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Abstract

Nowadays there is an increased demand to preserve the biological diversity in wild and farm animals. In this paper the history, utilisation and reproductive performance of the endangered native Hungarian swine breed Mangalica are reviewed. This fat-type race was the most typical since the middle of the nineteenth century. However, Mangalica nearly disappeared in the 1970-ies due to changing dietary habits and breeding of modern industrial pig breeds. The valuable characteristics of Mangalica, like resistance and excellent adaptability to extreme housing conditions, motherliness and delicious meat taste are recognised anew.
Arch. Tierz., Dummerstorf 46 (2003) 3, 245-256
Department of Reproduction, Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition, Herceghalom, Hungary1;
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Szent Istvan University, Budapest,
Hungary2 and Department of Reproductive Biology, Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals,
Dummerstorf, Germany3
ISTVAN EGERSZEGI1, JOZSEF RÁTKY1, LÁSZLÓ SOLTI2
and KLAUS-PETER BRÜSSOW3
Mangalica - an indigenous swine breed from Hungary (Review)
Abstract
Nowadays there is an increased demand to preserve the biological diversity in wild and farm animals. In this
paper the history, utilisation and reproductive performance of the endangered native Hungarian swine breed
Mangalica are reviewed. This fat-type race was the most typical since the middle of the nineteenth century.
However, Mangalica nearly disappeared in the 1970-ies due to changing dietary habits and breeding of modern
industrial pig breeds. The valuable characteristics of Mangalica, like resistance and excellent adaptability to
extreme housing conditions, motherliness and delicious meat taste are recognised anew.
Key Words: pig, Mangalica, reproduction, utilisation
Zusammenfassung
Titel der Arbeit: Mangalitza – Eine typische Schweinerasse aus Ungarn (Übersicht)
Gegenwärtig wächst das Bestreben, die biologische Vielfalt sowohl bei Wild- als auch bei landwirtschaftlichen
Nutztieren zu bewahren. In dieser Übersicht werden Geschichte, Nutzung und Reproduktionsleistungen der
bedrohten Ungarischen Mangalitza Schweinerasse referiert. Diese Fettschweinrasse war seit Mitte des 19.
Jahrhunderts die typischste Rasse in Ungarn. Jedoch war sie seit Beginn 1970 aufgrund veränderter
Verzehrgewohnheiten und durch die Zucht moderner industrieller Schweinerassen vom Aussterben bedroht. Die
wertvollen Eigenschaften dieser Rasse wie Widerstandsfähigkeit und Anpassung gegenüber extremen Haltungs-
und Fütterungsbedingungen, Mütterlichkeit und der hervorragende Fleischgeschmack werden gegenwärtig neu
erkannt.
Schlüsselwörter: Schwein, Mangalitza, Fortpflanzungsleistungen, Nutzung
Introduction
The Mangalica is a native Hungarian pig race, which was the most typical breed here
till the middle of the last century. It is a fat-type, curly-haired swine with relatively
low reproductive performance, but strong motherliness and good adaptability to
extensive housing conditions. This breed has nearly disappeared in the nineteen-
seventies, since in some traits like growth rate, feed conversion, reproductive
performance and meat/fat ratio it could not compete with the productivity of
commercial white breeds and its products did not suit with the changing dietary habits
after the 2nd World War. There were several proposal to convert the characteristics of
this breed, but fortunately it was not successful and this aboriginal swine breed has
been subsisted. National programs were established in 1976 to preserve the gene pool
(BALTAY, 1985; BODÓ, 1997). The real escape from extinction comes with the
anew economic exploitation of the Mangalica and nowadays with growing interest to
breed endangered animals (this breed was chosen in 1999 the breed of the year in
EGERSZEGI et al.: Mangalica - an indigenous swine breed from Hungary (Review)
246
Germany by the German Safeguard Society of Ancient and Endangered Domestic
Animal Breeds; FLEGLER, 1999). This strategy fits to the demands of the UNCED
Conference of Rio 1992 to preserve biodiversity of plants and animals.
History of the breed
It is quite difficult to find the historical roots of ancient swine breeding in Hungary,
since there are not so much archaeological findings. However it is sure, that there was
a full blown swine breeding in the country, when the Hungarian’s forefathers settled in
the Carpathian-basin. The Romans had already developed breeding before, they had to
feed a large population of the province. Then the Avars (residents before the
Hungarians) have kept the Lápi (moorland) race, which blood-lined with Laibacher
Moorland pigs and wild boar. This Lápi race might have been the origin of our three
Hungarian aboriginal pig breeds, the Bakony, the Szalonta and the Alföldi fat-type
pigs (newborn piglets of these races were stripped which shows the relationship with
wild boar). The Bakony and Alföldi were fat-type swine with curly hair, relative small
body-weight and roundish body shape. The Szalonta belongs to meat-type, it was a
high, bulky, robust and red-coated race (HANKÓ, 1940). All of these races
disappeared or were altered till the end of the nineteenth century and by that time the
Hungarian Mangalica became the dominant swine breed. The Hungarian Mangalica
was formed from crossing of Alföldi, Szalonta and Bakony breeds with the Serbian
Sumadia pig, which was bred in the Valley of Morava (ENESEI DORNER, 1925).
The first Sumadia stock (9 sows and 2 boars) arrived to Kisjenö in Hungary in 1833
as a gift from Serbian Prince Milos to Archduke József. The cross-breeding originate
from these animals, and soon the Sumadia blood could have been found in all large
breeding stocks of Hungary. More breeding animals were imported from Serbia to
improve the Hungarian Mangalica. However some references had mentioned
Mangalica before introduction of Sumadia pigs in 1833 (GÁTI, 1795;
SCHWARTNER, 1809; PETHE, 1815; MILOTAI, 1832, all cit. HANKÓ, 1940;
MATOLCSY, 1975). Nevertheless, at that time fat-type swine were denominated
Mangalica and this population had been standardised by Sumadia. The evolved new
race was larger, heavier and fattened better than its vanishing predecessors, and it
began the golden age of Hungarian swine breeding with Mangalica.
About the breed
The earliest describes of Mangalica had mentioned two types, namely the White and
Black Mangalica (CZILERT, 1859). Later five colour types of this breed were
portrayed: Blond or White, Black, Swallow-Belly and Brown (Baris) one, like wild
boar, and at least the Red Mangalica (KOVÁCSY-MONOSTORI, 1890; ENESEI
DORNER, 1908, 1921, 1925; HANKÓ, 1940; MATOLCSI, 1975). Nowadays there
exist only three types of Mangalica - Blond, Swallow-Belly and Red. Some
information about the formation of these types. Most likely the Blond type had been
formed by crossing of the small ancient Alföldi pigs and the Serbian Sumadia swine,
Figure legends
Fig. (above): Multiparous Blond Mangalica sow (Oben – Blonde Mangalitza Altsau)
Fig. (center): Swallow Belly Mangalica gilt (Mitte – Schwalbenbäuchige Mangalitza Jungsau)
Fig. (below): Red Mangalica sow (Unten – Rote Mangalitza Sau)
Arch. Tierz. 46 (2003) 3
247
and later they were crossbred with Szalonta and Bakony too. This type was the
predominating one. It has short, deep body, fine bone structure and the skin is slate.
The toenails/claws, eye-periphery, nose, the natural body-holes and the teats are black
in pure-bred animals. The head is rather small, the ears are large and hanging forward.
The hair of Blond Mangalica is dense, curly like shavings, glistening like silk and its
colour can variegate from grey-yellow to ruddy. The eyelashes, eyebrow and the tip of
tail-tassel are always black (Fig., above). Furthermore for Mangalica the seasonal
moulting of the hair is typical.
It is told that the Black type was bred by crossing with Croatian Syrmium/Szeremier
breed. The Black Mangalica disappeared during the last century. However, the Black
swine was mated with Blond one and set the Swallow-Belly (Fig., center). Swallow-
Belly Mangalica has black hair, but the throat and underbelly are yellow blond. These
two colour variants were more resistant to diseases and less affected by housing
conditions (KOVÁCSY-MONOSTORI, 1890; ENESEI DORNER, 1908; HOESCH,
1911).
The Red Mangalica (Fig., below) arose by the second part of the nineteenth century.
Blond sows were coupled with Szalonta boars and the new type was also called New-
Szalonta. This type was more valuably due to meat quality and growing performance,
and its characteristics were almost the same like the Blond (HANKÓ, 1940).
Parameters of body measurements of Mangalica boars and sows are presented in
Table 1.
Table 1
Parameters of body measurements of adult Mangalica boars and sows (Parameter der Exterieurbeurteilung bei
adulten Mangalitza-Ebern und –Sauen)
3 years of age* 2 – 3 years of age**
Blond Swallow Belly Red
Boar Sow Boar Sow Boar Sow Boar Sow
Height at withers (cm) 77 75 83 81 78 78 88 82
Chest circumference
(cm)
145 147 155 155 140 150 154 150
Body length (cm) 95 95 96 97 95 98 104 98
Neck circumference
(cm)
106 104 115 113 100 108 112 110
Head length (cm) 35 32 28 32 32 26 32 28
Snozzle length (cm) 26 20 18 21 21 18 22 21
Shin circumference
(cm)
19 19 19 17 21 18 22 18
Body weight (kg) 165 150 190 165 165 170 220 180
* FÁY cit. ENESEI DORNER (1925); ** SZABÓ (1999)
There had been two housing methods for Mangalica. In estates pigs were kept in large
herds grouped by age and sex, and supervised by herdsmen. The animals had been fed
throughout the year on pasture and in the oak-beech forest. Sows were introduced only
for farrowing. Small-farmers kept their pigs in night time at home in special cages and
in the day time all pigs of the village were shepherded on communal pastures.
Generally the farrowing season was in spring and the sows gave birth 4-6 piglets
usually. After the suckling period of 8-10 weeks the piglets were kept together and by
the age of 4 months boars and gilts were separated. The breeding gilts were kept in
droves on pasture and wasteland till the first mating at 15 – 18 month of age and
reaching a body weight of 80 – 100 kg (ENESEI DORNER, 1926; RÁCZ, 1932). The
fattening stock was kept in the forest and on the pasture till one year of age followed
EGERSZEGI et al.: Mangalica - an indigenous swine breed from Hungary (Review)
248
by subsequent 6 months fattening period. Animals were slaughtered at the weight of
150-200 kg. Mangalica has very strong body formation and solid joints, and tolerated
well to be driven on foot all the way from the southern frontier through the forest of
Bakony to Györ and to Vienna. Later the growing request of the market along with the
improved maize production resulted in building of industrial size fattening yards. In
the 1880-1890-ies 15-20,000 pigs were fattened all at once in such a yard. The
Hungarian lard and salami were wanted products on the market (ENESEI DORNER,
1926). The disastrous swine fever in 1895 and the 1st World War set back the pig
breeding, the population decreased from 6,500,000 to 2,100,000 (RÁCZ, 1932). In the
1920-ies the breeders had requested to establish an organisation, which represent their
interest. The conscious breeding of the stock began 1927, when the National
Association of Mangalica Breeders (NAMB) was formed. The Association defined the
standards of the breed, established the herd book and the registration of breeding
animals. Furthermore breeders were provided with instructions and advises for
propagation (RÁCZ, 1930, BLANTZ, 1938; KAZÁR, 1955). Table 2 presents the
development of Mangalica breeding sows between 1927 and 2001. Evidently, the
breeding stock increased until the 2nd World War, then decreased dramatically (the
activity of the NAMB was suspended too) and the race nearly disappeared. Only 34
breeding sows were registered in the herd-book in 1975. The race was rescued from
extinction by state intervention. It was enacted to breed Mangalica in gene-reserve
(BALTAY, 1983; ZENGÖ, 1998).
Table 2
Number of breeding sows in Hungary between 1927-2001 (Anzahl der Zuchtsauen in Ungarn 1927-2001)
YEAR RED
MANGALICA
SWALLOW-
BELLY
MANGALICA
BLOND
MANGALICA
TOTAL REFERENCE
1927 * * * 1000
1930 * * * 1920
1935 * * * 6500
1940 * * * 20000
1943 * * * 30000
1955 * * * 17691
1959 * * * 4091
1965 * * * 922
1970 * * * 243
1975 * * * 34
1980 * * * 244
BALTAY, 1983
1988 46 61 222 329
1989 64 73 201 338
1990 62 62 224 348
1991 66 28 128 222
1992 43 25 175 243
1993 31 32 138 201
1994 28 20 106 154
1995 20 18 170 208
1996 38 42 266 346
1997 32 46 315 393
1998 39 60 299 398
1999 50 64 491 605
2000 75 74 616 765
2001 179 145 1001 1325
ZENGÖ, 1997;
OMMI, 2002
* No data available; OMMI-National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control
Arch. Tierz. 46 (2003) 3
249
What was the reason of the fast decline of the Mangalica population? At first there was
a change in consumption habits and the breed did not fulfil these requirements. It
produced too much lard and its meat was very fatty. Secondly its reproductive and
growing performance could not compete with the modern breeds.
After a long interruption, in 1994 the National Association of Mangalica Breeders
resumpted its activity and re-organised the registration of animals, the inspection and
introduced a certification of origin for every Mangalica products on the market. There
is an obligatory blood control of breeding sows and boars. The Hungarian Institute for
the Agricultural Quality Control lend a hand to the labour of NAMB (ZENGÖ, 1998).
It is important, that there are noteworthy populations of Mangalica in Switzerland,
Germany, Austria and some breeding animals are kept in Yugoslavia and Romania
too. The number of these breeding sows is shown in Table 3. The Swallow-Belly type
has the largest population, these pigs are kept like hobby animals and for its meat. The
animals are on extensive housing conditions, pastured and fed mainly pigswill. The
meat quality of Mangalica is much better than any other commercial breeds and
properly well for barbecue (FLEGLER, 1999). Furthermore, the content of unsaturated
fatty acids of lard is more than 60 % (CSAPÓ et al., 1999).
Table 3
Mangalica stock in Europe (Bestand an Mangalitza in Europa)
YEAR RED
MANGALICA
SWALLOW-BELLY
MANGALICA
BLOND
MANGALICA
MANGALICA MANGALICA
Germany Switzerland Austria Germany Germany Yugoslavia Romania
1983 * * * * * * 500
1992 * 80 * * * * *
1994 * 125 * * * * 30
1996 * 105 * * * * 34
1997 50 105 * 45 60 * *
1998 32 * * 63 48 * *
1999 29 * 70 55 43 19 *
2000 45 * * 80 45 * *
2001 * 182 * * * * *
Reference EAAP EAAP GEH EAAP EAAP DAD-IS EAAP
* No data available
EAAP – European Association of Animal Production; GEH – German Safeguard Society of Ancient and Endangered Domestic Animal
Breeds; DAD-IS – Domestic Animal Diversity Information System
Reproductive Performance
Litter size is one of the major components of sow's productivity and hereby a very
important economical parameter in pig production. The litter size is determined by the
number of ovulation, early embryonic loss and uterine capacity, which are determined
by genes and influenced by environmental factors. Furthermore the reproductive
efficiency of sows depends from the age of first mating, lactation length, weaned
piglets and farrowing interval (VAN DER LENDE et al., 1994). The differences in
mean litter size of Mangalica between 1955-1994 are shown in Table 4.
As mentioned above, breeding gilts were kept on pasture and wasteland before mating
at the age of 15 – 18 month. However, rearing of breeding animals under natural
conditions - all day on pasture, in winter in pens and feeding alfalfa-rich fodder - can
advance the onset of puberty, and first mating can be performed by the age of 11
month (GÁBOS, 1935). At the beginning of last century for more intensive breeding
farrowing was proposed twice a year or in larger stock three times in two years
EGERSZEGI et al.: Mangalica - an indigenous swine breed from Hungary (Review)
250
(JANISH, 1908). It was recommended to time the farrowing at February and August.
As a result sows could farrow altogether 6 – 7 times and then were slaughtered at
younger age (KOVÁCSY, 1903, 1908). Furthermore the housing conditions and
nutrition should be improved with more intensive breeding (JUHOS, 1912). However
after the 1st World War the mean litter size decreased to 3.3 after farrowing twice a
year but could be increased to 4 - 4.5 piglets by farrowing once a year. It was proposed
to mark sows according to their fecundity (KOVÁCSY, 1918). Some good results
were realised in few Mangalica breeding stocks selecting for prolificacy. The mean
litter size increased from 5.5 to 6.44 piglets in a four-years interval (TÉGLÁSSY,
1917), whereas 7 - 8 piglets were attained with conscious selection for litter size and
with improved nutrition (KISS, 1926). Since 1927 the breeding sows were registered
in herd-books. In 1932 the mean litter-size of 3,133 sows was 6.87 (RÁCZ, 1932). Ten
years after the foundation of NAMB in 1937 with more than 7,000 sows the result of
the conscious breeding was 1,3 piglets more per litter (6.3 vs. 5.0) and 20 percent of
the breeding sows farrowed on average 6.5 - 7.5 piglets (BLANTZ, 1938).
Table 4
References on mean litter size of Mangalica (1955-1994) (Literaturangaben zur Wurfgröße bei Mangalitza)
LITTER SIZE YEAR NUMBER OF SOWS
day 1 p.p. day 21 p.p.
REFERENCE
1955
1960
1965
1474
948
861
6.5
6.6
6.9
5.7
5.9
5.9
BALTAY, 1983
1967
1968
1969
287
83
122
6.9
6.7
6.1
5.9
5.9
5.6
SZABÓ,1999
1970 155 6.2 5.7 BALTAY, 1983
1971
1972
112
44
6.1
5.7
5.2
4.5
SZABÓ,1999
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
34
43
75
117
113
111
4.5
5.0
5.3
5.6
5.0
5.5
3.1
4.3
4.8
4.8
4.0
4.4
BALTAY, 1983
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
348
222
243
201
154
5.3
4.8
4.9
5.1
5.0
4.8
4.2
4.3
4.6
4.5
SZABÓ,1999
Under optimal breeding conditions the first mating could be performed at 11 month of
age with 6.7 piglets/sow (GÁBOS, 1935). Relationship was found between the
reproductive performance and the age of the sows, the parity and the number of teats.
The number of piglets increased with the parity until the third farrowing and slowly
decreased thereafter (RÁCZ, 1932; MENTLER, 1958). According to the analysis of
herd book data (CSUKÁS, 1942) the mean litter size was 6.66. The "average"
Mangalica sow was the most prolific at the age of 5.5 - 6 years, what coincided with
the 3rd (one litter yearly) or the 6th (two litter/year) farrowing. In the former Soviet
Union good results were achieved with Mangalica by selection for prolificacy. The
mean litter size increased from 6 - 7 to 8 – 8.9 piglets (RED'KIN and KOZLOVSZKIJ,
1952). In an other report three groups of sows with different fecundity were
investigated. It was concluded, that with appropriate nutrition and selection the litter
Arch. Tierz. 46 (2003) 3
251
size can be increased to 8 - 9 piglets and the farrowing rate to more than 1.5 litter/year
(SCHALBERT, 1967).
The importance of selection for reproductive efficiency was emphasized with relation
to the number of teats (JUHOS, 1912). The number of teats was 10 in 87.6% of herd-
book-sows and 12. 4% of them had more than 10 teats. Sows with more than 10 teats
had 25 – 30% higher prolificacy (RÁCZ, 1932). Otherwise, no relationship was found
between number of teats and fecundity (SCHALBERT, 1967).
It is important, that the larger number of offspring requires more milk for nursing the
piglets. How the lactation of the breed can be characterised? The milk yield of sows
varied between 119.3 - 190.6 kg during the 8 - 10-weeks suckling period (RÁCZ,
1932). HORVÁTH (1957) reported on 198 – 327 kg milk during a 70 days-long
period. With quality nutrition milk volume has been increased and was sufficient to
rear 8 - 9 piglets. KOVÁCS (1954) estimated 170-235 kg milk with high individual
variation, whereas 44.7 - 49.8% of the overall milk volume was suckled by piglets
during the first 4 weeks of lactation.
Several authors referred that the negative/contra selection was the main reason of the
low reproductive performance of Mangalica. The animals were selected for breeding
according to its build and maturity (KERTÉSZ-KOVÁCS, 1953). Furthermore the
nutrition mainly with maize limited reproduction (TÓTH, 1962). The quality and
quantity of nutrition had influence on the prolificacy. The mean litter size was 0.9
piglets larger in sows with quality feeding, and with additional 0.3 piglets in spring
farrowing sows (KERTÉSZ-KOVÁCS, 1953). The inheritability of litter size and
weight was twice as much than in other swine population in Europe. Some new
information about reproductive performance of pure- and crossbred Mangalica are
summarised in Table 5.
Table 5
Reproductive performance of pure- and crossbred Mangalica (SZABÓ, 2002) (Reproduktionsleistungen von
reinrassigen Mangalitza und Kreuzungssauen)
Mangalica Mangalica
total
Duroc x
Mangalica
Mangalica x
Cornwall
Blond Swallow-
Belly
Red
Number of litter
Litter/year
Litter size
Rearing (%)
Pigs/sow/year
71
1.90
6.66
88.0
11.13
74
1.81
6.64
88.9
10.68
110
1.86
6.83
87.6
11.12
255
1.86
6.73
88.0
11.0
41
1.86
7.60
87.5
14.14
45
1.80
7.43
92.3
12.35
There are less information about the ovarian features, on oocyte quality, early
embryonic and foetal development, and on losses in this breed. At first BULATOVICI
(1932) studied the ovaries and foetal development of slaughtered Mangalica sows. The
average number of corpora lutea was 9.88 compared to 12.36 and 12.60 in Berkshire
and Yorksire sows. The mean number of foetuses was 5.67, 8.94 and 9.84,
respectively. According to BULATOVICI (1932) the main reason of lower prolificacy
may be the low number of matured oocytes. In swine there is 30 - 40% difference
between potential and real reproductive performance, and fecundity is influenced by
inheritable and variable environmental factors. Nutrition has an important effect on
reproduction, especially the protein and vitamin supply. The early embryonic loss was
estimated to be 20% in Large White and 30% in Mangalica. Higher protein intake
EGERSZEGI et al.: Mangalica - an indigenous swine breed from Hungary (Review)
252
decreased the proportion of early embryonic losses with 3.3 % in Mangalica, but had
no influence on foetal loss (BECZE, 1962, 1965).
Our research group has been working with Mangalica since 1996 to find a sufficient
method for the propagation of this endangered breed and to elucidate the reason(s) of
lower prolificacy. Inter-breed embryo transfer was used for the propagation. At first
an appropriate superovulatory treatment was selected (RÁTKY and BRÜSSOW,
1998). Thereafter surgical or endoscopical embryo collection and embryo transfer
were carried out. It was concluded that an appropriate inter-breed ET program is a
suitable tool to propagate the endangered Mangalica breed (RÁTKY et al., 2001).
Furthermore the intrafollicular development of oocytes after endoscopic ovum pick up
was analysed and compared to Landrace gilts. Results confirmed the lower number of
preovulatory follicles in Mangalica in contrast to Landrace gilts (6.8 ± 1.4 vs. 19.6 ±
6.6; p<0.05). Inter-breed differences were obtained concerning the morphology of
recovered cumulus-oocyte-complexes. The per cent of oocytes with compact cumulus
was higher in Mangalica than in Landrace gilts (31 vs. 16 %) but less oocytes possess
expanded cumulus (62 and 78 %, p<0.05). The meiotic configuration of oocytes was
different between Mangalica and Landrace gilts. The rate of oocytes with mature
chromatin configuration (Telophase I /Metaphase II) was higher (27 vs. 62 %, p<0.05)
in Landrace sows. It is assumed that both diminished follicular development and
protracted intrafollicular oocyte maturation may be involved in low fecundity of
Mangalica (EGERSZEGI et al., 2001). Ongoing projects deal with aspects of early
pregnancy, uterus capacity, and reproductive hormone secretion of this breed, which
results will be published later.
Utilisation of the breed
The Mangalica is one of the fattiest pig in the world, generally 65-70% of the carcass
is lard. The lean meat is only 30 - 35% compared to over 50% in modern breeds.
However, its meat quality, taste and consistence are unexcelled. It must be kept in
mind that the softness and taste of meat depends on the interstitial fat layers lacking in
most commercial breeds. The Mangalica has the necessary amount of fat and the taste
satisfy any expectation. During the nineteenth and at the beginning of the twentieth
century lard and bacon were the main food of the Hungarian people and the leading
export products of the country. In the 1910-ies till the 1st World War more than
500,000 pork were exported to Europe yearly (ENESEI DORNER and KOVÁCSY,
1926; RÁCZ, 1932). Beginning with the turn of the twentieth century, diet and
consumption habits have been changed. There was an increased demand to lean meat
and the market preferred butter and vegetable oils against lard. It was a great challenge
for the breeders and researcher to work out appropriate programmes to develop a more
prolific, faster growing and less fatty Mangalica. In 1927 the NAMB preferred
selection methods for improvement of Mangalica (BLANTZ, 1938). In the 1950-ies
had begun intensive hybridisation of Mangalica with different commercial breeds by
the Research Institute for Animal Breeding of Hungary (HORN et al., 1952a, b, c;
CSIRE et al., 1953; KAZÁR, 1953; VINCZE, 1957). The produced pork could meet
well the requests of salami manufactures (CSIRE et al., 1960; VINCZE, 1960, 1963).
As it was mentioned, Mangalica nearly disappeared due to undesirable fatty meat and
lower fecundity compared to modern breeds. After nearly a thirty years break
Mangalica was rediscovered at the beginning of 1990-ies, and several programmes and
Arch. Tierz. 46 (2003) 3
253
research projects have been commenced to preserve and exploit this breed. Nowadays,
its traits like adaptivity to extreme and extensive housing conditions, stress and disease
resistance, motherliness and excellent meat quality (taste) are requested. For example,
Mangalica are well fitted to care sensitive natural areas like dike meadows, bird
preserves or chestnut-groves (MICKLICH and MATTHES, 1999; SVWS, 2000). New
analysis of carcass demonstrate <40 % of lean meat and was sufficiently to produce
high quality cured ham (SZABÓ, 2001; 2002). The fatty acid composition and the
cholesterol content of lard were determined in pure- and crossbred Mangalica, and
Hungarian Large White x Hungarian Landrace. The content of unsaturated fatty acids
of lard was over 60 % in Mangalica and nearly 60% in Mangalica crossbred animals
(CSAPÓ et al., 1999; SZABÓ, 2001). Most of these fatty acids were oleic (43.6 -
44.8%) and linoleic acid (10.6 - 11.5%); the cholesterol concentration did not differ
significantly between breeds (CSAPÓ et al., 1999). It was referred that 68.7% of the
intra muscular fat content in m. longissimus dorsi was composed from unsaturated
fatty acids, which was at least 6% more than in German Landrace and German
Sattelschwein (ENDER et al., 2002).
A large project was created under the name of “Real Mangalitza” by Olmos and Tóth
Ltd. in 1991. The aim of the project is both to preserve the breed and to produce pork
for high quality meat products. The fattening up to a weight of 140 – 160 kg and
slaughter of these animals are carried out in Hungary, whereas most of ham and pork
chops are transported to Spain to produce special cured meat products. In Hungary a
part of the meat is processed for smoked bacon and sausage. Nowadays the market
requires more than 20,000 items of Mangalica products a year, in consequence the
preservation of the breed seems to be unravel. Nowadays both the Mangalica breeding
stock and all porker are kept under extensive conditions in large pens or on pasture,
and are fed mixture of maize, wheat, barley and green fodder.
Conclusion
Conservation and propagation of domestic animal diversity can be considered as a
form of insurance since preserved stocks will possess potential economic, scientific
and sociocultural benefits.
The Mangalica pig is a representative example for the success of preserving
endangered breeds. Its population is continuously increasing in all colour types
although the number of Swallow Belly and Red Mangalica is still critical. The new
demand for Mangalica products on the market, the valuable properties of the breed
and the reminiscence to the tradition of Hungarian swine breeding will support to
preserve the Mangalica as a diverse European pig breed.
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Received: 2003-02-26 Accepted: 2003-05-06
Author's addresses
Dipl. Agrar-Ing. ISTVAN EGERSZEGI Prof. Dr. vet. med. habil LÁSZLÓ SOLTI
Prof. Dr. med. vet. habil JOZSEF RÁTKY Faculty of Veterinary Science
Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition Szent Istvan University
H-2053 Herceghalom / Hungary H-1400 Budapest / Hungary
Prof. Dr. rer. nat. habil KLAUS-PETER BRÜSSOW*
Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals
Wilhelm-Stahl-Allee 2, D-18196 Dummerstorf, Germany
*Corresponding author E-Mail: bruessow@fbn-dummerstorf.de
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Indigenous pigs are essential domestic animals for rural life and meat supply in Laos, especially for ethnic people in remote areas. Northern provinces have the most numerous indigenous pig populations, i.e. covering 84 % of the total pig population. This study was conducted in northern Laos, where 164 pig-raising households, 325 sows and 1246 piglets were included. The study aimed to observe the general trend of change in indigenous pig utilization and the altered reproductive performance regarding village location and rearing systems. The semi-structured questionnaires were a key tool for gathering data required through personal interviews and field observations. Two types of indigenous Lao pig breeds (locally named Moo Lath and Moo Hmong) were found in study areas. The village locations were not influencing on reproductive performance of indigenous Lao pigs. Larger litter size and birth weight (P30 km) clusters had 7.72 versus 7.12 heads, and 0.70 versus 0.63 kg, respectively. Conversely, the second cluster had lower litter per year (P0.070 versus 0.839). Around 56 % of the piglet's deaths were due to poor management that caused piglets to be crushed/injured by sow or starvation. More than 54 % of farmers did not keep sows in pens before the farrowing, and 53 % of sows gave birth near forests. In conclusion, the village locations and rearing systems did not influence the reproductive performance of indigenous pigs in northern Laos. However, pre- and post-farrowing management had a strong effect on it. During the whole study, we took into consideration the successful example of Hungarian Mangalica pig, which could find a proper new role in the global premium markets. Our results suggest that similar complex semi-intensive farm operations as indigenous Mangalica pig farms in Hungary should be a great option for introducing and adapting to improve indigenous pig performance in Laos.
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Preservation of native pig breeds of different values has got increasing public interest. Hungarian Mangalica, likewise other native races, became uninteresting because of economic reasons or other characteristics, and were replaced by modern breeds. Its population decreased rapidly and reached a critical level. However, the exceptional taste of the meat, and the robustness and motherliness do support the propagation of this breed. Nevertheless, low prolificacy and marked seasonality remains a problem. The aim ofthe present study was to find possible implications of the physiological basis with regard to the low fecundity. Therefore, preovulatory follicular development and intrafollicular oocyte maturation of Mangalica and of Landrace gilts were compared. A total of 18 pubertal Blond and Swallow Belly Mangalica and 19 Landrace gilts (8.5 to 9 month of age, body weight of 120 to 125 kg) were used. Oestrus of gilts was synchronized by feeding Regumate®, follicular growth was stimulated by administering 1,000 IU PMSG 24 h after the last Regumate® feeding and the LH peak simulated with 750 IU hCG 80 h after PMSG. Cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) were recovered 34 h after hCG by endoscopic Ovum Pick Up. Follicular fluids from follicles per ovary were pooled and the morphology of COCs was determined. COCs were classified as compact, expanded or denuded. Thereafter, COCs were prepared for evaluation of nuclear configuration. Based on their nuclear status the oocytes were classified as 1) immature – germinal vesicle (GV), with diplotene chromatin; 2) meiosis resumed – G V breakdown, diakinesis, M-I to A-I; or 3) mature – T-I and M-II. The average number (+SD) of preovulatory follicles was 6.8 + 1.4 in Mangalica and 19.6 ± 6.6 in Landrace gilts (p
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The present investigations show results of four different breeds of pigs (Schwerfurter Meatrace, German Sattle-Back, Duroc and Mangalica) in the nationalpark "Brandenburgische Elbtalaue". The aim of the investigations are checking the pigs with regard to their rooting activity, behaviour and their litter.
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The objective of the study was to use embryo transfer (ET) for propagation of the Swallow Belly Mangalica population. Mangalica is a native Hungarian pig breed adapted to extreme climate and housing conditions and distinguished for excellent meat and fat quality. However, due to their weak reproductive characteristics and relatively high fat proportion, Mangalica pigs have been replaced by modern breeds. Now, there is an increased interest again to safeguard the properties of this breed. We conducted two experiments. First, we used a total of 18 puberal Mangalica gilts to determine an optimal superovulatory treatment. Following estrus synchronization with Regumate, we injected gilts with either 750, 1000 or 1250 IU PMSG, followed by 750 IU hCG 80 h later. We scanned ovaries endoscopically 3 days after hCG administration. The application of 1000 and 1250 IU PMSG resulted in a higher rate of ovulation compared to 750 IU (24.2 +/- 3.6 and 21.0 +/- 2.3 vs. 13.7 +/- 2.7 P<0.05). The number of follicular cysts increased after administration of 1250 IU PMSG compared to 750 and 1000 IU (2.0 +/- 1.3 vs. 0.3 +/- 0.7 and 0.2 +/- 0.3, P<0.05). Thus, we chose 1000 IU PMSG for further stimulation of Mangalica gilts. In the second experiment, we induced superovulation in 10 Mangalica donor gilts by 1000 IU PMSG and 750 IU hCG. Gilts were fixed-time inseminated, and then five days later embryo collection was carried out surgically (n=6) or endoscopically (n=4). Out of the 187 ova recovered, 92.5% were at the morula/blastocyst stage. The embryo recovery rate was higher following surgical flushing than following endoscopy (91.5 +/- 4.4% vs. 71.4 +/- 12.7%, P<0.05). Altogether 143 embryos were transferred surgically or endoscopically into 8 Landrace recipients. Surgical and endoscopic transfer of Mangalica embryos into Landrace gilts resulted in pregnancies in 3 and 2 gilts, respectively; thus the overall farrowing rate was 62.5%. The birth of 59 Mangalica piglets from 5 embryo recipients equals an average litter size of 11.8 +/- 1.3, which is two times larger than usual in this breed. Therefore, we concluded that an appropriate inter-breed ET program is a suitable tool to propagate the endangered Mangalica breed.
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Results of 10 years working of the National Association of Mangalica Breeders (A mangalicatenyésztők országos egyesülete 10 éves munkásságának eredményei) Budapest " Pátria What descend on us, that we have. (Ami ránk maradt, az megvan) Állattenyésztõk Lapja
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Dr. vet. med. habil LÁSZLÓ SOLTI Prof. Dr. med. vet. habil JOZSEF RÁTKY Faculty of Veterinary Science Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition
  • Author 's Addresses Dipl
  • Agrar-Ing
  • Istvan
  • Prof
Author's addresses Dipl. Agrar-Ing. ISTVAN EGERSZEGI Prof. Dr. vet. med. habil LÁSZLÓ SOLTI Prof. Dr. med. vet. habil JOZSEF RÁTKY Faculty of Veterinary Science Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition Szent Istvan University H-2053 Herceghalom / Hungary H-1400 Budapest / Hungary