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Two new species of Australoheros ŘÍČan and Kullander are described. Australoheros ykeregua sp. nov. is described from the tributaries of the rÍo Uruguay in Misiones province, Argentina. Australoheros angiru sp. nov. is described from the tributaries of the upper rio Uruguai and middle rio Iguaçu in Brazil. The two new species are not closely related, A. ykeregua is the sister species of A. forquilha ŘÍČan and Kullander, while A. angiru is the sister species of A. minuano ŘÍČan and Kullander. The diversity of the genus Australoheros is reviewed using morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses. These analyses suggest that the described species diversity of the genus in the coastal drainages of SE Brazil is overestimated and that many described species are best undestood as representing cases of intraspecific variation. The distribution patterns of Australoheros species in the Uruguay and Iguazú river drainages point to historical connections between today isolated river drainages (the lower rÍo Iguazú with the arroyo Urugua-Í, and the middle rio Iguaçu with the upper rio Uruguai). Molecular clocks are used to date these and other biogeographic patterns.
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Accepted by M.R. de Carvalho: 30 Jun. 2011; published: 2 Aug. 2011
ZOOTAXA
ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)
ISSN 1175-5334 (online edition)
Copyright © 2011 · Magnolia Press
Zootaxa 2982: 126 (2011)
www.mapress.com/zootaxa/Article
1
Two new species of Australoheros (Teleostei: Cichlidae), with notes on diversity of
the genus and biogeography of the Río de la Plata basin
OLD ICH ÍAN1, LUBOMÍR PIÁLEK1, ADRIANA ALMIRÓN2 & JORGE CASCIOTTA2
1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 31, 370 05, eské Bud jovice, Czech Republic.
E-mail: oldrichrican@yahoo.com, lpialek@yahoo.com
2División Zoología Vertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, UNLP, Paseo del Bosque, 1900 La Plata, Argentina.
E-mail: aalmiron@fcnym.unlp.edu.ar, jrcas@fcnym.unlp.edu.ar
Abstract
Two new species of Australoheros í an and Kullander are described. Australoheros ykeregua sp. nov. is described from
the tributaries of the río Uruguay in Misiones province, Argentina. Australoheros angiru sp. nov. is described from the
tributaries of the upper rio Uruguai and middle rio Iguaçu in Brazil. The two new species are not closely related, A. yke-
regua is the sister species of A. forquilha ían and Kullander, while A. angiru is the sister species of A. minuano ían
and Kullander. The diversity of the genus Australoheros is reviewed using morphological and molecular phylogenetic
analyses. These analyses suggest that the described species diversity of the genus in the coastal drainages of SE Brazil is
overestimated and that many described species are best undestood as representing cases of intraspecific variation. The dis-
tribution patterns of Australoheros species in the Uruguay and Iguazú river drainages point to historical connections be-
tween today isolated river drainages (the lower río Iguazú with the arroyo Urugua–í, and the middle rio Iguaçu with the
upper rio Uruguai). Molecular clocks are used to date these and other biogeographic patterns.
Key words: Australoheros, new species, Cichlidae, phylogeny, South America, biogeography, Brazilian shield
Resumen
Dos nuevas especies de Australoheros í an y Kullander son descriptas. Australoheros ykeregua sp. nov. es descripta de
tributarios del río Uruguay en la provincia de Misiones, Argentina. Australoheros angiru sp. nov. es descripta de tributar-
ios del rio Uruguai superior y rio Iguaçu medio en Brasil. Las dos especies nuevas no se encuentran estrechamente rela-
cionadas, A. ykeregua is la especie hermana de A. forquilha ían y Kullander, mientras que A. angiru es la especie
hermana de A. minuano ían y Kullander. La diversidad del género Australoheros es revisada usando análisis filogené-
ticos morfológicos y moleculares. Estos análisis sugieren que la diversidad específica del género en las cuencas costeras
del sudeste del Brasil se encuentra sobreestimada. Los patrones de distribución de las especies de Australoheros en las
cuencas de los ríos Uruguay e Iguazú señalan una conexión histórica de cuencas que no se mantiene en la actualidad (río
Iguazú inferior con el arroyo Urugua-í y rio Iguaçu medio con el rio Uruguai superior). Relojes moleculares son usados
para datar estos y otros patrones biogeográficos.
Introduction
The genus Australoheros í an & Kullander with at present 20 valid species is rapidly becoming one of the most
speciose genera of heroine cichlids. Twelve new species from the Atlantic coastal drainages of Brazil (Ottoni &
Costa 2008; Ottoni et al. 2008; Ottoni & Cheffe 2009; Ottoni 2010), and seven new species from the Río de la Plata
basin (Uruguay, Iguazú and Paraná river drainages) (Casciotta et al. 1995; Casciotta et al. 2006; ían & Kullander
2003, 2008) were described recently.
ían and Kullander (2006, 2008) have reviewed the species diversity of the genus Australoheros in the Río de
la Plata basin. The authors reported a considerable diversity of this cichlid fish genus in this river drainage. Based
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on personal observation and also according to Ottoni and Costa (2008), Ottoni et al. (2008), Ottoni and Cheffe
(2009) and Ottoni (2010), the Australoheros species from the rivers of the Atlantic coast of Brazil are rather similar
to each other, with exception of A. taura Ottoni and Cheffe. The species from the Río de la Plata river drainages, on
the other hand, show a wider spectrum of morphological and color pattern variation.
The highest diversity of Australoheros in the Río de la Plata basin is so far known from the río Uruguay drain-
age, which has four endemic species; A. scitulus (ían and Kullander), A. charrua ían and Kullander, A.
forquilha ían and Kullander, A. minuano ían and Kullander. The río Paraná drainage has two endemic species
(A. guarani ían and Kullander, A. tembe [Casciotta et al.]). Only two species are (in the Río de la Plata basin)
presently known to occur in two separate river drainages (A. facetus [Jenyns], A. kaaygua Casciotta et al.).
New data have recently become available and demonstrate that the diversity described above is still underesti-
mated, since A. kaaygua and A. forquilha as presently understood hide considerable variation, which better corre-
sponds to four rather than two species. The aim of this paper is to describe this variation and to demonstrate that the
species of Australoheros from the Río de la Plata basin reveal some interesting biogeographic patterns.
Material and methods
River names terminology. Rivers flowing through both Spanish and Portuguese speaking countries (e.g. Argen-
tina vs. Brazil) usually vary in their names. Typical examples in our case are the río Iguazú (in Argentina), but rio
Iguaçu (in Brazil), or the río Uruguay (in Argentina and Uruguay), but rio Uruguai in Brazil. We keep this differ-
ence in names throughout the text because it helps in pointing out which part of the river in which country we mean
without the necessity to repeat the name of the country. If the river drainage is meant in general, the Spanish ver-
sion is used. The rio Uruguai (Brazil) is not to be confused with the arroyo Urugua–í, which is a tributary of the río
Paraná in Misiones, Argentina.
Morphological methods. In this work, we use character-based and tree-based approaches to analyze morpho-
logical characters as two tests of species delimitation.
Character-based delimitation. Character-based species delimitation involves finding diagnostic character
states that represent seemingly fixed differences between the putative species, or differences that are at least non
overlapping (e.g. ían & Kullander 2006). This approach is useful but lacks the clear relationship to estimated
patterns of gene flow that the phylogenetic component of the tree-based approach offers.
Tree-based delimitation. Tree-based delimitation with morphology, although advocated by some authors (e.g.
Baum & Donoghue 1995), has rarely been used by empirical systematists (e.g. Hollingsworth 1998; Wiens & Pen-
krot 2002; ían & Kullander 2006, 2008). The tree-based approach provides the parsimonious solution of charac-
ter distribution, a homology hypothesis, and presents monophyletic groups, which are compared with results of the
character-based approach. This two-step system, combining character- and tree-based approaches, has multiple
advantages over a single step system (see ían and Kullander, 2006, 2008).
We complement our tree-based morphological delimitation with molecular data.
Characters. Measurements and counts were taken as described by Kullander (1986). Measurements were
taken with digital calipers to 0.1 mm and are made point to point except for head length and snout length, which are
projections from the anterior tip of the premaxilla to the orbital margin and the posterior margin of the gill cover,
respectively. Scale rows are numbered as described by Kullander (1990), i.e. the horizontal row including the lower
lateral line is designated as row E0, and the rows are counted as E1, E2 etc. dorsally, and H1, H2 etc. ventrally.
Dorsal and anal fin rays, pterygiophores and vertebrae were counted on X-radiographs. Vertebral counts include
the last halfcentrum. Color marking terminology follows Kullander (1983, 1986) and ían et al. (2005). Bars are
counted and numbered in postero-anterior succession (Kullander 1983; Kullander & Silfvergrip 1991; ían et al.
2005). In the Description sections the number of specimens is indicated in parentheses, values of the holotype are
indicated by an asterisk. Body length is expressed as standard length (SL).
Institutional abbreviations are as listed in Leviton et al. (1985) and Leviton and Gibbs (1988), except for AI
(Asociación Ictiológica, La Plata, Argentina) and MACN-ict (Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino
Rivadavia, Argentina).
Characters used in the present study include the following (plus color pattern) characters (HL: head length; SL:
standard length): HL/SL, snout L/HL, body depth/SL, orbital diameter/HL, head width/HL, interorbital dist./HL,
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TWO NEW SPECIES OF AUSTRALOHEROS
preorbital dist./HL, caudal peduncle L/caudal peduncle depth, pectoral fin L/SL, ventral fin L/SL, last dorsal fin
spine L/SL, and the following counts: scale counts (E0, L1, L2, scales between anterior insertion of the dorsal fin
and the upper lateral line, scales between the posterior end of the upper lateral line and the dorsal fin, cheek scale
rows), first ceratobranchial gill-rakers, caudal vertebrae, caudal peduncle vertebrae, anal pterygiophores anteriorly
from the first haemal spine, anal-fin spines, anal-fin rays, anal-fin total, dorsal-fin spines, dorsal-fin rays, dorsal-fin
total, pectoral-fin rays.
Molecular characters include the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.
Molecular methods. Sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from 38 specimens representing
eight Australoheros species (and three outgroup taxa) make up our molecular data set (Table 1). New sequences
have been deposited in GenBank under the following accession numbers: HQ197686–HQ197712.
DNA was extracted from small pieces of muscle or gill (10 to 25 mg) using the DNeasyTM Tissue Kit (Qiagen).
The entire cytochrome b gene (1.3 kb) was PCR amplified with primers GLuDG.L-TGA CTT GAA RAA CCA
YCG TTG (Palumbi et al. 1991) and H15915-AAC TGC AGT CAT CTC CGG GTT ACA AGA C (Irwin et al.
1991). PCR reactions were carried out with initial denaturation at 94°C for 5 min, followed by 30 cycles with dena-
turation at 94°C for 1 min, primer annealing at 45 to 50°C for 40 s and primer extension at 72°C for 1 min. PCR
was finished by final extension at 72°C for 5 min. PCR products were purified by ethanol precipitation or using
Microcon PCR Filter Units (Millipore) and directly sequenced on an automated DNA sequencer using BigDye™
Terminator Cycle Sequencing Kit v.3.1 (PE Applied Biosystems). Sequencing reaction products were cleaned by
ethanol precipitation or with DyeEx 2.0 Spin Kit (QIAGEN) and then resolved on ABI Prism 310 Genetic Analyser
(Perkin Elmer). Except the amplification primers, the following additional primers were used for sequencing: mod-
ified L14952 of Lydeard et al. (1995; TCA TCC GTC GCC CAC AT), modified L15162 of Taberlet et al. (1992;
CCA TGA GGA CAA ATA TC), and L15299 (Lydeard & Roe 1997). Chromatograms were assembled and
checked by eye for potential mistakes using SEQMAN II of the DNASTAR software package (http://www.dnas-
tar.com). Edited sequences were aligned using the default settings in ClustalX software (Thompson et al. 1997).
The alignment was manually revised in BIOEDIT (Biological sequence alignment editor v5.0.9, http://
www.mbio.ncsu.edu/BioEdit/bioedit.html). The alignment includes no gaps.
Phylogenetic analyses. The morphological data set is coded with populations as terminal units (PTU) to
enable tree-based species delimitation. The morphological matrix inludes 39 characters, of which 26 are multistate
and 20 are ordered. See Appendices 1 and 2 for details. Morphological data for the Atlantic coast species of Brazil
are taken from the respective species descriptions.
Qualitative characters were coded using the majority approach. Some characters, such as the number of
abdominal bars have been coded using the scaled coding (Campbell & Frost 1993). The states are ordered under the
assumption that traits pass through a polymorphic stage between absence and fixed presence. The scaled method is
advantageous in that it allows polymorphisms to act as synapomorphies.
Quantitative characters have been coded using the gap weighting method (GW) of Thiele (1993). Thiele’s
implementation of gap weighting involves finding (for a given character) the mean value of the trait in each species
in the analysis, the range of mean species values among taxa (i.e. the species with the greatest mean value and the
species with the lowest), and then dividing this range into smaller ranges or segments equal to the maximum num-
ber of character states allowed by the phylogenetic software program (e.g. 32 for PAUP*; Swofford 2001). We
have used a less fine grained spacing, thus having in most cases less than 32 states. Species are then assigned states
based on these ranges, and the character is ordered. Evolving from low to high mean trait values (or vice versa)
therefore requires passing through many intermediate states and requires many steps, whereas smaller changes in
trait values involve fewer state changes and fewer steps. An important advantage of the gap-weighting method is
that it incorporates information on the distance between states, weighting the changes according to the difference
between mean species values.
We have used the between-state scaling (Wiens 2001) to weight quantitative characters against qualitative
characters. This weighting scheme assigns transformations between species with fixed, adjacent values of meristic
variables (e.g. 13 to 14 vertebrae) the same weight as changes in binary variables (0 to 1), and species with inter-
mediate mean values (e.g. 13.5) receive proportionally intermediate weights. The consistency index is reported
with uninformative characters excluded.
The phylogenetic analyses were performed using PAUP* 4b.10 (Swofford 2001) with maximum parsimony
(MP). Analyses included 500 random sequence additions, 10 trees kept per addition, and a hs (heuristic) search on
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TWO NEW SPECIES OF AUSTRALOHEROS
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the saved trees to find all the shortest trees. Bootstrap analyses were done using the same approach, with 5 random
sequence additions per one bootstrap. Bootstrap analyses were run with 1000 replications.
Characters have been mapped onto phylogeny using the software package Mesquite (Maddison and Maddison
2004).
Since the sister group of Australoheros is not established ( ían et al. 2008), we have used a composite out-
group based on a reconstructed ancestor of the CAM heroine cichlids ( ían et al. 2008).
Molecular data set. The molecular cytochrome b matrix was analyzed using MP in PAUP* 4b.10 with the
same settings as the morphological data set and with Bayesian inference (BI) using MrBayes version 3.01
(Huelsenbeck & Ronquist 2001). The evolutionary model that best fits the analyzed sequence data set was selected
using Modeltest and the Akaike information criterium (Posada & Crandall 1998). The Bayesian tree was inferred
using the selected GTR+I+G model with partitioning by codon, with two MCMC chains for 5 million generations,
sampling each hundredth tree, and discarding first 25% trees as burn-in. Statistical support for recovered clades
was assessed using posterior probabilities (BI) and bootstrap (MP).
All molecular divergences mentioned in this text are uncorrected pairwise divergences reported by PAUP*
with the use of the command 'showdist'.
Results
Tree-based delimitation. The phylogenetic analysis of the morphological matrix of 39 characters (Appendices 1
and 2) resulted into two MP trees (L=693; CI=0.51; RI=0.66) (Fig. ). The two trees differ only in the internal
topology of A. angiru. Australoheros ykeregua is found as the sister group of A. forquilha. Australoheros kaaygua
and A. angiru are not conspecific, and not even sister groups. The validity of all species, including A. ykeregua and
A. angiru, are supported by this morphological tree-based delimitation.
FIGURE 1. Tree-based delimitation using MP phylogenetic analysis of morphological data. The tree shown is one of two MP
trees (L= 693; N=2; CI=0.51; RI=0.66), which differ only in the internal topology of A. angiru. Branch lengths represent mor-
phological divergences.
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TWO NEW SPECIES OF AUSTRALOHEROS
FIGURE 2 . Molecular phylogeny of the Río de la Plata basin Australoheros species using BI. Node support values shown for
MP/BI analyses. The alternative dotted topology represents neighbor-joining (NJ) analysis. Asterisk denotes posterior probabil-
ity of 1.00.
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FIGURE 3. Combined MP morphological-molecular phylogeny with between-state scaling internal weighting between mor-
phological and molecular data (L=2457; N=1; CI=0.58; RI=0.49). Node support values show MP bootstrap for two types of
analyses (left: between-state scaling internal weighting structure / right: all characters weighted equally).
The phylogenetic analysis of the molecular cytb matrix is shown in Fig. 2. The results are similar to those from
the morphological analysis, with A. ykeregua and A. forquilha as sister groups, and A. kaaygua and A. angiru as not
conspecific and not immediately related. The validity of all species is again supported.
The combined morphological-molecular phylogenetic analysis (Fig. 3) supports the results of the independent
analyses (Figs 1 and 2). Australoheros ykeregua and A. forquilha are sister groups, with a mean divergence of 2.3%
in the cytb gene. Australoheros kaaygua and A. angiru are not conspecific, separated by a divergence of 4.8% in
the cytb gene. Australoheros angiru is the sister species of A. minuano (cytb divergence of 4.2%). Australoheros
kaaygua is the sister group of A. tembe (mean cytb divergence of 3.8%). Australoheros guarani and A. facetus, and
A. scitulus and A. charrua are additional sister groups (DNA data not available for A. guarani and A. charrua).
Our tree-based delimitation analyses thus support the distinctivness of A. ykeregua from A. forquilha, and of A.
angiru from A. kaaygua.
Character-based delimitation. Character based delimitation, in agreement with tree-based delimitation, sup-
ports the distinctivness of A. ykeregua from A. forquilha, and of A. angiru from A. kaaygua (Tables 2 and 3). For
separating characters see the taxonomy section below.
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TWO NEW SPECIES OF AUSTRALOHEROS
TABLE 2. Meristics of the two new species (A. ykeregua, A. angiru) and the two species with which they have been previously
associated (A. forquilha, A. kaaygua).
Taxonomy
Australoheros ykeregua sp. nov.
(Figs. 4, 5, 6, 7).
“Cichlasoma“ cf. tembe (arroyo Fortaleza)—Casciotta et al. 2003: 68, 70
“Cichlasoma“ cf. tembe—Stawikowski and Werner 2004: 455
Australoheros sp. Forquilha— ían and Kullander 2006: 6
Australoheros forquilha (non-type material from ZSM)— ían and Kullander 2008: 16
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TABLE 3. Proportional measurements in percents of standard length (SL) of the two new species (A. ykeregua, A. angiru) and
the two species with which they have been previously associated (A. forquilha, A. kaaygua). SD=standard deviation.
Holotype. MACN-ict 9467, 102.0 mm SL, Argentina, río Uruguay basin, arroyo Paraiso (or Canal Muerto),
27°14'15.1" S, 54°02'38.5" W, col: ían et al., December 2007.
Paratypes. 30 specimens, 39.5–136.8 mm SL, all from Argentina, Misiones province, río Uruguay basin.
MACN-ict 9468, 4 ex., 39.5–108.7 mm SL, same data as holotype. MACN-ict 9469, 3 ex., 101.1–136.8 mm SL,
arroyo Fortaleza, 26°45'56.6" S, 54°10'57.4" W, col: ían et al., December 2007. AI 270, 3 ex. (C&S), 57.0–64.0
mm SL, arroyo Fortaleza, 26°45'56.6" S, 54°10'57.4" W, col: Casciotta et al., April 2000. MACN-ict 9470, 3 ex.,
90.5–112.0 mm SL, arroyo Guerrero, 27°45'57.4" S, 55°09'33.7" W, col: ían et al., December 2007. MACN-ict
9471, 4 ex., 86.5–102.1 mm SL, arroyo Shangai or arroyo Pindaiti, 27°28'13.8" S, 54°41'24.5" W, col: ían et al.,
December 2007. MACN-ict 9472, 13 ex., 47.0–86.3 mm SL, arroyo Tamandua, 27°05'56.5" S, 54°45'48.9" W, col:
ían et al., December 2007.
Additional non-type material. ZSM 23060b, 6 ex., río Soberbio, El Soberbio, col: J. Foerster, 1966. ZSM
23482b, 13 ex., río Soberbio, El Soberbio, col: J. Foerster, 1966. ZSM 23482c, 2 ex. (C&S), río Soberbio, El
Soberbio, col: J. Foerster, 1966.
Diagnosis. Australoheros ykeregua is distinguished from all Australoheros species except A. forquilha (with
which it was previously associated) in having a series of opalescent pale blue dots along the postero-lateral border
A. forquilha A. ykeregua
N Min-Max Mean ± SD N Min-Max Mean ± SD
Head length 10 31.5 – 34.6 33.2 ± 1.2 49 33.2 – 39.1 36.2 ± 1.2
Snout length 10 7.6 – 12.6 10.5 ± 1.6 49 8.8. – 18.4 14.9 ± 2.3
Body depth 10 40.9 – 46.6 43.9 ± 1.9 49 41.7 – 47.8 44.9 ± 1.5
Orbital diameter 10 9.3 – 12.6 11.3 ± 0.8 49 8.1 – 13.8 10.5 ± 1.4
Head width 10 15.6 – 18.0 16.5 ± 0.7 49 16.0 – 19.1 17.6 ± 0.6
Interorbital width 10 8.7 – 11.5 10.1 ± 0.9 49 8.7 – 14.3 10.9 ± 1.6
Preorbital distance 10 6.4 – 10.8 9.1 ± 1.4 49 6.4 – 12.3 9.3 ± 1.3
Caudal peduncle depth 10 16.6 – 18.3 17.4 ± 0.5 49 15.6 – 18.8 17.2 ± 0.7
Caudal peduncle length 10 8.9 – 11.1 10.2 ± 0.7 49 8.4 – 13.9 10.9 ± 1.3
Pectoral fin length 10 25.6 – 29.5 26.9 ± 1.2 49 25.9 – 32.5 29.4 ± 1.6
Ventral fin length 10 22.1 – 29.6 26.1 ± 2.2 49 23.3 – 34.7 29.6 ± 2.0
continued.
A. angiru A. kaaygua
N Min-Max Mean ± SD N Min-Max Mean ± SD
Head length 16 31.7 – 36.2 33.3 ± 1.5 13 35.2 – 38.4 37.0 ± 1.02
Snout length 16 7.8 – 11.4 9.5 ± 0.9 13 8.9 – 13.0 10.9 ± 1.16
Body depth 16 46.2 – 51.5 49.6 ± 1.2 13 40.7 – 46.7 43.8 ± 1.71
Orbital diameter 16 10.8 – 13.5 11.8 ± 0.8 13 9.8 – 12.9 11.2 ± 1.19
Head width 16 16.4 – 20.5 17.7 ± 1.2 13 17.9 – 23.4 19.6 ± 1.4
Interorbital width 16 10.3 – 12.7 11.8 ± 0.6 13 10.1 – 15.1 11.7 ± 1.42
Preorbital distance 16 6.3 – 8.3 7.3 ± 0.6 13 7.3 – 11.0 8.9 ± 1.25
Caudal peduncle depth 16 17.8 – 19.4 18.5 ± 0.5 13 13.9 – 17.6 16.2 ± 1.0
Caudal peduncle length 16 5.5 – 9.2 7.4 ± 0.9 13 8.9 – 11.0 10.4 ± 0.79
Pectoral fin length 16 28.1 – 32.4 30.3 ± 1.4 13 27.3 – 31.7 29.0 ± 1.38
Ventral fin length 16 28.3 – 37.6 32.4 ± 3.1 13 26.4 – 35.3 28.8 ± 2.81
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TWO NEW SPECIES OF AUSTRALOHEROS
of the suborbital series (dark markings in preserved specimens), in having checkerboard-spotted dorsal, anal and
caudal fins (red spots in live animals and dark grey in preserved specimens), a red to orange branchiostegal mem-
brane, mouth and lower head area and base of pectoral fin, by having comparativelly thick lips (shared also with A.
tembe), the lower jaw shorter than the upper, by having 25–26 E0 scales (vs. less than 25), by having the longest
dorsal fin scale cover (shared also with A. tembe), and by the narrowest head (head width less than 50% vs. more
than 50% of HL), shortest interorbital (10.9% of SL) and longest preorbital (9.3% of SL) distances.
Australoheros ykeregua is distinguished from A. forquilha by not having opalescent pale blue dots on each
body scale, by not having them widely distributed on the head, but limited to a single line below the suborbital
series, and in having a red coloration limited to the head region and the base of the pectoral fin (vs. red coloration
on the whole belly to the end of the anal fin). Further distinguished by lower counts of caudal vertebrae (13–14 vs.
14–15), less caudal peduncle vertebrae (modally 2 vs. modally 3), lower total dorsal fin counts (25–26 vs. 26–27)
and 25 vs. 26 E0 scales.
Australoheros ykeregua is distinguished from the only other similar species, Australoheros tembe, by the above
listed unique characters and by coloration (shared only with A. forquilha) and additionally by a shorter caudal
peduncle (including 2 vs. 3 vertebrae) and more dorsal fin rays (10–11 vs. 9).
For distinguishing characters from all other Australoheros species see the Notes section.
FIGURE 4. Australoheros ykeregua, MACN-ict 9467, 102.0 mm SL, holotype, right side (reversed). This specimen does not
show vertical bars after preservation, but see Fig. 7 of the same specimens photographed alive.
FIGURE 5. Australoheros ykeregua, MACN-ict 9470, 90.5 mm SL. This specimens shows the dark color of the dorsal fin and
the midlateral blotch and vertical bars.
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FIGURE 6. Australoheros ykeregua, MACN-ict 9472, 66.2 mm SL. This specimen shows a continuous lateral band extending
beyond the midlateral spot and the checker-board spot pattern of unpaired fins (also evident in the holotype and the majority of
specimens).
Description. Based on specimens over 60 mm SL. Meristic data are summarized in Table 2, morphometric
data are summarized in Table 3.
Body rather slender (44.9% SL), head with a rounded profile, mouth subterminal with comparativelly thick
lips, short interorbital (10.9% SL) and long preorbital (9.3% SL) distances. Lacrimal bone deeper than wide. A
rather long caudal peduncle containing modally two vertebrae, 14 caudal vertebrae. Caudal peduncle considerably
deeper than long (mean length 63% of depth).
Scales on chest smaller than half the size of the biggest scales in the E0 row above the pectoral fin. About 8
scale rows between the opercular flap and the anterior insertion of the pelvic fin in the holotype. Scales in E0 row
24(1), 25(32*), 26(13). Upper lateral line scales 14(1), 15(1), 16(5), 17(15), 18(19*), 19(5). Lower lateral line
scales 7(1), 8(4), 9(26*), 10(10), 11(5). Scales between upper lateral line and dorsal-fin scale cover 3 posteriorly, 4
plus two small parallel scales anteriorly, forming a sheath of smaller scales arranged in pairs per scale row, along
the insertion of the dorsal fin. Cheek scale rows 4(2), 5(16*), 6(1). Dorsal fin with interradial scales appearing from
13th(1), 14th(6), 15th(8), 16th(4*) spine membrane, in single rows. One (5), two (10*) or three (4) last interradial
membranes without scales. Anal fin with one basal scale row; interradial scales in single rows, from the 4th(1),
5th(8), 6th(10*) spine membrane lacking on one (17*) or two (2) last interradial membranes. Caudal fin densely
scaled, scales ctenoid; interradial scales in one or two rows; posterior margin of scaly area concave, extending to
between one-third and middle of caudal fin.
Soft dorsal fin pointed, extending to the middle or almost to the end of the caudal fin. D. XV,10(3), XV,11(3),
XVI,9(2), XVI,10(16), XVI,11(22*), XVII,9(1), XVII,10(2). Soft anal fin pointed, of about the same length as dor-
sal fin. A. V,8(3), V,9(1), VI,7(14), VI,8(29*), VI,9(3). Anal fin pterygiophores 11(15), 12(7). Pelvic fin base
slightly posterior of pectoral fin base; first branched ray longest. Pelvic fin not reaching (2), reaching (10) or sur-
passing (7* ) anal fin origin. Pectoral fin shorter than pelvic fin, with a rounded tip. P. 13(14), 14(18), 15(15*).
Caudal fin with rounded corners.
Oral jaw teeth caniniform, slightly curved. Outer row teeth increasing in size symphysiad, upper-jaw anterior
teeth more robust, lower-jaw anterior teeth subequal.
Lower pharyngeal tooth plate in a dissected specimen about one quarter wider than long (length 59–62% of
width). Dentigerous area wider than long. 7–9 teeth along midline, 22–26 teeth along posterior margin. Posterior
teeth tend to be progressively more compressed, except for medial teeth. Larger teeth medially and posteriorly,
gradually smaller anteriad and laterad. Posterior teeth with forwards curved posterior cusp and subapical anterior
shelf. Large laterally compressed teeth with a second cusp projecting anteriorly from shelf.
Gill rakers externally on first gill arch: 1-2 epibranchial, 1 in angle, 7(3), 8(13), 9(4) ceratobranchial.
Vertebrae 13+13=26(3), 13+14=27(19), 14+13=27(3). Caudal peduncle contains 1(1), 1.5(5), 2(11), 2.5(6),
3(1) vertebrae.
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TWO NEW SPECIES OF AUSTRALOHEROS
Color pattern in alcohol. Six or seven vertical flank bars, a midlateral blotch in the fourth flank bar (sensu
ían et al. 2005), a caudal fin spot, and the caudal peduncle bar make up the principal markings. Base of caudal
spot at level of the lower lateral line. Lateral band 1, 1/2 or 2 scales deep posteriorly from the posterodorsal edge of
opercular to the midlateral blotch (not clearly visible in the holotype). Lateral band extending behind the midlateral
blotch, widening towards the end of dorsal-fin base level in five adult specimens and in eight juveniles (arroyo
Tamandua, MACN-ict 9472).
Vertical bars are relatively wide, indistinct in their ventral parts. The fourth bar, bearing the midlateral blotch is
centered above the anteriormost portion of the anal fin. Many thin parallel stripes on flanks, more evident on lower
half of body.
Dorsal fin with a dark pigmentation from interradial membranes from 8th or 9th spine to 3rd to 4th branched
ray. This pigmentation extended to the tip of the dorsal filament. Same dark pigmentation on basal third of the
remaining branched rays. Soft dorsal and anal fins, and caudal fin with dark spots in a checker-board pattern on
interradial membranes (missing in some specimens).
One (MACN-ict 9468, MACN-ict 9472), two (in the holotype MACN-ict 9467 and in MACN-ict 9468,
MACN-ict 9472) or three (MACN-ict 9472) small and inconspicuous dark blotches below the orbit along the pos-
tero-lateral border of the suborbital series.
Life coloration. The most distinct color markings include the diagnostic 1) red/orange branchiostegal mem-
brane, base of pectoral fin, mouth and lower head area, 2) the single interrupted line of blue dots along the subor-
bital series (dark blotches in preserved specimens), and 3) the checkerboard pattern of red dots on unpaired fins
(Fig. 7). This character combination is unique among Australoheros. The most similar species, A. forquilha, is eas-
ily distinguished in that the blue dots are not limited to a single line below the orbit. Instead, they cover the whole
head and are present in all body scales and are also present on all fins except the pectorals (see Fig. 7 and also
“Cichlasoma“ cf. tembe in Stawikowski & Werner 2004, p. 455).
Distribution. Australoheros ykeregua is so far known only from Argentinean territory in the tributaries of the
río Uruguay below the Salto Moconá, province of Misiones.
Etymology. The Guaraní word ykeregua means neighbor (vecino in Spanish). The etymology is based on the
fact that A. ykeregua and A. forquilha have been preliminarily treated as conspecific ( ían & Kullander 2008).
New data have however demonstrated that they are two sister group species living in the same river drainage (río
Uruguay), though not sympatrically.
Notes. ían and Kullander (2006, 2008) treated part of the ZSM non-type material from Argentina as conspe-
cific with A. forquilha. New fresh material collected in 2007 has revealed that the Argentinean and Brazilian mate-
rial do not represent the same species. The ZSM lots 23060 and 23482 have been divided since they contained two
different species and lots ZSM 23060b, 23482b and 23482c hold A. ykeregua.
We hypothesize that the barrier between the two species, A. forquilha and A. ykeregua, is formed by the Salto
Moconá on the río Uruguay just below the confluence with the río Pepirí Guazú (which forms the international bor-
der between Argentina and Brazil). The two species are closely related, but important differences in morphology
and DNA demonstrate that there is no gene flow between them and they are thus evolutionarily independent units.
Additional diagnostic characters that separate Australoheros ykeregua from all other species except A.
forquilha and A. tembe are as follows. From A. facetus, by having more caudal vertebrae (14 vs. 13), more caudal
peduncle vertebrae (2 vs. 0–1), more E0 scales (25–26 vs. 24), and by a longer snouth (14.9 vs. 9.4 % SL) and a
longer preorbital distance (9.3 vs. 5.7 % SL).
Australoheros ykeregua is additionally distinguished from A. kaaygua by having more caudal vertebrae (14 vs.
13), more C1 gill rakers (8 vs. 6), more caudal peduncle vertebrae (2 vs. 0–1), more E1 scales (18 vs. 16) and by a
slightly longer snouth (14.9 vs. 10.9 % SL). It is additionally distinguished from A. minuano by lacking a pinkish
body coloration of live specimens, by having more caudal vertebrae (14 vs. 13), more pectoral fin rays (14 vs. 12),
more C1 gill rakers (8 vs. 6), more caudal peduncle vertebrae (2 vs. 0–1), more E0 scales (25–26 vs. 24), and by a
longer snouth (14.9 vs. 10.6 % SL) and a longer preorbital distance (9.3 vs. 6.0 % SL).
Australoheros ykeregua is distinguished from A. guarani by also having more caudal vertebrae (14 vs. 13),
more pectoral fin rays (14 vs. 13), more C1 gill rakers (8 vs. 7), more E0 scales (25–26 vs. 24), more caudal pedun-
cle vertebrae (2 vs. 0–1), and by a shorter head (36.2 vs. 32.4 % SL), longer snouth (14.9 vs. 8.5 % SL), and less
deep body (44.9 vs. 48.1 % SL). It is additionally distinguished from A. charrua by lacking a pinkish body color-
ation of live specimens, by less anal fin spines (5–6 vs. 7–8), more C1 gill rakers (8 vs. 6), more caudal peduncle
ÍAN ET AL.
14 · Zootaxa 2982 © 2011 Magnolia Press
vertebrae (2 vs. 0–1), by a slightly longer head (36.2 vs. 32.4 % SL), slightly longer preorbital distance (9.3 vs. 7.3
% SL) and by a longer snouth (14.9 vs. 8.5 % SL).
FIGURE 7. Color plate. Horizontaly from upper left to lower right. Australoheros forquilha, rio Forquilha, rio Uruguai drain-
age, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (not preserved). Australoheros ykeregua (MACN-ict 9467, holotype), río Uruguay drainage,
arroyo Paraiso (or Canal Muerto), Misiones province, Argentina. Australoheros kaaygua (MACN-ict 9473), río Iguazú drain-
age, small stream 7 km SW from Andresito, Misiones province, Argentina. Australoheros angiru, male in neutral colors, rio
Chopim, rio Iguaçu drainage, Paraná, Brazil (not preserved). A. angiru, male and female in breeding colors guarding fry, same
locality (not preserved). All A. angiru photographs courtesy of Wolfgang Staeck.
Australoheros ykeregua is additionally distinguished from A. scitulus in lacking the dark spot-markings on the
head and anterior part of body, less dorsal fin spines (16 vs. 17), more dorsal fin rays (10–11 vs. 9–10), less anal fin
spines (5–6 vs. 8–9), more pectoral fin rays (14 vs. 13), by more C1 gill rakers (8 vs. 6), more caudal peduncle ver-
tebrae (2 vs. 0) and less deep body (44.9 vs. 47.7 % SL). It is also distinguished from A. angiru by lacking the yel-
low background coloration, yellow iris and red dorsal and ventral margins and corners of the caudal fin in live
specimens, by having more dorsal fin rays (10–11 vs. 9–10), less anal fin spines (6 vs. 7), more caudal vertebrae (14
vs. 13), more pectoral fin rays (14 vs. 12), more C1 gill rakers (8 vs. 6), more E0 scales (25–26 vs. 24), more caudal
peduncle vertebrae (2 vs. 0–1), a longer head (36.2 vs. 33.3 % SL), a longer snouth (14.9 vs. 9.5 % SL), a less deep
body (44.9 vs. 49.6 % SL) and a longer preorbital distance (9.3 vs. 7.3 % SL).
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TWO NEW SPECIES OF AUSTRALOHEROS
Australoheros ykeregua is distinguished from A. acaroides by also having more caudal vertebrae (14 vs. 13),
more caudal peduncle vertebrae (2 vs. 0–1), less anal fin spines (6 vs. 7), more E0 scales (25 vs. 23–24), more C1
gill rakers (8 vs. 6), and a smaller interorbital distance (33 vs. 43 % HL). It is additionally distinguished from A.
taura by lacking a pink to red body coloration of live specimens, more caudal vertebrae (14 vs. 13), more C1 gill
rakers (8 vs. 7), and a deeper body (44.9 vs. 41.4 % SL) and a smaller interorbital distance (33 vs. 41% HL).
Australoheros ykeregua is additionally distinguished from all the Atlantic coast species north of A. acaroides
and A. taura (A. autrani, A. barbosae, A. capixaba, A. ipatinguensis, A. macacuensis, A. macaensis, A. muriae, A.
paraibae, A. ribeirae, A. robustus, A. saquarema) by having more caudal vertebrae (14 vs. 12 or 13), more caudal
peduncle vertebrae (2 vs. 0), less anal fin spines (6 vs. 7), a smaller interorbital distance (33 vs. 41% HL), and a
shorter pelvic fin (<30 vs. >30 % SL).
Australoheros angiru sp. nov.
(Figs 7, 8, 9).
“Cichlasoma” facetum—Staeck 1998a: 62–63; 1998b: 81–85
“Cichlasoma” sp. IguaçuStaeck 2003: 64–65
“Cichlasoma” sp. IguaçuStawikowski and Werner 2004: 455
Australoheros sp. jacutingaían and Kullander 2006: 6
Australoheros kaaygua— ían and Kullander 2008: 28 (in part)
Holotype. MCP 13937, 73.2 mm SL, Brazil, Santa Catarina State, rio Uruguai drainage, rio Jacutinga, road BR
283 from Ceará to Concordia, col: Bergmann et al., October 1988.
Paratypes. 13 specimens, 24.6–77.0 mm SL, all from Brazil. Santa Catarina State, rio Uruguai drainage: MCP
13383, 6 ex., 24.6–77.0 mm SL, rio Jacutinga, road BR 283 from Ceará to Concordia, col: Reis et al., February
1989. MCP 12509, 1 ex., 75.0 mm SL, same data as holotype. MCP 13011, 6 ex., 44.2–61.4 mm SL, rio Jacutinga,
road BR 283 from Ceará to Concordia, col: Reis et al., December 1988.
Additional non-type material. Paraná State, rio Iguaçu drainage: NUP 3913, 2 ex., rio São Pedro, tributary to
rio Iguaçu, Pinhão county, 26º05´S, 51º45'W, col: Nupélia staff, March 1993. NUP 3914, 1 ex, rio Iratim
(Linígrafo), tributary to rio Iguaçu, Palmas county, boundary with Pìnhão-PR, 26º05´S, 51º45´W, col: Nupélia
staff, April 1993. NUP 3915, 1 ex, rio São Pedro, tributary to rio Iguaçu, Pinhão county, 26º05´S, 51º45'W, col:
Nupélia staff, March 1993. Rio Grande do Sul State, rio Uruguai drainage: MCP 46328, 13 ex., Sanga das Aguas
Frias, Irai, col: Malabarba et al., 1985. Argentina, Misiones province, río Uruguay drainage: ZSM 23482a, 1 ex., P,
río Soberbio, El Soberbio, col: J. Foerster, 1966. ZSM 23060a, 4 ex., río Soberbio, El Soberbio, col: J. Foerster,
1966. ZSM 23060c, 2 ex. (C&S), río Soberbio, El Soberbio, col: J. Foerster, 1966.
Diagnosis. Australoheros angiru is one of the most deep-bodied species of Australoheros (body depth in SL
>49%; shared with A. guarani and A. facetus). It has been previously associated with A. kaaygua, but it is the sister
species of A. minuano based on DNA characters.
Australoheros angiru is distinguished from A. kaaygua by having less scale rows between anterior end of dor-
sal fin and upper lateral line (ch4 states 1–2 vs. 0), by a very narrow or missing caudal base spot, by a pure yellow
ground color (vs. yellowish-green), by yellow eyes (vs. dark green), by more scales between anterior end of dorsal
fin and upper lateral line (5 vs. 4), more anal fin spines (7 vs. 6), more anal fin rays (> 7 vs. < 7), more dorsal fin
rays (9 vs. 8), less E0 scales (24 vs. > 25), more L1 scales (> 17–18 vs. 16), less L2 scales (8 vs. > 9), and by a being
more deep-bodied (49.6% vs. 43.8% SL), and having a shorter caudal peduncle (7.4% vs. 10.4% SL).
Australoheros angiru is distinguished from A. minuano by a large and dominant midlateral blotch, very narrow
or missing caudal base spot, by lacking a pinkish body coloration, by a small terminal or subterminal mouth (vs.
large supraterminal), by more scales between the anterior end of the dorsal fin and the upper lateral line (5 vs. 4),
less anal fin rays (7 vs. 8), less dorsal fin rays (9 vs. 10), and by slight differences in body depth (49.6% vs. 46.9%
SL) and in preorbital distance (7.3% vs. 6.0% SL).
For distinguishing characters to all other Australoheros species see the Notes section.
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16 · Zootaxa 2982 © 2011 Magnolia Press
FIGURE 8. Australoheros angiru. Holotype, MCP 13937, 73.2 mm SL, rio Jacutinga, rio Uruguai drainage, Brazil.
FIGURE 9. Australoheros angiru. Paratype, MCP 13011, 48.1 mm SL, rio Jacutinga, rio Uruguai drainage, Brazil.
Description. Based on specimens over 60 mm SL, with notes on smaller specimens. Meristic data are summa-
rized in Table 2, morphometric data are summarized in Table 3.
Comparatively deep bodied (mean body depth 49.6% SL). Snout short, straight in lateral view. Jaws isogna-
thous. Mouth small.
Scales on head and chest not distinctly smaller than on flanks. Scales in E0 row 23(3), 24(16*), 25(4). Upper
lateral line scales 16(1), 17(6*), 18(8). Lower lateral line scales 7(4), 8(7*), 9(4). Scales between upper lateral line
and dorsal fin 4 anteriorly, 1 large plus 1 small posteriorly. Cheek scale rows 3(14*), 4(2). About 8 scale rows
between the opercular flap and the anterior insertion of the pelvic fin. Dorsal fin with one basal scale row, starting
from the 7th or 8th spine and running posteriad; interradial scales appear from 14th or 15th spine membrane, in single
rows. Anal fin with one basal scale row; interradial scales in single rows, from penultimate spine. Caudal fin
densely scaled, scales ctenoid; interradial scales in single rows; hind margin of scaly area concave, extending to
between one-third and middle of caudal fin.
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TWO NEW SPECIES OF AUSTRALOHEROS
Soft dorsal fin pointed, extending beyond middle of caudal fin. D. XVI,9(16*), XVI,10(13), XVII,8(2). Soft
anal fin pointed, of about the same length as dorsal fin. A. VI,7(2), VI,8(3), VII,7(17*), VII,8(8), VIII,6(1). Anal
fin pterygiophores 11(2), 12(22*), 13(7). First pelvic fin ray longest, extending up to the second anal fin spine. Pec-
toral fin with a rounded tip, third and fourth rays longest, extending just to the midlateral blotch. P. 12(11*), 13(5).
Caudal fin rounded to subtruncate.
All teeth caniniform, slightly curved. Outer row teeth increasing in size symphysiad, upper jaw anterior teeth
longest, lower jaw anterior teeth subequal. Number of lower jaw teeth up to 16 in one outer hemiseries, upper jaw
tooth row much shorter, with about 7 or 8 teeth in one outer hemiseries. Lower pharyngeal tooth plate not studied.
Gill rakers externally on first gill arch, 2 epibranchial, 1 in angle, 5(4), 6(11*), 7(1) ceratobranchial.
Vertebrae 13+13=26(29*), 13+14=27(2). Caudal peduncle with no vertebrae (10) or containing 0.5(4), 1(14*),
1.5(1) vertebrae.
Color pattern in alcohol. Six to seven vertical flank bars, a caudal peduncle bar confluent with the caudal-
base bar, and a midlateral stripe bearing the midlateral blotch in the fourth flank bar (sensu ían et al. 2005) make
up the principal markings. All fins and body are without conspicuous spots or blotches. The midlateral stripe is
more distinct anteriorly from the midlateral blotch than posteriorly, and the midlateral blotch itself is a dominant
coloration pattern element. Vertical bars are relatively wide, faint, indistinct in their ventral parts. The midlateral
stripe posteriorly from the midlateral blotch does not align with the lower lateral line and aligns with the E1 scale
row and does not continue in the E0 scale row. Posteriorly from the midlateral blotch, the stripe is slightly decom-
posed into two blotches in the respective vertical flank bars. The blotch posterior from the midlateral blotch is cen-
tered in the same scale row as the midlateral blotch (i.e. E1 scale row), whereas the second blotch is more elongate
along the vertical axis and centered in the E2 scale row, making the impression that the midlateral stripe makes a
dorsally directed turn at its posterior end. The arrangement of the bars on the body in essentially the same as
described for A. scitulus ( ían & Kullander 2003). Very small spots present on the bases of some body scales in
adult specimens. In juveniles the spotted pattern of the body is much more pronounced, with virtually every scale
on the body having a spot at its base, including those in the anterior part of the E4 scale row (i.e. as in adult A. scit-
ulus).
Life coloration. Coloration of life specimens from the rio Uruguai drainage is unknown to us. Staeck (1998a,
1998b, 2003: p. 64) photographed specimens from the rio Iguaçu drainage (Fig. 7). These specimens have a yellow
ground coloration with dark vertical bars and a dark horizontal stripe. Several other species of Australoheros have
a yellowish ground color, but it is best developed in A. angiru. The iris is also yellow. The caudal fin has red dorsal
and ventral margins and corners. This character is not unique for A. angiru, and can also be seen in A. kaaygua and
in populations of A. facetus from the state of Uruguay. Breeding animals have the typical Australoheros breeding
coloration with the horizontal interruption of the black vertical bars in their dorsal portion between the opercle and
the midlateral blotch ( ían & Kullander 2003; Staeck 1998a: p. 82, 1998b: p. 62, 2003: p. 65). Females in breed-
ing coloration develop a black blotch in the dorsal fin. Staeck (1998b, 2003) describes behavior and spawning
under aquarium conditions.
Distribution. Australoheros angiru has a disjunct distribution in the rio Iguaçu and in the upper rio Uruguai.
One locality is so far known from the middle río Uruguay in Misiones province, Argentina (Fig. 10).
Etymology. The Guaraní word angirû means friend, partner (amigo or compañero in Spanish). The etymology
is based on the fact that A. angiru and A. kaaygua have been confused as one species ( ían & Kullander 2008).
New data have however demonstrate that they are two non-sister group species living in the same river drainage
(río Iguazú), though not sympatrically.
Notes. Part of Australoheros angiru material (MCP 6262) has been previously considered conspecific with A.
kaaygua ( ían & Kullander 2008). The authors were aware of the morphological variation within A. kaaygua
(sensu ían & Kullander 2008), but lack of DNA data and of first hand examination of the type series of A.
kaaygua made them sceptical about describing a new species with an additionally unusual distribution (occuring in
the same river basin, río Iguazú as A. kaaygua, but not in sympatry, and at the same time also in the río Uruguay).
DNA data from the rio Iguaçu populations in Brazil (A. angiru) however show no relationship to A. kaaygua in the
río Iguazú in Argentina (Fig. 2). DNA data from the río Uruguay are so far lacking. A more detailed morphological
analysis (Fig. 1) also supports the notion of two unrelated species, with populations of A. angiru from both the rio
Iguaçu and from the río Uruguay forming a homogenous clade with short intraspecific branch lengths. The sister
species of A. angiru is A. minuano, while that of A. kaaygua is A. tembe (Fig. 3).
ÍAN ET AL.
18 · Zootaxa 2982 © 2011 Magnolia Press
The MCP 6262 lot additionally included two species ( ían and Kullander, 2008). Nine specimens from this
lot are paratypes of Australoheros forquilha ían and Kullander, 2008. Thirteen specimens from this lot represent
A. angiru (previously erroneously treated as A. kaaygua in ían and Kullander, 2008) and were separated into a
new lot MCP 46328.
Additional diagnostic characters of Australoheros angiru that separate it from all other species except A.
kaaygua and A. minuano are as follows. It is distinguished (in decreasing order of overall similarity; except for spe-
cies from coastal drainages treated as last) from A. charrua and A. scitulus by having less scale rows between pos-
terior end of upper lateral line and dorsal fin (ch3 state 2 vs. 0 vs. 1), less caudal vertebrae (13 vs. 14), in being more
deep-bodied (50 vs. 45% SL), and in having less E0 scales (24 vs. >25). Additionally distinguished from A. char-
rua by details in the shape of the midlatral stripe (see description) and by lacking a pinkish body coloration. Addi-
tionally distinguished from A. scitulus by lacking black blotches on the opercular series, having less anal fin spines
(7 vs. 8), less dorsal fin spines (16 vs. 17), less caudal vertebrae (13 vs. 14), in being more deep-bodied (50 vs. 45%
SL), and in having less pectoral fin rays (12–13 vs. 13–14).
Australoheros angiru is distinguished from A. tembe by having less scale rows between anterior end of dorsal
fin and upper lateral line (ch4 states 1–2 vs. 0), by a very narrow or missing caudal base spot, a shorter dorsal fin
scale cover (ch1 state 1 vs. 0), less scale rows between the posterior end of the upper lateral line and dorsal fin (ch3
state 2 vs. 0), by lacking thick lips, by having more anal fin spines (7 vs. 6), less caudal vertebrae (13 vs. 14), and
less caudal peduncle vertebrae (0 vs. 3). It is distinguished from A. guarani, A. facetus, A. acaroides and A. taura
by a large and dominant midlateral blotch (except A. facetus), very narrow or missing caudal base spot, and details
in the shape of the midlatral stripe (see description).
Australoheros angiru is additionally distinguished from A. guarani by a small terminal or subterminal mouth
(vs. large supraterminal), more anal fin spines (7 vs. 6), shorter preorbital distance (21 vs. 25% HL), and less C1 gill
rakers (6 vs. 7). Additionally distinguished from A. facetus by a longer dorsal fin scale cover (ch1 state 1 vs. 2),
more anal fin spines (7 vs. 6), less anal fin rays (7 vs. 8), less pectoral fin rays (12–13 vs. 13–14), and less C1 gill
rakers (6 vs. 7–8). It is additionally distinguished from A. acaroides by a longer dorsal fin scale cover (ch1 state 1
vs. 2), shorter caudal peduncle (40% CPD vs. 50–60% CPD), by being more deep-bodied (50 vs. 45% SL), and
having a narrower interorbital distance (35 vs. 40–45% HL). It is distinguished from A. taura by also lacking a
pinkish body coloration, by a small terminal or subterminal mouth (vs. large supraterminal), shorter caudal pedun-
cle (40% CPD vs. 50% CPD), by being more deep-bodied (50 vs. 40% SL), by a narrower interorbital distance (35
vs. 40% HL), less pectoral fin rays (12–13 vs. 13–14), and less E0 scales (24 vs. >25).
Australoheros angiru is distinguished from A. ykeregua and A. forquilha by a shorter dorsal fin scale cover
(ch1 state 1 vs. 0), a different scale pattern along anterior border of dorsal fin (ch2 state 0 vs. 1), less scale rows
between posterior end of upper lateral line and dorsal fin (ch3 state 2 vs. 0), very narrow or missing caudal base
spot, absence of opalescent spots below orbit, unpaired fins without checker-board spotted pattern, absence of red
colored lower head area and opercular membrane, by a small terminal or subterminal mouth (vs. large supratermi-
nal), less dorsal fin rays (9 vs. 10), less caudal peduncle vertebrae (0 vs. 2 vs. 2.5), shorter caudal peduncle (40%
CPD vs. 60% CPD), by being more deep-bodied (50 vs. 45 vs. 40% SL), with a wider head (55 vs. <50% HL), and
in having less pectoral fin rays (12–13 vs. 13–14). Additionally distinguished from A. ykeregua by a large and dom-
inant midlateral blotch, and more anal fin spines (7 vs. 6). Additionally distinguished from A. forquilha by less
scale rows between anterior end of dorsal fin and upper lateral line (ch4 state 1 vs. 0), absence of opalescent scale
rows on body, and less pectoral fin rays (12–13 vs. 13–14).
Australoheros angiru is distinguished from all the Atlantic coast species north of A. acaroides and A. taura (A.
autrani, A. barbosae, A. capixaba, A. ipatinguensis, A. macacuensis, A. macaensis, A. muriae, A. paraibae, A.
ribeirae, A. robustus, A. saquarema) by a longer dorsal fin scale cover (ch1 state 1 vs. 2), a large and dominant
midlateral blotch, details in the shape of the midlatral stripe (see description), shorter caudal peduncle (40% CPD
vs. >50% CPD), in being more deep-bodied (50 vs. 45% SL), with a narrower interorbital distance (35 vs. 40%
HL), less pectoral fin rays (12–13 vs. 13–14), and less E0 scales (24 vs. >25).
Zootaxa 2982 © 2011 Magnolia Press · 19
TWO NEW SPECIES OF AUSTRALOHEROS
FIGURE 10. Map of the middle Río de la Plata basin. Distributions of the two new species (A. angiru and A. ykeregua) and
their relatives, as well as five areas of endemism are shown. Percent values and corresponding arrows demonstrate sequence
divergences in the cytb gene (see Fig. 2) between the species and areas of endemism in the río Iguazú and río Uruguay river
drainages (plus the arroyo Urugua–í ). Divergence of A. ykeregua from its sister species A. forquilha is 2.3%. This divergence
probably represents the minimum age of the Salto Moconá. Divergence of A. kaaygua from its sister species A. tembe is 3.8%,
and of A. angiru from A. tembe is similarly 3.6–3.7%. This probably represents the age of the division of the arroyo Urugua–í
from the río Iguazú. Divergence of A. angiru from its sister species A. minuano is 4.2%. This is likely a divergence of the rio
Iguaçu and río Uruguay drainages. Divergence of A. angiru from A. kaaygua (4.8%), two unrelated species endemic to the río
Iguazú river drainage, demonstrates an old divergence within the Iguazú drainage basin itself. See Discussion for more detailed
description of the biogeography.
Discussion
Biogeography. The cytb data reveal some interesting intraspecific geographical structure within A. ykeregua,
amounting up to 1.5% divergences. The cytb data sugest that upstream populations (Fig. 2: 13) are potentially
ancestral to downstream populations (Fig. 2: 11, 12). This pattern is in good agreement with theoretical prediction
since the upstream population does not have a unique haplotype, compared to the downstream populations 11 plus
12. Upstream populations are divided from downstream populations (in this case by river rapids and waterfalls) and
the only possible dispersal is downstream. Australoheros ykeregua is the only Australoheros species common in
the tributaries of the río Uruguay in Misiones. This observation has two biogeographical and evolutionary implica-
tions (given the presence of waterfalls and a number of rapids on these tributaries and the presence of other Aus-
traloheros species in the mainstream of the río Uruguay in Misiones and in tributaries further south). First, A.
ykeregua is the oldest Australoheros species in the río Uruguay drainage of Misiones, older than the respective bar-
riers, which are impenetrable for the later immigrating species into the area (A. angiru, A. minuano, A. scitulus, and
A. charrua). Second, its divergence from its sister species (A. forquilha) corresponds to a barrier between them,
probably the Salto Moconá, which is not the case for A. angiru. Australoheros angiru (as presently understood) is
partly sympatric with both A. forquilha and A. ykeregua, but its occupation of the río Uruguay in Misiones is much
younger, and we predict that its molecular divergences (presently unknown) of populations below and above Salto
Moconá will be much lower than in the case of A. ykeregua and A. forquilha. The biogeography of A. angiru sug-
gests (in the absence of molecular data) that its original distribution area was the rio Iguaçu, and that its presence in
the río Uruguay is secondary.
ÍAN ET AL.
20 · Zootaxa 2982 © 2011 Magnolia Press
FIGURE 11. Phylogeny of all valid and one putative species of Australoheros based on 38 morphological characters. Ottoni
and Costa (2008), Ottoni et al. (2008), Ottoni and Cheffe (2009) and Ottoni (2010) have diagnosed the Brazilian coastal species
by a unique combination of 14 + 12 vertebrae. Our examination of material from some of the drainages (see Figs E and F)
instead shows a combination of 13 + 13 vertebrae, which is not unique among Australoheros. Our phylogenetic analyses have
thus been performed with both combinations (14 + 12 in Figs A and B; 13 + 13 in Figs C – F). The three upper Figs (A, C, E)
show maximum parsimony (MP) topologies, the lower three show neighbour joining (NJ) topologies (with branch lengths
showing amount of morphological divergence; B, D, F). Numbers at nodes show bootstrap support. Bold black nodes and
branches show agreement between all analyses (MP and NJ separately), bold grey nodes and branches agreement between two
of three analyses. The interrupted-line boxes show the relationships and branch lengths among the northern Brazilian coastal
species. Notable is the collaps of their relationships under the 13 + 13 scenario (Figs C – F) and the markedly short branches
separating these species (Figs B, D, F). The short branches separating these species are much more similar to intraspecific vari-
ability among other species of Australoheros (grey boxes in Fig. F) than to interspecific branch lengths (grey-line boxes in Fig.
F). This low differenciation of the northern Brazilian coastal species is also evident from Fig. E, where the morphological
matrix (Appendices 1 and 2) is mapped onto the phylogeny (geographical distribution of the species is also shown). Most spe-
cies, with the exception of the northern Brazilian coastal species, are diagnosed by unique characters or unique combinations of
characters. The average number of changes among interspecific pairs described by ían and Kullander (2003, 2008, this
study) is 98.5, while among intraspecific comparisions it is 20.7. The average for comparisons among the species described by
Ottoni and Costa (2008), Ottoni et al. (2008), Ottoni and Cheffe (2009) and Ottoni (2010) is 20.5, i.e. corresponding to varia-
tion within species of ían and Kullander (op. cit.). Based on these considerations we believe that the number of described
species from the northern Brazilian coastal drainages is a case of excessive splitting and that the species diversity is actually
much lower.
Zootaxa 2982 © 2011 Magnolia Press · 21
TWO NEW SPECIES OF AUSTRALOHEROS
As proposed above, the barrier responsible for the divergence of A. ykeregua and A. forquilha is probably the
Salto Moconá on the río Uruguay, just below the mouth of the río Pepirí Guazú, which marks the international
boundary between Argentina and Brazil. The divergence between A. ykeregua and A. forquilha amounts to 2.3%
uncorrected distance in the cytb gene. Translated into time units this corresponds roughly to 2.3–3.3 Mya (based on
calibration of the cytb gene by Concheiro Pérez et al. 2007).
The divergence patterns found in the río Iguazú drainage are even more complex than those in the río Uruguay
drainage. The two Australoheros species from this drainage are not sister species (A. kaaygua and A. angiru), and
correspondingly their divergence amounts to a higher distance (than in the case of A. ykeregua and A. forquilha) of
4.8% (i.e. 4.8–6.8 Mya). The presence of two separate and non-overlapping fish faunas in the Iguazú again sug-
gests a barrier within the river basin (as the Salto Moconá in the Uruguay river basin). This time, however, each
fauna has a different sister group in a separate, but at the same time adjacent river drainage. The sister group of A.
kaaygua is A. tembe, found in the adjacent arroyo Urugua–í river drainage (see Fig. 10) south from the lower río
Iguazú where A. kaaygua is found. The divergence between the two species is 3.8% (i.e. 3.8–5.4 Mya). The sister
group of A. angiru from the middle Iguaçu river drainage in Brazil is A. minuano, found in the middle río Uruguay
river drainage, south from the middle rio Iguaçu. The divergence between the two species is 4.2% (i.e. 4.2–6.0
Mya). Not only are the relationships of the two non-related species from the río Iguazú drainage (A. kaaygua and A.
angiru) with species in adjacent river drainages to the south (A. tembe, A. minuano), but also the estimated times of
divergence closely match one another (3.8% vs. 4.2% divergence). This scenario is complicated by the fact that A.
angiru occurs not only in the rio Iguaçu basin but also in the upper rio Uruguai basin. Absence of molecular data
from the latter populations at the moment prohibits our understanding of additional details responsible for this dis-
tribution pattern.
The above described biogeographic and time-frame patterns are likely more than just coincidence. We believe
that the fishes are starting to reveal some ancient history of the river drainages themselves. That waterfalls form
barriers to dispersal, and that increasing height (and also age?) of the waterfalls increases isolation is evident from
our data. Waterfalls in the case of Australoheros mostly divide unrelated species from each other. The two highest
waterfalls (Cataratas de Iguazú, Salto Urugua–í) divide endemic species (A. kaaygua and A. tembe) from an unre-
lated species (A. guaraní) (Fig. 3). The same is true vice-versa, since A. guaraní is divided from these two species
by the equally high Salto Monday in Paraguay (Fig. 10). None of the three species is known from the río Paraná
itself below these three waterfalls (where A. facetus occurs because there is no barrier for its upstream migration
through the río Paraná (see A. facetus A24, A25 in Fig. 2; cf. also Table 1). A rather low waterfall (Salto Moconá
on the río Uruguay) on the other hand divides two sister species (A. forquilha and A. ykeregua). Unfortunatelly, we
have so far no clue as to the localization of the barrier within the today heavilly dammed rio Iguaçu.
Prominent waterfalls thus in Australoheros generally divide unrelated species, while at the same time related
species are in most cases separated by drainage divides. This suggests that waterfalls delimit the boundaries of a
given fauna, while river captures and drainage translocations are responsible for the evolution of the diversity per
se. Our data would thus suggest that the lower río Iguazú and the arroyo Urugua–í were once connected (A.
kaaygua vs. A. tembe), as was the middle rio Iguaçu with the río Uruguay (A. angiru vs. A. minuano). The postu-
lated connection between the lower río Iguazú and the arroyo Urugua–í is additionally supported by several other
fish species or species pairs (Astyanax leonidas, Glanidium riberoi, Hypostomus myersi, H. derbyi, Corydoras car-
lae, Crenicichla yaha vs. C. cf. yaha [Casciotta et al. 2006b, Piálek et al. 2010] Bryconamericus ikaa vs. B. cf.
ikaa) distributed only in the two river drainages. The connection between the middle rio Iguaçu and rio Uruguai is
more enigmatic, to our knowledge so far supported only by the distribution of A. angiru, and lack of DNA data pro-
hibits our knowledge of additional details of this distribution.
Diversity. Ten species of Australoheros are presently known from the Río de la Plata basin (Figs 1, 2, 3, 10)
and 13 species from the Atlantic coast drainages of Brazil (Ottoni & Costa 2008; Ottoni et al. 2008; Ottoni &
Cheffe 2009; Ottoni 2010). Neither the Río de la Plata basin nor the Atlantic coast drainage species of Australohe-
ros seem to be a monophyletic group (Fig. 11). The little known A. sp. Jacui does not seem to be conspecific with
A. taura (Ottoni & Cheffe 2009) from the same river drainage, and these two species are probably not related to the
remaining species of the Atlantic coast drainages of Brazil (Fig. 11). Australoheros facetus seems to have phyloge-
netic affinities with the remaining species described from the Atlantic coast drainages of Brazil (Ottoni & Costa
2008; Ottoni et al. 2008; Ottoni 2010). The interspecific branch lengths between the Atlantic coast species (Ottoni
& Costa 2008; Ottoni et al. 2008; Ottoni 2010) are much shorter than interspecific branch lengths between the
ÍAN ET AL.
22 · Zootaxa 2982 © 2011 Magnolia Press
remaining species, and equal approximately intraspecific branch lengths within e.g. A. ykeregua, A. angiru or A.
scitulus (Fig. 11). The Atlantic coast species also lack clear unique diagnostic characters (Ottoni & Costa 2008;
Ottoni et al. 2008; Ottoni 2010; pers. obs.), which rises questions about the validity and the number of species
involved. Under the two-step system of species delimitation employed in the present study (character- and tree-
based delimitation), only one species instead of 11 species would be recognized. What is presently understood as A.
facetus from Argentina and Uruguay shows a much higher diversity (judging from the branch lengths in Fig. 11)
than the 11 species from the Atlantic coast of Brazil. Clearly, the A. facetus lineage of Australoheros (which proba-
bly includes the Atlantic coast species of Brazil), requires further study.
The identity of four nominal species, treated variously as synonyms of A. facetus, has variously been adressed
in studies focusing on species from the Atlantic coast drainages. One of these names, Heros jenynsii Steindachner
from Montevideo has been synonymized with A. facetus (Schindler et al., 2010). Another available name is Heros
acaroides Hensel from Porto Alegre, Brasil. This nominal species was redescribed by Schindler et al. (2010). Our
phylogenetic results (Fig. 11) support its separate status from A. facetus. The other two nominal species either have
no precise locality (Heros autochthon Günther from “Brazil”) or the locality is doubtfull (Chromys oblonga Castel-
nau from the rio Tocantins in Goiás, Brazil) and their status remains uncertain.
Acknowledgements
We are grateful to Št pánka íanová and Jan Štefka, both from the University of South Bohemia, for their kind
help and assistance during the field expedition. We thank the curators and staff at the following museums (MCP,
NUP, NRM, MACN, AI) for loan of material and to Wolfgang Staeck for sharing his photographs of the live speci-
mens of Australoheros angiru from the Iguaçu drainage (Fig. 7). We would like to thank two anonymous reviewers
for significantly improving our manuscript. Financial support was provided by the research project
MSM6007665801 of the Czech Ministry of Education, the GA R 206/08/P003 grant (Czech Science Foundation)
and a DCG grant (Deutsche Cichliden-Gesellschaft) to O. . Part of this work was carried out by using the
resources of the Computational Biology Service Unit from Cornell University which is partially funded by the
Microsoft Corporation.
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APPENDIX 1: Morphological character list. Character 28 is used only in the 32 taxon phylogenetic analysis (Fig. 11).
1. Length of dorsal fin scale cover. states: long, reaching anterior insertion of dorsal fin [0]; intermediate, covering the bases
of the middle portion of the hard part of the dorsal fin [1]; short, only covering the bases of the two last spines [2]; out-
group [0] –unordered.
Scale pattern along anterior dorsal fin border. states: scale row terminating with 1 small scale [0]; scale row terminating
with 2 small scales arranged horizontally [1]. outgroup [?].
Scale rows between posterior end of upper lateral line and dorsal fin. states. 2 large 1 small or more [0]; 1 large and 1 of
almost the same size, 1 additional small from 13–14th dorsal spine [1]; 1 large 1 small, 1 additional small from 13–14th dor-
sal spine [2]; 1 large 1 small, 1 additional small from 9th spine [3]. outgroup [0] –unordered.
Scale rows between anterior end of dorsal fin and upper lateral line. states. 5 [0]; 4 [1]; 3 [2]. outgroup [0]. –unordered.
Abdominal bars. states. 3 in all developmental steps and also in adults [0]; 4 in about 50% of juveniles, 3 in all adults [1]; 4 in
about 50% of juveniles, 4 about 50% of adults [2]; 4 in all juveniles, 4 in more than 80% of adults, but only in less than
20% completely separated [3]; 4 in all juveniles, 4 in more than 80% of adults, completely separated in more than 80% of
adults [4]. outgroup [0] -unordered
Distinct and dominant midlateral stripe between operculum and midlateral spot continuous, not fragmented into spots.
states. no [0]; yes [1]. outgroup [?].
Large, dominant and well circumscribed midlateral blotch in juveniles and adults: no [1]; yes [0]. outgroup [0].
Caudal base spot. states: distinct, rounded spot [0]; weakly developed [1]; very narrow or completely missing [2]. outgroup
[?]-unordered.
Midlateral stripe posterior from the midlateral blotch. states: running in scale rows 0 and E1 as anterior of the blotch [0];
The midlateral stripe runs in scale rows E0, E1 and E2 posterior to the midlateral blotch—i.e. the midlateral stripe gets
wider posterior of the midlateral blotch [1]; midlateral stripe bend upwards posterior from the midlateral blotchthe
blotch posterior to the midlateral stripe is centered in the same scale row as the midlateral bar (i.e. E1 scale row), and the
last blotch is high on the body [2]; midlateral stripe bend upwards posterior from the midlateral blotch—the midlateral
blotch is centered in the E1 scale row, while the next posterior blotch is centered in the E2 scale row and the blotch in the
last body bar is centered in the E3 scale row. The midlateral stripe does not run in the 0 scale row posterior from the mid-
lateral blotch [3]; outgroup [1] –unordered.
Midlateral stripe. states: without distinct borders [0]; clearly bordered [1]; outgroup [?]
Spots in scales arranged into stripes (at least one) also ventral from the 0 scale row. states: no [1]; yes, at least in the poste-
rior part of the body [0]; outgroup [?]
Opalescent line below the circumorbital series. states: absent [0]; present [1]. outgroup [0].
Opalescent scales on body and head. states: absent [0]; present [1]. outgroup [0].
Checkerboard spotted unpaired fins (i.e. soft part of dorsal, caudal and soft part of anal fins). states: absent [0]; present
[1]. outgroup [0].
Red ventral part of head, preoperculum and opercular membrane. states: absent [0]; present [1]. outgroup [0].
Opercular spots. states: absent [0]; present [1].
Pink body coloration. states: absent [0]; present [1].
Mouth position and size. states: mouth proportionally large, terminal [0]; mouth proportionally large, pointing down, lower
jaw proportionally shorter [1]; mouth proportionally large, pointing up, lower jaw projecting in front of upper [2]; mouth
very small, terminal or slightly pointing down [3]. –unordered.
Species develops thick lips. no [0]; yes [1].
Anal pterygiophores. Range 11–15. Frequency bins spaced at 0.2. states: 11.0–11.2 [0]; 11.2–11.4 [1]; ...
[2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,J,K]. –ordered.
Anal spines. Range 5–9. Frequency bins spaced at 0.2. states: 5.0–5.2 [0]; 5.2–5.4 [1];
...[2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,J,K]. –ordered.
Anal rays. Range 6–9. Frequency bins spaced at 0.2. states: 6.0–6.2 [0]; 6.2–6.4 [1]; ...[2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,J,K]. –
ordered.
Dorsal spines. Range 14–18. Frequency bins spaced at 0.2. states: 14.0–14.2 [0]; 14.2–14.4 [1];
...[2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,J,K]. –ordered.
Dorsal rays. Range 7–12. Frequency bins spaced at 0.2. states: 7.0–7.2 [0]; 7.2–7.4 [1];
...[2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,J,K,L,M,N,P,Q]. –ordered.
Dorsal total. Range 24–27. Frequency bins spaced at 0.2. states: 24.0–24.2 [0]; 24.2–24.4 [1]; ...[2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E]. –
ordered.
Zootaxa 2982 © 2011 Magnolia Press · 25
TWO NEW SPECIES OF AUSTRALOHEROS
Caudal vertebrae. Range 12–15. Frequency bins spaced at 0.2. states: 12.0–12.2 [0]; 12.2–12.4 [1];
...[2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E]. –ordered.
Caudal peduncle vertebrae. Range -2-(+3.5). Frequency bins spaced at 0.2. states: -2-(-1.8) [0]; -1.8-(-1.6) [1];
...[2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,J,K,L,M,N,P,Q]. –ordered.
Caudal peduncle length / caudal peduncle depth. Range 0.28–0.74. Frequency bins spaced at 0.2 states. 0.28–0.30 [0]; 0.30–
0.32 [1]; … ...[2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,J,K,L,M,N]. ]. –ordered.
Body depth / SL. Range 0.40–0.53. Frequency bins spaced at 0.1. states: 0.40–0.41 [0]; 0.41–0.42 [1];
...[2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C]. –ordered.
Head width / HL. Range 0.44–0.64. Frequency bins spaced at 0.2. states: 0.44–0.46 [0]; 0.46–0.48 [1]; ...[2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9]. –
ordered.
Interorbital distance / HL. Range 0.22–0.46. Frequency bins spaced at 0.2. states: 0.22–0.24 [0]; 0.24–0.26 [1];
...[2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B]. –ordered.
Preorbital distance / HL. Range 0.10–0.36. Frequency bins spaced at 0.2. states: 0.10–0.12 [0]; 0.12–0.14 [1];
...[2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C]. –ordered.
Pectoral fin length / SL. Range 0.24–0.36. Frequency bins spaced at 0.2. states: 0.24–0.26 [0]; 0.26–0.28 [1]; ...[2,3,4,5]. –
ordered.
Ventral fin length / SL. Range 0.22–0.48. Frequency bins spaced at 0.2. states: 0.22–0.24 [0]; 0.24–0.26 [1];
...[2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C]. –ordered.
Pectoral fin rays. Range 12–14. Frequency bins spaced at 0.2. states: 12.0–12.2 [0]; 12.2–12.4 [1]; ...[2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9]. –
ordered.
E0 scales. Range 23–26. Frequency bins spaced at 0.2. states: 23.0–23.2 [0]; 23.2–23.4 [1]; ...[2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E]. –
ordered.
L1 scales. Range 13–19. Frequency bins spaced at 0.4. states: 13.0–13.4 [0]; 13.4–13.8 [1]; ...[2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E]. –
ordered.
L2 scales. Range 6–11. Frequency bins spaced at 0.2. states: 6.0–6.2 [0]; 6.2–6.4 [1];
...[2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,J,K,L,M,N,P,Q]. –ordered.
C1 gill rakers. Range 5–9. Frequency bins spaced at 0.2. states: 5.0–5.2 [0]; 5.2–5.4 [1];
...[2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,J,K]. –ordered.
APPENDIX 2. Morphological character matrix.
outgroup 0?000?1?1? ?000000?0K ??CQEER?90 63???EEQA
'A forquilha ' 0100101110 1111100106 699HCCPF32 48226ECDC
'A ykeregua ' 0101100110 110110010? 4AAHD{789}{HJKL}?01 5610BCAG{EF}
'A ykeregua ZSM ' 0101100110 1101100101 478H89KE52 263369BFF
'A sp Jacui ' 0110?00110 100000?101 1A4F54KC53 552364A98
'A tembe' 0000101111 0000000011 559949RK43 4622?9???
'A charrua' 1001011231 0000001307 A8BDA9A665 66434BAC5
'A kaaygua' 1?20{123}01120 0000000{02}0? 429604?J34 47331C7H4
'A angiru' 1021011221 0000000306 979C75D593 653425BA4
'A angiru 6262' 1021011221 0000000305 96AB64C?95 654602A82
'A angiru Misiones' 1021011221 0000000305 96A954779{345} 65{34}{456}{012}{2345}{AB}{89A}{234}
'A angiru Iguacu' 1022011221 0000000308 989B63339{345} 65{34}{456}{012}{2345}{AB}{89A}4
'A scitulus' 1011011221 000001030C H5EA9AB764 434359AA5
'A scitulus Quarai' 1011011221 000001030B G5E9999674 664459AF4
'A minuano' 1021200011 0000001008 6CAD949664 5333058D4
'A guarani' 1022100101 1000000005 599C74D795 873444979
'A facetus 6arg' 2022300001 0000000206 6A9E94C595 6534859FD
'A facetus 6uru' 2022300001 0000000205 5C9FA6A584 543487ACE
'A facetus 7TyT' 2021400001 0000000208 A8BB76FA65 53335677C
'A facetus 7can' 2021400001 0000000209 A8AB65FA45 4233476BC
'A capixaba' ????{12}0010? 000000020? 997G84?G53 9?359B9H?
'A taura' ????{12}00101000000110?{56789}9{ABCDE}{ABCDEFGHJ}?4?C13
9?33{56789}{ABCDEFGHJKLMNPQ}{789}{ABCDEFGHJK}?
'A ribeirae' 2???{12}000?0000000020?{56789}99{ABCDE}?4?9{789A}{234}
{9AB}??{567}9{56789ABCDE}{789ABC}{56789ABCDE}?
'A autrani' 2???{12}10100000000020?{ABCDE}{FGHJK}{56789}{FGHJKLMNPQ}?4?J{56789A}{45}
{9ABC}?{01234}{456}9{ABCDEFGHJKLMPQ}{56789ABC}{0123456789ABCDEFGHJK}?
'A saquarema' 2???{12}???????????0?0?9E9{FGHJK}?4?{6789ABC}{45678}{45}
{AB}?{123456}{789}9{ABCDEFGHJK}{ABC}{56789ABCDE}?
ÍAN ET AL.
26 · Zootaxa 2982 © 2011 Magnolia Press
'A macacuensis' 2???{12}00000000000020?{ABCDE}{ABCDE}9{FGHJK}?4?{3456789A}{6789}{456}
{789}?{123456}{67}9{ABCDEFGHJKLMNPQ}{56789}{56789ABCDE}?
'A ipatinguensis' 2???{12}00200000000020?9E4{FGHJK}?4?{78}{789A}{123}
{78}?{345}{3456789ABC}9{ABCDE}{789}{56789ABCDE}?
'A barbosae' 2???{12}00100000000020?{ABCDE}{FGHJK}9{FGHJK}?4?{3456789AB}{456789}{345}
{9ABC}?{2345}{234567}{ABCDE}{KLMNPQ}{56789}{56789ABCDE}?
'A paraibae' 2???{12}00000000000020?{ABCDE}{ABCDE}{56789}E?4?{678}{23456}{234}
{9A}?{123}{23456}{56789}{FGHJKLMNPQ}{789}{56789ABCDE}?
'A macaensis' 2???{12}00000000000020?{ABCDE}{ABCDE}9{FGHJK}?4?{ABCDEF}{45678}{3456}
{9ABC}?{2345}{2345678}9{ABCDEFGHJKLMNPQ}{789}{ABCDEFGHJK}?
'A robustus' 2???{12}00000000000020?{ABCDE}{56789}E{56789}?4?{ABC}{345}{3456}
{9ABC}?{34}{2567}{56789}{FGHJKLMNPQ}{789}{56789}?
'A muriae' 2???{12}00{01}00000000020?
{56789ABCDE}{FGHJK}4{LMNPQ}?4?9{3456789A}{345678}
{89ABC}?{2345}?{ABCDE}{LMNPQ}{789}{FGHJKLMNPQ}?
'A acaroides' 2???{34}00{01}?0 000000020? 99BB74?G54 A?22628E4
'A sp Sao Francisco' 2???{12}00?00 000000020B AAAHD44??? ?????????
'A sp Lagoa Nova' 2???{12}00?00 000000020B 9B7E627??? ?????????
'A sp Paraiba' 2???{12}00?00 000000020C 9C9E945??? ?????????
'A sp Rio Muriae' 2???{12}00?00 000000020A 994F566??? ?????????
'A sp Rio Tubarao' 2???{12}00?00 0000000207 A79C74G??? ?????????
... Among those, Gymnogeophagus Miranda Riberio, 1918, with 18 species, is restricted to the lower Paraná, Paraguay, and Uruguay drainages, with a few species also occurring in the Laguna dos Patos basin. 'Geophagus' brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) represents a group of species in need of revision, distributed along the coast from the Laguna Merín additional specimens from southeastern Brazil, Ř íčan et al. [13] concluded that all species described by Ottoni and collaborators 2008-2010 [5][6][7][8] made up a monophyletic clade (single species) sister to the Australoheros assemblage in the Uruguay and lower Paraná drainage basins. Ř íčan et al. [13] pointed out that all northern putative species apparently lacked autapomorphies and might represent a case of excessive splitting, as suggested also by Ř íčan et al. [40] in a phylogenetic analysis of heroine cichlids. ...
... 'Geophagus' brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) represents a group of species in need of revision, distributed along the coast from the Laguna Merín additional specimens from southeastern Brazil, Ř íčan et al. [13] concluded that all species described by Ottoni and collaborators 2008-2010 [5][6][7][8] made up a monophyletic clade (single species) sister to the Australoheros assemblage in the Uruguay and lower Paraná drainage basins. Ř íčan et al. [13] pointed out that all northern putative species apparently lacked autapomorphies and might represent a case of excessive splitting, as suggested also by Ř íčan et al. [40] in a phylogenetic analysis of heroine cichlids. Ottoni [9] responded to Rican et al. [13] with descriptions in 2012 of three additional species-Australoheros mattosi from the Rio São Francisco basin, A. montanus from the Rio Paraíba do Sul basin, and A. tavaresi from the Rio Tietê basin-and discarded Ř íčan et al.'s analysis [13] as it would not be 'suitable to test the species from the southeastern Brazil'. ...
... Ř íčan et al. [13] pointed out that all northern putative species apparently lacked autapomorphies and might represent a case of excessive splitting, as suggested also by Ř íčan et al. [40] in a phylogenetic analysis of heroine cichlids. Ottoni [9] responded to Rican et al. [13] with descriptions in 2012 of three additional species-Australoheros mattosi from the Rio São Francisco basin, A. montanus from the Rio Paraíba do Sul basin, and A. tavaresi from the Rio Tietê basin-and discarded Ř íčan et al.'s analysis [13] as it would not be 'suitable to test the species from the southeastern Brazil'. In the same paper, on the basis of photographs, he designated and figured as lectotype of Heros autochthon a putative syntype which he determined was not a specimen of Australoheros. ...
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... In addition to the current ambiguous collection locality of the original record of C. facetum in Portugal, the genus Cichlasoma has since undergone major taxonomic revisions, and many of its species were left without a generic name until 2016 (Říčan et al., 2016). In particular, the Cichlasoma facetum group was thoroughly revised and the new genus Australoheros was proposed including several species (Říčan & Kullander, 2006(Říčan & Kullander, , 2008Říčan et al., 2011). Despite the recent taxonomic re-arrangement of C. facetum, no study has critically evaluated the species identity of the non-native cichlid species in Portuguese waters although many authors have assumed it corresponds to Australoheros facetus (e.g. ...
... The resulting nucleotide sequences were imported into Geneious ® 10.2.2 (Biomatters Ltd., Auckland, New Zealand), checked by eye, and manually edited to remove low quality positions at the 5' and 3' ends as well as to resolve ambiguities in nucleotide assignment. Additional cytochrome b sequences were obtained from GenBank including representatives of the seven Australoheros species sampled in their native range (n=38, included in Concheiro Pérez et al., 2007;Říčan & Kullander, 2008;Říčan et al., 2011; Appendix 1), to serve for comparison against sequences from non-native Portuguese cichlid fish. All sequences were aligned in Geneous using the default algorithm, and the full alignment was trimmed to a homologous fragment and checked for gaps and absence of stop codons. ...
... The morphological and molecular genetic results confirm the presence of the chameleon cichlid A. facetus (Jenyns 1842) in the three Portuguese drainages sampled -Sado, Arade and Guadiana. Accordingly, with the new systematics re-arrangements for the Australoheros genus, the species is native to Argentina and Uruguay, and has been reported as introduced in Chile in addition to Spain and Portugal (Říčan & Kullander, 2006;Ribeiro et al., 2007;Říčan et al., 2011;Vila & Habit, 2015). Its Iberian range is currently confined to southern Portuguese drainages, namely Sado, Arade, and Guadiana (including the Spanish section), occurring in the lower Guadalquivir and, possibly, Segura (Ribeiro et al., 2007;Fernandéz-Delgado et al., 2014). ...
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A non-native cichlid fish firstly reported in Portugal in 1940 was originally identified as Cichlasoma facetum (Jenyns 1842) based on specimens reported from “Praia de Mira” (Vouga drainage, northwestern Portugal). Currently, the species is known only from three southern Portuguese river drainages, namely Sado, Arade and Guadiana, and no other record has been made from Praia de Mira or the Vouga drainage since the original record. The genus Cichlasoma has since suffered major taxonomic revisions: C. facetum has been considered a species-complex and proposed as the new genus Australoheros, including many species. Given the current taxonomic re-arrangement of the C. facetum species group, we performed a taxonomic re-evaluation of species identity of this non-native cichlid in Portuguese drainages using morphological and molecular analyses. Morphological data collected on specimens sampled in the Sado river drainages confirmed the identification as Australoheros facetus. Moreover, nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome b gene obtained from specimens from Sado, Arade and Guadiana showed the existence of a single haplotype across drainages, which was 100% identical to A. facetus specimens collected in native Argentinean waters (i.e. Uruguay River). The current non-native distribution range of the species in Portugal results from human-mediated introductions across the southern drainages.
... This latter species has previously been placed within Australoheros; however, there are a number of doubts and problems regarding its type locality, the type material and the original description, making it impossible to link it to any known lineage (or species) of the genus (Ottoni and Bragança 2021). Australoheros shows a wide distribution range, with representatives occurring in river basins and systems from north-eastern Argentina and Uruguay to the South of the state of Bahia in eastern Brazil (Casciotta et al. 1995;Kullander 2003, 2008;Ottoni and Costa 2008;Ottoni 2010;Ottoni et al. 2011Ottoni et al. , 2019Říčan et al. 2011). ...
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... Despite advances in knowledge regarding the evolution of diverse groups of cichlids worldwide, there are still lineages with incipient research, such as Middle American heroine cichlids. Middle America harbors approximately 124 cichlid species (Říčan et al. 2011;Matamoros et al. 2015) and includes areas considered to be centers of endemism and high diversity, such as the San Juan and Usumacinta ichthyological provinces (sensu Říčan et al. 2016). From evolutionary evidence, it has been assumed that their diversification was promoted by ecological opportunity and resource partitioning (López-Fernández et al. 2012;Burress 2016;Říčan et al. 2016). ...
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... Before 1995, all the 29 nominal species presently contained in Australoheros were considered to belong to a single species, Cichlasoma facetum, which was thought to be geographically widespread between southeastern Brazil and northeastern Argentina (Casciotta et al. 1995;Říčan and Kullander 2003;Ottoni and Costa 2008). In recent years, taxonomic studies have revealed high species diversity, mostly concentrated in the lower La Plata river basin and adjacent coastal river basins (Casciotta et al. 1995(Casciotta et al. , 2006Říčan and Kullander 2003Říčan and Kullander , 2006Říčan and Kullander , 2008Ottoni and Cheffe 2009;Říčan et al. 2011) as well as in coastal basins of eastern Brazil and adjacent headwaters of the upper Paraná and upper São Francisco river basins (Ottoni and Costa 2008;Ottoni 2010Ottoni , 2012Ottoni , 2013aOttoni et al. 2011). Říčan and Kullander (2008) delimited four Australoheros species groups for taxa endemic to the La Plata river basin which occur in the rivers system of the Paraná-Paraguay-Uruguay based on both morphological and molecular data [cytochrome b (CYTB)]: the A. scitulus species group, A. forquilha species group, A. facetus species group, and A. kaaygua species group. ...
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