Article

Ammonia Adsorption on Bamboo Charcoal with Acid Treatment

Faculty of Applied Life Sciences, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, 956– 8603, Niigata, Niigata, Japan
Journal of health science (Impact Factor: 0.8). 10/2006; 52(5):585-589. DOI: 10.1248/jhs.52.585

ABSTRACT

The effect of ammonia adsorption in aqueous solutions was examined for bamboo charcoal carbonized at 400, 700 and 1000°C, and activated carbon. Furthermore, the change of the ammonia adsorption in aqueous solutions was also examined by treatment of each sample with diluted sulfuric acid. Bamboo charcoal carbonized at 400°C and treated with diluted sulfuric acid was the most effective for removing ammonia from aqueous solutions. Al-though the ammonia adsorption of the bamboo charcoal carbonized at 400°C in gas phase hardly changed by the treatment with diluted sulfuric acid, that in aqueous solutions significantly increased by the treatment. duced and removing ammonia all year around is needed. Many reports have describes the adsorption of ammonia gas by activated carbon and charcoal. 7–19) The charcoal carbonized from 400 to 500°C is found effective for the adsorption of basic ammonia gas due to many acidic functional groups on its sur-face. 7–11) It is also described that the adsorption amount of the ammonia gas on activated carbon in-creases by modifying the acidic functional groups on the surface of the activated carbon with an oxi-dizing reagent. 20,21) In aqueous solutions, properties differing from the gas phase are expected because ammonia with a high solubility in water is easily soluble and NH 4 + is formed on the basis of the solu-tion of pH. However, the properties of the ammonia adsorption in aqueous solutions have not been re-ported except for ammonia adsorption in the gas phase on activated carbon and charcoal. In this study, the relation between the carbonization temperature and ammonia adsorption was examined in order to effectively remove ammonia from aqueous solutions. Furthermore, the improvement of the adsorption capacity of ammonia by treatment with dilute acid was examined.

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    • "On the other hand, the charcoal carbonized at 400–500˚C was found to have significant amount of acidic functional groups on its surface and as a result it was effective for the adsorption of basic ammonia gas. The amount of ammonia gas adsorbed increased with treatment of charcoal with oxidizing agents [11]. Iyobe et al. investigated the adsorption of ammonia, methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine gases onto woody charcoal carbonized at 500˚C and activated carbon. "
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    ABSTRACT: Amines are toxic and precursors for highly toxic nitrosamines and chloramines. Two groups of aliphatic highly soluble amines (methylamine MA, glucosamine GA) and aromatic amines (benzylamine BA, aniline AN, diphenylamine DPA) with varying degree of basicity and hydrophobicity were investigated for their adsorption onto charcoal. The adsorption experiments were carried out at 25 and 80°C close to the temperature used in water treatment and decolorization processes, respectively, in order to understand the efficiency of charcoal in removal of amine pollutants in these processes. The adsorption order at 25°C was: BA (0.9) > MA (0.72) > AN (0.63) > DPA (0.48) > GA (0.30 mmol/g), and the order at 80°C was BA > AN > GA ~ MA ~ DPA. Both the orders reflected the importance of basicity over hydrophobicity of amines in the adsorption onto charcoal. The charcoal was characterized using FTIR, SEM, elemental analysis, Boehm titration, pH titration, and pH drift methods. The charcoal was found to have significant amount of carboxylic, lactonic, and phenolic functional groups. The adsorption of amines onto charcoal was found to increase with increasing pH, which was interpreted in terms of a model that depends on acid–base reaction between basic amines and acidic functional groups of charcoal.
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    • "The research community continues to debate the effectiveness of biochar as a soil amendment, and the extent to which it modifies the soil nitrogen cycle and reduces NH 3 emissions (Clough & Condron, 2010). The capacity of biochar to adsorb NH 4 + has been recognized generally (Asada et al., 2006), but the physical and chemical mechanisms behind these processes are still not fully understood. Biochar surface adsorption of nutrients (such as NH 4 + and other cations) is associated with increased cation exchange capacity (CEC), surface area and surface attachment of acidic functional groups (such as carboxylic groups) (Gundale & DeLuca, 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Combining amendments to the soil made by biochar or hydrochar with nitrogen (N) fertilizer can modify soil N dynamics and availability. Such a response suggests that these amendments would affect ammonia (NH3) emissions from slurry similarly, and potentially reduce volatilization of NH3. This study measured the potential emissions of NH3 following application of pig slurry to the surface of silt-loam and loam soils amended with biochar and hydrochar (both derived from Miscanthus × giganteus (Greef et Deu)) at a rate of 3% soil dry weight (16 t ha−1 soil area, on average) and 60% water-filled pore space (WFPS). The experiment was carried out in a dynamic chamber connected to a photo-acoustic trace gas analyser in a controlled climate (20°C) for 48 hours. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) in total emissions were observed between both treatment and soil types. Surprisingly, both amendments increased emissions of NH3 compared with the control; cumulative NH3 emissions averaged 38.7 and 23.5% of applied total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) for hydrochar and biochar, respectively, whereas it was 18.2% for the control. The larger emissions in hydrochar-amended soil were attributed to the reduced ability to absorb NH4+ associated with greater hydrophobicity and strong pH buffering of the slurry. Furthermore, final soil analyses with deionised water extracts showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in mineral N concentration between treatments. The smaller ammonium concentrations in biochar-amended soil suggest that some NH4+-N was immobilized by adsorption on to biochar surfaces. This study observed that biochar and hydrochar properties, as well as soil characteristics, play important roles in controlling NH3 emissions from surface slurry applications. The results obtained identified circumstances where these amendments even enhance volatilization, which provides new information on and insight into the extent and limitations of the potential of biochar and hydrochar for the mitigation of emissions.
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    • "Therefore, it is highly important to address the effects of crop straw-derived biochar on NH 3 volatilization from different soils and crop rotation systems before recommending full-scale application of this biochar to Chinese croplands. Biochar can strongly adsorb NH 3 due to the presence of acidic functional groups (Iyobe et al. 2004; Asada et al. 2006; Kastner et al. 2009). Taghizdeh-Toosi et al. (2012a, b) reported that incorporating wood-based biochar with a neutral pH (7.8) into an acidic soil (pH 5.5) decreased NH 3 volatilization from ruminant urine, and they demonstrated the bioavailability of absorbed NH 3 using 15 N tracing. "
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