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Evaluation of barley grass as a potential source of some nutritional substances



Barley green matter was analysed for the contents of vitamin C, total polyphenols, phenolic compounds, proteins, amino acids, and saccharides; the activity of catalase was also determined. The contents of vitamin C, total polyphenols, and ferulic acid decreased with the age of barley plants. The influence of the variety has not been proved unequivocally. The contents of vitamin C between 0.107-6.357 g/kg DM, of total polyphenols between 17.167-35.559 g/kg DM, and of ferulic acid between 0-5.916 g/kg DM were found. Catalase activity amounted to 4.5-29.7 TSU. The monosaccharide profile showed high contents of glucose (15.40-88.40 g/kg DM) and fructose (37.60-81.40 g/kg DM) which decreased with the plant growth. The contents of saccharose and galactose were low, ranging between 0-7.70 g/kg DM and 3.70-5.30 g/kg DM, respectively. The relations between their contents and the growth phase were insignificant. The total amino acid content decreased with the plant age. High contents of aspartic (15.232-28.682 g/kg DM) and glutamic acids (16.694-35.526 g/kg DM), as well as minimal contents of sulphur amino acids, especially methionin (2.586-5.03 g per kg DM), could be noted. The highest catalase activity was found in the early growth phase (18.5-35.1 TSU), being higher in all samples grown at the location Kroměříž. The yield of juice pressed out from frozen green matter amounted to 68%. The pressed out juice was preserved by fluid drying, freeze drying, and freezing. In respect to folates and total polyphenols contents and the antioxidant activity, freezing appears the most suitable procedure for preserving.
Czech J. Food Sci. Vol. 25, No. 2: 65–72
The relation between nutrition and health has
been unequivocally established. Wrong eating
habits and losses of nutritional factors during
technological processing, storage, and culinary
treatments can lead to the diet deficient in some
nutritional factors.
Supported by the Czech Science Foundation, Project No. 525/05/0781.
Evaluation of Barley Grass as a Potential Source
of Some Nutritional Substances
Food Research Institute Prague, Prague, Czech Republic;
Mendel University
of Agriculture and Forestry in Brno, Brno, Czech Republic;
Research Institute
of Brewing and Malting, Brno, Czech Republic;
Agricultural Research Institute
Kroměříž, Ltd. and Agrotest fyto, Ltd. Kroměříž, Kroměříž, Czech Republic
P I., E J., F V., G D., H P., H M., K J.,
O J., P J., R J., V K., W R. (2007): Evaluation of barley grass as a po-
tential source of some nutritional substances. Czech J. Food Sci., 25: 65–72.
Barley green matter was analysed for the contents of vitamin C, total polyphenols, phenolic compounds, proteins, amino
acids, and saccharides; the activity of catalase was also determined. The contents of vitamin C, total polyphenols, and
ferulic acid decreased with the age of barley plants. The influence of the variety has not been proved unequivocally.
The contents of vitamin C between 0.107–6.357 g/kg DM, of total polyphenols between 17.16735.559 g/kg DM, and
of ferulic acid between 05.916 g/kg DM were found. Catalase activity amounted to 4.529.7 TSU. The monosac-
charide profile showed high contents of glucose (15.4088.40 g/kg DM) and fructose (37.6081.40 g/kg DM) which
decreased with the plant growth. The contents of saccharose and galactose were low, ranging between 0–7.70 g/kg DM
and 3.70–5.30 g/kg DM, respectively. The relations between their contents and the growth phase were insignificant. The
total amino acid content decreased with the plant age. High contents of aspartic (15.23228.682 g/kg DM) and glutamic
acids (16.69435.526 g/kg DM), as well as minimal contents of sulphur amino acids, especially methionin (2.586–5.03 g
per kg DM), could be noted. The highest catalase activity was found in the early growth phase (18.535.1 TSU), being
higher in all samples grown at the location Kroměříž. The yield of juice pressed out from frozen green matter amounted
to 68%. The pressed out juice was preserved by fluid drying, freeze drying, and freezing. In respect to folates and total
polyphenols contents and the antioxidant activity, freezing appears the most suitable procedure for preserving.
Keywords: barley grass; nutrition; preservation; antioxidants; vitamins
Vol. 25, No. 2: 65–72 Czech J. Food Sci.
One of the possibilities how to improve the balance
of the nutrient intake in a natural way is the diet
enriched by the so-called green foods”, i.e. fresh or
delicately preserved foods of plant origin.
Generally speaking, young plant parts are char-
acterised by increased contents of some vitamins,
provitamins, antioxidants, and other bioactive sub-
stances. Barley grass contains significant quantities
of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, potassium,
zinc, β-carotene, folate, pantothenic acid, vitamins
, B
, B
, C, and E, superoxide dismutase, catalase,
and chlorophyll. However, the nutrient contents
of all barley varieties depend on where the plants
are grown, the soil quality, the average rainfall, and
the harvest technique (D 1984). It is
known that the highest concentrations of nutrients
are present for just a few critical days.
Barley grass is promoted as a source of anti-
oxidants, the most important being O-glycosyl
isovitexin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase
(CAT), vitamin E, vitamin C, and carotenoids
(B 1983; A & H 1987;
K et al. 1992; O et al. 1992; N
et al. 1998; A et al. 2001; J et al. 2003;
L et al. 2003).
Food supplements based on green plant parts
have their tradition especially in East Asian coun-
tries. In the USA, the food supplement Green Barley
is on the market. This is basically pressed out and
dried juice from barley grass grown under strictly
controlled conditions. The researches conducted
in the USA and Japan proved that an extract from
young barley leaves helps to suppress a number
of health disorders including obesity, diabetes,
circulatory disorders, arthritis, anaemia, excessive
cholesterol levels, renal difficulties, and cancer
(N et al. 1994; S et al. 1994).
An extraordinary feature of the products derived
from young barley is their well-established ability
to degrade organophosphate pesticides (D
et al. 1999).
The aim of our work was to evaluate the contents
of the selected nutritional parameters in barley grass
grown under the soil and climatic conditions of the
Czech Republic. The retention of nutrients was
followed during three possible ways of processing
freezing, freeze drying, and fluid drying.
Material. In the course of the year 2005, the ex-
periments were started and conducted at Kroříž
(KR) and Žabčice (ŽB) with two malting varieties
of hulled barley, i.e. Sebastian and Malz, and with
a hulless variety of spring food barley KM1910,
under restricted chemical inputs (basic fertilisa-
tion autumn 2004), winter wheat having been
the previous crop. Analytical determinations of
the selected nutrients were carried out in three
samplings of barley green matter taken in defined
growth phases, as described by the decimal code
(DC) scale: sampling I at growth phase DC 29,
sampling II at phase DC 31, and sampling III at
phase DC 32 to 33 (
Z 1974).
According to the character of the individual
substances determined, the samples were ana-
lysed either as soon as possible after the harvest
(vitamin C), or after having been frozen (e.g. sac-
charides, phenolic compounds, total polyphenols,
amino acids).
Because of their specific structure, the samples
for the analytical determinations were homog-
enised in two steps, starting with Ultimate Chopper
(WS Teleshop International) followed with the
mixer A11 (IKA). To test various ways of preserving
juice from barley green matter, the variety Malz in
sampling III from the location Žaice was chosen.
For practical reasons, all the products obtained
by three different ways of preservation were made
from previously frozen raw materials. Juice from
barley green matter was made using the extractor
Green Power (Woorideul Industrial Co. Ltd.) and
it was further processed by the laboratory freeze
dryer Lyovac GT2 (FINN-AQUA) and the labora-
tory fluid dryer TG1 (Retsch).
Methods. Dry matter was determined by a gravi-
metric method (D et al. 1981). The protein
content was determined by the Kjehldal method
(D et al. 1981). Ascorbic acid was deter-
mined by titration with 2,6-dichlorphenolindophe-
nol SN ISO 6557/2 Method A). A potentiometric
indication of the equivalence point was used.
The enzyme activity of superoxid dismutase was
assessed using the kit Ransod. This kit, made by
the British company Randox, is intended for the
analysis of SOD activity in blood samples. The
necessary modifications of the respective phases of
the procedure, especially the sample preparation,
to suit the plant material were applied (B-
et al. 2006).
To assess the activity of catalase, a spectropho-
tometric method based on the measurement of the
drop of absorbance at 240 nm was used (B-
Czech J. Food Sci. Vol. 25, No. 2: 65–72
Total polyphenols were determined by a spec-
trophotometric method (L et al. 1997).
Phenolic compounds were quantified by a RP
HPLC method (O et al. 2000).
Total amino acids were determined after acid
hydrolysis. Cysteine was oxidised to cysteic acid
before hydrolysis. Ion exchange chromatography
with postcolumn derivatisation using ninhydrine
was applied for the sample separation and detection
(M & S 1954; S et al. 1958).
A HPLC method with a refractometric detector
was used for monosaccharide analysis. Fructose,
glucose, saccharose, and galactose were separated
on a HPLC system under the following conditions:
Hema-Bio 1000 Q (30 × 3 mm, 10 µm) and Hema-
Bio 1000 SB (30 × 3 mm, 10 µm) guard columns, an
Ostion LGKS 0800 Ca form (250 × 8 mm) column;
column temperature 80°C; mobile phase deminer-
alised water, flow rate of 0.3 ml/min.
Folates were assayed as 5-methyltetrahydrofolate
(main representative of natural folates in plant
materials). The determination of 5-methyltetrahy-
drofolate (5-MTHF) was performed by a RP HPLC
method after thermal and enzymatic hydrolysis and
purification of the samples using SPE (H
et al. 2004). The procedure cited was modified
in releasing folates from food matrix. α-Amylase
in addition to conjugase from hog kidney, and
incubation at 37°C for 3 h was used.
The total antioxidant status was determined
using the Randox kit (Randox Laboratories Ltd.,
Ardmore, Diamond Road, Crumlin, Co. Antrim,
United Kingdom) (M et al. 1993).
Three preservation procedures were chosen
for the treatment of the pressed out barley juice,
expected to keep the maximum of the original con-
tents of the nutritionally valuable substances. The
variety Malz in sampling III grown at the location
Žabčice was chosen for the juice production.
One portion of barley juice was dried using the
laboratory fluid dryer Retsch. Another portion was
frozen at –24°C and subsequently freeze dried, and
the remaining portion was frozen in 0.5 litre PET
bottles at 1C. In the case of fluid drying, guar
flour was used as a vehicle. Ten parts of juice were
mixed with one part of guar flour and the result-
ing gel was pressed through a sieve (5 mm mesh)
to obtain granules. The drying was conducted in a
laboratory fluid dryer under a very low temperature
regime (at 30°C for 8 h), when the juice granules
about 20 mm long were kept floating in an air stream.
Dried granules were then ground to obtain a light
green, partially water soluble powder.
Young green parts of barley plants, as a poten-
tial source of nutritionally valuable substances,
were analysed for the contents of vitamin C, total
polyphenols, phenolic compounds, amino acids,
and saccharides, and for the activity of catalase.
Vitamin C is very unstable in the non-acid barley
plant environment. Due to the activity of enzymes,
vitamin C was rapidly oxidised by mere plant crum-
pling and wilting. The results obtained (Figure 1)
indicate that the content of vitamin C fluctuated
KM1910 KR KM1910 ŽB Malz KR Malz ŽB Sebastian KR Sebastian ŽB
Barley varieties and location
Vitamin C (mg/kg DM)
Sampling I
Sampling II
Sampling III
Figure 1. Total contents of
vitamin C in barley varieties
grown at the locations Kromě-
říž (KR) and Žabčice (ŽB)
Vol. 25, No. 2: 65–72 Czech J. Food Sci.
between 0.107 to 6.357 g/kg DM and decreased
with progressing growth. Higher contents of this
factor were found in the varieties Malz and Se-
bastian coming from both locations. No relation
was found between the vitamin C content and the
locality. Raw material crumpling or wilting can be
a possible explanation for the dramatic drop of the
vitamin C content during the growth period of
barley KM1910 from Kroměříž, and in sampling
III of the variety Sebastian from Kroměříž.
It is obvious from the evaluation of total
polyphenols in the barley grass samples from both
Kroměříž and Žabčice (Figure 2) that the total
polyphenols contents decreased with the plant
age. The influence of location was not proved
Out of the phenolic compounds analysed (cat-
echine, epicatechine, caffeic, chlorogenic and
ferulic acids) only the presence of ferulic acid was
found (Figure 3). The results showed that it was
most abundant in sampling I of all varieties tested,
the highest values having been found in the variety
KM1910 from both locations (4.9625.916 g/kg
DM). The content of ferulic acid decreased with
the plant age. The influence of location was not
established unequivocally. The presence of other
phenolic compounds followed was not analyti-
cally proved.
The assays of simple saccharides, namely sac-
charose, glucose, galactose and fructose, showed
low contents of saccharose and galactose (0 to
7.7 and 3.7 to 5.3 g/kg DM, respectively). In sam-
KM1910 KR KM1910 ŽB Malz KR Malz ŽB Sebastian KR Sebastian ŽB
Barley varieties and location
Total polyphenol (mg/kg DM)
Sampling I Sampling II Sampling III
Figure 2. Total polyphenol con-
tents in barley varieties grown
at the locations Kroměříž (KR)
and Žabčice (ŽB)
KM1910 KR KM1910 ŽB Malz KR Malz ŽB Sebastian KR Sebastian ŽB
Barley varieties and location
Ferulic acid (mg/kg DM)
Sampling I
Sampling II
Sampling III
Figure 3. Ferulic acid contents
in barley varieties grown at the
locations Kroměříž (KR) and
Czech J. Food Sci. Vol. 25, No. 2: 65–72
pling I, all varieties grown at the location Žabčice
were found to have higher contents of glucose
and fructose than those grown at the location
Kroměříž (Figure 4). During the subsequent growth
phases, both saccharides decreased markedly in
the varieties from Žabčice. The varieties from the
location Kroměříž did not show such changes and
the contents of both saccharides fluctuated only
in the range of 1 to 2% (w/w). In sampling III, the
contents of glucose and fructose were higher in
the samples obtained from the location Kroměříž
than in those from the location Žabčice.
Total amino acids declined with the plant devel-
opment; the highest content was observed in sam-
pling I, which corresponds to the protein content
in dry matter. An example of a typical amino acid
spectrum is shown in Figure 5. Sampling I of the
variety Malz contained 30.44 g, sampling II 23.19 g
KM1910 KR KM1910 ŽB Malz KR Malz ŽB Sebastian KR Sebastian ŽB
Monosaccharide/barley varieties and location
Saccharide content (g/kg DM)
Sampling I Sampling II Sampling III
Figure 4. Monosaccharide contents in the respective growth phases of barley varieties grown at the locations Kroměříž
(KR) and Žabčice (ŽB)
Asp Thr Ser Glu Pro Gly Ala Val Met Ile Leu Tyr Phe Lys His Arg Cys
Amino acid
Amino acid content (g/kg DM)
Sampling I Sampling II Sampling III
Figure 5. Total contents of amino acids in the respective growth phases of barley variety Malz grown at the location
Vol. 25, No. 2: 65–72 Czech J. Food Sci.
and sampling III 18.81 g of protein/100 g DM,
respectively. In general, high contents of aspar-
tic and glutamic acids could be noted. Higher
contents of leucine, alanine, valine, arginine and
also phenylalanine were also demonstrated. The
content of sulphur amino acids, notably methio-
nine, was at a minimum. The content of histidine
was also low.
The contents of the respective amino acids did
not show any significant fluctuations depending
on the barley variety or growth site.
The highest barley catalase activity was measured
in sampling I. The location was a factor influencing
significantly the catalase activity; a higher activ-
ity was found in the samples from the location
Kroměříž. The samples from this location were
found to have a higher catalase activity in sampling
III than in sampling II, in contrast to the varieties
grown at Žabčice.
For the utilisation of barley grass as a raw mate-
rial for food supplements, the retention of health
beneficial factors during processing is substan-
tional. Among others, the fluid drying, freezing,
and freeze drying of pressed out juice might be
used. The yield of juice by pressing out was high,
repeatedly amounting to 68%. The juice obtained
was dark green, with a typical flavour, containing
8.2% of dry matter. Pressed out juice was preserved
by fluid drying, freezing, and freeze drying.
The preserved products were then analysed for
total polyphenols, ferulic acid, folates, and for
the antioxidant and enzyme activities (Table 1).
The lowest values of the analytes were found in
the fluid dried product. The losses were much
higher than related to dilution with guar flour.
They might be attributed to the sample exposi-
tion to elevated temperature and oxygen for a
relatively long period. Freezing appears to be the
most delicate preservation procedure from the
viewpoint of the antioxidant factors and the folate
content. Freeze drying caused a decrease in the
contents of polyphenols, folates, and antioxidant
activity by approximately 30% in comparison with
the freezing procedure.
KM1910 KR KM1910 ŽB Malz KR Malz ŽB Sebastian KR Sebastian ŽB
Barley varieties and location
Catalase activity (TSU)
Sampling I
Sampling II
Sampling III
Figure 6. Catalase activity in bar-
ley varieties grown at the locations
Kroměříž (KR) and Žabčice B)
Table 1. Contents of dry matter, total polyphenols, ferulic acid, and folates, and antioxidant and enzyme SOD activities
of preservation
Dry matter
(g/100 g)
Total polyphenols
(mg/kg sample)
Ferulic acid
(mg/kg sample)
(µg/kg sample)
Antioxidant activity
(mmol/kg sample)
activity (U/g)
Freezing (–18°C) 8.2 2804 163 134 344 60
Fluid drying (30°C) 90.9 15 793 481 272 1677 200
Freeze drying 91.4 22 567 1717 1082 2320 800
Czech J. Food Sci. Vol. 25, No. 2: 65–72
The results of this study provide information
that can help in the utilisation of barley grass as a
unique and fully natural source of valuable nutri-
tional substances. The assays of these substances
characterise young barley plants grown in 2005
at two locations and harvested in three growth
phases. The analysis of the contents of vitamin C,
total polyphenols, ferulic acid, monosaccharides,
amino acids, and the determination of the activ-
ity of catalase have yielded data indicating that
this is a valuable plant material which is worth
becoming an object of continued, more detailed
studies. The results also indicate that the contents
of nutritional substances are strongly dependent
on the growth phase; the barley variety and the
growth site appear to be less important.
The high yield of juice achieved by pressing
out suggests that juice utilisation should be pre-
ferred to processing whole barley plants in the
food supplement production. Out of the preser-
vation procedures tested, freezing appears the
most suitable for preserving selected antioxidant
factors and folates.
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Received for publication July 13, 2006
Accepted after corrections October 27, 2006
Corresponding author:
Ing. IP,zkumný ústav potravinářský Praha, Radiová 7, 102 31 Praha 10, Česká republika
tel.: + 420 296 792 368, fax: + 420 272 701 983, e-mail:
... This has been observed, for instance, in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings. Plants of this species are most commonly used at the growth stage in which leaves are 10-15 cm long [6]. The examination of such plants using liquid chromatography with a tandem mass spectrometer identified the contents of 37 polyphenols, mainly flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives [7]. ...
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Young barley plants are a good source of bioactive compounds. This paper presents the effects of gaseous O3 (trioxygen or ozone) on the biosynthesis of compounds, determining the antioxidant potential of young barley plants. The total content of polyphenols was determined along with their profile, as well as total antioxidant potential and vitamin C content. The highest contents of these compounds were identified in young barley plants exposed to gaseous O3. The main bioactive compound, representing polyphenols, determined in the examined raw materials was saponarin (isovitexin 7-O-glucoside). The induction of increased biosynthesis of these molecules was directly linked to the modification of the activity of selected enzymes. The increased polyphenol content resulted from the modified activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). On the other hand, the oxidative effect of ozone on barley plants was reduced, owing to the modified activities of catalases (CAT), glutathione peroxidases (SOD) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX). Analysis of the results showed that by applying gaseous O3 at a dose of 50 ppm for 10 min, the contents of bioactive compounds can be maximised in a residue-free way by activating oxidative stress defence mechanisms.
... The term "young barley" is applied to young leaf parts of the common barley plant-Hordeum vulgare L., belonging to the Poaceae family. It was found that young barley grass is characterized by a high content of nutrients, depending on the harvest time (growth phase), processing and storage [7]. Raw material is used for the production of dietary supplements that are appearing in two forms: barley grass powder or lyophilized juice. ...
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Young barley seems to be a promising material for use as nutricosmetic due to the presence of many biologically active compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Hordeum vulgare L. extracts on human skin fibroblasts exposed to ultraviolet radiation B (UVB) radiation. Analysis of the chemical composition showed a predominance of 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid. The quality assessment showed that young barley preparations have high total polyphenolic content (TPC) and favourable total antioxidant status (TAS). They also contain antioxidant elements such as zinc, copper, and selenium. Furthermore, the analyzed products were found to be safe in terms of toxic elements (lead, cadmium and mercury) and lack of cytotoxic effect of young barley extracts on cells. In vitro bioactivity assays showed that young barley extract increased the survival rate and accelerated the migration of fibroblasts in research models with UVB radiation. The application of both extracts caused an increase in DNA biosynthesis, and in the number of cells arrested in S phase. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of the tested extracts on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) was observed. The results indicate that young barley extracts, due to protective as well as restorative effect, could potentially be used in the production of nutricosmetics and skin care products.
... The results were also compared to young green barley [30]. The analyzed product was made from the green plant parts, and was processed similar to the present study. ...
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During the last decade, the popularity of hemp products has been rising rapidly. Products containing cannabidiol (CBD) are of predominant interest. Traditional hemp products are frequently enriched by CBD due to their potential therapeutic effects. Cannabidiol occurs naturally in hemp juice together with other biologically active substances, such as terpenes, flavonoids, and stilbenoids. These constituents act synergistically. This study aimed to observe the influence of the hemp plant developmental stage on its chemical composition and antioxidant activity. The hemp plants were analyzed during three vegetative stages, i.e., before, during, and after flowering. The collected samples were evaluated using the following analyses: total polyphenolic content and profile, terpenoid and cannabinoid contents, and ferric reducing antioxidant power. The results revealed statistically significant differences between the samples in almost all set parameters. The optimal period for hemp harvest depends on desirable compounds, i.e., phenolic content is the highest before flowering, while the levels of cannabinoids and terpenoids are the highest during the flowering period.
... The aqueous extract of wheat grass is a potential supplier of natural antioxidants. The main components of barley and wheat grasses are ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, SOD, CAT, and glycosylisovitexin, which can reduce the accumulated ROS [96][97][98][99]. ...
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Heavy metal contaminated water is a great concern because of its high toxiciy, non-bio-degradability, and bioaccumulation. Therefore, non-contaminated water is fundamental for a healthy life. Special attention is paid to the health-promoting ingredients of germinated whole cereal products. This study aimed to (1) examine the potentially harmful effects of Cu, Mn, and Zn on rat livers and brains, and (2) the potentially protective action of wheat and barley grasses against the expected harmful effects of these metals. The rats were treated with water contaminated by heavy metals (HMs) and germinated wheat and barley for 60 days. The rat liver functions and his-topathological examinations were analyzed. Comet assay was evaluated to assess the damage in the DNA of rat livers and brains. The results indicated a significant alteration in liver functions in rats exposed to HMs; however, wheat and barley grasses at high doses decreased the harmful effects. An insignificant difference was noticed in total protein, albumin, and globulin of rats treated with HMs compared with the control. A significant increase in the serum and liver levels of HMs was recorded; however, they were reduced by wheat and barley grasses. Rat livers treated with HMs exhibited severe histological effects. The groups treated with wheat and barley grasses showed a normal liver architecture. A significant increase in DNA damage in the livers and brains was observed in rats treated with HMs, which was reduced when treated with wheat and barley grasses. Thus, using germinated seeds is promising to avoid damaging of HMs.
... Juvenile barley contains mineral components such as calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, potassium, zinc, and vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B6, B7, C, E, K), in addition to chlorophyll, proteins, enzymes, carotenoids, and antioxidants [4][5][6]. It has been further demonstrated that it contains a series of essential amino acids, including tryptophan, glutamic acid, alanine, aspartic acid, methionine, arginine, lysine, cysteine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tyrosine, and valine, as well as small polypeptides. ...
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Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an annual plant cultivated in spring or autumn. Currently, over 70% of the cultivated barley grains are utilized for preparing fodder, while the rest is used for the production of malt and cereals in the food industry. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the content of bioactive compounds, antioxidant potential, and cholinesterase inhibitory effect of the aqueous extracts of juvenile barley leaves. It was found that the barley cultivars differed in their content of the determined phytochemicals as well as their antioxidant potential and cholinesterase-inhibitory activity. The water extracts of young barley leaves contained phenolic acids as well as quercetin, rutin, and kaempferitrin. The extracts showed a higher inhibitory effect on 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) than on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. Based on the aqueous extracts analyzed, we found that winter cultivars were characterized by the highest iron-chelating activity. Furthermore, barley extracts showed a stronger inhibitory effect against acetylcholinesterase compared to butyrylcholinesterase. The results of the present work indicated that barley cultivars differed in their germination process. Among the tested samples, the highest cholinesterase inhibitory activity was shown by the Basic variety.
... Young green barley leaves are a good natural source of vitamins and minerals. Research has shown that its composition includes 2-O-glycosyl isovitexin (2-O-GIV), flavone C-glycosides, saponarin, lutonarin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), carotenoids, flavonoids, chlorophyll, as well as vitamins C and E [7,8]. GB also exhibits physiological activities, including hypolipidemic, antidiabetic, anti-ulcer effects and even anti-stress properties [9]. ...
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The influence of stress factors on the plant can, on the one hand, lead to worse functioning of the plant and loss of its crop, but on the other, it can have a positive effect on the metabolism of compounds with documented biological activity. In this study, the effect of light and drought intensity on photosynthetic activity and physiological status of two barley varieties, as well as the antimicrobial, antioxidant properties and profile of polyphenolic compounds of green barley were analysed. It was shown that under the conditions of water shortage, the KWS Olof variety showed a smaller decrease in CO 2 assimilation and transpiration and higher values of these parameters at both light intensities. Only in the KWS Olof variety increased stress as a result of increased light intensity. It has also been shown that both the intensity of radiation and drought-related stress have a significant impact on the profile of polyphenolic compounds from green barley, without a simple relationship between the impact of stress factors on the content of polyphenols. Changes in the profile of polyphenolic compounds augmented the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the material. This, in turn, proposes the possibility of reducing the applied doses of herbal material thanks to a greater content of active substances in extracts obtained from the plants used to produce medicinal preparations.
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This study aimed to confirm the synergistic effect of an Indian gooseberry (IG) and barley sprout (BP) mixture in differentiated adipocytes. To this end, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with IG, BP, and IGBP mixtures during the differentiation period. On the last day of differentiation, we measured intracellular cAMP, triglyceride (TG), and fatty acid (FA) levels, as well as performed Oil Red O staining, glycerol release, and Western blot assays. During adipogenesis, IGBP (200 μg/mL) increased the cAMP levels by more than 2-fold and decreased the protein expressions levels of p-CREB (66.3%), C/EBPα (79.4%), C/EBPβ (85.9%), and PPARγ (74.1%) compared to those in the C group. Furthermore, the expression levels of the adipogenesis-related genes and GLUT4 (more than 3-fold) were regulated. During lipogenesis, the IGBP (200 μg/mL) activated AMPK and ACC levels and reduced the protein expression levels of SREBP1c, FAS, and LPL. This reduced the FA and TG contents in the cells by 47.6% and 76.3%, respectively, compared to those in the differentiated control (C) group, resulting in a more than 5-fold increase in glycerol release. In conclusion, we found that IGBP inhibited TG synthesis during adipogenesis and lipogenesis, and thus, displayed potential as a functional health food for preventing obesity.
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The present study was executed to analyze the functional phytochemicals of hulless barley grass grown under different intensities of ultraviolet stress. The wheat seedlings were imposed to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 h ultraviolet radiation and harvested in different times at vegetative stage. Specifically, the contents of total polyphenols, total flavonoids, total triterpenes, total polysaccharides, proanthocyanidins, and chlorophyll were determined and antioxidants capacity was evaluated by OH• and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) scavenging ability. A mathematical model (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution, TOPSIS) was also employed for the comprehensive evaluation of functional components of hulless barley grass at different growth stages. The results showed that the UV stress could efficiently improve/preserve the contents of total polyphenols, total flavonoids, total triterpenes, total polysaccharides, proanthocyanidins, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll, as well as the OH• and ABTS scavenging capacity. TOPSIS evaluation revealed that the highest phytochemical contents were yield on the 15th day under 1.0 h ultraviolet treatment.
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The aim of this article is to define the role of environmental management in the processes of research and development conducted by the partners in the supply chain. The publication describes the emerging trends related to the requirements of international companies (especially Original Equipment Manufacturers - OEMs) on reducing suppliers’ negative impact of new products on the environment. Increasingly, these requirements are taken into account during the initial assessment and periodic suppliers. The expectations that international companies have of suppliers include an ever wider range of implementations of the concept of environmental management contained in the ISO 14000 series of International Standards. These expectations include: the implementation of an environmental management system (in accordance with the guidelines of ISO 14001), the implementation of LCA (ISO series 14040), and the use of environmental labels and environmental statements (as required by series 14040). OEM companies are not limited to placing stringent requirements on suppliers. Many multinationals offer their suppliers special programs to support the implementation of environmental management.
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Folate producing ability of several strains of Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Streptococcus thermophilus and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii was evaluated. As substrate, UHT milk with 1.5% fat content treated with additional laboratory sterilisation was used. Fermentation was conducted at 37degreesC and 30degreesC in the case of Propionibacterium. 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) concentrations were determined using HPLC method. All strains of Streptococcus thermophilus tested showed 5-MTHF production. More than six-fold increase was found in the 5-MTHF content in comparison with control (increase = 3.69 mug 5-MTHF/100 g) after 12 h fermentation. Bifidobacterium longum strains were recognised as mild folate producers with max, 73% increase in the 5-MTHF content (increase = 0.48 mug 5-MTHF/100 g) after 12 h fermentation. The Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii strains tested did not basically influence the 5-MTHF levels during milk fermentation. In all cases, maximum 5-MTHF concentration was reached between 6 and 12 hours of fermentation. Large differences in the 5-MTHF production were found among individual strains within species. By a careful testing of the folate production ability of microbial strains used in the production of fermented milk, an enhancement of the natural folate content can be achieved.
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The aim of the work was modification of superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD, EC activity analysis in barley grain and identical malts with using of the Ransod set. This set from company Randox were used for enzyme determination in blood samples. This method employs xanthine and xanthine oxidase to generate superoxide radicals, which react with tetrazolium chloride to form a red formazan dye. SOD is classified as natural antioxidants and enzyme plays a significant role at detoxication of products of molecular oxygen degradation. The largest rate of SOD occurs in embryo of barley grain. Its presence in barley grain and malt thus inhibits rancidity of grain during storage and undesirable beer flavour. The line Wabet x Washonubet (in grain-104,93 and malt 152,42 U/g dry matter) and the variety Annabell (104,65 a 147,21 U/g dry matter) had the highest activity of SOD in grain and malt of barley while the lowest activity was measured in the line KM 1910 (73,15 a 88,16 U/g dry matter) and variety Tolar (74,34 a 96,44 U/g dry matter).
This study was conducted to estimate the free radical scavenging effect, namely electron donating abilities and antioxidant activities of barley leaves (BL), silk peptides (SP) and their mixture (AM) with other antioxidants. Aqueous and methanol extracts from barley leaves had relatively higher electron donating activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, SOD contents and total antioxidant activities, which increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Extracts from silk peptides showed a similar trend to those of barley leaves. The activities and contents in methanol extracts obtained from BL and AM were higher than those of aqueous extracts. Especially, AM had the highest activities and contents increased in a concentration-dependent manner. BL, SP or AM was added to normal human skin fibroblast cells of Detroit551 after cell treatments with different concentrations of H2O2 or PQ (paraquat). Survival rates of the cells treated with H2O2 or PQ were different. Cellular survivals (%) increased at the concentrations of less than 1 mM H2O2 treatment. But when treated with PQ, cellular survivals (%) increased with an increase of aqueous or methanol extracts from BL, SP and AM. The oxidative stress induced by PQ appeared to be protected by the extracts. Especially, methanol extracts of AM showed the highest antioxidant activity. Thus, BL, SP and AM may have protective effect against oxidative stress reactive oxygen molecules. From these results, barley leaves and silk peptides appear to contain natural antioxidants and may have potentiality to be used as functional food ingredients.
Ethanol extract from young green barley leaves has been known to possess potent pharmacological activies, including antioxidative activity, anti-inflammatory effects, and antiallergic acitivity. Antioxidative activity testing on column chromatographic fractions from 80% ethanol extract of green barley leaves using the thiobarbituric acid method showed that a 60% methanol eluate fraction inhibited lipid peroxidation by over 90%, which was almost equivalent to the activity of α-tocopherol. A flavonoid, 2″-O-glycosyl isovitexin (2-O-GIV) was isolated and identified as the major component of a 60% methanol eluate fraction. α-Tocopherol inhibited formation of malonaldehyde (MA) from arachidonic acid oxidized with Fenton's reagent by approximately 95%, whereas 2-O-GIV inhibited MA formation by over 99%. In addition, 2-O-GIV inhibited the formation of 4-hydroxynonenal approximately 80% in contrast to atocopherol, which did not inhibit 4-hydroxynonenal formation at all.
Superoxide dismutese occurs in barley where it can be measured using a xanthine oxidase assay, but not using an assay based on the reduction of Nitro Blue Tetrazolium by photo-reduced riboflavin. Three isozymes are present in the grain: two are cyanide-sensitive and one, of lower activity, is not. Superoxide dismutase is mainly in the embryo of barley and develops in the acrospire, rootlets and endosperm during germination. Synthesis of this enzyme is accelerated by exogenous gibberellic acid. Significant quantities of superoxide dismutase survive kilning: lager malts contain ca 50% more than do ale malts. The enzyme is rapidly destroyed during mashing at 65°C, but large amounts survive mashing at 45°C.
Three cutting stages, the boot stage, 50% heading and the milk stage of grain, were imposed on eight barley varieties at four sites, two in each of two successive cropping seasons. Dry-matter and digestible yield increased significantly when harvest was delayed from the boot to the milk stage but crude-protein content and digestibility declined with advanced maturity. A similar pattern of response was obtained in most cases when varieties were examined individually. Variety 628 produced the highest yield, 8·34 t D.M./ha, while the most digestible variety was Athenais with 61·9% digestibility. In low-rainfall regions harvesting at the later stages of maturity is recommended, to take advantage of the higher D.M. yields.(Received July 22 1983)(Revised July 22 1983)