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Cultural identity and cultural policy in South Korea

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... The rise of the South Korean cultural influence in East-Asian markets can be attributed to the establishment of a South Korean cultural identity (Yim, 2002). Since the 1990s, the South Korean government has enacted a series of Korean culture policies with the aim of re-establishing a national cultural identity. ...
... This plan, whose catchphrase was 'culture for all the people', aimed to reactivate regional culture and facilitate international culture exchange. The Kim Young Sam (1993-1998 government proposed the 'Creation of the New Korea', a plan that sought to advance the status of Korea on a global level (Yim, 2002). The Kim Dae Jung government (1998)(1999)(2000)(2001)(2002)(2003), and its successive governments, have continued to make plans for promoting Korean cultural industries, both in the domestic and East-Asian markets (Kwon & Kim, 2014). ...
... This idolization of Korean cultural industries has raised some Chinese people's awareness of the importance of improving their knowledge of Chinese culture. However, unlike America and Japan, South Korea's cultural influence on Chinese people has a relatively short history (see Han, 2014;Yim, 2002). Compared with the Americans and the Japanese, the South Korean are not a salient out-group in spite of South Korea's geographical proximity to China. ...
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The study explored the strength of national identification and intergroup attitudes of Chinese youth (n = 591, aged 12–15) toward the Chinese, the Americans, the Japanese, and the South Koreans. The participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire and write down reasons why they ‘like’ or ‘dislike’ the four groups. The results showed a consistency in in-group favoritism. Gender and age were both related to Chinese youths’ national identifications and their national intergroup attitudes. Confucian ethics, media influence and historical complex were identified as main factors that may contribute to their attitudes toward the four groups.
... Similar to many countries in the 1960s, South Korea had experienced drastic social and economic transformation with huge political turmoil including national independence waged by its national liberation movement (Armstrong 2003). The 1960s was also a time of rapid economic growth and industrialisation (Yim 2002). With regards to South Korea's economic development, Park Chunghee's military government had prioritised rapid economic growth from the 1960s to the 1970s. ...
... It organised promotional programmes in dance, theatre, music, film and literature. However, it became even more strikingly essential as part of the nation's cultural movement, "The Saemaul-Undong (New Community movement)" (Yim 2002). ...
... The Saemaul-Undong set up programmes such as training of employees and housewives to play an active role in fostering social values like, "gun gom (frugality)" and "hyop tong (cooperation)". The KCAF also published a monthly journal entitled, "Munye Chinhung Wolbo (Culture and Arts promotion monthly)" (Yim 2002). ...
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This paper examines the development of South Korean cultural policy from the 1970s to the present. It contextualises South Korean state, culture and its cultural policy within the framework of state developmentalism, so as to understand their dynamics and relationships. A detailed analysis of how the national cultural policy is interpreted and implemented through institutional practices, historically and in its contemporary context shall be made.
... In this period, the government of South Korea used arts and culture as a means of enhancing their national identity after long political confliction (Yim, 2002;Jeong, 2012). Yim (2002) points out three reasons for this. ...
... In this period, the government of South Korea used arts and culture as a means of enhancing their national identity after long political confliction (Yim, 2002;Jeong, 2012). Yim (2002) points out three reasons for this. First, the government of South Korea recognized that national culture was being assimilated into Japanese culture (Wollam, 1992). ...
... Yim (2002) remarks that such political differences demand for the recovery of Korea's cultural identity, which represents a challenge that cultural policy needs to address. Thirdly, with rapid economic development in the 1960s, a considerable amount of western culture fluxed into South Korea, and the national culture was swiftly modernized (Yim, 2002). In response to this, arts education in schools promoted traditional culture, and the government invested in restoring cultural heritage (Jeong, 2012). ...
Thesis
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Researchers have long been exploring many aspects of 'cultural learning' and policymakers have paid attention to the value of arts engagement to implement various cultural learning schemes at national levels. This study explores the area of 'cultural learning policy' by conducting a comparative cross-national study of England and South Korea, which have similar administrative mechanisms and policy agendas. This study identifies that England mainly focuses on encouraging arts engagement among the youth and local level of governance, while in South Korea, consistent learning schemes are delivered from a government agency, targeting the lifelong learning of the entire population. My conclusion suggests that England could encourage adults to benefit from cultural learning in an aging and multicultural society, and South Korea could improve by promoting high quality cultural learning in its increasing number of arts organisations. 3
... A nation"s cultural policy is considered a crucial tool for political leadership, created with the intention of shaping one common cultural identity across various groups within the country (Bradley, 1998;Burgi-Golub, 2000). Specific to South Korea, approaches to cultural policy have evolved since the establishment of the First Republic in 1948 (Yim, 2002). Yersu Kim (1976) observes that in spite of political leadership changes and the division of Korea, the construction of cultural identity has remained a key fixture of Korea"s postcolonial government agenda. ...
... In contemporary South Korea, the government has encouraged the enjoyment of culture by establishing cultural centers in otherwise culturally isolated areas. It also provides opportunities for engagement in cultural activities to traditionally alienated classes within society (Kim, 1976;Yim, 2002), including low-income families and people with disabilities. However, in any discussion of cultural immersion and fostering a common national identity, we must note the importance of creating relevant cultural content. ...
... It is also important to highlight the influence of Confucianism on the arts; the virtues of Confucianism are deeply embedded, with culture seen as a vehicle for cultivating morality in the masses. As pointed out by Haksoon Yim (2002), despite the division of the Korean peninsula in 1945, the notion of Han minjok (meaning "Korean people" or "Koreans") and the influence of Confucianism have remained "remarkably homogeneous" (p. 38). ...
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Wherever quality of life continues to improve, people turn to cultural and artistic pursuits to enhance their life experience. Hence, cultural and art education is encouraged in museums, galleries, and schools for public benefit and enjoyment regardless of differing social classes. Cultural content has developed since the beginning of culture itself, and education related to this content is crucial as it can improve public perspectives. However, many culturally alienated groups still exist due to financial difficulties, disabilities, or living in remote areas, and they lack fair opportunities to enjoy culture and art. The polarization between these groups and culturally-benefited classes continues to increase. Outreach programs have been conducted by museums and galleries as ‘visiting classes’ for those who find it difficult to visit traditional venues. Using Dewey’s educational philosophy and four different case studies, this study provides an in-depth examination of outreach programs and suggests a model for Asian countries by focusing on South Korea. The findings seek to aid ongoing educational efforts to create long-term effects for the public’s benefit.
... Popular culture was not on the Korean government's agenda for funding. President Park Chung-hee (Park Geun-hye's father) referred to culture as the 'second economy' in 1968 (Yim 2002, 43), a means to motivate people to work harder in the name of Korean economic growth and patriotism in the aftermath of the Korean War (Kim 2017;Yim 2002). The role of culture was to inculcate good values of thrift, hard work, and 'optimism', which resulted in heavy censorship (Kim 2017;Shin and Lee 2017;Yim 2002). ...
... President Park Chung-hee (Park Geun-hye's father) referred to culture as the 'second economy' in 1968 (Yim 2002, 43), a means to motivate people to work harder in the name of Korean economic growth and patriotism in the aftermath of the Korean War (Kim 2017;Yim 2002). The role of culture was to inculcate good values of thrift, hard work, and 'optimism', which resulted in heavy censorship (Kim 2017;Shin and Lee 2017;Yim 2002). In 1975, for example, Presidential Emergency Decree #9 was promulgated, banning 222 South Korean songs and 261 foreign songs. ...
... Koreans maintain a strong national consciousness, and this consciousness became the basis of modern Korean nationalism. This cultural nationalism influenced the Koreans' cultural identity and in turn affected the multiculturalism and multilingual education in Korea (Yim 2002). For example, Korean students also perceive that saving face is more important for their self-esteem. ...
... For example, learning English at primary school is believed to hinder the learning of the Japanese language (Otsu 2004). In addition, Korean and Japanese students generally have strong identities, and most of them perceived that learning English would have a detrimental effect on their national identity and language (see Kawai 2007 for Japan; Yim 2002 for Korea). Such concerns may impact the students' motivation in learning English. ...
Book
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This book investigates how learners’ motivations and identities are constructed in the process of learning and using multiple languages in Asian contexts. It presents examples of multilingual contexts in different parts of Asia and illustrates various achievements and challenges associated with multilingual education. Drawing on recent theoretical developments regarding learners’ motivations and identities in language learning-related research, this book uncovers learners’ motivations that underlie their decisions of learning multiple languages in Asian contexts. It incorporates conceptual interpretations of learners’ motivations and identities in multilingual education. Through empirical studies, the authors offer conceptual interpretations on emerging concepts such as dual-motivation system, motivation dynamics, motivational transformation episodes, and hierarchies of identities. In addition to being highly relevant to applied linguistics, this book is a valuable reference for every university and college library that serves a faculty or school of education.
... Whilst South Korea has developed economically and politically, socially it still remains relatively homogenous and underdeveloped, with a general undertone of discrimination against foreigners that are seen to be inferior to the South Koreans. Several studies have been carried out on this area Kim, Yoo, & Chung 2015;Yoon 2010;Seol 2010;Steinberg 2005(n.d.); Yim 2002). Based on these studies, the general conclusion is that Western foreigners are received well, immigrant workers and marriage migrants less so, and at the bottom of the spectrum North Koreans and Korean-Chinese groups suffer the most discrimination. ...
... Moreover, both Yim (2002) and Seol discuss the Chinese-Korean immigrants, known in Korean as the Joseon jok. Seol (ibid.,601) ...
Article
Détente is sweeping across the Korean Peninsula for the first time in over a decade following policies of engagement by both the North and South. How long and successful this détente will be is yet to be seen, however, it has once again sparked calls for reunification. Whilst the reunification of the two Koreas has been well-discussed most literature and discussions follow the same ideas; absorption of the North into the South and discussions on the economic and political repercussions. This paper, on the other hand, analyses the social divide between the two Koreas suggesting that it is reaching a point of inelasticity, namely a point where if the divide stretches even further the two peoples will never be able to successfully reunite, regardless of how reunification occurs. As such, in the case of a German-like, “surprise reunification” the governments must prepare a social reunification policy in advance.
... Despite persistent anti-Japanese sentiments in South Korea (and vice versa in Japan), over the decades trade has expanded greatly, along with travel and tourism. From the late 1990s, informal cultural exchange through Korean dramas, cross-national popularity of J-pop and K-pop etc. have also been on the rise, particularly after the Kim Dae-Jung government lifted the informal ban on Japanese cultural imports to Korea (Yim 2002). Currently, Japanese companies in various sectors are active in South Korea, most notably Toyota and Mitsubishi in the automobile sector, the convenience store Seven Eleven in retail, and Sony, Canon, and Nikon in electronics. ...
Article
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Japan has a "cold politics, hot economics" relationship with both China and South Korea where political relations are tense and business overall flourishes. Despite the similarities, the political mobilization of consumers in response to Japanese business interests diverge: event, trade, and tourism data show that South Koreans are less likely to link economic interests with their political grievances with Japan compared to their Chinese counterparts even though the sources of the tensions are largely parallel. The divergence arises from different ways economic globalization has shaped national identity. In China, economic globalization has strengthened a nativist identity with strong anti-foreign components. Korean national identity has been formed by economic integration and interdependence. While strong national identity and anti-foreign elements exist, they are delinked from economic interests. Survey and event data from South Korea and China show that the variation in consumer politics is driven by attitudinal differences in the population that is strongly anti-Japanese. Social media data shows how citizens link or delink politics and business to mobilize for collective action, and provide qualitative evidence that how identities interact with globalization explain country-level variation.
... Eckert et al. (1990) attribute modern Korean nationalism to the country's reaction against foreign imperialism, particularly Japanese colonialism. After World War II, successive political regimes sought to reclaim and reshape Korean identity through national cultural policy, including reaffirming the ideas of Korean ethnic and cultural purity and homogeneity and enforcing the use of Hangru (the original Korean characters) as opposed to Chinese characters in writing (Yim 2002). As in Japan, this discourse of "ethnic homogeneity based on the 'one ancestor myth'" (Kim 2005, 5) contributes to Korean people's low cultural receptivity toward foreigners. ...
Chapter
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We know little about how race, gender, migration and class intersect to shape paid elder care within immigrant and racialized communities. This chapter examines publicly subsidized, home-based elder care in Oakland, California’s Chinatown. Analysis of interviews with Chinese immigrant women who help family and non-family elderly show how this work combines coercive relations of paid employment and gendered duty with nurturing relations of empathy. Nurturing relations, coupled with labor, elderly and disability movement organizing, allowed unionization and the potential to challenge multiple inequalities. Women not only spoke of the power of the union to give them voices as immigrant women through mass collective action and to improve wages and benefits, but also noted the union’s inability to intervene with difficult recipient-employers. As a result, this work reflects persistent forms of social and economic subordination of immigrant women workers and enduring relations of gendered duty, alongside nurturing relations.
... Dukungan dari pemerintah juga terus mengalir. Pada rezim selanjutnya, Kim Dae-Jung (1998-2002, beberapa kebijakan terkait promosi film diluncurkan seperti 'Dana Promosi Film', dan 'Dana Promosi Kebudayaan' dan mempro-mosikan investasi pribadi industri perfilman melalui sisten insentif pajak. (Kim) ...
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Fabrikasi film tidak semata-mata ditujukan untuk menghibur penonton namun juga untuk mempengaruhi penonton melalui gagasan sang kreator yang salah satunya adalah gagasan mengenai identitas nsional. Penulis akan memaparkan bagaimana identitas nasional dihadirkan dalam dua film produksi Korea Selatan pada tahun 2013 yaitu A Wonderful Life dan Secretly Greatly. Melalui analisis yang dilakukan terhadap tiap karakter utama di kedua film, dapat disimpulkan bahwa terdapat kegalauan atas konsep identitas nasional Korea Selatan
... However, the monitoring aspect is dogged by corruption, greed and politics. The national policy framework is short of proper measures on community involvement and punishment of offenders (Yim 2002). Heritage managers for sustainable conservation should emulate strong cultural conservation policies. ...
... Routinely described as 'homogeneous' the shared cultural, historical, ethnic and linguistic identity, along with influences such as Confucianism, has helped shape 'South Koreanness'. Scholars also tend to point to South Korea's construction of identity through the prism of 'othering' (Hall, 1997), in this case usually in opposition to North Korea, Japan or the U.S.A. (Paik, 2001, Yim, 2002, Rozman, 2009, Oh, 2013). ...
Thesis
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In the era of globalisation, non-Anglophone higher education institutions worldwide have begun to offer English courses with the strategic aim of generating funding and proving competitive on a global scale. Along with this, the global employment market seeks graduates who can assimilate into diverse cultural and social contexts. Institutions therefore aim to cultivate ‘global citizens’ who have the knowledge and skillset to adapt to globalised environments. However, global citizenship is a contested terrain with very little empirical basis. This research aims to provide an exploration into a non-Anglophone site – South Korea – with the aim of understanding how two institutions present the role of English, student perceptions of the role of English and how in turn the latter are conceptualising global citizenship as pertains to their identity. The research employed two data sets – websites and individual interviews. Within the two institutions, 20 undergraduate students participated in the study. Students from one of the universities were majoring in Social Welfare while students from the other university were drawn from a range of disciplines. The epistemological agenda of the study is constructivist in nature with an approach heavily rooted in symbolic interactionism and qualitative methodologies. The websites were analysed through a mixed approach of discourse analysis and multimodal analysis. The individual interviews were analysed through thematic analysis and discourse analysis as deemed appropriate suitable. The findings show that overall the institutions’ internationalisation agenda is rooted in English with orientations towards native English. Internationalisation as a whole is presented as something ‘non-Korean’ and usually Americanised, while native English is presented as the ideal for global citizenship. Student perceptions on the role of English were largely divided due to the amount of choice they had regarding participation in policies such as English Medium Instruction. Students also mainly perceived English proficiency in terms of native English and an aversion to Korean influenced English. As regards global citizenship identity, students conceptualised it in terms of English. This had major repercussions on how they viewed their membership of a global community and was mostly accompanied by a disregard for their own culture and the capacity to position themselves within a globalised framework. This research has ideological and practical implications for English practices and policies within internationalisation contexts such as South Korea and beyond. The findings regarding global citizenship can contribute to literature in the area and fill many conceptual gaps. It can also provide an insight into 21st century identities particularly in newly globalised environments such as South Korea.
... However, the monitoring aspect is dogged by corruption, greed and politics. The national policy framework is short of proper measures on community involvement and punishment of offenders (Yim 2002). Heritage managers for sustainable conservation should emulate strong cultural conservation policies. ...
... From the late 1990s, informal cultural exchange through Korean dramas, crossnational popularity of J-pop and K-pop etc. have also been on the rise, particularly after the Kim Dae-Jung government lifted the informal ban on Japanese cultural imports to Korea (Yim, 2002). Currently, Japanese companies in various sectors are active in South Korea, most notably Toyota and Mitsubishi in the automobile sector, the convenience store 7-Eleven in retail, and Sony, Canon and Nikon in electronics. ...
Article
The concept of “middle power country” existed since several hundred years agointroduced by European philosophers and political scientists. The definition was proposed by many scholars and used by countries in many different status, one specific definition of “middle power” was not set until current days. The characteristics of a “middle power country” range from economic status, and political system, to patterns of diplomacy. By current broad definition, almost 80 percent of the countries in the world can fit into one or more categories of a “middle power country.” The purpose of this paper is to depict the importance of middle power countries, and narrow down the definition and characteristics of them by analyzing the case study of South Korea and its diplomacy in Central Asia. It is necessary to narrow the definition of “middle power” to evaluate what constitutes a country as “middle power.” Middle power countries matter in the international relations as middle power countries hold pivotal positions when regional or world super power states make decisions. As diffusion of power becomes one of the global trends in the 21st century, clearer definitions of power structure of countries are needed to be redefined. This thesis analyzes the nature of middle power countries and shared characteristics of them. Using variables such as diplomatic policy, security, foreign direct investment, and trade, I systematically analyze South Korea’s status as a middle power country. Using data from South Korean Ministry of Foreign Affairs reports and scholarly articles on middle power and Central Asia, I verify the relevance of studying the relationship between South Korea and Central Asian republics. This thesis concludes with the fact that middle power countries are defined by the four selected variables: diplomatic policy, security, foreign direct investment, and trade. The thesis also proves that South Korea performs qualifications of middle power country regardless of the regions and countries it deals with.
... Finally, this functional upgrading was heavily supported by the state, in stark contrast to its earlier ignorance of the animation sector. The government has significantly expanded its policy measures to support the animation industry since the late 1990s, as part of a broader government initiative to nurture globally competitive cultural and creative industries (Yim, 2002). The support focused exclusively on creating and bringing original animation to global markets. ...
... However, the monitoring aspect is dogged by corruption, greed and politics. The national policy framework is short of proper measures on community involvement and punishment of offenders (Yim 2002). Heritage managers for sustainable conservation should emulate strong cultural conservation policies. ...
... However, the monitoring aspect is dogged by corruption, greed and politics. The national policy framework is short of proper measures on community involvement and punishment of offenders (Yim 2002). Heritage managers for sustainable conservation should emulate strong cultural conservation policies. ...
... In the meantime, Korea experienced educational reform since 1992. It was Kim Young Sam who made administration's approach to deal with globalization and utilized strategic policy on services sectors namely higher education [14,48]. This approach resulted in the 31 st May Plan which shifted the 'permission' policy to the 'minimal conditions' policy in the purpose of establishing new institutions [49]. ...
Conference Paper
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Japan and Korea have unceasingly been promoting English language policy to higher education students. The policy does not merely consider English as a means of communication to create interactions among people but also a new capital that can enable people to get an access to rich flow of information and lead to shift of socioeconomic status and political condition. This perspective is firmly accepted after globalization has been globally widespread. Regarding the aforementioned points, the discourse about English in Japan and Korea is thought- provoking since they have made many attempts in language policy-making as well as the practices which obviously affect the future of English use itself in these countries. This paper aims at discussing issues and challenges of English language policy and practices in Japan’s and Korea’s higher education levels. The author utilized systematic review consisting of literature search, identified the relevant journal articles, and found frequent issues e.g. internationalization and English as Medium of Instruction (EMI). Finally, the result shows that there are similar issues and challenges towards English language policy and practices in Japan’s and Korea’s higher education levels. Keywords—EMI; English; IHE; Japan; Korea; policy; practice
... Routinely described as 'homogeneous' the shared cultural, historical, ethnic and linguistic identity, along with influences such as Confucianism, has helped shape 'South Koreanness'. Scholars also tend to point to South Korea's construction of identity through the prism of 'othering' (Hall, 1997), in this case usually in opposition to North Korea, Japan or the U.S.A. (Paik, 2001, Yim, 2002, Rozman, 2009, Oh, 2013). ...
Thesis
In the era of globalisation, non-Anglophone higher education institutions worldwide have begun to offer English courses with the strategic aim of generating funding and proving competitive on a global scale. Along with this, the global employment market seeks graduates who can assimilate into diverse cultural and social contexts. Institutions therefore aim to cultivate ‘global citizens’ who have the knowledge and skillset to adapt to globalised environments. However, global citizenship is a contested terrain with very little empirical basis. This research aims to provide an exploration into a non-Anglophone site – South Korea – with the aim of understanding how two institutions present the role of English, student perceptions of the role of English and how in turn the latter are conceptualising global citizenship as pertains to their identity. The research employed two data sets – websites and individual interviews. Within the two institutions, 20 undergraduate students participated in the study. Students from one of the universities were majoring in Social Welfare while students from the other university were drawn from a range of disciplines. The epistemological agenda of the study is constructivist in nature with an approach heavily rooted in symbolic interactionism and qualitative methodologies. The websites were analysed through a mixed approach of discourse analysis and multimodal analysis. The individual interviews were analysed through thematic analysis and discourse analysis as deemed appropriate suitable. The findings show that overall the institutions’ internationalisation agenda is rooted in English with orientations towards native English. Internationalisation native English and an aversion to Korean influenced English. As regards global citizenship identity, students conceptualised it in terms of English. This had major repercussions on how they viewed their membership of a global community and was mostly accompanied by a disregard for their own culture as a whole is presented as something ‘non-Korean’ and usually Americanised, while native English is presented as the ideal for global citizenship. Student perceptions on the role of English were largely divided due to the amount of choice they had regarding participation in policies such as English Medium Instruction. Students also mainly perceived English proficiency in terms of and the capacity to position themselves within a globalised framework. This research has ideological and practical implications for English practices and policies within internationalisation contexts such as South Korea and beyond. The findings regarding global citizenship can contribute to literature in the area and fill many conceptual gaps. It can also provide an insight into 21st century identities particularly in newly globalised environments such as South Korea.
... Nevertheless, as Yim (2002) indicated, Korean customary culture has in slight change, and to some level giving way to Western influx. Rapid socioeconomic transformation and the apparently indiscriminate inflow of Western culture were accounted for the change. ...
Article
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The present study examined relationships among leadership styles, work engagement and work outcomes designated by task performance and innovative work behavior among information and communication technology professionals in two countries: Ethiopia and South Korea. In total, 147 participants from Ethiopia and 291 from South Korea were made to fill in the self-reporting questionnaire intended to assess leadership styles, work engagement, task performance, and innovative work behavior. To test the proposed hypotheses, multiple linear regression analysis was utilized. The results showed that transformational leadership style had a significant positive relationship with employees' work engagement and innovative work behavior, while transactional leadership style had a significant positive relationship with employees' task performance. However, laissez-faire leadership style had a significant negative relationship with task performance. Work engagement had significant positive relationships with the indicators of work outcomes. Besides, work engagement partially mediated the relationship between leadership styles and work outcomes. The observed associations and mediation were consistent across the two national samples considered, indicating the soundness of the assumptions across countries. The findings provide insights into how leadership styles correspond with employees’ work outcomes.
... Consequently, Korean culture has become famous worldwide, and the country has become a cultural world leader (Jang & Paik, 2012). This development is supported by the national government's "ten-year master plan for cultural development" to establish cultural identity and promote regional culture (Yim, 2002). Foreign fans obsessed with Korean culture are becoming interested in learning Korean and in travelling to South Korea; all are motivated by the booming Korean Wave (Shim, 2006). ...
Article
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The study investigated the effects of Korean cultural products – namely drama, popular music, and celebrity – on Malaysian metrosexuals’ attitudes to Korean grooming products and also their consumption behaviour. In this study, we developed a conceptual model depicting the relationships of critical variables deduced from the Cultural Diamond Model and the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). Acknowledging the influential role of media exposure in these relationships, we treated visual media consumption as a moderating variable. The effects were expected to vary according to the level of exposure to the Korean Wave from multiple visual media platforms. We conducted a multigroup structural equation modelled on data from an online survey of 205 Malaysian metrosexuals with low (N=57) and high (N=148) consumption rates of Korean Wave material. The results show that Korean cultural products, except popular music, ignificantly predict metrosexual grooming attitudes and behaviour. The study also found that high visual media consumption of Korean celebrity news contributes to favourable attitudes to and use of Korean grooming products. The research suggests that globally, metrosexuals might serve as the pioneers of an expanded market for the Korean grooming culture.
... Esto se planteó como una solución a la crisis de la identidad nacional ocasionada por el colonialismo japonés, la división de la península en sur y norte, y la influencia de la cultura occidental por la participación del gobierno estadounidense en la reconstrucción de Corea del Sur durante la posguerra. [14] Por otro lado, en Corea del Norte el discurso nacionalista sobre el "pueblo coreano" ha perpetuado la idea Juche de que el legítimo derecho sobre la península corresponde a aquel que viva económica y políticamente libre de cualquier intervención extranjera, con lo cual se insinúa una sumisión del sur de la península a intereses estadounidenses que deben ser erradicados. ...
Article
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El objetivo del artículo es presentar, a través de los antecedentes migratorios de los coreanos hacia México, la dimensión étnica que ha vinculado los diferentes flujos migratorios en la formación de una comunidad coreana en la Ciudad de México. Se hace énfasis en los procesos de organización y socialización comunitaria, a partir de datos etnográficos recabados entre 2013 y 2016 con diferentes miembros e instituciones de la comunidad coreana, para dar cuenta de la importancia de las dinámicas religiosas, políticas y deportivas en su cohesión e identificación coétnica. Palabras clave: migración coreana, comunidad, procesos de socialización, etnicidad.
... Escena etnográfica: Día del deporte en Jangawi. (Viernes 16 de septiembre 2016) Cinco semanas antes se han repartido electrónicamente invitaciones a los correos electrónicos de compañías, comercios y personas registradas en el directorio de la Asociación de Coreanos en México 38 , donde se invita a llegar al Deportivo Cuauhtémoc 39 en un horario de 9 de la mañana a 6 de la tarde, para "que todas las personas coreanas estemos juntas como migrantes que somos y nos demos un tiempo para fortalecer nuestra amistad haciendo deporte" 40 . La invitación viene acompañada de los logos de los patrocinadores del evento, los cuales son más de 20 y de los cuales podemos resaltar: 1) las grandes empresas multinacionales surcoreanas con presencia en México como Viernes por la mañana, las calles alrededor del deportivo están vacías de transeúntes y tráfico vehicular. ...
Thesis
La presente investigación busca profundizar en los estudios del empresariado étnico a partir del análisis de las estrategias que emplean los comerciantes coreanos1 para establecer un negocio comercial en la Ciudad de México, haciendo énfasis en las distintas negociaciones y prácticas que llevan a cabo de acuerdo a los espacios mercantiles en los que se inscriben, detallando cómo resuelven los conflictos y adversidades que se presentan en situaciones y contextos específicos.
... In 1990, after the first democratic elections, a multi-year culture development plan was launched under the banner of "Culture for All". The project was intended to establish a cultural identity, promote the fine arts, improve access to cultural goods, support regional culture, develop the media culture, and use culture as a means of reconciling both Koreasthis component was also emphasized with the so-called "Sunshine Policy" towards North Korea, maintained during the 1997-2008 period [22]. In the new millennium, the Act on Promotion of Artistic and Cultural Education was passed. ...
Article
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The main research problem that this article focuses on is: does a wide-ranging cultural policy contribute to the implementation of the idea of sustainable development in practice? This article aims to show, using the example of South Korea, the importance of the state’s cultural policy as a factor that is conducive to economic success and an increase in the standard of living of a society. This policy leads to the evolution of society from one centered on the mass consumption of material goods to one centered on the mass consumption of cultural goods, which, combined with the development of creative industries, contributes to the implementation of the elements of sustainable development in practice. The research methods used in the work were the study of literature in the studied area, the analysis of documents and reports on cultural policy, and the development of cultural and creative industries. An assessment of the degree to which pop culture development in South Korea is a factor in the economic development of the country, given its commercial nature and its ability to increase the standards of living of an entire society, was also carried out. The example of South Korea shows the benefits for the national economy of promoting creativity and culture. Preferences and consumer attitudes are shaped in areas that have a minimal impact on the natural environment and the exploitation of natural resources.
... Bu durum iki taraf için de adaptasyon sorunlarına yol açabilmektedir. Ek olarak, toplumda egemen unsurların oluşturduğu "öteki" kavramı karşısında azınlık grubun veya kabul görmeyen tarafın haklarının dikkate alınmadığı bir toplumda çokkültürlülüğün sürdürebilirliği bir hayli zordur (Turan, 2020). He submitted a parliamentary question regarding the construction and completion of the bridge over the Murat Suyu, which will connect the center of Bingöl to the railway. ...
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1980 yılından sonra öne çıkan küreselleşme kavramı birçok unsurdan oluşmaktadır. Bu yönü ile sadece iktisadi değil, siyasi, teknolojik, toplumsal, demografik ve kültürel boyutları olan bir süreçtir. Bu sürece dahil olan ülkeler birçok alanda bütünleşme ve ortak hareket etme anlayışına sahiptir. Özellikle politik uygulamalar, hızlı ve sürekli teknolojik gelişmeler, bilgi ve iletişim alanlarındaki yenilikler, taşıma maliyetlerinin azalması, çok uluslu şirketlerin varlığı ve artan rekabet sonucu daha fazla kâr sağlama arayışı ile piyasaların entegrasyonu artmıştır. Artan bu süreç aynı zamanda ülkelerin ekonomik gelişme seviyelerini artırarak, toplumsal dönüşüme ivme kazandırmıştır. Küreselleşmeyi temsilen kullanılan değişkenlerden biri İsviçre Ekonomi Araştırmaları Enstitüsü tarafından yayımlanan KOF Küreselleşme Endeksi değerleridir. Küreselleşmenin tek bir boyutu olmaması nedeniyle bu endeks değeri hesaplanırken sadece ekonomik açıdan ülkelerin küreselleşme durumları ölçümlenmemekte, aynı zamanda politik ve sosyal açıdan ülkelerin endeks ölçümü yapılmaktadır. Bu çalışmada ekonomik, sosyal ve politik küreselleşmenin büyüme üzerindeki etkisi BRICST ülkeleri örneği dikkate alınarak analiz edilmiştir. Bu amaçla, 1990-2018 dönemine ait Dünya Bankası verilerinden derlenen kişi başına GSYİH, KOF ekonomik küreselleşme endeksi, KOF sosyal küreselleşme endeksi ve KOF politik küreselleşme endeksi değerleri kullanılarak panel veri analizi uygulanmıştır. Çalışmada bu ülke grubunun seçilme nedeni, ilgili ülkelerin dünyanın en önemli yükselen ekonomiler içinde alması, küresel ekonomiyi yönlendirmede büyük bir potansiyele sahip olmaları ve dünyada en hızlı büyüyen ekonomiler olmalarıdır. Türkiye bu ülke grubuna benzer bir performans gösterdiği için analize dahil edilmiştir. Çalışmadan elde edilen bulgulara göre, sosyal küreselleşme büyümeyi pozitif yönde etkilerken; politik küreselleşmenin büyümeyi negatif yönde etkilediği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Tüm sonuçlara göre, bu ülkelerde sosyal küreselleşmeyi artıracak politikalar izlenmelidir. Bu amaçla bilgi ve iletişim teknolojilerine erişimin kolaylaştırılması ve geliştirilmesi, bireysel özgürlüklerin güvence altına alınması ve toplum genelinde yaygınlaştırılması gerekir. After 1980, the concept of globalization has attracted attention. It consists of many elements. With this aspect, it represents a process that has not only economic but also political, technological, social, demographic and cultural dimensions. Many countries involved in this process have an understanding of integration and train in many areas. Particularly, the integration of markets has increased with political applications, technological developments, innovations in the information technologies, decrease in transportation costs, the existence of transnational companies and increasing competition. Increasing globalization has increased the development level of countries and has accelerated social transformation. One of the variables used to represent globalization is the KOF Globalization Index values published by the Swiss Economic Research Institute. Since globalization does not have a single dimension, this index measures the globalization values of countries not only economically but also politically and socially. In this study, the effect of economic, social and political globalization on growth is analyzed in the example of BRICS-T countries. For this purpose, panel data analysis was applied by using GDP per capita, KOF economic globalization index, KOF social globalization index and KOF political globalization index values compiled from World Bank data for the period 1990-2018. The reason for choosing relevant countries are that these countries are among the most important emerging economies in the world, they have a great potential in directing the global economy and they are the fastest growing economies in the world. Turkey is included in the analysis because it showed a similar performance to them. Our findings show that there is a positive relationship between social globalization and growth, but a negative relationship with political globalization. In these countries, policies that will increase social globalization - such as facilitating and improving access to information and communication technologies, securing individual freedoms and spreading them throughout society - should be pursued.
... Although South Korea is regarded as a country that is the most internationalized in Asia, but many Koreans who still maintain their traditional culture, the traditions, customs and cultural practices which still appeared very significant in business and government organizations (Lee, 2012). Traditional culture has been considered as the root of Korean cultural identity (Yim, 2002). ...
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Se examina el proceso de toma de decisiones en un área vista a menudo como ejemplo de la soberanía del Estado Francés: la política cultural. Los hallazgos de este análisis muestran que la política pública hacia las artes se conforma menos por el Estado que por grupos profesionales influyentes.
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