Article

A modulation matrix for complex parameter sets

Abstract and Figures

The article describes a flexible mapping technique realized as a many-to-many dynamic mapping matrix. Digital sound generation is typically controlled by a large number of parameters and efficient and flexible mapping is necessary to provide expressive control over the instrument. The proposed modulation matrix technique may be seen as a generic and self-modifying mapping mechanism integrated in a dynamic interpolation scheme. It is implemented efficiently by taking advantage of its inherent sparse matrix structure. The modulation matrix is used within the Hadron Particle Synthesizer, a complex granular module with 200 synthesis parameters and a simplified performance control structure with 4 expression parameters.
Content may be subject to copyright.
A modulation matrix for complex parameter sets
Øyvind Brandtsegg
Music Technology
NTNU, Department of Music
NO-7491 Trondheim
oyvind.brandtsegg@ntnu.no
Sigurd Saue
Music Technology
NTNU, Department of Music
NO-7491 Trondheim
sigurd.saue@ntnu.no
Thom Johansen
Q2S Centre of Excellence
NO-7491 Trondheim
thomj@alumni.ntnu.no
ABSTRACT
The article describes a flexible mapping technique realized as a
many-to-many dynamic mapping matrix. Digital sound
generation is typically controlled by a large number of
parameters and efficient and flexible mapping is necessary to
provide expressive control over the instrument. The proposed
modulation matrix technique may be seen as a generic and self-
modifying mapping mechanism integrated in a dynamic
interpolation scheme. It is implemented efficiently by taking
advantage of its inherent sparse matrix structure. The
modulation matrix is used within the Hadron Particle
Synthesizer, a complex granular module with 200 synthesis
parameters and a simplified performance control structure with
4 expression parameters.
Keywords
Mapping, granular synthesis, modulation, live performance
1. INTRODUCTION
Digital musical instruments allow us to completely separate the
performance interface from the sound generator. The
connection between the two is what we refer to as mapping.
Several researchers have pointed out that the expressiveness of
digital musical instruments really depends upon the mapping
used, and that creativity and playability are greatly influenced
by a mapping that motivates exploration of the instrument (see
e.g. [1]). In fact, experiments presented by Hunt et al [10]
indicate that “complex mappings can provide quantifiable
performance benefits and improved interface expressiveness”.
Rather than simple one-to-one parameter mappings between
controller and sound generator, complex many-to-many
mappings seem to promote a more holistic approach to the
instrument: “less thinking, more playing”.
The importance of efficient mapping strategies becomes
obvious when controlling sound generators with a large number
of input parameters in a live performance context. An
interesting strategy proposed by Momeni and Wessel employs
geometric models to characterize and control musical material
[12], inspired by research on multidimensional perceptual
scaling of timbre [9][16]. They argue that high-dimensional
sound representations can be efficiently controlled by low-
dimensional geometric models that fit well with standard
controllers such as joysticks and tablets. Typically a small
number of desirable sounds are represented as high-
dimensional parameter vectors (e.g. the parameter set of a
synthesis algorithm) and associated with specific coordinates in
two-dimensional gesture space. When navigating through
gesture space new sounds are generated as a result of an
interpolation between the original parameter sets weighted by
their relative distance in the space. Spatial positions can easily
be stored and recalled as presets, and the gesture trajectories
lend themselves naturally to automation.
We have adopted their strategy in a complex digital musical
instrument designed for live performance with granular
synthesis [2]. This particular synthesis engine [6] offers a wide
range of time-based granular synthesis techniques found in
Curtis Roads book Microsound [15]. The synthesis model
requires some 40 parameters, but in addition we add
modulation and effects for a total of over 200 parameters. The
parameter vector not only represents a specific sound, but also
contains information on how manual expression controllers and
internal modulators may influence the sound. As a result
navigation in gesture space actually modifies the mapping and
hence changes the instrument itself.
This concept relates to Momeni’s discussion of modal and
non-modal mappings [13]. The former refers to mappings
where the same gesture produces a variety of different results
depending on instrument mode. Modal mappings provide richer
control, but introduce state-dependent actions that may confuse
the performer. In our case the modes are not discrete
configurations, but rather a continuum of possible instrument
states controlled and interpolated from the same gesture space
as the sound itself.
The key mechanism for integrating this rich behavior into the
mapping is the dynamic modulation matrix. The general idea is
to regard all control parameters as modulators of the sound
generator, and to do all mapping in one single matrix. The
modulation matrix defines the interrelations between
modulation sources and synthesis parameters in a very flexible
fashion, and also allows modulation feedback. The entire
matrix is dynamically changed through interpolation when the
performer navigates gesture space.
In this paper we develop the concept of modulation matrix
with simple examples. We then describe a particular
implementation of the matrix within the audio programming
language CSound. Finally we present the Hadron Particle
Synthesizer as an example of a live performance instrument
combining geometric interpolation and the modulation matrix.
2. THE MODULATION MATRIX
The origin of the modulation matrix is found in the patch bays
of old analogue synthesizers, where patch cords interconnected
the various synthesizer modules. In 1969 the English company
Electronic Music Studios (EMS) [8] introduced the VCS3 with
a unique matrix patch system to replace the clutter of patch
wires (see front left panel in Figure 1 under). Signal routing
was accomplished by placing small pins into the appropriate
slots in the matrix.
Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for
personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are
not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that
copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy
otherwise, to republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists,
requires prior specific permission and/or a fee.
NIME’11, 30 May1 June 2011, Oslo, Norway.
Copyright remains with the author(s).
Proceedings of the International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression, 30 May - 1 June 2011, Oslo, Norway
316
Figure 1. The EMS VCS3 synthesizer [8]
The concept is still common in software synthesizers and
plug-ins. A relevant example is the Matrix Modular 3
synthesizer from Native Instruments [14] that offers a granular
synthesis module, an integrated sequencer, various modulators
and a modulation matrix that links them all together (Figure 2).
The matrix is configurable, but there is no mechanism to
dynamically interpolate from one matrix configuration to
another, which is a cornerstone in what we propose.
Figure 2. Native Instruments Matrix Modular 3 [14]
Software-based matrix modulation typically includes a list of
modulation sources, a list of modulation destinations, and
“slots” for each possible connection between source and
destination. As an extension of the straightforward routing in
classic patch bays software matrices often provide two controls
between modulation source and destination:
Scaling coefficient: The amount of modulation source
reaching the destination.
Initial value: An initial, fixed modulation value.
3. THE MODMATRIX OPCODE
Our implementation of the modulation matrix is available as an
opcode1
[5]
in the audio processing language CSound, with the
name modmatrix . The opcode computes a table of output
values (destinations) as a function of initial values, modulation
1 An opcode is a basic CSound module that either generates or
modifies signals.
variables and scaling coefficients. The i’th output value is
computed as:
( )
+=
kkkiii
mginout
where outi is the output value, ini is the corresponding initial
value, mk is the k’th modulation variable and gki is the scaling
coefficient relating the k’th modulation variable to the i’th
output.
In the following three sections we will provide some basic
examples of modmatrix configurations. The modulator
variables are assumed to be in the range 0.0 to 1.0 for unipolar
signals (e.g. the signal from a user interface slider, called
manual expression control here), and -1.0 to 1.0 for bipolar
signals (e.g. the signal from an LFO). Amplitudes in the
examples are assumed to be in range 0.0 to 1.0, and frequency
values are given in Hz.
3.1 Simple modulator mapping
As a simple example of a modulation matrix we will use 2
parameters and 2 modulators. Each parameter has an initial
value (the parameter value before modulation is applied), and
the influence of each modulator signal to a parameter is
computed by adding the modulator value to the parameter
value. A scaling coefficient is applied to each modulator signal
at each matrix mixing point (see Figure 3). With the specific
coefficients used here the LFO will add a value of 0.4 to the
oscillator amplitude when the LFO is at its peak value (if the
LFO is bipolar, 0.4 will be subtracted when the LFO is at its
minimum value). Oscillator frequency will also be affected by
the LFO, with a maximum offset of 40Hz from the original
oscillator frequency. The manual expression control affects
oscillator amplitude (with a maximum offset of 0.6), and to a
small degree also affects oscillator frequency (max offset of 5
Hz).
Figure 3. Parameters (Amp/Freq) for a simple oscillator
modulated by one LFO and one manual expression control.
3.2 Modulator mapping with feedback
In this example, the parameter set has been extended to include
amplitude and frequency for the LFO, and we enable modulator
feedback in the matrix (see Figure 4). The modulator mappings
to oscillator amplitude and frequency are the same as in the
previous example. The LFO output affects its own frequency
(by a maximum deviation of 7 Hz), and the manual expression
control affects the LFO amplitude by a maximum offset of 0.4.
Modulator feedback is known to be used in systems such as the
Proceedings of the International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression, 30 May - 1 June 2011, Oslo, Norway
317
Sytrus softsynth from Image Line [11]. Modulator feedback
implies that some modulation sources may take the role as
modulation destinations as well and we get self-modifying
behavior controlled by the modulation matrix. As with any
other kind of feedback, modulator feedback must be applied
with caution.
Figure 4. Modulation matrix with 4 parameters and 2
modulators. As some of the parameters are used in the
synthesis of modulator signals, we have modulation
feedback.
3.3 Dynamically modified mapping
As we operate with scaling coefficients stored in a table, we
can dynamically alter the mapping in the modulation matrix by
manipulating the values in the coefficient table. We can of
course explicitly write values to the table, but more interesting:
we can interpolate between different mapping tables.
Figure 5. User interface for a simple synthesizer with a
morphable modulation matrix [4].
In the following example [4] we will create a simple
synthesizer with a modulation matrix as shown in Figure 4. We
will enable interpolation between different tables of modmatrix
coefficients, thereby morphing the mapping of the modulators.
Our synthesizer GUI will have two user control sliders, one
expression slider and one morphing slider. When moving the
morphing slider, the modulation mapping will be dynamically
changed. This changes how the LFO affects the sound, and it
also changes the effect of the expression slider. To simplify our
example all parameter values (oscillator amp and frequency,
LFO amp and frequency) are fixed. Both the initial and the
modulated values of these four parameters are shown in the
user interface display (see Figure 5). A numerical example is
shown in Figure 6.
Figure 6. Interpolation between two tables of modulation
matrix coefficients.
3.4 Implementation details
Due to the potentially large number of modulation sources for
which modmatrix is designed to be used, optimization is a big
concern. Fortunately, modulation matrices are typically
sparsely populated, since only a small number of sources will
be connected to any particular destination. Together with the
fact that a given matrix is usually stationary between preset
morphing states, this is an obvious way to improve
performance.
There are several ways to deal with sparse matrices
algorithmically, but most of these do not efficiently utilize the
SIMD2
As long as the modulation matrix is undergoing change, the
entire matrix is processed as is, still utilizing efficient SIMD
processing. Looking into ways of efficiently leveraging the still
sparse nature of the matrix in this morphing state is an area of
future improvement, should the current method prove too
inefficient.
capabilities present in the CPUs of all modern
computers, so we have decided to apply a straightforward, but
efficient method instead. Each time the synthesis environment
knows that a preset interpolation, or any other activity altering
the modulation matrix, is complete, it will signal modmatrix
that the matrix is going into a temporarily constant state. The
matrix will then be scanned for properties which can be
eliminated, being for example entire rows and/or columns
containing zeroes. A new modulation matrix will then be built
lacking the redundant entries in question. From then on, the
usual multiply and accumulate operations needed by a
modulation matrix will be performed, skipping modulators and
modulation targets which need not be taken into account. All
modulation will be performed using this reduced matrix until
the modulation matrix is again changed.
Figure 7. Graphical user interface for the Hadron Particle
Synthesizer.
4. THE HADRON PARTICLE
SYNTHESIZER
As a more developed example of the modulation matrix, we
will show how it’s been utilized in the Hadron Particle
Synthesizer3
2 Single Instruction Multiple Data. Matrix computations will in
most cases benefit measurably from use of these facilities.
. Hadron is a complex granular synthesis device
3 Hadron is freely available as a Max for Live device (march -
11) and as a VST plugin (fall 2011). It can be downloaded
from www.partikkelaudio.com
Proceedings of the International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression, 30 May - 1 June 2011, Oslo, Norway
318
with approximately 200 synthesis parameters. The underlying
synthesis engine was built with a primary focus on flexibility of
sound processing. The high level of flexibility also led to high
complexity in configuration and control of the device. A
simplified control structure was developed to allow real-time
performance with precise control over the large parameter set
using just a few user interface controls (see ). The modulation
matrix is essential to link simplicity of control to the
complexity of the parameter set in this instrument.
4.1 Hadron internals
The basic parameters of granular synthesis can be considered to
be grain rate, grain pitch and grain shape, as well as the audio
waveform inside each grain. Hadron allows mixing of 4 source
waveforms inside each grain, with independent pitch and phase
for each source. The source waveforms can be recorded sounds
or live audio input. The grain rate and pitch can be varied at
audio rate to allow for frequency modulation effects, and
displacement of individual grains allows smooth transitions
between synchronous and asynchronous granular techniques.
To enable separate processing of individual grains, a grain
masking system is incorporated, enabling “per grain”
specification of output routing, amplitude, pitch glissandi and
more. A set of internal audio effects (ring modulators, filters,
delays) allow further processing of individual grains. The
Hadron Particle Synthesizer also utilizes a set of modulators for
automation of parameter values. The modulators are well
known signal generators, e.g. low frequency oscillators,
envelope and random generators. In addition, audio analysis
data for the source waveforms are used as modulator signals.
Within Hadron, any signal that can affect a parameter value is
considered a modulator, so signals from midi note input and the
4 manual expression controls (Figure 7) also counts as
modulators. There is also a set of programmable modulator
transform functions to allow waveshaping, division,
multiplication and modulo operations on modulator signals.
The full parameter set for Hadron currently counts 209
parameters and 51 modulators. The granular processing
requires “only” about 40 of these parameters, and a similar
amount of parameters are used for effects control. The largest
chunk of parameters is actually the modulator controls (e.g.
LFO amplitude, LFO frequency, Envelope attack etc.) with
approximately 100 parameters. All parameters and modulators
are treated in one single modulation matrix with size 209 x 51.
4.2 Hadron control
Hadron makes use of a preset interpolation system, in many
ways similar to techniques explored by Momeni and Wessel
[12], but with some modification. We use static positioning of
the presets. A preset is placed in each corner of a 2D “joystick”
control surface. Another difference is that a preset not only
contains parameter values, but also modulator mapping
coefficients. This means that the effect of e.g. an LFO can
change gradually from one preset to another. Similarly, the
manual expression controls will have different effects in
different presets. For example, if Expression 1 controls grain
pitch in one preset, it may control grain rate in another.
Moreover, since the modulation matrix allows flexible one-to-
many mappings and also nonlinear mapping curves via the
modulator transform functions; both the routing and the scaling
of a modulator may change between presets. The presets are
manually designed to meet specific needs using a custom
design tool, but the parameter space could possibly be explored
using techniques similar to those suggested by Dahlstedt [7].
5. CONCLUSION
The article describes a flexible mapping technique realized as a
many-to-many dynamic mapping matrix. A generalization of
all control signals to be used as modulators allows for full
flexibility of routing and mapping. Computationally efficient
implementation of the modulation matrix allows practical use
of large parameter and modulator sets. Dynamic mapping is
achieved by interpolating mapping coefficients in the
modulation matrix. Dynamic mapping can be combined with
geometric models for parameter vector interpolation to create
an instrument with simple controls, complex mapping and
modal behavior. The complex mapping is not a goal in itself,
but rather a result of the complexity of the parameter vector one
wishes to achieve detailed control over. This complexity may
lead to a higher learning threshold for the digital instrument,
since the expression controls do not have fixed labels (like
pitch bend, filter cutoff etc.). The lack of cognitive labeling of
the instrument controls can be confusing for an unskilled
performer, but as is the case with all musical instruments,
practice is needed to achieve familiarity and skill. In fact, the
lack of cognitive labeling may force a more intuitive approach
to the instrument with an enhanced focus on listening. Our
experiments on performance [3] using this mapping technique
in the Hadron Particle Synthesizer shows that it can be used as
a means of effective and intuitive instrumental control.
6. REFERENCES
[1] Arfib, D., Couturier, J., Kessous, L. and Verfaille, V.
Strategies of mapping between model parameters using
perceptual spaces. Organised Sound 7, 2 (2002): 127-144
[2] Brandtsegg, Ø. and Saue, S. Particle synthesis, a unified
model for granular synthesis. Accepted paper at Linux
Audio Conference 2011
[3] Brandtsegg, Ø and Waadeland, C. H. Studio sessions, duo
improvisation with percussion (CHW) and Hadron (ØB):
http://soundcloud.com/brandtsegg/sets/little-soldier-joe
[4] Brandtsegg, Ø. Example available as a Csound csd file at
http://oeyvind.teks.no/ftp/modmatrix-example/
modmatrix-simple-example.csd
[5] CSound opcode modmatrix. See documentation at:
http://www.csounds.com/manual/html/modmatrix.html
[6] CSound opcode partikkel. See documentation at:
http://www.csounds.com/manual/html/partikkel.html
[7] Dahlstedt, P. Dynamic Mapping Strategies for Expressive
Synthesis Performance and Improvisation, in Proceedings
of the Computer Music Modeling and Retrieval (CMMR)
Conference, Copenhagen 2008
[8] Electronic Music Studios (EMS). Homepage (no longer
updated) at: http://www.ems-synthi.demon.co.uk/
[9] Grey, J.M. Multidimensional perceptual scaling of timbre.
Journal of Acoustical Society of America 61, 5(1977):
1270-1277
[10] Hunt, A., Wanderley, M. and Paradis, M. The importance
of parameter mapping in electronic instrument design.
Journal of New Music Research 32, 4(2003): 429-440
[11] Image Line. Homepage at: http://www.image-line.com
[12] Momeni, A. and Wessel, D. Characterizing and controlling
musical material intuitively with geometric models. In
Proceedings of the New Interfaces for Musical Expression
Conference (NIME-03) (Montreal, Canada, May 22-24,
2003). Available at
http://www.nime.org/2003/onlineproceedings/home.html
[13] Momeni, A. Composing instruments: Inventing and
performing with generative computer-based instruments.
Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 2005
[14] Native Instruments. Homepage at: http://www.native-
instruments.com
[15] Roads, C. Microsound. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2001
[16] Wessel, D. Timbre space as a musical control structure.
Computer Music Journal 3, 2(1979): 45-52
Proceedings of the International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression, 30 May - 1 June 2011, Oslo, Norway
319
... NIME, Jan 2010. [7] Kilbourn, K, and J Isaksson. " Meaning through doing: The role of affordances over time. ...
... To facilitate the user navigation across the different sounds, the control is implemented in a low dimensional sound descriptors space. Granular synthesis, for its high dimensional control space and the variety of generated sound, is also used to demonstrate the benefit of the Modulation Matrix [7]. The authors' approach, although substantially different from the one proposed here, provides a similar usability solution: an expressive control over the instrument in a lower dimensional space. ...
... Through granular synthesis it is possible to obtain large timbre variation due to the nature of the synthesis, but often the control parameter set is large and challenging to design an interface for. This device exposes just 6 parameters for timbre manipulation thanks to the exploitation of the Modulation Matrix [7]. We analyze the generated audio with 25 Bark bands energies over the whole control space given by all possible combinations of the 6 parameters. ...
... Recent systems, such as dynamic modulation sys- tem [5] , focus on real-time conditions integrating complex mapping with two dimensional control interface. Dynamic modulation system notes all control parameters as the sound modulators and applies the related mapping in one single matrix . ...
... The Self-Supervising Machine [8] and Dynamic Modulation Matrix [5], in a broader scope show similarities with 4-point Adaptive Mapping Module developed in PESI research project. The former introduces a design of an automatic supervisor based on adaptive mapping network, and the latter takes into account the weighted sum of the relative distance of the original touch positions. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents initial Pure Data abstractions as a part of a toolkit system for the implementa-tion of PESI research project. Research focuses on mobile interfaces in participatory interactive art context. Designing an easy to use/control in-terface for an mobile communication tool, allows participants to become more familiar with the col-laboration process and experience a way of mak-ing music with a mobile device. A wide range of complexity of control-mapping layers and their in-tegration in such a system, makes the design very challenging process. The implementations of con-trol layer Pure Data abstractions in Maemo Nokia N900 device are described in this paper.
... The most recent " front-end " for partikkel is the Hadron Particle Synthesizer. It adds several new features including a number of modulators such as low-frequency oscillators, envelopes and random generators, all interconnected by a dynamic modulation matrix [16]. A simplified control structure was developed to allow real-time performance with precise control over the large parameter set using just a few user interface controls (seeFigure 8). ...
Article
Full-text available
The article describes an implementation of a synthesis module capable of performing all known types of time based granular synthesis. The term particle synthesis is used to cover granular synthesis and all its variations. An important motivation for this all-inclusive implementation is to facilitate interpolation between the known varieties of particle synthesis. The requirements, design and implementation of the synthesis generator is presented and discussed. Examples of individual varieties are implemented along with a longer interpolated sequence morphing between them. Finally an application, the Hadron Particle Synthesizer, is briefly presented.
Article
Full-text available
The article describes an implementation of a synthesis module capable of performing all known types of time based granular synthesis. The term particle synthesis is used to cover granular synthesis and all its variations. An important motivation for this all-inclusive implementation is to facilitate interpolation between the known varieties of particle synthesis. The requirements, design and implementation of the synthesis generator is presented and discussed. Examples of individual varieties are implemented along with a longer interpolated sequence morphing between them. Finally an application, the Hadron Particle Synthesizer, is briefly presented.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Realtime musical expression through synthesis is notoriously difficult. The complete potential of a sound engine is traditionally available only at design time. In this paper two mapping strategies are presented, adressing this problem. Based on dynamic and random many-to-many mappings between control space and synthesis space, they erase the line between sound editing and synthesizer performance, with an emphasis on free improvisation. One strategy is based on the addition of random vectors in synthesis space, weighted by control parameters. The other is based on a gravity analogy, interpolating between random points in synthesis space, with the gravities controlled by player interaction. Vectors and point sets can be scaled and shifted during performance, allowing dynamic exploration of vast soundspaces or minute timberal control. The mappings have been adopted to a wide range of musical interfaces. Together with suitable sound engines, surprisingly expressive performance instruments have been created, and they have been used in regular rehearsals, concerts and recording sessions over the last two years.
Article
Full-text available
This paper is about mapping strategies between gesture data and synthesis model parameters by means of perceptual spaces. We define three layers in the mapping chain: from gesture data to gesture perceptual space, from sound perceptual space to synthesis model parameters, and between the two perceptual spaces. This approach makes the implementation highly modular. Both perceptual spaces are developed and depicted with their features. To get a simple mapping between the gesture perceptual subspace and the sound perceptual subspace, we need to focus our attention on the two other mappings. We explain the mapping types: explicit/implicit, static/dynamic. We also present the technical and aesthetical limits introduced by mapping. Some practical examples are given of the use of perceptual spaces in experiments done at LMA in a musical context. Finally, we discuss several implications of the mapping strategies: the influence of chosen mapping limits onto performers' virtuosity, and the incidence of mapping on the learning process with virtual instruments and on improvisation possibilities.
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a review of a series of experiments which have contributed towards the understanding of the mapping layer in electronic instruments. It challenges the assumption that an electronic instrument consists solely of an interface and a sound generator. It emphasises the importance of the mapping between input parameters and sound parameters, and suggests that this can define the very essence of an instrument. The terms involved with mapping are defined, and existing literature reviewed and summarised. A model for understanding the design of such mapping strategies for electronic instruments is put forward, along with a roadmap of ongoing research focussing on the testing and evaluation of such mapping strategies.
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we examine the use of spatial layouts of musical material for live performance control. Emphasis is given to software tools that provide for the simple and intuitive geometric organization of sound material, sound processing parameters, and higher-level musical structures.
Article
Thesis (Ph.D. in Music)--University of California, Berkeley, Spring 2005. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 43-45).
Article
Two experiments were performed to evaluate the perceptual relationships between 16 music instrument tones. The stimuli were computer synthesized based upon an analysis of actual instrument tones, and they were perceptually equalized for loudness, pitch, and duration. Experiment 1 evaluated the tones with respect to perceptual similarities, and the results were treated with multidimensional scaling techniques and hierarchic clustering analysis. A three-dimensional scaling solution, well matching the clustering analysis, was found to be interpretable in terms of the spectral energy distribution; the presence of synchronicity in the transients of the higher harmonics, along with the closely related amount of spectral fluctuation within the tone through time; and the presence of low-amplitude, high-frequency energy in the initial attack segment; an alternate interpretation of the latter two dimensions viewed the cylindrical distribution of clusters of stimulus points about the spectral energy distribution, grouping on the basis of musical instrument family (with two exceptions). Experiment 2 was a learning task of a set of labels for the 16 tones. Confusions were examined in light of the similarity structure for the tones from experiment 1, and one of the family-grouping exceptions was found to be reflected in the difficulty of learning the labels.
Studio sessions, duo improvisation with percussion (CHW) and Hadron (ØB): http://soundcloud.com/brandtsegg/sets/little-soldier-joe
  • Ø Brandtsegg
  • C H Waadeland
Brandtsegg, Ø and Waadeland, C. H. Studio sessions, duo improvisation with percussion (CHW) and Hadron (ØB): http://soundcloud.com/brandtsegg/sets/little-soldier-joe