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A survey of the alien vascular flora of the urban and suburban area of Thessaloniki, N Greece


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Krigas, N. & Kokkini, S.: A survey of the alien vascular flora of the urban and suburban area of Thes-saloniki, N Greece. – Willdenowia 34: 81-99. – ISSN 0511-9618; © 2004 BGBM Berlin-Dahlem. In the frame of a wider research project, an inventory of 147 alien vascular plant taxa of the urban and suburban area of the city of Thessaloniki, N Greece is presented. The floristic checklist is based on ex-tensive recent field work in 26 selected collection sites of four development sectors of the metropolitan area of the city. Each taxon recorded is given with information concerning its life-form and chorology (critically compiled as origin and current total distribution, given separately when possible), previ-ously reported occurrence in the area, biotopes (semi-natural, anthropogenic), distribution in the in-vestigated area and quantitative estimation of its presence per collection site. The most abundantly found taxon is Solanum elaeagnifolium, followed by Ailanthus altissima, Cynodon dactylon, Crepis sancta, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Amaranthus retroflexus and Sporobolus indicus. The annotated check-list includes earlier reports for 62 taxa and furnishes at least 85 new records for the flora of Thessaloniki. Among them are 37 taxa not given for Greece in Flora Europaea and 16 taxa not given for Greece in the Med-Checklist.
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A survey of the alien vascular flora of the urban and suburban area
of Thessaloniki, N Greece
Krigas, N. & Kokkini, S.: A survey of the alien vascular flora of the urban and suburban area of Thes-
saloniki, N Greece. Willdenowia 34: 81-99. ISSN 0511-9618; © 2004 BGBM Berlin-Dahlem.
In the frame of a wider research project, an inventory of 147 alien vascular plant taxa of the urban and
suburban area of the city of Thessaloniki, N Greece is presented. The floristic checklist is based on ex-
tensive recent field work in 26 selected collection sites of four development sectors of the metropolitan
area of the city. Each taxon recorded is given with information concerning its life-form and chorology
(critically compiled as origin and current total distribution, given separately when possible), previ-
ously reported occurrence in the area, biotopes (semi-natural, anthropogenic), distribution in the in-
vestigated area and quantitative estimation of its presence per collection site. The most abundantly
found taxon is Solanum elaeagnifolium, followed by Ailanthus altissima, Cynodon dactylon, Crepis
sancta, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Amaranthus retroflexus and Sporobolus indicus. The annotated check-
list includes earlier reports for 62 taxa and furnishes at least 85 new records for the flora of
Thessaloniki. Among them are 37 taxa not given for Greece in Flora Europaea and 16 taxa not given
for Greece in the Med-Checklist.
Plant taxa can be alien to continents, islands, bio- or ecoregions, states or countries (Richard-
son & al. 2000). Aliens (synonyms: exotics, adventives, allochthonous, non-natives or non-in-
digenous plants) are those plant taxa whose presence is due to intentional or accidental
introduction as a result of the activities of neolithic or post-neolithic man or of his domestic ani-
mals (Webb 1985, Pysek 1995, Richardson & al. 2000). According to their invasion ecology in a
certain territory, alien plants can be “invasive” (reproducing in large numbers, at a considerable
distance from parental plants, with potential to spread over a considerable area), “naturalized”
(reproducing consistency, sustaining populations for many life cycles without direct intervention
by man, not necessarily invading) or “casual” (not forming self-replacing populations, relying on
repeated introductions for persistence). Even casual aliens may represent potential future invad-
ers, thus deserving close attention (Kowarik 1995, Williamson 1996, Wade 1997, Starfinger
1998, Celesti-Grapow & al. 2001).
Willdenowia 34 2004 81
doi:10.3372/wi.34.34108 (available via
Settlements (including harbours, railway stations, parks and gardens) are distribution centres
of intentionally or unintentionally introduced aliens. Understanding the behaviour of alien species
in cities is of crucial importance since cities serve as migration sources (Sukopp & Werner 1983,
Kowarik 1990) from which aliens can spread further into the landscape (Pysek 1998).
Although many cities have been surveyed in Europe (for a review see Mucina 1990, Pysek
1993, 1998), only a single study exists hitherto for a Greek city. Chronopoulos & Christo-
doulakis (2000) reported the occurrence of 93 alien taxa in the city of Patras, NW Greece. Apart
from various and scattered reports in several floristic studies or studies of particular alien species
(e.g. Economidou & Yannitsaros 1975), research on the alien flora of Greece has been limited up
to date mainly to a review of the alien flora of Greece (including 77 taxa) and a study of the alien
flora of Crete, both carried out by Yannitsaros (1982, 1991).
In this paper, an attempt is made for the first time to present the alien flora of the urban and
suburban area of Thessaloniki (from sea level up to c. 300 m at Platanakia, Panorama). An inven-
tory of 147 taxa is provided based on extensive recent field work (specimens deposited in TAU).
The annotated checklist also includes critically compiled published information from scattered
sources (Charrel 1891-92, Charrel alias Nadji 1892, Halácsy 1906, Turrill 1918, 1920,
Zaganiaris 1938, 1939a, 1939b, 1940, Oberdorfer 1954) for 62 taxa and furnishes at least 85 new
records, thus updating any previous floristic knowledge for the investigated area.
Material and methods
Following Sukopp & al. (1980) and Wittig & al. (1993), four urban development sectors were
designated for the metropolitan area of the city of Thessaloniki (A, B, C and D, Fig. 1). The in-
vestigated area is designated approximately by the suburban satellite municipalities and settle-
ments adjacent and functionally connected to the city of Thessaloniki (Thermi, Panorama, Pefka,
Sindos and Calochori), with the major urban agglomeration (sectors A, B, C) almost delimited by
the peripheral Ring-Road. An approach with 26 specific and delimited collection sites was
adopted (Fig. 1).
Only alien taxa are included in the present study. The term “alien” is used here broadly de-
fined (Richardson & al. 2000), covering naturalized and/or invasive plants, casual ephemeral in-
troductions and occasional escapes and/or cultivation relics. Alien taxa exclusively cultivated in
the investigated area were omitted. Alien taxa from own earlier publications (Krigas & al. 1999,
Pateli & al. 2002) are included in the catalogue without specimen citation, but provided addition-
ally with a quantitative presence estimation per collection site.
A plant was included in the list of alien taxa of the investigated area, when the two following
conditions were fulfilled (Pysek & al. 2002):
(a) There is no evidence that it has any area in Greece where it is native. A strictly geograph-
ical approach to plant invasions was adopted (a taxon was considered as alien to the whole Greek
territory). When the origin of a taxon was specifically denoted in basic floras as “uncertain” or
“unknown”, or as “doubtfully native” in Greece, this also qualified the specific taxon for inclu-
sion in the list. In every other case, the taxon was treated as indigenous (sensu Webb 1985, Pysek
1995a, Schwartz 1997) and was excluded. Similarly, no consideration of the so-called “apo-
phytes” (native species occurring in secondary habitats, see e.g. Holub & Jirásek 1967) was given.
(b) It is reproduced of its own at least once outside the space where it was found, sown or
planted (e.g. outside the flower bed or garden). In plants reproducing by seed, germination out-
side such space was considered as “escape from cultivation”. For a plant reproducing clonally, as
“escape from cultivation” was considered only if it survived winter and summer drought, persist-
ing in a given site until the following growing period.
Families, genera, species and subspecies appear alphabetically within the two major groups
of angiosperms, viz. Dicotyledoneae and Monocotyledoneae. Nomenclature follows Strid & Tan
(1997, 2002) and for taxa not included Greuter & al. (1984-1989) and finally Tutin & al. (1968-
1980, 1993) for taxa not covered by the previous. Nomenclature in the genus Taraxacum follows
82 Krigas & Kokkini: Survey of the alien vascular flora of Thessaloniki
Willdenowia 34 2004 83
Fig. 1. Collection sites (1-8) per development sector in the urban (p:A,:B,¢: C) and suburban area (¿:
D) of Thessaloniki (from Heristanidis 2000, modified); A1: Byzantine Walls (black line); A2: Tsinari, Ano
Poli; A3: Roman Forum archaeological site; B1: Park of Municipal Refreshment Stand and the 3rd Army
Force; B2: Park of the Aristotle University Campus and the Tellogleio Institution; B3: Watercourse of 40
Ekklisies area; B4: Archaeological site of Toumba; B5i-iii: Eastern Regional Ditch (i-Foinikas, ii-Harilaou
and iii-Pylea-Ano Toumba-Kryoneri); B6: “Makedonomachou Kodra” abandoned Army Camp and archaeo-
logical site, Kalamaria; B7: British Cemetery and Ag. Ioannis Cemetery, Kalamaria; B8: Allatini pantile fac-
tory area; C1: Port Authority of Thessaloniki; C2: Commercial Railway Station of Thessaloniki; C3:
Zeintelik Allied Cemeteries; C4: Around “Ziaka Army Camp”, Dendropotamos area; C5: Dendropotamos
stream, Anthokipoi area; D1: Platanakia Recreational Area, NE of Panorama; D2: N751 “Macedonia” Settle-
ment, SE of Panorama; D3i-ii: Suburban Seih-Sou planted pine forest (i-SW and ii-NE of the ring-road); D4:
Byzantine Watermills Park, Polichni area; D5: watercourse of Filiro, Pefka area;D6: De la Salle College,
Rentziki area; D7: Industrial Park of Sindos. For description of biotope types and subcategories, see Material
and methods.
the opinion of Richards (pers. com.). In every other case the relevant source is provided specifi-
In the floristic catalogue presented below, the name of a taxon is followed by different cate-
gories of abbreviated information separated by slashes ( / ):
(1) Life forms of the plant taxa collected are identified according to the system of Raunkiaer
(1934), Ellenberg (1956) and Ellenberg & Müller-Dombois (1967). The following abbreviations
apply: P = phanerophyte, NP = nano-phanerophyte, C = chamaephyte, H = hemicryptophyte, G =
geophyte, T = therophyte; scap = scapose, caesp = caespitose, lian = lianose, par = parasite, bulb =
bulbose, rhiz = rhizomatose, bienn = biennial, rept = reptant, suffr = suffruticose, succ = succu-
The chorology of the taxa is principally based on critical comparison of information provided
by Strid & Tan (1997, 2002), Davis (1965-1985), Pignatti (1982), Greuter & al. (1984-1989),
Tutin & al. (1968-1980, 1993). In specific cases several additional sources were used in compari-
son (Viegi & al. 1974, Lesins & Lesins 1979, Häfliger & Scholz 1980, 1981, Hanf 1983, Holzner
& Numata 1982, Dafni & Heller 1982, Zohary & Heller 1984, Dafni & Heller 1990, Le Floc’h &
al. 1990, Le Floc’h 1991, Zohary & Hopf 1994, Jahn & Schönfelder 1995, Turland & al. 1995,
Sallenave 2001 and Pysek & al. 2002). Whenever possible the origin of a taxon is given sepa-
rately from its current total distribution (cultivated range was not considered). Question marks
(?) indicate unknown, uncertain, doubtful or ambiguous origin and/or current total distribution.
An arrow (u) is preceded by the origin of a taxon and followed by current total distribution. The
symbol “+” is used in cases of non-adjacent areas, preceded by native and followed by disjunct
naturalized distribution area. Abbreviations are used as defined in Pignatti (1982).
(2) Previous floristic reports for the occurrence of a taxon in the investigated area are given
in chronological order: [1] Charrel (1888-1891), [2] Nadji (1892), [3] Halácsy (1906), [4] Turrill
(1918, 1920), [5] Zaganiaris (1938, 1939a, 1939b, 1940), and [6] Oberdorfer (1954).
84 Krigas & Kokkini: Survey of the alien vascular flora of Thessaloniki
Fig. 2. Fallow fields in the collection site B5i (fringe urban area of the city of Thessaloniki) invaded by
Solanum elaeagnifolium, with violet-flowered (a) and white-flowered (b) individuals growing together.
(3) The biotopes (sensu Lincoln & al. 1982) where a taxon is currently found in the investi-
gated area are differentiated in semi-natural and anthropogenic (Wittig 1989, 1991, Pysek & al.
The following abbreviations apply to semi-natural biotope types (in capital) and their subcat-
egories (in small): WC = watercourses PF = suburban planted pine forest, FR = forest roads and
pathways, roads with compact ground, M-o = meadows in openings of the planted suburban pine
forest, M-bu = meadows in the burned area of the suburban planted pine forest, M-rr =meadows
in ring-road embankments crossing the suburban pine forest, M-s = meadows with relics of ever-
green and/or deciduous shrubs, M-ap =meadows in areas previously used for agriculture or pas-
ture and fallow fields, GCD = Natural Garden of De la Salle College, rp = rocky places.
The following abbreviations apply to anthropogenic biotope types (in capital) and their sub-
categories (in small): BW = Byzantine Walls, GA = public lawns and small private gardens,
VL = vacant-lots, RS = roadsides, RT = railway tracks, tb = tree bases, ru = rubble, gr = gravel,
pc = pavement cracks.
(4) The quantitative estimation of the presence of a taxon per collection site is given in a four
scale gradient (Wittig & al. 1993): (I) Presence in small, scattered spots, located with certainty
only by searching extensively the collection site. (II) Presence in a few rather large spots or in
more medium sized or in many small spots, easily overlooked at a rapid passage through the col-
lection site. (III) Presence locally dominant in parts of the site that cannot be overlooked at a
rapid passage through the collection site. (IV) Presence impossible to be overlooked, appearing
almost all over the collection site (covering at least 30 % of its surface).
Willdenowia 34 2004 85
Fig. 3. Pavement sealed with asphalt in the urban area of Thessaloniki and young individuals of Solanum
elaeagnifolium breaking the cover (a: rhizomes, b: leaves, c: flowers and d: fruits of the plant).
Collector abbreviations of the specimens deposited in TAU are: K= Krigas, N. 1996-2002,
K&H = Krigas, N. & Hanlidou, E. 1996-1997, K&al.= Krigas, N., Kokkini, S., Karousou, R. &
Hanlidou, E. 1997, Pat = Pateli, M. 1998-1999, Par = Parcharidou, P. 1999-2000, Par&K =
Parcharidou, P. & Krigas, N. 1999, Pap = Papachristos E. 2001 and Obs = in situ observation.
(5) Abbreviations used for the comments under a specific taxon apply as follows: FH = Flora
Hellenica (Strid & Tan 1997, 2002), FT = Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean islands (Davis
1965-1985), FE = Flora Europaea (Tutin & al. 1968-1980, Tutin & al. 1993) and MC = Med-
Checklist (Greuter & al. 1984-1989).
Floristic catalogue
Acer negundo L. / Pscap; N Amer uN Amer + Europ / RS, VL / B5ii (I) K3840; B6 (I) K3218,
K6182. Cultivation escape.
Amaranthus albus L. /Tscap; N Amer uCosmopol / [5], [6] / PF, M-bu, FR, RS, VL, GA, RT,
ru, tb, pc, gr / A1 (II); A3 (III) K4122; B2 (II) Pat3245; B3 (II) K2358, K3818; B5i (I)
K2461; C2 (II) Obs; C3 (II); C4 (III) K4152; D1 (I) K6040; D3i (I) K4360; D3ii (I) Obs; D4
(II) K2744; D6 (II) K4262; D7 (III). Earliest record in the Mediterranean region dates from
the 1720s (Raus in FH 1: 143).
A. blitoides S. Watson /Tscap; N Amer uCosmopol / RS, VL, GA, RT, ru, gr / A1 (I); A3 (II)
K6055; B2 (II) Pat3192; B3 (II) K2426; B6 (II) K2839; B8 (II) K3920; C2 (II) K4089; D2
(I) K4420; D7 (II).
A. caudatus L./Tscap;?uSubcosmopol / [1], [2], [6] / RS, VL / C2 (II) K2997a; D2 (I) K4424.
A. cruentus L. / Tscap; C Amer? uCosmopol / [1], [2] / M-bu, FR, VL, RT / B3 (II) K6059; B8
(I); C2 (II) K2997b; D3ii (I) Par&K1471. Introduced in Europe via China in the early 18th
century (Raus in FH 1: 140).
A. deflexus L. /Hscap; S Amer uSubcosmopol / [1], [5], [6] / RS, VL, GA, RT, ru, tb, pc / A1
(II); B1 (II) K2498, K5828; B2 (II) Pat3002; B3 (II) K3828; B4 (II) K5958; C1 (II) K2564;
C2 (II) K1465, K4084, K4106; C3 (II) K5981, K5985, K5986; C5 (II) K3938; D3i (I) Obs;
D6 (II) K3695, K4275; D7 (II).
A. hybridus L. / Tscap; N Amer uCosmopol / [5], [6] / RS, VL, GA, BW, ru / A1 (II); B2 (II)
Pat3186; B3 (II) K6061; D6 (II) K4279; D7 (II).
A. muricatus (Moq.) Hieron / Hscap; S Amer uSubcosmopol / FR, RS, VL, GA, RT, ru, tb, pc /
A1 (II); B1 (III) K2947, K5808, K5817; B5iii (II) K2047, K2401; B6 (I) K2946; C2 (II)
K4115. Fully naturalized on the islands of Siros and Tinos. First report from the Greek
mainland by Krigas & al. (1999), (Raus, pers. com.).
A. quitensis Kunth / Tscap; S Amer uSubcosmopol / GCD / D6 (II) K4263.
A. retroflexus L. /Tscap; N Amer uCosmopol / [5], [6] / M-bu, M-ap, FR, RS, VL, GA, BW, ru,
pc / A1 (II); A2 (III) Obs; A3 (II) *K6053, Obs; B1 (II) K2496; B2 (III) Obs; B3 (II) K2424,
*K2494, K6056, K6058; B4 (II) K4195, K5952, K5957; B6 (II) K2945; B8 (II) **K4528,
Obs; C1 (I) *K2565; C2 (III) K4087; C4 (II) Obs; D1 (I) **K4525a, K4525b; D2 (II)
K4411; D3ii (II) Par&K1470; D4 (II) K2745; D5 (I) K4056; D6 (II) K4261, K4280; D7
(III). According to Raus (pers. com.) the specimens preceded by an asterisk may probably
represent the hybrid A. retroflexus ×cruentus and the ones with a double asterisk the hybrid
A. retroflexus × hybridus. In Europe it was a common weed throughout most of the continent
already in c. 1800 (Raus in FH 1: 143).
A. viridis L. /Tscap; S Amer? uPantrop-Subtrop / [5] / RS, VL, GA, ru / A1 (II); A3 (II) K4124,
K6052; C2 (II) K4096; C4 (II) K4140.
86 Krigas & Kokkini: Survey of the alien vascular flora of Thessaloniki
Vinca major L. subsp. major /Crept; Eurymedit / [1], [2] / FR, GCD, RS, GA, ru / A3 (II) K685;
B3 (II) K4648; B5iii (II) K977; B7 (II) K5051; C5 (I) K1138; D2 (II) K703, K3055; D6 (III)
K & al. 3580, K3705, K4733. Doubtfully native in Greece according to MC, most probably
appearing only as a cultivation escape from gardens and/or relic in the area, nowadays in
natural regeneration in site D6.
V. minor L./Crept;?uEurop-Caucas / [1] / GCD / D6 (III) K4449, K4732. Most probably ap-
pearing only as a cultivation escape from gardens and/or relic in the area, nowadays in natu-
ral regeneration in site D6. According to Stearn in FE 3: 69, it has been cultivated for
centuries and occurs as a relic of cultivation or of deliberate naturalization so often that the
limits of its natural distribution are rather uncertain (Stearn in FT 6: 163 considers it as natu-
ralized in Greece, although in MC 1: 51 it is treated as indigenous).
Campsis radicans (L.) Seem. /Plian; N Amer uN Amer + Italy / RS, GA, BW, pc / A1 (I); B3
(I) Obs; B4 (I) K4184; C2 (I) K4091; D4 (I) K2807; D6 (I) Obs. Cultivation escape from
Opuntia ficus-barbarica A. Berger / Psucc; Neotrop uNeotrop + Medit / WC, M-ap, RS, VL,
BW / A1 (II); B3 (I) K2476; B4 (I) K5971; B5ii (II) K2695; B8 (II) K2128; C5 (I) Obs; D2
(I) Obs; D3i (I) Obs. Most probably as a cultivation relic from hedges.
Campanula medium L. / Hbienn; NW Medit-Mont uEurop / VL / B4 (I) K5940. Cultivation
escape from gardens.
Cannabis sativa L. /Tscap;S&WAsiatuSubcosmopol / RS / C2 (I) K2828. Not cultivated,
probably dispersed with seeds for domestic birds.
Lonicera japonica Thunb. / Plian; E Asiat uE Asiat + W Medit / VL / B4 (I) K5967; B6 (I)
K5134, K2094. Cultivation escape from gardens. Greece not given by Browicz in FE 4: 47.
Silene pendula L. / Trept; NE Medit Mont uMedit / [1], [2] / GA, tb / B1 (II) Par528, Par561.
Once found as a casual escape near Athens and perhaps naturalized in Thessaloniki area
(Greuter in FH 1: 303).
Atriplex hortensis L./Tscap;CAsiatuCircumbor / [1], [2] / RS, ru / B3 (I) Obs; B4 (II)
K2878, K4216; B8 (II) K3916. According to Tan in FH 1: 123 there is also a record of A.
sagittata Borkh. from the Thessaloniki area that is very similar to A. hortensis.
Chenopodium multifidum L. / Hscap; S Amer uS Amer + Medit / [6] / RS, VL, GA, RT, ru, gr /
A1 (II) K1862; B1 (II) K5824; B2 (II) Pat3193; B3 (II) K2434, K2472; B4 (II) K4208,
K4214, K5929; B5ii (I) K2660; C1 (II) K1448, K2555; C2 (II) K2836, K4085; C3 (II)
K5990; C5 (II) K3942; D7 (II). Firstly recorded from Greece in 1970 and still spreading
(Tan in FH 1: 119).
C. ambrosioides L. / Tscap; Neotrop uCosmopol / [6] / WC, RS, VL, GA, BW, pc / A1 (II); B3
(II) Obs; C1 (II) K2572; C2 (II) K4095; C4 (II) K4165; C5 (II) K3946; D1 (II) K4495.
Willdenowia 34 2004 87
Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. / Tscap; C Asiat uSubcosmopol / [1], [2] / RS, VL, ru / C2 (II)
Pap1692, Pap1708.
Anacyclus radiatus Loisel. /Tscap; W Medit (Dafni & Heller 1990) uEurymedit/RS,VL/B3
(3I) Par&K727b.
Artemisia arborescens L. / NP; W Medit (Dafni & Heller 1990) uMedit/RS/B5ii(I)K4526.
According to Cullen in FT 5: 318 it is only locally wild and more often cultivated and escap-
ing in the E Mediterranean.
Aster squamatus (Spreng.) Hieron. / Hscap; Neotrop uSubcosmopol / WC, PF, FR, RS, GA,
BW, ru, tb, pc / A1 (II) K2978; B1 (II) Par1636, Par1673; B2 (II) Pat3468; B3 (II) Obs; B4
(II) K4198; B5i (II) Obs; B8 (II) Obs; D1 (I) K4401; D3i (II) K2898; D3ii (I) Obs; D7 (II).
Calendula officinalis L./Tscap;?uCosmopol / RS, GA, ru, pc / A1 (I); A2 (I) K846, K2894; B2
(I) Obs; B4 (I) K5941; B7 (II) K536, K5018, K5019; C3 (II) Obs; D5 (I) K&H3242. –Most
probably as a cultivation escape from gardens. Not given for Greece in FE.
Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert / Tscap; SE Asiat (Pignatti 1982) uSubcosmopol / [1], [2],
[4], [5], [6] / M-ap, M-rr, FR, RS, VL, GA, BW, RT, ru, tb / A1 (II); A3 (II) K694; B2 (II)
Obs; B5iii (II) K982; B6 (III) K1235, K1726; B8 (III) K2198, K5183; C1 (II) K1432; C2 (II)
K1372, K5104; C4 (II) K826, K5265; C5 (II) K4721; D3i (II) K3177; D7 (III). If origin is
not adopted according to Pignatti (1982), it should be considered as native from S Europe to
Cnicus benedictus L. / Tscap; W Medit (Pignatti 1982) uMedit-Turan / [1], [2], [5], [6] / VL /
C2 (II) K1120; D7 (II).
Conyza albida Willd. ex Spreng. / Tscap; Neotrop uCosmopol / RS, VL, GA, RT, ru, pc, gr /
A1 (II); B1 (II) K5792a; B2 (II) Pat3120; B3 (II) K4646; B6 (II) K5133; C2 (II) Obs; D1
(II) K4687, K4688, K4909, K6036; D6 (II) K4284, K4774; D7 (II). Probably two flowering
periods, appearing mostly as a sterile rosette in very disturbed habitats. Not given for Greece
in FE. Taxonomy and nomenclature according to Pignatti (1982).
C. bonariensis (L.) Cronq. / Tscap; S Amer uCosmopol / [5], [6] / WC, PF, M-bu, RS, VL, GA,
BW, RT, ru, tb, pc, gr / A1 (II); A3 (III) K4120; B1 (II) K2499, K5791, K5795, K5815; B3
(II) K3826; B4 (II) K4229b, K5951; C1 (II) K2785; C2 (II) K4116; C3 (II) Obs; C4 (II)
K4170; D2 (II) Obs; D3i (II) Obs; D3ii (II) Obs; D7 (II).
C. canadensis (L.) Cronq. / Tscap; N Amer uCosmopol / [1], [5], [6] / M-bu, RS, VL, GA, RT,
ru, pc / A2 (II) K1758; B1 (II) K5792b; B2 (II) Pat3198; B3 (II) K2474; B4 (I) K4299a;
B5ii (II) K2685; B8 (I) Obs; C2 (II) Obs; C5 (II) Obs; D2 (II) Obs; D3i (II) Obs; D3ii (II)
Par1526; D6 (II) Obs; D7 (II).
Crepis sancta (L.) Babc. / Tscap; Turan (Pignatti 1982) uEurymedit / [1], [2], [5], [6] / WC,
M-o, PF, M-s, M-ap, M-rr, FR, rp, RS, VL, GA, RT, ru, tb, pc / A3 (II) K644; B2 (III)
Pat3575; B4 (II) K1655; B5i (II) K4797, K4811, K4993; B5ii (II) K886, K4613, K4620;
B5iii (II) K939, K957, K958; B6 (III) K1240, K3220, K4823, K4835; B7 (II) K537, K5054;
B8 (II) K3094; C2 (II) K1463; C3 (III) K544, 5760, K763, K797, K1502; C5 (II) K1109,
K4717; D1 (II) K4674, K4882; D2 (II) K711; D3i (II) K621, K1051, K3147; D3ii (I) Obs;
D5 (II) K4565, K4573; D6 (III) K4763; D7 (II). First appearance in Europe in 1763
(Gouan in Thellung, after Le Floc’h 1991). If origin is not adopted according to Pignatti
(1982), it should be considered as native from S Europe to C Asia and India.
Helianthus annuus L. / Tscap; N Amer uN Amer + EC & SE Europ / RS / A1 (I) Obs; C4 (I)
Obs; D7 (I) Obs. Certainly a cultivation escape from gardens.
H. ×laetiflorus Pers. / Hscap; N Amer uSubcosmopol / WC, GCD, VL, GA / A2 (I) Obs; B4
(II) K2856, K4183, K4231; B6 (II) K2954; C2 (II) K2825, K4099; C4 (I) K4149; D3ii (II)
Obs; D7 (II). Including records of H. tuberosus L. from Pateli & al. (2002). Certainly a
cultivation escape from gardens.
Senecio bicolor subsp. cineraria (DC.) Chater / Csuffr; W Medit / GA / A2 (III) K1549. Culti-
vation escape from gardens.
88 Krigas & Kokkini: Survey of the alien vascular flora of Thessaloniki
Tagetes patula L./Tscap;SAmer/RS/B4(I)K4213; D2 (I) K4407. Cultivation escape from
Xanthium spinosum L. / Tscap; S Amer uCosmopol / [1], [4], [5], [6] / RS, VL, ru / B3 (I) Obs;
B5ii (I) Obs; B5iii (II) K2048, K2416, K2451; B6 (II) Obs; B7 (II) Obs; B8 (II) Obs; C4 (II)
Obs; C5 (II) Obs; D1 (II) K6031; D2 (II) Obs; D4 (II) Obs; D7 (II).
X. strumarium subsp. cavanillesii (Schouw) D. Löve & P. Dansereau / Tscap; Amer? uCos-
mopol / [1], [2], [5], [6] / WC, PF, M-bu, FR, RS, VL, ru / B3 (II) Obs; B4 (II) K4207; B5ii
(II) K2682; B8 (II) Obs; C2 (II) K2820; C4 (II) Obs; C5 (II) K2728; D1 (II) K4500, K5885,
K6049; D2 (II) K4228; D3i (II) Obs; D3ii (II) Obs; D4 (III) K2786, K2846; D7 (II). No-
menclature according to Kupicha in FT 5: 47. Turrill (1929) mentions that Nadji firstly re-
ported this taxon from Europe in 1891 (as X. saccharatum subsp. aciculare Widder),
collected at “about seven miles from Salonica” (‘marais de Tekelü’= site D7).
Cuscuta campestris Yuncker / Tpar; N Amer uCosmopol / RS, VL, GA / A1 (II); B3 (II)
K1814, K2492; B4 (II) Obs; B6 (II) K2948; B7 (II) Obs; B8 (II) K2122, K2234; C1 (I)
K2561; C2 (II) K1451, K4092; C4 (II) K4161; C5 (II) K3979; D1 (I) K4492; D2 (I) K2017,
K4426; D7 (II). According to Feinbrun (1970) it was introduced to Europe at about 1900
and spread mainly with agricultural seed especially after the First World War.
Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth. /Tscap; Neotrop uNeotrop + Medit / [6] / GA, RS, ru / A1 (I); A2
(I) K2897; B3 (II) K2427, K3815; B4 (II) K5966; C5 (II) K2704, K3990; D2 (II) K4408.
Including records of I. indica Merr. from Krigas & al. (1999).
Brassica napus L. /Hbienn; ? uMedit/RS,VL,RT/B5iii(I)K2378; C2 (II) K1380, K1488,
K5075, K5074; C5 (II) K4727. Alien or naturalized in the Mediterranean region, not given
for Greece in MC.
B. oleracea L. / Csuffr; W Europ uCosmopol / RS, VL, GA, pc / A1 (I) K&H3439; A2 (II) Obs;
B3 (II) Obs; D5 (I) K6065; D7 (II). Including records of subsp. robertiana from Krigas &
al. (1999). Not given for Greece in MC.
B. rapa L. / Hbienn; Europe (Pyšek & al. 2002) uCosmopol / [2] / M-ap, RS, VL, GA, pc / B3
(I) K5227; B5ii (II) K891; B6 (II) K1271, K3234, K4847; B7 (I) K5012; C4 (I) K1118; C5
(I) K1119, K1135; D5 (I) K&H3293. According to MC it is doubtfully naturalized in
Calepina irregularis (Asso) Thell. / Tscap; Turan (Quézel & al. 1990) uMedit-Turan / [5] /
WC, M-ap, RS, VL, ru / A3 (I) K655b; B3 (II) Par1672b; B5i (III) K1196, K4786, K6077;
B5ii (II) K889, K929; B5iii (I) K4602; B6 (III) K3227, K4848; B8 (II) K682, K4815; C5 (II)
K1145, K4722; D2 (I) K3076; D3i (I) K622; D5 (I) K4779; D6 (I) K4738; D7 (II). Accord-
ing to Tan in FH 2: 294-295 no origin is provided, considering it as probably introduced to
Crete but native to the rest of Greece.
Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC. / Hscap; Submedit-Subatl / [5], [6] / M-o, M-ap, M-rr, FR, RS,
VL, GA, BW, RT, ru, pc, gr / A1 (III); A2 (II) Obs; A3 (II) Obs; B1 (II) K2515, K5826; B2
(II) Obs; B3 (III) K6060; B4 (III) K502, K1702, K5954; B5i (II) K969, K1206; B5ii (II)
K2664; B5iii (III) K2300; B6 (II) K1243; B7 (II) K5032; B8 (III) K857, K2112, K5150; C2
(III) K1374, K1402; C3 (II) Obs; C4 (II) K807; C5 (II) Obs; D3i (II) K2173; D4 (II) Obs;
D6 (II) K4477; D7 (II). Not given for Greece in MC. Flowering somewhat earlier in the ur-
banized area of Thessaloniki, it appears probably with a bimodal flowering pattern (April to
mid July and mid September to November), showing a break during the summer dry season.
Erysimum cheiri (L.) Grantz /Csuffr; ? uEurymedit. / [2] / BW, VL, GA / A1 (I); B4 (II)
K5939; B7 (II) K5020; C3 (I) Obs. Naturalized xenophyte (sensu Greuter 1971) in Greece
according to MC. Most probably only as a cultivation escape from gardens in the area.
Willdenowia 34 2004 89
Isatis tinctoria L. subsp. tinctoria / Hbienn; SW Asiat (Zohary & Hopf 1994) uEurasiat? (un-
certain limits according to Davis in FT 1: 301) / [1], [2], [5] / M-ap, M-rr / B5i (II) Obs; B6
(II) Obs; D2 (II) K1367, K2039; D3i (I) K1562; D7 (II).
Lepidium graminifolium L. / Hscap; Eurymedit / [4], [5], [6] / RS, VL, GA / A1 (I); B2 (I)
Pat3116; B4 (II) K2875, K4190, K5963; B5i (II) K2467; C5 (II) K2705, K3961; D7 (II).–It
is considered as doubtfully native in Greece according to Snogerup in FH 2: 275.
Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv. / Hscap; W Medit-Macarones? uSubcosmopol / [1], [2] / RS,
VL / C2 (II) K1415.
Lunaria annua L. subsp. annua / Hbienn; SE Europ uEurop + N Amer / GCD / D6 (I) K3700.–
According to Tan in FH 2: 196 it is considered as introduced to Greece and cultivation es-
cape from gardens.
Neslia apiculata Fisch. & al. / Tscap; Turan (Pignatti 1982, Quézel & al. 1990) uEurymedit /
[3], [5], [6] / M-ap, FR, RS / B5i (II) K4984, K4985. If origin is not adopted according to
Pignatti (1982) and Quézel & al. (1990), it should be considered as native to the Mediterra-
nean part of S Europe eastwards to SW & C Asia according to Tan in FH 2: 248.
Raphanus sativus L./Hscap;?uCosmopol / [2] / RS, VL / B6 (II) K1731, K2957; D7 (II).
Cultivation escape. Not given for Greece in FE.
Sinapis alba L. subsp. alba /Tscap;?uEurymedit? / WC, M-ap, FR, RS, VL / B5i (II) K3666;
B6 (II) K3609; D3i (I) Par2320; D3ii (I) Par840; D6 (II) K3628; D7 (II) Obs. Problematic
status according to MC for all Mediterranean countries. According to Snogerup & Snogerup
in FH 2: 286-287 it is entirely a product of plant breeding.
Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsumara & Nakai / Tscap; S Afr uS Afr + Malta / M-O, FR / C5
(I) Obs; D3i (I) K2926. A few individuals found in Seih-Sou recreational area and on
wasteland. Greece not given in MC.
Cucurbita maxima Lam. / Tscap; S Amer (Sallenave 2001) uS Amer + Malta / ru / A2 (I)
K2889; C5 (I) Obs; D4 (II) Obs. Cultivation escape from nearby gardens. Greece not given
in MC.
C. pepo L./Tscap;N&C-AmeruN & C Amer + Malta / RS / B5ii (I) K2653. –Onlyafewin-
dividuals found. Greece is not given in MC.
Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. / Tscap; India Trop. (Sallenave 2001) uIndia Trop. +
Spain, Malta / RS /D2 (I) K4406. A few individuals found on wasteland (cultivation escape
from nearby gardens). Greece is not given in MC.
Elaeagnus angustifolia L./Pscap;CAsiat?uCircumbor / WC / B5ii (II) K882; B5iii (II)
K6079; C4 (II) K5257. Cultivation escape.
Euphorbia maculata L./Trept;NAmeruSubcosmopol / PF, GA, RT, tb / B2 (II) Pat3241; C1
(II) K2578b; C2 (II) Obs; D3i (I) K4369; D7 (II). First report for Greece by Pateli & al.
E. prostrata Aiton / Trept; Neotrop & Subtrop uNeotrop & Subtrop + Medit / M-o, FR, RS,
GA, BW, tb, gr / A1 (II); B1 (II) K2511b; B2 (II) Pat3886; C1 (II) K2578a; C3 (II) K1496,
K6004; D2 (I) K4229; D3i (I) K2911; D6 (II) K4269; D7 (II). Greece not given in MC.
Ricinus communis L. / Pscap; Paleotrop (NE-Afric) uPaleotemp / GA, RS, ru / A1 (I); B3 (II)
K3814; D2 (II) K4245.
Philadelphus coronarius L. /NP;N&CItaly&AustriauN & C Italy & Austria + France, Ro-
mania, Slovakia / GCD, GA / A1 (I); B2 (I) Pat3121; D4 (I) K&H3346; D6 (II) K&al. 3478.
Cultivation escape from gardens.
90 Krigas & Kokkini: Survey of the alien vascular flora of Thessaloniki
Albizia julibrissin Durazz. /Pscap;C&EAsiatuC & E Asiat + Italy, Cyprus / VL, RS, tb, pc /
A3 (I) K4132; B3 (I); B4 (I) K5953; B5ii (I) Obs; B6 (I) K3625; C2 (I) Obs; C5 (I) Obs; D6
(I) Obs; D7 (I) Obs. All specimens and observations represent seedlings escaped from cul-
tivation. Greece not given in MC.
Gleditsia triacanthos L. / Pcaesp; N Amer uN Amer + Argentina, Bulgaria / M-ap, M-rr, VL,
GA, RS / A1 (I); B3 (I) K2542; B4 (I) Obs; B5i (I) K1173; B5ii (I) K2691; B6 (I) K1225; B8
(I) K2130; C2 (I) Obs; D3i (I) Obs; D3ii (I) Obs; D6 (I) Obs. All specimens and observa-
tions represent seedlings escaped from cultivation. Mainland of Greece not given in MC.
Lupinus angustifolius L. / Tscap; W Medit (Pignatti 1982) uMedit / M-bu / D3ii (I) K6115.
Medicago sativa L. subsp. sativa / Hscap; Iran uPaleotemp? / [2] / WC, M-O, M-rr, FR, RS,
VL, GA / A1 (I); B1 (II) K2516; B2 (II) Pat3921; B3 (II) K2481; B4 (II) K4187; B6 (III)
K1220, K1745, K2070; B8 (II) K2217, K2225; C1 (II) K2576; C2 (II) K1395, K1422,
K1962; D1 (I) K5838; D2 (II) K1638, K2032, K2140; D3i (I) K2927, K4364; D7 (II).
Specimens represent exclusively wild growing plants collected. Probably a cultivation relic
in the area.
Robinia pseudoacacia L. / Pcaesp; N Amer uN Amer + Europ, Black Sea / WC, M-rr, RS, VL,
GA, BW, ru, tb / A1 (II); A2 (II) Obs; A3 (II) Obs; B1 (II) K5809; B3 (II) K2429; B4 (II)
Obs; B5i (I) Obs; B5ii (I) Obs; B5iii (II) K2421; B6 (II) K5140; B7 (II) Obs; B8 (II) Obs;
C2 (II) K1389; C3 (II) Obs; C4 (II) Obs; C5 (II) Obs; D2 (I) K1307; D3i (II) Obs; D3ii (I)
Obs; D4 (II) Obs; D6 (II) Obs; D7 (II). Cultivation escape.
Trifolium resupinatum L. / Tscap; Asiat (Pyšek & al. 2002) uEurasiat / [4], [5], [6] / WC, M-s,
RS, VL, GA, BW / A1 (II); B1 (II) Par534; B5i (II) K1159; B6 (III) K1251, K3208, K4851;
B8 (II) K1004; D1 (II) K5694; D7 (II). Probably a cultivation relic.
Trigonella esculenta Willd. / Tscap; W Medit / [2] / GA / B2 (I) Pat3757.
Vicia sativa L. subsp. sativa / Tscap; Medit-Turan uSubcosmopol / [4, not assigned to subspe-
cies], [5] / M-ap / B5i (II) K1186, K5004; B7 (II) K5063, *K5069; B8 (II) *K676; D3i (I)
*K3203; D3ii (II) Obs; D5 (I) *K&H3247. Specimens preceded by an asterisk probably
belong to subsp. sativa. Xenophyte (sensu Greuter 1971) according to MC, naturalized in
Crete but considered doubtfully naturalized in mainland Greece.
Linum usitatissimum L. / Tscap; ? uEurop / [1], [2] / M-ap, FR, RS / B3 (I) Obs; B7 (I) K5008;
D3i (I) K2179; D3ii (I) Obs. Xenophyte (sensu Greuter 1971) naturalized in Crete, but
mainland of Greece not given in MC.
Abutilon theophrasti Medik. / Tscap; Asiat (Pyšek & al. 2002) uCosmopol / [5] / M-ap, RS / D7
Alcea rosea L./Hscap;?uCosmopol (Sykora 1990) / [1], [2] / GCD, RS / D2 (II) K2038; D6
(II) K3716; D7 (II). Probably a cultivation escape from gardens. Greece not given in MC.
Hibiscus syriacus L. / Pcaesp; E Asiat / [1], [2] / B3 (I) Obs; B6 (I) Obs. Cultivation escape.
Melia azedarach L./Pscap;India&ChinauIndia&China+Medit/RS,VL/B3(I)K6014;
B4 (I) K2880, K2958; B5i (I) Obs; B6 (I) K3626; B8 (I) Obs; C4 (I) K4134; D2 (I) K1623.
All specimens and observations refer to seedlings escaped from cultivation. According to
MC it is doubtfully naturalized in Crete, but not given for mainland Greece.
Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent. / Pcaesp; E Asiat uE Asiat + Italy, Greece / GCD, RS, VL,
GA, RT, tb / A1 (II); A2 (II) Obs; B4 (II) K5949; B5iii (I) K985; B7 (II) K2842; C2 (II)
K1427, K2829, K4098; C3 (II) K2853; D3i (II) K5127; D5 (II) K4060; D6 (II) K&al. 3486.
Willdenowia 34 2004 91
Morus alba L. /Pscap; E Asiat / [1], [2] / GCD, RS, VL, GA / A1 (I); B4 (I) Obs; C2 (II) K1420,
K1778; D6 (I) K3670, K&al. 3576; D7 (I). Most probably only as a cultivation escape
and/or relic in the area.
M. nigra L. / Pscap; Asiat uEurymedit? / WC, RS, tb, pc / B3 (I) K2431; C2 (II) K4094; C5 (II)
K2696; D3i (I) K4342; D7 (I). Most probably only as a cultivation escape and/or relic in
the area.
Mirabilis jalapa L. / Gbulb; S Amer uS Amer + S Europ / RS, VL, ru / A2 (II) Obs; B3 (II)
K2357, K2493; B4 (II) K4176; B5iii (II) K2403; C2 (II) Obs; C5 (II) Obs; D4 (II) Obs.
Doubtfully naturalised xenophyte (sensu Greuter 1971) in Greece according to MC. Cultiva-
tion escape from gardens in the area.
Oenothera sp. / Hbienn; N Amer (Pyšek & al. 2002) uSubcosmopol / RS / D2 (II) K4405,
K4275. Cultivation escape from gardens. Greece not given in FE.
Oxalis debilis Kunth / Gbulb; S Amer uS Amer + W Europ, Medit (Turland & al. 1995) / PF,
FR, GCD, GA, tb, pc / A1 (I); B3 (I) Obs; B4 (II) K678, K2993, K4193; B7 (I) K5011; C2 (I)
Obs; D3i (I) Obs; D6 (II) K&al. 3464, K&al. K3707. Cultivation escape from gardens.
Greece not given in FE or MC.
O. pes-caprae L. / Gbulb; S Afr uS Afr + W Europ, Medit (Turland & al. 1995) / GA / B2 (I)
Pat3290. More abundant in fallow fields at the Macedonia Airport area.
Eschscholzia californica Cham. / Tscap; N Amer uN Amer + France, Corsica, Balearic Isles /
RS / D2 (I) K1617. Cultivation escape from gardens. Not given for Greece in FE.
Papaver somniferum L. subsp. somniferum /Tscap; SW Asiat? uSubcosmopol / [1], [2] / GCD,
GA, RS / A2 (I) K1824; C2 (III) K1470, K5078. Most probably only a cultivation relic in
the area. Not given for Greece in FE.
Passiflora caerulea L. / Plian; S Amer uS Amer + Açores / GCD, pc / D6 (I) K4460, K&al.
3557. Cultivation escape from gardens in the area. Not given for Greece in FE.
Phytolacca americana L./Grhiz;NAmeruSubcosmopol / [1], [2] / GCD, VL, RT / C2 (II)
K4102; D6 (III) K&al. 3559, K3686, K3687, K4147, K4156. Nadji (1892) mentions “dans
touts le cimitieres musulmans” of the city.
Fallopia aubertii (L. Henry) Holub / Plian; C Asiat uC Asiat + Italy, Greece / GCD, RS, VL,
GA, ru / A1 (II) K1829; A2 (II) K1545; B1 (I) K5778, K5779; B3 (III) K2435; B4 (II)
K1678, K4175, K5948; B5ii (I) Obs; B5iii (I) K2244; B6 (I) Obs; B8 (II) K2124; C2 (II)
Obs; D4 (II) Obs; D6 (II) Obs. Cultivation escape from gardens.
F. convolvulus (L.) Á. Löve / Tscap; uAsiat (Pysek & al. 2002) uCosmopol / [5] / M-ap / D7 (II)
Portulaca oleracea L. / Tscap; SW Asiat? uSubcosmopol / [5], [6] / M-o, PF, FR, RS, VL, GA,
BW, RT, ru, tb, pc / A1 (II); A2 (II) Obs; B1 (III) K2500; B2 (III) K2444; B3 (II) K2486; B4
92 Krigas & Kokkini: Survey of the alien vascular flora of Thessaloniki
(II) Obs; B5i (II) K2462; B6 (II) Obs; B7 (III) Obs; C1 (II) K2554; C2 (II) Obs; C3 (II) Obs;
C4 (II) Obs; C5 (II) Obs; D2 (II) Obs; D3i (I) K2344; D3ii (I) Obs; D4 (II) Obs; D7 (II).
P. grandiflora Hook. /Tscap; S Amer / GA, ru / D7 (I).
Punica granatum L. /Pscap; SW Asiat uConstantly expanding westwards (Quézel & al. 1990) /
GCD, RS, VL, BW / A1 (I); B3 (I) Obs; B4 (I) Obs; B5iii (I) K2260; B6 (I) K1790, K2095,
K5148; C2 (I) Obs; D6 (I) K3673. Cultivation escape and/or relic in the area. According to
MC it is a xenophyte (sensu Greuter 1971) naturalized in Crete but doubtfully naturalized in
mainland Greece.
Ziziphus zizyphus (L.) Meikle / Pcaesp; SE & E Asiat (Zohary & Hopf 1994) uSE&EAsiat+
Medit/[2]/VL/D4(I)K2767. Probably as a cultivation relic in the area. According to
MC it is a xenophyte (sensu Greuter 1971) doubtfully naturalized in mainland Greece.
Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. / Pscap; E Asiat / WC / B3 (I) K3805. Cultivation escape
from gardens.
Malus domestica Borkh. / Pscap; ? uEurasiat / WC, RS, VL / B3 (I) K3084; B6 (I) K1770,
K3223, K4854, K6190. Cultivation escape and/or relic.
Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb / Pscap; E Medit (Zohary & Hopf 1994) uMedit / [4] / PF,
M-ap, M-rr, RS, VL, BW / A1 (I); B3 (I) K4652; B4 (I) Obs; B5i (I) Obs; B5ii (I) Obs; B6
(I) K5138, K3624; B8 (I) Obs; C2 (II) Obs; D2 (II) Obs; D3i (II) Obs; D4 (III) Obs; D6 (II)
K&al.3570. Probably a cultivation relic in the area (nowadays cultivated only close to site
Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. / Pscap; E Asiat uE Asiat + E Romania, W Ukraine / GA, BW,
tb / A1 (I). Cultivation escape.
Antirrhinum majus L. / Cfrut; W Medit uMedit / RS, BW, GA, ru, pc / A1 (II); A2 (I) K844; B3
(II) Obs; B4 (II) K1766, K5916; B5ii (II) Obs; B7 (II) K5057; B8 (II) K3603, K3604; C3 (II)
Obs; C4 (II) Obs; C5 (II) K2710; D2 (II) K1999; D5 (I) K&H3279; D7 (II). Probably a
very old cultivation escape from gardens.
Cymbalaria muralis P. Gaertn. & al. subsp. muralis / Hscap; S Europ uSubcosmopol / RS, BW,
pc / A1 (I) Obs; B3 (3) Obs.
Veronica agrestis L. / Tscap; C & N Europe (Hanf 1983) uEurope / GCD, VL / A3 (II) K633;
D6 (II) K4756.
V. persica Poir. / Tscap; W Asiat? uCosmopol / [5], [6] / WC, M-ap, RS, VL, GA, ru, tb, pc /
A1 (II); A3 (II) K5271; B1 (III) K571; B2 (III) Pat3274; B3 (II) Obs; B5iii (II) K986,
K4630; B6 (II) K4826; B7 (III) Obs; C3 (III) Obs; C5 (II) K4724; D4 (II) K3162; D5 (II)
K&H3244; D7 (II). According to Walters & Webb in FE 3: 250 it was firstly recorded in
Europe at c. 1800.
V. polita Fries / Tscap; SW Asiat? uCosmopol / [5], [6] / WC, M-o, M-ap, FR, RS, VL, GA,
BW, ru, pc / A1 (I); A3 (II) K649, K5272; B1 (II) K587, K5273; B3 (II) K604; B4 (II) K505;
B5i (II) K4808; B5iii (II) K4626, K4627; B6 (I) K4829; B7 (II) K547; C3 (II) K759; C5 (II)
K4726; D2 (II) K3054; D3i (II) K3171; D3ii (II) Obs; D4 (II) K3007; D5 (II) K&H3355,
K4576; D7 (II).
Willdenowia 34 2004 93
Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle / Pscap; E Asiat uCircumbor (Kowarik & Böcker 1984) /
WC, PF, FR, M-rr, rp, RS, VL, GA, BW, RT, ru, tb, pc / A1 (III); A2 (II) Obs; A3 (II) Obs;
B1 (III) K2517, K5788, K5789; B2 (III) Obs; B3 (II) K1749, K2523; B4 (II) Obs; B5i (II)
K1203; B5ii (II) Obs; B6 (II) K1254; B7 (II) Obs; B8 (II) Obs; C1 (II) K2568; C2 (III)
K1394; C4 (II) Obs; C5 (II) Obs; D1 (I) Obs; D2 (II) Obs; D3i (II) Obs; D3ii (I) Obs; D4
(II) Obs; D5 (III) Obs; D6 (II) Obs; D7 (II). Photographic evidence suggests that it has
been cultivated in the area as ornamental from the beginning of the last century (Krigas & al.
Datura innoxia Mill. / Tscap; C Amer uC Amer + Medit + C Asiat / GA, RS, pc / A2 (I) K1750,
K2339, K2340, K2888; B4 (I) K4191; B5iii (I) K2420; D6 (II) K4282. Cultivation escape
from gardens. Not given for Greece in FE.
D. stramonium L. / Tscap; N Amer uCosmopol / [5], [6] / WC, M-ap, M-rr, RS, VL, ru / A1 (I);
A2 (I) K2887; B2 (I) Obs; B3 (II) Obs; B5iii (II) K992, K2415; C2 (II) K4082; C4 (II)
K823; C5 (II) Obs; D2 (II) K&H1347; D3i (III) Obs; D4 (III) Obs; D7 (III).
Lycium chinense Mill. / NP; E Asiat uEurasiat / RS, VL, BW, ru / A1 (I) K&H3420; A2 (I)
K2896; B3 (II) Obs; B4 (II) K2860; B6 (I) K3229; D4 (II) K2809. Cultivation escape from
gardens and hedges. Greece not given in FE.
Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. /Tscap;C&SAmer/[2],[6]/RS,VL,ru/A2(I)K2893; B4
(I) K2869; B6 (I) K2951; D4 (I) Obs. Cultivation escape from orchards. Not given for
Greece in FE.
Nicotiana glauca R. C. Graham / NP; S Amer uS Amer + Medit / VL, ru / A1 (II) Obs; A3 (II)
K6051; C2 (II) Obs.
Solanum cornutum Lam./Tscap;AmeruCosmopol / RS, VL, ru / B5iii (II) K2417; B8 (II)
K2231; D7 (II).
S. elaeagnifolium Cav./Cfrut&Hscap&Grhiz;SAmeruSubcosmopol / WC, PF, M-o, M-s,
M-ap, M-rr, FR, rp, RS, VL, GA, BW, RT, ru, tb, pc, gr / A1 (II); A2 (II) Obs; A3 (II) Obs;
B1 (IV) K5797, K2521; B2 (IV) Obs; B3 (IV) K1812, K1813, K2535; B4 (IV) K1688; B5i
(III) Obs; B5ii (III) Obs; B5iii (III) K2289; B6 (III) K1223, K2088; B7 (III) Obs; B8 (III)
K2104, K2105; C1 (III) K2526; C2 (III) K1419, K1469; C3 (II) K1521; C4 (III) Obs; C5
(III) Obs; D1 (I) Obs; D2 (II) K1361, K2156; D3i (III) K1558, K1794, K1795, K1796; D3ii
(I) Obs; D4 (III) K2790; D5 (II) Obs; D6 (II) Obs; D7 (III). Appearing both with white and
violet flowers (Fig. 2), with the latter being more common. It was firstly introduced in the
area of Thessaloniki before 1927, probably directly from America (Yannitsaros &
Economidou 1974, Browicz 1993). Dominant in all collection sites during late summer as
chamaephyte, hemicryptophyte and/or geophyte (see also Economidou & Yannitsaros 1975)
it can be considered by far the most aggressive alien in the urban and suburban area of
Thessaloniki, invading almost every biotope type (Fig. 2, 3). For earlier occurrence in the
area of Thessaloniki in the 1970s see Economidou & Yannitsaros (1975).
Anethum graveolens L. / Tscap; Medit W Asiat? (Zohary & Hopf 1994) uEurasiat/RS/B5iii
(I) K2418. Cultivation escape from orchards.
Apium graveolens L./Hscap;?uSubcosmopol / RS / A1 (I); B3 (I) K3833; B4 (I) K4196; C4
(I) K5249; D4 (I) K2773, K3027. Certainly a cultivation escape from orchards.
Bifora radians M. Bieb. / Tscap; C Asiat uEurasiat / [2] / GA, ru / D7 (II).
Coriandrum sativum L./Tscap;EMedit?uCosmopol / [2] / GA / A1 (I) K1753. Comments
on origin by Zohary & Hopf (1994).
Daucus carota subsp. sativus (Hoffm.) Arcang. / Hbienn; SW Asiat (Pignatti 1982) uSubcos-
mopol / M-ap, RS, ru / D7 (II).
94 Krigas & Kokkini: Survey of the alien vascular flora of Thessaloniki
Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) A. W. Hill / Hbienn; ? uCosmopol / GA / A1 (I). Cultivation es-
cape from orchards.
Lippia canescens Kunth / Csuffr; S Amer uS Amer + Europ, Egypt, Lebanon / GA, pc / B2 (II)
Pat3793, Pat3851, Pat3805. Not given for Greece in FE.
Parthenocissus inserta (A. Kern.) Fritsch / Plian; N Amer / RS, GA, BW, ru / A1 (I); B1 (I)
K5823; B2 (I) Pat3169; B8 (I) K3927; C4 (I) K5240; D2 (I) K4403. Cultivation escape
from gardens.
Vitis vinifera L. subsp. vinifera / Plian; ? uCosmopol / WC, M-rr, GCD, RS, VL, BW, tb / A1
(I); A2 (I) Obs; B4 (II) K1714, K5955; B6 (II) K1190, K1778; B8 (I) K5178; C2 (II) K1426,
K1464, K4097, K5086; D2 (II) K4268, K4269, K4427; D3i (II) K1168; D3ii (I) Obs; D4 (II)
K2806; D6 (I) Obs. Cultivation escape and/or relic.
Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. / Gbulb; W Europ uEurop / [1], [2] / ru / D4 (I) Obs. Cultiva-
tion escape from gardens.
Commelina communis L. / Gbulb; E Asiat uE Asiat + S & C Europ, N Amer / RS, GA, pc / A2
(I) K1825; B2 (I) Obs; B3 (II) K1757; B4 (II) K4194, K5933; B7 (II) Obs. Cultivation es-
cape from gardens. Greece not given in FE.
Trandescantia virginiana L. / Grhiz; N Amer / GA, RS, pc / A1 (I); B3 (I) Obs; B7 (I) Obs.
Cultivation escape from gardens.
Arundo donax L./Grhiz;CAsiatuSubcosmopol / [1], [2], [5] / WC, RS / A1 (I); B8 (II) Obs;
C4 (II) K828; C5 (II) Obs; D1 (II) Obs; D2 (II) Obs; D4 (II) Obs; D6 (II) Obs; D7 (II).
Cultivation relic.
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. / Grhiz; Asiat-Afric (Pysek & al. 2002) uCosmopol / [4], [5], [6] /
WC, M-ap, FR, RS, VL, GA, RT, ru, pc, gr / A1 (IV); A2 (II) Obs; B1 (IV) K2508, K5791;
B2 (IV) Obs; B3 (II) Obs; B4 (II) K2868, K5947; B5i (II) Obs; B5ii (II) Obs; B5iii (II)
K2326; B6 (III) K1738, K1791, K2970; B7 (II) Obs; B8 (II) K5264; C1 (III) Obs; C2 (III)
Obs; C3 (III) K6001; C4 (III) Obs; C5 (II) Obs; D2 (II) Obs; D3i (II) Obs; D3ii (I) Obs; D4
(II) K2768; D6 (II) Obs; D7 (II).
Echinochloa colona (L.) Link / Tscap; Trop & Subtrop uTrop & Subtrop + Medit, S Europe /
M-ap, RS, ru / B4 (II) K4199; B6 (II) K2955; D2 (II) K4285. Mainland of Greece not given
in FE (only Crete).
E. frumentacea (Roxb.) Link / Tscap; Eurasiat (Pyšek & al. 2002) / RS, VL / B4 (II) K4209.
According to Scholz (pers. com.) this taxon evolved in historical times from weedy E.
colona and has not been reported previously from Greece.
Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. / Tscap; Trop & Subtrop (Asiat, Pysek & al. 2002) uCosmopol /
[1], [2], [5] / RS, VL, GA, RT, ru, pc / A1 (II); B1 (III) Obs; B2 (III) Obs; B3 (II) K2356,
K3822; B4 (II) K4200; C1 (II) K2652; C2 (II) Obs; C5 (II) K2715, K3947. Nadji (1892)
mentions “divers points dans la ville, n’est pas cultivé nulle part á ma conaissance” and
Charrel (1888-1891) “ad moenia” (= on walls). Not given for Greece in FE.
Hordeum distichon L. / Tscap; SW & C Asiat (Zohary & Hopf 1994) / RS, VL / B4 (I) K1644;
C2 (II) Obs. Cultivation escape. Not given for Greece in FE.
Willdenowia 34 2004 95
H. vulgare L. / Tscap; E Afric / BW / A1 (I). Cultivation escape. Not given for Greece in FE.
Nasella neesiana (Trin. & Rupr.) Bankworth / Hcaesp; S Amer uS Amer + Medit / GA /B2 (II)
K6134. According to Scholz (pers. comm.) it has not been reported previously from
Oryza sativa L. / Tscap; S & E Asiat / [1], [2] / M-ap, RS / D7 (I) Nadji (1892) mentions that
“croit a Tekeli (= site D7) dans les fosses bien que, d’aprés le dire des habitants, il n’ait pas
étè cultivé depuis plus de 15 ans”. Nowadays, cultivation escape and/or relic in the area.
Panicum miliaceum L./Tscap;CAsiatuCosmopol / [5] / tb / B4 (I) K4217. Probably a relic
of former cultivation.
Paspalum paspalodes (Michx.) Scribn. / Grhiz; Pantrop uSubcosmopol / [6] / GA, RS / A1 (II);
B5iii (II) Obs; C2 (II) Obs; D7 (II).
Phalaris canariensis L. / Tscap; NW Afric-Macarones (Turland & al. 1995) uCosmop-temp /
[6] / M-ap, RS, VL, RT, ru, tb / A1 (I); B3 (I) K3819; B4 (II) K1650, K5934; B5iii (II)
K2330; B7 (I) K5062; B8 (II) K2119, K3931; C2 (II) K1489; C5 (II) K3991. Taxonomy
according to Balbini (1995).
Secale cereale L./Tscap;CAsiatuSubcosmopol / M-ap, GA, RS / C2 (I) K1490; D4 (II)
Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br. / Hcaesp; Neotrop uN Amer + S Europ, Medit / GA, RS, tb, pc /
A1 (IV); B1 (IV) K5818; B2 (IV) K2650, K6063; D7 (II). Observed to be dominant in
many public lawns of the urban agglomeration (sectors A, B, C). Not given for Greece in
Tragus racemosus (L.) All. / Tscap; Paleotrop & Paleosubtrop utermo-Cosmopol / [6] / M-bu,
FR, RS, VL / B2 (II) Obs; D3ii (II) K6137.
Triticum aestivum L. / Tscap; SW Asiat / M-rr, RS, VL, RT / B4 (I) K1648; C2 (II) K1385,
K1491, K5105; C4 (I) K5255; D3i (I) K1593. Cultivation escape and/or relic.
T. durum Desf. / Tscap; SW Asiat / M-ap, RS, VL, BW, RT, tb / A1 (I); B6 (II) K1761, K1762;
B7 (III) K5027; B8 (II) K2118; C1 (I) K1467; D2 (II) K&H1343, K1616, K4266; D7 (II).
Cultivation escape and/or relic. Not given for Greece in FE.
T. turgidum L. / Tscap; SW Asiat (Zohary & Hopf 1994) / RS, BW / A1 (II). Cultivation es-
cape and/or relic.
Zea mays L. / Tscap; Neotrop / M-rr, RS / C2 (I) K2824; D2 (I) Obs; D3i (I) Obs; D4 (I) Obs.
Cultivation escape.
Iris albicans Lange / Grhiz; Arabia, uArabia + Medit? / WC, M-rr, FR, GA / B3 (I) Par2288;
B7 (I) Obs; D3i (II) Par884; D3ii (II) Par861; D7 (II). Cultivation escape from gardens.
Not given for Greece in FE.
I. germanica L. / Gbulb; ? uEurop / WC, RS / B3 (I) Obs; D2 (II) K3077; D7 (II). Cultivation
escape from gardens in the area, most probably dispersed vegetatively (MFG 2: 271).
Allium cepa L. / Gbulb; Asiat (Pyšek & al. 2002) / RS / B4 (II) K1767; B5iii (II) K2053; C2 (II)
Obs; C5 (II) K3986b. Cultivation escape and/or relic from orchards. Not given for Greece
in FE. Comments on origin in Zohary & Hopf (1994). L. / Gbulb; Asiat (Pysek & al. 2002) / RS / B3 (I) Par2801. Cultivation escape
and/or relic from orchards.
Hyacinthoides hispanica (Mill.) Rothm. / Gbulb; W Medit uMedit/ru/B5iii(I)K923. Culti-
vation escape from gardens.
Hyacinthus orientalis L. subsp. orientalis / Gbulb; SW Asiat uSW Asiat + Medit / [1], [2] /
GCD / C2 (II) K2994. Cultivation escape from gardens. Taxonomy according to Wendelbo
in FT 8: 264.
96 Krigas & Kokkini: Survey of the alien vascular flora of Thessaloniki
We would like to express our warm thanks for taxonomic determinations and advice to Ass. Prof.
Dr A. Yannitsaros (Aster, Conyza), Prof.DrG.Kamari(Crepis), Dr T. Raus (Amaranthus), Prof.
Dr A. J. Richards (Taraxacum) and Prof. Dr H. Scholz (several genera of Gramineae). Also we
would like to express our deep thanks to Dr L. Celesti-Grapow, Dr P. Pysek and Prof. Dr D.
Brandes for helpful advice on several topics concerning specific cases of indigenous and alien
status of synanthropic species. Deep thanks we owe to Dr E. Hekimoglou for valuable advice
concerning the past topography of the investigated area. Last but not least we acknowledge the
stimulating comments of Prof. Dr S. Snogerup.
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Address of the authors:
Nikos Krigas, Stella Kokkini, Laboratory of Systematic Botany & Phytogeography, Department
of Botany, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki P.C. 54124,
Greece; e-mail:,
Willdenowia 34 2004 99
... It is naturalized in Greece (Arianoutsou & al. 2010), preferring secondary, stony habitats such as crevices of walls, and has been established on Syros (C Kyklades) since 1968. On the Greek mainland it was first recorded in 1999 from urban areas of Thessaloniki (Krigas & al. 1999) and is rapidly spreading there (Krigas & Kokkini 2004). The first record from the East Aegean Islands (Kalymnos) was in 2008 (Zervou & al. 2009) and from Attiki near Athens in 2016 (Polymenakos & Tan 2016). ...
... The name A. delilei applies to plants with short, weak (less rigid) floral bracts scarcely exceeding the perianth (Loret 1866); they are hardly distinct from A. retroflexus (Thellung 1912). Putative hybrids with A. cruentus, A. hybridus and A. powellii have been reported from Greece (Krigas & Kokkini 2004). Remarks -Amaranthus scleropoides is introduced as a casual alien with unknown status along the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria (Assyov & al. 2012: 66;Iamonico 2015a) and is not known from Greece so far. ...
... To assess the floristic quality and biodiversity status we used the Shannon index, as well as and Sørensen indices (Cs) to estimate alpha (α) and beta (β) diversity [37]. We also compared the plant families found in each ecosystem, as well as the presence of non-native, alien, and ruderal species, based on the insights given in the literature [55,56]. For every identified plant species, we determined a conservation value ...
... To assess the floristic quality and biodiversity status we used the Shannon index, as well as and Sørensen indices (Cs) to estimate alpha (α) and beta (β) diversity [37]. We also compared the plant families found in each ecosystem, as well as the presence of non-native, alien, and ruderal species, based on the insights given in the literature [55,56]. For every identified plant species, we determined a conservation value C, based on literature data, Greek, and international databases (e.g., Vascular Plants Checklist of Greece, and Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF)), and three experts judgment, and then we calculated a mean of C values for every ecosystem [43][44][45]. ...
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Forests host important plant biodiversity. Nevertheless, due to climate change and human disturbances, the floristic quality of forest ecosystems is degraded. Greek peri-urban forests biodiversity is threatened by anthropogenic activities such as forest fragmentation, pollution, garbage, etc. Measurement of biodiversity status and the floristic quality assessment can be used to estimate the degree of forest degradation caused by anthropogenic disturbances. In this study, we compared and evaluated six forest ecosystem types in the peri-urban forests of Thessaloniki, northern Greece, by using Shannon’s biodiversity index as well as and α and β diversity Sørensen indices. Furthermore, we recorded the prevailing anthropogenic disturbances and compared the plant families and the ruderal species appearing in each forest ecosystem. Finally, the average conservatism value (C value) of the plant species found in each ecosystem was determined in order to calculate the ecosystem floristic quality index. Analysis of the results showed that the floristic and ecological parameters tested greatly vary among ecosystems. Broadleaf forests of higher altitude hosted the greatest biodiversity, and the higher floristic quality index and plant conservation value. On the contrary, most disturbances and most ruderal species were recorded in ecosystems of lower altitude, adjacent to the city (Pinus brutia forest and Maqui vegetation), the least disturbed ecosystems were found in the steep slopes (Castanea sativa forest). Most ruderal species found belonged to the Asteraceae and Rosaceae families. Accessibility and attractiveness of stands were positively correlated with disturbances. Insufficient management, lack of protection measures, and littering removal contribute to the increase in the level of disturbance.
... Комплексное изучение флоры городских экосистем, прогнозирование тенденций их изменения и развития проводятся в разных регионах, приобретает особую актуальность как в нашей стране [4][5][6][7][8], так и за рубежом [9][10][11][12]. В формировании городских флор большое значение принадлежит чужеродным видам растений, появление которых связано с деятельностью человека. ...
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The paper analyzes invasive plant species in a large regional center of European Russia - the city of Ivanovo. Based on the conducted research (by 2022) a group of 25 annual and biennial invasive plant species were identified in Ivanovo, which belong to 10 families and 19 genera. The authors have established ecopopological features of successfully naturalized of these species within the city limits, as well as their association with certain natural and anthropogenic ecotopes. 4 most active species ( Bidens frondosa , Heraculum sosnowsky , Impatiens glandulifera , I. parviflora ) are classified as transformers. They form dense monodominant thickets in various parts of the city, successfully compete and displace species of native flora. The largest number of species occurs in ecotopes, which are characterized by a simplified structure and lability. 17 species are in the composition of natural ecotopes, and the most vulnerable among them are water bodies and riparian communities. Among the anthropogenic ecotopes, habitats (24 species), roadsides (20 species) and wastelands (19 species) are more actively populated by invasive annual and biennial species. The problems of control and management of the spread of invasive species, including a large group of annual and biennial plants, should be solved comprehensively, within the framework of general economic and social urban programs based on scientific monitoring data.
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The family Solanaceae lists about 1,400 species worldwide, of which 143 are considered weeds (Sheppard et al. 2006). The genus Solanum is the most numerous of the family Solanaceae. Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. belongs to the clade Leptostemonum, commonly known as the “spiny solanum” clade. Solanum elaeagnifolium is native to northern Mexico and the American Southwest. A revision for the S. elaeagnifolium clade and analytic phytokeys are provided by Knapp et al. (2017). The silvery color of its leaves and their resemblance to the leaves of the olive tree ( Elaeagnus ) were the reasons for naming the species elaeagnifolium (Heap and Carter 1999). Nowadays, it is commonly known as silverleaf nightshade (Boyd et al. 1984). According to Krigas et al. (2021), in northern Greece S. elaeagnifolium is also called “Lernaean Hydra,” due to its intense regrowth after herbicide treatment. Solanum elaeagnifolium is known in South Africa as silverleaf bitter apple or Satansbos (Satan’s bush), indicating how harmful it is to the country (Wilson et al. 2013). In America and other parts of the world, it has received various names over the years, such as white horsenettle, bullnettle, tomatillo, meloncillo, and trompillo (Davis et al. 1945; Kwong et al. 2006). In Algeria, farmers call it echouka , which means thorn, because of the multiple spines on the stem (Adjim and Kazi Tani 2018). In South Korea, it received the name Eun-bit-kka-ma-jung , which is a combination of its silvery coloration and a common plant in the country (Hong et al. 2014).
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Cities are often hotspots for biological invasions, showing much higher percentages of alien species than non-urbanized settings. The reasons are multiple and are mostly related to two main factors: their heterogeneous, highly disturbed habitats and their many gateways that allow alien species introduction (e.g., airports, roads, train stations, or gardens). In addition to being a sink of biological invasions, cities can also be a source of the spread of alien species into surrounding landscapes, which adds further complexity to this issue. Herein, we are presenting the results of a five-year survey of the alien flora of Montjuïc, the largest urban hill in Barcelona (Spain). In just about 3.4 km2, we recorded up to 247 alien plant taxa, a figure much higher than those of many other Mediterranean cities and which clearly points to the role of Montjuïc as a hotspot for alien plants. The comparison with the alien flora of its surrounding region (coastal Catalonia) suggests that the alien flora of Montjuïc would have become enriched through many immigration episodes from close geographic areas. The hill, however, would have also acted as a source of the spread of alien plants, and indeed, some species have not been detected yet beyond the confines of Montjuïc. This study aims to be a key tool to ensure early detection and also to develop appropriate management and/or eradication actions.
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We aimed to explore how the invasion of the alien plant Solanum elaeagnifolium affects soil microbial and nematode communities in Mediterranean pines (Pinus brutia) and maquis (Quercus coccifera). In each habitat, we studied soil communities from the undisturbed core of both formations and from their disturbed peripheral areas that were either invaded or not by S. elaeagnifolium. Most studied variables were affected by habitat type, while the effect of S. elaeagnifolium was different in each habitat. Compared to maquis, the soil in pines had higher silt content and lower sand content and higher water content and organic content, supporting a much larger microbial biomass (PLFA) and an abundance of microbivorous nematodes. The invasion of S. elaeagnifolium in pines had a negative effect on organic content and microbial biomass, which was reflected in most bacterivorous and fungivorous nematode genera. Herbivores were not affected. In contrast, in maquis, organic content and microbial biomass responded positively to invasion, raising the few genera of enrichment opportunists and the Enrichment Index. Most microbivores were not affected, while herbi-vores, mostly Paratylenchus, increased. The plants colonizing the peripheral areas in maquis probably offered a qualitative food source to microbes and root herbivores, which in pines was not sufficient to affect the much larger microbial biomass.
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Urban streams are ecosystems of great ecological and hydrological importance for human environments. However, they face pressure on biodiversity, hydromorphology, and water quality. In this study, an urban riparian system of a Mediterranean city (Thessaloniki, Greece) which interacts with several land-use classes, namely forests, pastures, cultivations, industrial-commercial infrastructure, and light and dense urban fabric, is assessed. The analyzed data were collected by implementing mainly QBR and ancillary RMP protocols on 37 plots of the Dendropotamos stream. The QBR protocol provided an assessment of total riparian vegetation cover, cover structure and quality, as well as channel alterations. The RMP protocol was used to enhance the quantitative assessment of dominant tree and shrub cover. Parts of Dendropotamos surrounded by agricultural (median QBR score: 27.5), industrial (50), and dense residential areas (27.5) suffer, in general, from low riparian vegetation cover, bad vegetation structure and quality, the continuous presence of alien/introduced species, and channel alterations. A variety of riparian habitat conditions characterize the sparse residential areas (60) where cover structure and quality of vegetation is improved. The reduction in grazing pressure has improved the riparian habitat in the greatest part of Dendropotamos that is surrounded by semi-natural pastures (65). Within forested areas (85), the stream conditions are considered quasi-natural. All previous land uses are differentiated in terms of the dominant trees found in the vegetation of Dendropotamos: Platanus orientalis in forested areas, alien Ailanthus altissima mainly in residential and industrial areas, and native shrubs, e.g., Quercus coccifera and Pyrus spinosa, in pastures. The QBR protocol could be a valuable tool in urban environment planning to help identify areas with potential for restoration, such as those with moderate residential pressure.
Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav (silverleaf nightshade) is a deep‐rooted, multi‐stemmed, perennial, herbaceous woody plant that has been observed to threaten agricultural and native biodiversity worldwide. It is widely agreed that without efficient integrated management, S. elaeagnifolium will continue to cause significant economic and environmental damage across multiple scales. It is estimated that the annual economic impact of S. elaeagnifolium in Australia exceeds AUD $62 million, with this figure likely to be much higher in other countries invaded by this plant. It can also tolerate a high level of abiotic stress and survive in a range of temperatures (below freezing point to 34°C) and areas with an average yearly rainfall between 250 and 600 mm. Its extensive deep taproot system is capable of regenerating asexually and with its many seed dispersal mechanisms; it can quickly spread and establish itself within a region. This makes containment and management of the species especially challenging. Previous management has largely been focused on biological control, competition, essential oils, grazing pressure, herbicide application and manual removal. Despite the large range of available management techniques, there has been little success in the long‐term control of S. elaeagnifolium, and only a handful of methods such as essential oils and herbicide application have shown reasonable success for controlling this weed. Therefore, this review aims to synthesise the identified and potentially useful approaches to control S. elaeagnifolium that have been recorded in the literature which deal with its biology, distribution and management. It also explores previous and current management techniques to ascertain the research gaps and knowledge required to assist in the effective and economically sustainable management of this invasive weed.
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To date, the effects of invasive plants on soil communities and the concomitant interactions thereof have been the subject of ever-growing concern. Solanum elaeagnifolium (S) is a noxious invasive weed originating from south-central America, which has been recognized as a serious threat around the Mediterranean basin and worldwide. Herein, we compared soil nematode communities in the rhizospheres of (S), against those of its native antagonist Cichorium intybus (C), in sites where these two ruderal plants coexist (“species” effect—hereafter “sp”). These sites differed regarding the time after the initial invasion of (S) and were regarded as recently and historically invaded (10 years and 70 years after invasion; “year” effect—hereafter “yr”). Neither “sp” nor “yr” affected total nematode abundance and nematode functional indices. Diversity was lower in (S) and was reduced even more with time after invasion in both plant species. Plant parasites decreased significantly from S–10yr to S–70yr, i.e., over time after invasion, while predators were fewer in (C). Distinct nematode communities in terms of genera structure were formed under the two plant species and these were significantly affected by the time after (S) invasion. Differences between these communities related to loss of genera but also to changes in the abundance of common ones, such as Acrobeloides and Pratylenchus. Our results showed that the responses of the examined soil communities to the invasion of (S) are not straightforward and cannot be easily explained on the basis of existing theories. However, the first-time results furnished herein may be useful to integrated management strategies in the future.
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The European ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus) is an endangered semifossorial small mammal of grassland/agricultural ecosystems. In the last few decades, the species' population has declined throughout its range in Europe. The Greek populations represent the southernmost limit of the species' range and are notably small, scattered, and located mainly in human-modified areas. The goal of the present research is to understand the environmental and anthropogenic variables associated with its distribution in the Mediterranean habitats, assess possible drivers of observed local extinctions, and propose conservation and land-use management actions in light of near-future climate change scenarios. We used presence records since 2000 across all known populations (107 colonies) and maximum entropy conditional probability models (MaxEnt) to calculate both the habitat suitability (bioclimatic variables) and habitat availability (anthropogenic/land-use variables) within the European ground squirrel's historical range in northern Greece. We report a projected 39% to 94.3% decrease in habitat suitability by 2040-2060 due to climate change. Based on our findings , we provide guidance by proposing nascent conservation actions to protect the few existing colonies in Greece via improved land management practices and identify in situ climate refugia that could be prioritized as sites for future reintroductions.
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LUCIA VIEGI, GIOVANNA CELA RENZONI, FABIO GARBARI Istituto Botanico de1l’Universita - Pisa Flora esotica d’Italia *) E’ noto Che la flora di un determinato territorio e il risultato di un cornplesso insierne di fenomeni, alcuni dei quali antichi, va- lutabili con la scala degli eventi geologici, altri pifi recenti 0 attuali, riferibili alla storia del1’uorno e direttamente analizzabili. E’ anche evidente Che la flora di una regione non e statica: costituisce una struttura dinamica, variabile nello spazio e nel tempo, espressione sintetica di modificazioni ambientali esogene (geoclirna- tiche, antropiche) o biologiche endogene (genetiche) a carico dei suoi elementi costitutivi. Dal punto di vista corologico, gli elementi che costituiscono una flora possono essere distinti in « geografici » e ll genetici ». I primi —— elernenti geografici — sono definiti prati- camente dal loro areale, cioe dalla superficie sulla quale una entita tassonornicamente Valutahile e distribuita naturalmente. Nell’arnhito di una flora presente su un deterrninato territorio sono rilevabili, Con le entita Che risultano insediate stahilmente e ll naturalmente » —— considerate « native » 0 ll autoctone » —, pian- te Che si qualificano estranee a quel territorio, sia sotto il profilo epiontologico che geografico, provenienti da diverse e talora lontane regioni della terra. Sono queste le cosiddette « esotiche gg, entita Che sono arrivate in Vario Inodo, per cause naturali o antropiche, pifi o meno recenternente, a far parte della flora di un territorio che non e compreso nell’area naturale della loro distribuzione. L’introduzione di una specie vegetale in un paese diverso da quello in cui e naturalmente distribuita 0 di cui si ritiene originaria (*) Lavoro realizzato con un contributo del C.N.R.
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Reviews the literature on syntaxonomy and vegetation dynamics in towns and large cities in European Comecon-countries. -from Author
The Mediterranean Basin, California, Chile, the western Cape of South Africa and southern Australia share a Mediterranean climate characterized by cool wet winters and hot dry summers. These five regions have differing patterns of human settlement but similarities in natural vegetation and some faunal assemblages. The similarities are being enhanced by an increasing level of biotic exchange between the regions as time passes since European settlement in each region. This unique documentation of the introduced floras and faunas in these five regions of Mediterranean climate both increases our understanding of the ecology of biological invasions, and points the way to more effective management of the biota of these regions. This book is an initiative of a subcommittee of SCOPE (Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment) which realized that the integrity of many natural ecosystems was being threatened by the ingress of invasive species.
This second volume completes a project, begun by Cambridge University Press, to produce an up-to-date detailed Greek flora. A team of 25 botanists from several European countries catalogue the flora and endemic species found in the Greek mountain region. Each entry gives name and bibliography reference, synonomy, a description of the species, notes on nomenclature and typification, ecology and flowering time, distribution, chromosome number and special features.
Outlines the date of introduction and spread of plants that have recently invaded the Mediterranean Basin, tabulating plants which have become naturalised but which are not necessarily invasive, and region/date of introduction of some plants now naturalised. Ecological status is defined in terms of type of environment (cultivated, ruderal, grazing land, etc.) which the plant colonises most frequently. Plants with short growing periods are favoured in repeatedly disturbed environments. Early introduction from east to west is noted, but more recent sources of importance include Australasia and Cape Province (themselves with mediterranean climates) and tropical Africa (especially for grasses) -P.J.Jarvis
One hundred twenty-three adventive wild species occur in the flora of Israel: 42% are of tropical origin, 22.7% are North American. The geographical distribution suggests that about two thirds of the species reached Israel through neighbouring countries, while only one third arrived directly from their countries of origin. Four patterns of population dynamics can be recognized: accidental species, species with limited distribution, colonizing species, and species penetrating into natural habitats. There is insufficient information about the remaining species. About 30 species are widespread noxious weeds which now have economic significance in Israel; 20 others are known to have similar ecological tendencies in other countries. These species soon may become aggressive weeds in Israel.
An inventory of 1220 vascular plant taxa from Mt. Chortiatis (E of Thessaloniki, Makedonia, Greece) is presented. Data from widely scattered sources have been critically compiled, and numerous new records are included, thus updating a previous floristic checklist of the area published more than 50 yr ago. The combination Hieracium macranthum subsp. testimoniale formed by Gottschlich is validated, and Launaea mucronata is excluded from the 'Flora europaea' area.
This paper analyses the adventive flora of the city of Patras, Western Greece. The origins, times and methods of introduction are analyzed, along with the city's spatial structure, human impact, habitat types, establishment and naturalization. Taxa of American origin dominate, as do neophytes, while ornamentals are the major source of adventive taxa, especially established ones. Inner city areas have a small number of adventive taxa which, nevertheless, form a significant percentage of their total flora, while suburban areas have lower percentages of adventives. The application of the hemeroby scale, showed a trend of adventives or neophytes, to increase proportionately with human disturbance. Very disturbed urban habitats, such as tree beds and pavements, had the highest percentages of adventives while in less disturbed non-urban habitats, percentages of adventives were very low. Compared with central European cities, Patras has low percentages of adventives and neophytes, the majority of which are epoecophytes, while agriophytes are lacking. This can be attributed to the resistance of the native Greek flora to invasions of new taxa due to its great stability and, moreover, the significant participation of apophytes in the synanthropic flora of Patras.