguistic content. If there is adequate input, the learner should be developing a sense of the
different discourse genres and registers of speech. The result of getting through stage three is that
the learner is able to comprehend language related to a vast range of topics, situations and
contexts, as well as easily process many social nuances. In stage three, the learner has increasing
facility to produce connected narrative discourse.
Stage IV: Intermediate fluency
At the stage of intermediate fluency, English language learners able to use more complex
sentences in speaking and writing to express opinions and share their thoughts. They are able to
ask questions to clarify what they are learning in class. Learners are able to work with some
teacher support. Comprehension of all subjects’ content is increasing. At this stage, students are
able to use different strategies to learn content in English. Teachers have to focus on learning
strategies. Students in this stage can understand more complex concepts.
Speaking Skills
In Stage Four the learner learns most from normal native-to-native speech as it occurs in
the whole range of life experiences. The learner will understand most input, provided he attends
to it. For example, native speakers may talk about the learner right in his presence, intending to
British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences
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tease him and get a reaction. He will certainly hear that they are talking, but may not in the
deeper sense "hear" a thing they say, unless he is attending to it. In Stage Four, the learner has
increasing facility in abstract and hypothetical discussions
Stage V: Advanced Fluency
Student at this stage will be near-native in their ability to perform in content area
learning. Students have needed continuous support from classroom in reading writing and
speaking.
Speaking Skills
In Stage five, the learner has increasing facility in discussions using his vocabulary
without any proper preparation.
Why Speaking Skills
Speaking is productive skill in the oral mode. It is like the other skills, is more
complicated than it seems at first and involves more than just pronouncing words.
Listening Situations
There are three kinds of speaking situations in which we find ourselves:
Interactive
Partially Interactive
Non-Interactive
Interactive speaking situations include face-to-face conversations and telephone calls, in
which we are alternately listening and speaking, and in which we have a chance to ask for
clarification, repetition, or slower speech from our conversation partner. Some speaking
situations are partially interactive, such as when giving a speech to a live audience, where the
convention is that the audience does not interrupt the speech. The speaker nevertheless can see
the audience and judge from the expressions on their faces and body language whether or not he
or she is being understood.
Some few speaking situations may be totally non-interactive, such as when recording a
speech for a radio broadcast.
Teaching Speaking
Many language learners regard speaking ability as the measure of knowing a language.
These learners define fluency as the ability to converse with others, much more than the ability
to read, write, or comprehend oral language. They regard speaking as the most important skill
they can acquire, and they assess their progress in terms of their accomplishments in spoken
communication.
Language learners need to recognize that speaking involves three areas of knowledge:
Mechanics (pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary): Using the right words in the right
order with the correct pronunciation
Functions (transaction and interaction): Knowing when clarity of message is essential
(transaction/information exchange) and when precise understanding is not required
(interaction/relationship building)
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Social and cultural rules and norms (turn-taking, rate of speech, length of pauses between
speakers, relative roles of participants): Understanding how to take into account who is
speaking to whom. in what circumstances, about what, and for what reason.
In the communicative model of language teaching, instructors help their students develop
this body of knowledge by providing authentic practice that prepares students for real-life
communication situations. They help their students develop the ability to produce grammatically
correct, logically connected sentences that are appropriate to specific contexts, and to do so using
acceptable (that is, comprehensible) pronunciation.
Strategies for Developing Speaking Skills
In communicative output, the learners' main purpose is to complete a task, such as
obtaining information, developing a travel plan, or creating a video. To complete the task, they
may use the language that the instructor has just presented, but they also may draw on any other
vocabulary, grammar, and communication strategies that they know. In communicative output
activities, the criterion of success is whether the learner gets the message across. Accuracy is not
a consideration unless the lack of it interferes with the message.
In everyday communication, spoken exchanges take place because there is some sort of
information gap between the participants. Communicative output activities involve a similar real
information gap. In order to complete the task, students must reduce or eliminate the information
gap. In these activities, language is a tool, not an end in itself. In a balanced activities approach,
the teacher uses a variety of activities from these different categories of input and output.
Learners at all proficiency levels, including beginners, benefit from this variety; it is more
motivating, and it is also more likely to result in effective language learning. Students often think
that the ability to speak a language is the product of language learning, but speaking is also a
crucial part of the language learning process. Effective instructors teach students speaking
strategies -- using minimal responses, recognizing scripts, and using language to talk about
language -- which they can use to help themselves expand their knowledge of the language and
their confidence in using it. These instructors’ help students learn to speak so that the students
can use speaking to learn.
I. Using Minimal Responses
Language learners who lack confidence in their ability to participate successfully in oral
interaction often listen in silence while others do the talking. One way to encourage such learners
to begin to participate is to help them build up a stock of minimal responses that they can use in
different types of exchanges. Such responses can be especially useful for beginners. Minimal
responses are predictable, often idiomatic phrases that conversation participants use to indicate
understanding, agreement, doubt, and other responses to what another speaker is saying. Having
a stock of such responses enables a learner to focus on what the other participant is saying,
without having to simultaneously plan a response.
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II. Recognizing Scripts
Some communication situations are associated with a predictable set of spoken
exchanges -- a script. Greetings, apologies, compliments, invitations, and other functions that are
influenced by social and cultural norms often follow patterns or scripts. So do the transactional
exchanges involved in activities such as obtaining information and making a purchase. In these
scripts, the relationship between a speaker's turn and the one that follows it can often be
anticipated. Instructors can help students develop speaking ability by making them aware of the
scripts for different situations so that they can predict what they will hear and what they will
need to say in response. Through interactive activities, instructors can give students practice in
managing and varying the language that different scripts contain.
III. Using Language to Talk About Language
Language learners are often too embarrassed or shy to say anything when they do not
understand another speaker or when they realize that a conversation partner has not understood
them. Instructors can help students overcome this reticence by assuring them that
misunderstanding and the need for clarification can occur in any type of interaction, whatever the
participants' language skill levels. Instructors can also give students strategies and phrases to use
for clarification and comprehension check.
By encouraging students to use clarification phrases in class when misunderstanding
occurs and by responding positively when they do, instructors can create an authentic practice
environment within the classroom itself. As they develop control of various clarification
strategies, students will gain confidence in their ability to manage the various communication
situations that they may encounter outside the classroom.
NATURE OF THE STUDY
The study was designed to investigate the factors effecting students’ English speaking
skills at secondary level. The study was planned on export fact design descriptive research.
Population
The population for the study was consisted of the following are comprise of:
a) All teachers teaching English to classes 9th to 10th in the province of Punjab.
b) All 9th to 10th grade students of public school in the province of Punjab.
Sampling
Twenty schools were randomly selected from Faisalabad district representing equally
M/F and R/U. Twenty students and eight teachers from each school were selected randomly.
Bifurcation of teachers and students from each stratum is shown in table 1.
Table 1: Sample
_______________________________________________________
Location Gender
Stratum __________________ ___________________
Rural Urban Male Female
_______________________________________________________
Students 200 200 200 200
Teachers 80 80 80 80
_______________________________________________________
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Instrumentation
Two questionnaires (Three point Likert type scale) for students and teachers were
developed respectively. Each questionnaire was consisting of ten statements. The questionnaires
were tryout and piloted before finalization. After tryout and piloting questionnaires were
reviewed by three experts and five doctoral research fellows. The reliability coefficients of point
biserial correlation α for teachers’ and students’ questionnaire were 0.91 and 0.89 respectively.
Data Collection
Ten data collectors were trained for data collection. Each data collector collected the data
from two schools. The teachers and students were given questionnaires which were dully filled
in the presence of the data collectors. Therefore the data was collected in same from all schools.
The data was arranged in the tabular form and percentage of each frequency was calculated.
Data Analyses
The teachers’ data is analysed and results are tabulated as under. Frequencies and
percentages are calculated for analyses
Table 2: Teachers’ data
Statement
Response
Male
Female
R-(M/F)
U
R
Total
U
R
Total
f
%
F
%
f
%
f
%
f
%
f
%
f
%
f
%
Do you use English
as medium of
instruction for
teaching of English in
your class?
Yes
3
2
80
2
0
50
52
65
2
8
70
8
20
3
6
45
60
75
28
35
No
8
20
4
10
12
15
4
10
1
6
40
2
0
25
12
15
20
25
Some
Time
0
0
1
6
40
16
20
8
20
1
6
40
2
4
15
8
10
32
40
Do you think
competency in
communication in
English is very
necessary?
Yes
3
6
90
1
6
40
52
65
2
4
60
1
2
30
3
6
45
60
75
28
35
No
0
0
1
2
30
12
15
4
10
0
0
4
5
4
5
12
15
Some
Time
4
10
1
2
30
16
20
1
2
30
2
8
70
4
0
50
16
20
40
50
Do you think English
is better medium of
instruction than
Urdu?
Yes
2
8
70
2
0
50
48
60
2
4
60
2
0
50
4
4
55
52
65
40
50
No
1
2
30
1
2
30
24
30
1
2
30
8
20
2
0
25
24
30
20
25
British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences
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42
Some
Time
0
0
8
20
8
10
4
10
1
2
30
1
6
20
4
5
40
25
Do you teach through
interactive
techniques?
Yes
2
8
70
8
20
36
45
3
2
80
2
0
50
5
2
65
60
75
28
35
No
4
10
2
0
50
24
30
4
10
8
20
1
2
15
8
10
28
35
Some
Time
8
20
1
2
30
20
25
4
10
1
2
30
1
6
20
12
15
24
30
Do your students
respond in English?
Yes
1
2
30
4
10
16
20
2
8
70
0
0
2
8
35
40
50
4
5
No
1
2
30
2
8
70
40
50
4
10
1
2
30
1
6
20
16
20
40
50
Some
Time
1
6
40
8
20
24
30
8
20
2
8
70
3
6
45
24
30
36
45
Do you promote
participatory
techniques of
teaching in English?
Yes
0
0
3
2
80
32
40
1
2
30
2
8
70
4
0
50
12
15
60
75
No
2
4
60
4
10
28
35
1
2
30
0
0
1
2
15
36
45
4
5
Some
Time
1
6
40
4
10
20
25
1
6
40
1
2
30
2
8
35
32
40
16
20
Do you use mother-
tongue while teaching
English?
Yes
1
2
30
0
0
12
15
0
0
8
20
8
10
12
15
8
10
No
1
6
40
2
8
70
44
55
2
0
50
3
2
80
5
2
65
36
45
60
75
Some
Time
1
2
30
1
2
30
24
30
2
0
50
0
0
2
0
25
32
40
12
15
Do you use other
material for the
enhancement of
speaking skill of the
students?
Yes
2
0
50
2
8
70
48
60
8
20
1
2
30
2
0
25
28
35
40
50
No
4
10
1
2
30
16
20
1
6
40
2
4
60
4
0
50
20
25
36
45
Some
Time
1
6
40
0
0
16
20
1
5
40
4
10
2
0
25
32
40
4
5
Does your school
have English
speaking
environment?
Yes
2
4
60
2
0
50
44
55
2
4
60
1
6
40
4
0
50
48
60
36
45
No
1
30
1
30
24
30
1
30
1
30
2
30
24
30
24
30
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43
2
2
2
2
4
Some
Time
4
10
8
20
12
15
4
10
1
2
30
1
6
20
8
10
20
25
Do the teachers
teaching English
interact with one
another in English?
Yes
2
4
60
1
2
30
36
45
1
6
40
4
10
2
0
25
40
50
16
20
No
0
0
1
2
30
12
30
0
0
1
2
30
1
2
30
0
0
24
15
Some
Time
1
6
20
1
6
20
32
40
2
4
60
2
4
60
4
8
60
40
50
40
50
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The students’ data is analysed and results are tabulated as under. Frequencies and percentages
are calculated for analyses
Table 3: Teachers’ data
Statement
Response
Male
Female
U-(M/F)
R-(M/F)
U
R
Total
U
Total
f
%
F
%
f
%
f
%
f
%
f
%
f
%
f
%
Does your teacher use
English as medium of
instruction for the
teaching of English in
your class?
Yes
2
0
20
1
2
12
32
16
1
2
12
20
20
32
16
32
16
32
16
No
4
8
48
7
6
76
12
4
62
4
0
40
68
68
10
8
54
88
44
14
4
70
Some
Time
3
2
32
1
2
12
44
22
4
8
48
12
12
60
30
80
40
24
12
Do you think English
is better medium of
instruction than
Urdu?
Yes
6
4
64
2
4
2
88
44
9
6
96
40
40
13
6
68
16
0
80
64
32
No
1
2
12
6
4
64
76
38
4
4
60
60
64
32
16
8
12
4
62
Some
Time
2
4
24
1
2
12
36
18
0
0
0
0
0
0
36
12
12
6
Does your teacher
speak Urdu while
teaching in the class?
Yes
2
8
28
8
4
84
11
2
56
4
0
40
80
80
12
0
60
68
34
16
4
82
No
4
0
40
0
0
40
20
2
4
24
20
20
44
22
64
32
20
10
Some
Time
3
2
32
1
6
16
48
24
3
6
36
0
0
36
18
68
34
16
8
Do you respond in
English?
Yes
5
6
56
1
2
12
68
34
4
0
40
11
2
12
96
24
19
2
5
40
29
No
8
8
8
0
80
88
44
2
4
24
72
72
96
48
32
16
15
2
76
Some
Time
3
6
36
8
8
44
22
3
6
36
20
20
8
28
72
36
28
14
Does your teacher use
interactive techniques
in teaching English?
Yes
5
2
52
4
4
56
28
6
0
60
12
12
72
36
11
2
56
20
8
No
4
4
7
72
80
40
8
8
28
28
36
18
12
6
10
50
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2
0
Some
Time
4
4
44
2
4
24
68
34
3
2
32
60
60
92
46
76
38
84
42
Does your teacher
promote participatory
techniques of
teaching in English?
Yes
5
2
52
1
6
16
68
34
3
6
36
0
0
36
18
88
44
32
8
No
1
2
12
7
6
76
88
44
2
0
20
76
76
92
46
32
16
15
2
76
Some
Time
3
6
36
8
8
44
22
4
4
44
24
24
68
34
80
40
32
16
Does your teacher use
mother-tongue while
teaching English?
Yes
4
0
40
8
0
80
12
0
60
4
8
48
64
64
11
2
56
88
44
14
4
72
No
2
4
24
1
2
12
36
18
4
4
44
12
12
56
28
68
34
24
12
Some
Time
3
6
36
8
8
44
22
8
8
24
24
32
16
44
22
32
16
Does your school
have English medium
environment?
Yes
5
2
52
1
2
12
64
32
8
0
80
4
4
84
42
13
2
66
16
8
No
3
6
36
7
6
76
11
2
56
4
4
80
80
84
42
40
20
15
6
78
Some
Time
1
2
12
1
2
12
48
12
1
6
16
16
16
32
16
28
14
28
14
Do you speak English
with fellow students?
Yes
3
6
36
2
4
24
60
30
3
2
32
4
4
36
18
72
34
28
14
No
2
0
20
6
8
68
88
44
1
6
16
76
76
92
46
36
18
14
4
72
Some
Time
4
4
44
8
8
52
26
5
2
52
20
20
72
36
96
48
28
14
Does your teacher use
different A.V aids for
the teaching of
English?
Yes
3
6
36
8
8
44
22
5
2
52
0
0
52
26
88
44
8
4
No
1
6
16
7
6
76
93
46
8
8
80
80
88
44
24
12
15
6
78
Some
Time
4
8
48
1
6
16
64
32
4
0
40
20
20
60
30
88
44
36
18
British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences
ISSN: 2046-9578
46
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
From Teacher Questionnaires
i. More than Half (55%) of teachers stated that they use English as a medium of
instruction. It means our teachers are promoting English in the classrooms. It will
benefit to students in their daily life.
ii. Majority (55%) of teachers stated that English is necessary for the competency in
communication. It is fact that without having compulsory status English
communications may not improve up to desire benchmark.
iii. More than half (59%) teachers are of opinion that English is not a better medium of
instruction then Urdu. It is because we are Urdu native and like our language. It is
also easy to communicate information/understandings/knowledge through mother
or native language rather than foreign language.
iv. About (55%) teachers stated that they teach through interactive techniques. It can be
seen through observations. If it is true, teacher-student interaction may improve the
speaking skills of students but it depends upon teachers own speaking competency
also.
v. About (38%) teachers some time agreed that students respond in English. It shows
that student may feel shyness or they are unmotivated towards speaking English in
the classroom. Classroom climate also affect students speaking skills. If teachers are
using interactive teaching strategies and 38% students respond some times in
English then teachers have to pay more attention on students’ speaking skills
because majority 62% never respond in English.
vi. About half (45%) teachers disagreed that they promote participatory techniques in
English. This result may confirm that teachers are using English as a medium of
instruction during teaching English language and 38 % students respond some times
in English.
vii. About (60%) teachers disagreed they use mother tongue while teaching English. It
may also confirm that teachers are using Urdu and English as medium of instruction
rather than mother language Punjabi.
viii. About (43%) teachers agreed that they use other material for the enhancement of
the speaking skill of students. It will benefit to themself and students. Punjab
Education Assessment System PEAS, on the bases on their large scale assessments
from 2003 to 2011, reported that performance of teachers is improved by using
resources other than textbook. Consultation with senior teachers/head
teachers/teacher educators improves teachers’ performance and hence students’
performance.
ix. About (53%) teachers stated that school has English speaking environment.
Education Department, Govt. of the Punjab has nominated schools for English
medium classes from KG to metric and in 2013 all public schools will function
fully as English medium school. Therefore teachers have started English as a
medium of instruction and as result English speaking culture is promoting in
schools
British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences
ISSN: 2046-9578
47
x. About half (50%) teachers stated that they interact with one another in teaching
English. It is good sign for future success.
A. From Student’s Questionnaires
i. About (72%) students are disagreed that teacher use English as medium of
instruction for the teaching of English. It may be due to that teacher assisted their
instruction bilingually. Therefore students have reported that teachers do not use
English as medium of instruction.
ii. About half (56%) students agreed that English is better medium of instruction
than Urdu. It is fact that in English medium classes, English medium of
instruction is more effective than other medium of instruction. Otherwise students
have to double translate the contents of subject to understand it.
iii. Half (58%) students agreed that teacher speak Urdu while teaching in English.
Again it is because teachers assist their instruction with national language for
effective teaching.
iv. About (40%) students disagreed that they do respond in English. It is quite
validated teachers’ report that 38% students respond sometimes in English.
Teachers and student both have to struggle for cultivating English speaking skills
within school.
v. About (28%) students sometime agreed that teachers use interactive techniques in
teaching English. Students may not understand the means of interactive teaching
but both teachers and students reported interactive teaching.
vi. About (76%) students disagreed that teachers promote participatory techniques in
English. Both teachers and students reported that participatory techniques are
used during class. Participatory techniques are becoming popular in education.
Teachers and students both have to struggle for promoting participatory
techniques in English speaking skills.
vii. About (72%) students agreed that teacher use the mother-tongue while teaching
English. It is fact that there is diversity in students. All students have no same
ability of learning so teacher uses different techniques for their effective teaching.
Low ability students require instruction in easy way so they understand different
concepts in mother language easily.
viii. About half (49%) students are disagreed that English medium environment. It
may be due to that at present public schools are not fully functioning as English
medium.
ix. About half (45%) students are disagreed that speaking of English with fellow
students. It may explore that students are shy in speaking English. Teacher
emphasize in cultivating English speaking environment.
x. About (78%) students are disagreed that teachers use A.V. aids for the teaching of
English. It may explore that there is deficiency of A.V. aids in schools for
teaching English.
British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences
ISSN: 2046-9578
48
Conclusion
More than half of the teachers use English as a medium of instruction. Students also
reported the same. Both teachers and students are using interactive technique for teaching-
learning process. Teachers as well as students have the view that English is better medium of
instruction than Urdu. Teachers are also using mother language during instruction. Teachers
and students are promoting questioning and answering in English. Teachers are using helping
material for their effective teaching.
Recommendations
1. Teachers should more emphasize English as a medium of instruction in the English class.
2. Teachers should promote interactive techniques while teaching English.
3. For the enhancement of speaking skill in school environment teacher should cultivate
English communication culture within schools.
4. Students may be speaking English with fellow students and encouraged to respond in
English.
5. Refresher course for better teachers’ training for the creation of English speaking
environment within schools should be arranged.
6. Teacher training institution should restricted only for professional courses in English
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