Article

Analytical and experimental studies on infilled RC frames

Department of Civil Engineering, Kirikkale University, 71450, Yahsihan, Kirikkale, Turkey
International journal of physical sciences (Impact Factor: 0.54). 11/2010; 5(13):1981-1998.

ABSTRACT

Although hollow brick infills, widely used as partition walls, are considered as non-structural members, experimental studies revealed that hollow brick infills have favourable effects on strength and stiffness of structures. In this work, analytical studies were conducted to investigate the hollow brick infill behaviour, in which infills were modeled by diagonal compression struts. Results were compared with experimental ones obtained from tests of one-bay, one or two story reinforced concrete (RC) frames, tested under both vertical and reversed-cyclic lateral loads simulating earthquake. Test frames have intentionally been constructed poorly to reflect the most common deficiencies encountered in Turkey such as strong beam-weak column connections, insufficient confinement, low-grade concrete, poor workmanship and insufficient lap-splice length. Experimental studies shows that hollow brick infills increased both strength and stiffness of RC frames. Analytical studies conducted, shows that hollow brick infills could adequately be modeled by diagonal compression struts.

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    • "Since the focus of this paper is on modelling, only a few, major tests on one-bay one storey and multi-bay multi-storey structures are reviewed. Three main test types are listed as: quasi-static (Mosalam et al. 1997, Amato et al. 2008, Kakaletsis and Karayannis 2008, Personeni et al. 2008, Baran and Sevil 2010), pseudo-dynamic (Negro and Verzelletti 1996, Mosalam et al. 1998, Dolsek and Fajfar 2002) and full dynamic testing (Fardis et al. 1999, Albanesi et al. 2008, Liu et al. 2011). For monotonic tests on a one-bay single-storey masonry infilled RC frame designed to have infill rather frame failure, it is experimentally observed that as the lateral load increases and the deformation demand becomes large, diffuse cracking evolves starting from the middle of the panel and progresses along the tensile stress principal directions. "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of the nonlinear modelling techniques available today for describing the structural behaviour of masonry infills and their interaction with frame structures subjected to in-plane loads. Following brief overviews on the behaviour of masonry-infilled frames and on the results of salient experimental tests, three modelling approaches are discussed in more detail: the micro, the meso and the macro approaches. The first model considers each of the infilled frame elements as separate: brick units, mortar, concrete and steel reinforcement; while the second approach treats the masonry infill as a continuum. The paper focuses on the third approach, which combines frame elements for the beams and columns with one or more equivalent struts for the infill panel. Due to its relative simplicity and computational speed, the macro model technique is more widely used today, though not all proposed models capture the main effects of the frame-infill interaction.
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    • "Those studies have, in turn, led to the development of rational design models based on the strut and tie approach for the design of membrane elements (Rogowsky and Macgregor, 1986; Rogowsky, 1997; Zhang and Tan, 2007; Bakir and Boduroglu, 2005). The strut and tie model has been used in analysis and design of disturbed regions, beam strengthened with FRP and infill frames and walls in masonry and reinforced concrete structures (Kuo et al., 2010; He and Liu, 2010; Shah et al., 2011; Colotti and Swamy, 2011; Seim and Pfeiffer, 2011; Baran and Sevil, 2010; Güney and Kurusçu, 2011). Despite of the large amount of research carried out on reinforced concrete membrane structures, there is no agreed rational procedure to predict the strength of these structures. "

    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · International journal of physical sciences
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    • "Those studies have, in turn, led to the development of rational design models based on the strut and tie approach for the design of membrane elements (Rogowsky and Macgregor, 1986; Rogowsky, 1997; Zhang and Tan, 2007; Bakir and Boduroglu, 2005). The strut and tie model has been used in analysis and design of disturbed regions, beam strengthened with FRP and infill frames and walls in masonry and reinforced concrete structures (Kuo et al., 2010; He and Liu, 2010; Shah et al., 2011; Colotti and Swamy, 2011; Seim and Pfeiffer, 2011; Baran and Sevil, 2010; Güney and Kurusçu, 2011). Despite of the large amount of research carried out on reinforced concrete membrane structures, there is no agreed rational procedure to predict the strength of these structures. "
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, a nonlinear finite element (FE) model is proposed to investigate the behaviour and failure mechanism of reinforced concrete membrane structures. Proven accurate stress-strain relation is incorporated in the model to describe the stress-strain behaviour of the concrete under compression for uniaxial and biaxial stress system. The nonlinearity behaviour of the materials in the compressive stress field is considered for the concrete in the orthogonal directions. The effect of micro cracking confinement and softening on the stress-strain relationship under biaxial stresses are included by employing the equivalent uniaxial strain concept. Tension stiffening effect by concrete in tension is modelled in the ascending and descending parts. The model allows for the progressive local failure of the reinforced concrete materials. The applicability of the proposed FE model is investigated by demonstrating the nonlinear structural response and failure mechanism of a simple deep beam and validated with published experimental work. Good agreement is achieved between the developed FE model and the experimental test results which gives confidence that the approach is fundamentally correct.
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