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Present and Future Population Dynamics of Prunus serotina in Forests in its Introduced Range

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Prunus serotina, a North American tree species, is considered one of the 100 worst invaders in Europe. Although an increasing number of studies has focused on P. serotina in Europe, several aspects of the species have remained unstudied. Moreover, most studies focused on heavily invaded areas. We wanted to gain insight into the radial growth and the spatiotemporal variation in the regeneration of P. serotina in forest understories, the patterns of long-term spontaneous P. serotina colonization in areas where the species had not been introduced intentionally, and long-term forest development with P. serotina. Prunus serotina growth and regeneration were studied in seven Pinus sylvestris stands in Flanders. Growth was reduced by 50 % compared to growth in full light conditions and was related to tree age and diameter and competition with neighbouring trees. The seedling bank with high densities of seedlings smaller than 20 cm and up to 6 years old stabilized the erratic early regeneration of P. serotina. We also reconstructed the P. serotina invasion for a pine forest in the Netherlands and a deciduous forest in Flanders that had not been managed for over 60 years and were located in areas with an initially low propagule pressure of P. serotina. Long-distance dispersal events and windows of opportunity triggered the P. serotina invasion. Further colonization was directed by connectivity to seed sources and light availability. The presence of native shrub species, dense herb layers, and quick canopy closure seemed to hamper further P. serotina establishment while high herbivore densities may have favoured P. serotina over native species such as Quercus robur. We used the model SORTIE-ND to simulate 500 years of forest development for a pine forest with P. serotina. The output suggested that if Q. robur was able to regenerate, the longer lifespan of Q. robur may enable the species to become dominant over P. serotina. With this thesis, we demonstrated that the invasiveness of a species depends on the characteristics of the invaded ecosystem and that models of forest development such as SORTIE-ND can be useful to simulate the future role of invasive tree species in forests.
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... Reproduction takes place mainly by seed dispersal, but also through stump and root suckers (Closset-Kopp et al. 2007), which start flowering earlier than trees in the native range, between the age of 5 to 10 years (Hough 1960;Deckers et al. 2005). Seeds remain viable for up to 5 years (Vanhellemont 2009 and references therein), with each tree producing a large number of fruit/ seeds (an average of 6011 per tree per year, Closset-Kopp et al. 2007; up to 8940 berries per tree per year, Pairon et al. 2006), which are then dispersed by gravity or by animals. Once established, provided ecological conditions are favourable (light and nutrients, such as those found in an agricultural landscape), the age-size correlation is positive. ...
... The analysis of the current distribution in Europe reveals that the species is considered invasive in those countries where the most intensive forestry intervention with P. serotina occurred in the past (Vanhellemont 2009). Nevertheless, dispersal by natural means accounts for further range expansion of the black cherry. ...
... Nevertheless, dispersal by natural means accounts for further range expansion of the black cherry. An analysis of the current distribution and rate of colonisation shows that the invasion process is increasing in forests as well as in open habitats (Deckers et al. 2005;Vanhellemont 2009;Skowronek et al. 2014). P. serotina undoubtedly benefits from a high spread potential through natural pathways due to its reproductive biology and behavioural strategies employed during its life cycle (Closset-Kopp et al. 2007;Terwei et al. 2013). ...
Article
In accordance with the European regulation on Invasive Alien Species (IAS), the black cherry tree (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) has recently been indicated as one of the 96 species proposed for the development of the national list of priority alien species in Italy. The species, native to North America, is recognised as one of the most harmful IAS in Europe, given its high spread potential and the associated ecological and economic impacts reported in its alien range. Although P. serotina is recognised as a pest within the EU, plants are still available on the market, confirming intentional introduction as a current potential pathway for this species arrival into new areas. Since a comprehensive overview of the main features characterizing the invasive potential of this species is still lacking, we aim to underpin the high priority status of P. serotina as a IAS of main concern in Italy by outlining the main biological features, pathways and impacts of the black cherry in its secondary range. Management measures to be potentially included in specific action plans are also summarised.
... Next, from the 19th century onward P. serotina was widely cultivated in European forestry to improve soil quality or to prevent fire around pine plantations. Now the species is widespread in the western and central parts of the continent and many countries it has been reported as invasive [1,2,[8][9][10]. In Poland, P. serotina was first recorded in cultivation in 1813 [11]. ...
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The North American Prunus serotina Ehrh. is an invasive neophyte widespread in Polish forests. Due to the negative impact of this species on native vegetation, the most effective methods of its removal from the stands have been searched for. Our research aimed to determine whether herbicides that were applied in spring 2020 influenced morphological features of inflorescences and flowers of P. serotina in the next year of vegetation (i.e., 2021). So far, the effects of herbicides used were analysed in the same year, no later than a few weeks after their application. The experiment was carried out on the research area of 2.7 ha located in the Zielonka Forest near Poznań in Poland (N 52.5330, E 17.1015). The response of 39 P. serotina trees to six different herbicides, containing sulfonylurea derivatives, glyphosate and phenoxy herbicides was investigated. The chemicals were applied directly to the tree, to the holes made in the trunk axis. The plant material included inflorescences from 10 control trees and 29 trees treated with different herbicides. Nine morphological inflorescence and flower features and three ratios were analysed. In total 200 inflorescences and 1000 flowers were measured. Statistically significant differences between inflorescence and flower features collected from trees treated with different herbicides were demonstrated. The largest ranges of values of the studied features were found in inflorescences and flowers collected from the control trees (C-WI, C-DWH). The greatest variability of the studied features was found for C-DWH. Compared to the control trees the reduction in inflorescence size, as well as the smaller number of flowers, were recorded in the trees treated with different herbicides, irrespective of an active substance content. The use of six different herbicides—with different active substance contents to control P. serotina proves to be effective.
... En Belgique, cet arbre fut introduit au xix e siècle en vue de produire un bois d'ébénisterie puis comme espèce améliorant la qualité de la litière des pinèdes sur sols pauvres et sableux (Jacquemart et al. 2010). Par la suite, l'espèce s'est rapidement dispersée grâce à une reproduction sexuée précoce et abondante, une grande capacité de multiplication végétative, principalement par drageonnage, une stratégie de tolérance à l'ombrage, et une capacité de dispersion à longue distance par les oiseaux (Pairon et al. 2006 ;Vanhellemont 2009). Il affecte particulièrement les habitats forestiers acidiphiles situés en zone atlantique (habitats 9120 et 9190). ...
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La publication des « Habitats d’Intérêt Communautaire de Wallonie » (HICW) est le résultat d’une collaboration entre la Direction de la Nature et de l’Eau du Département de l’Étude du Milieu Naturel et Agricole (SPW-Agriculture, Ressources naturelles et Environnement) et plusieurs services universitaires en appui scientifique à la mise en oeuvre du réseau Natura 2000 en Wallonie. Chaque chapitre dédié à un groupe d’habitats comporte une partie introductive situant leur origine et leur intégration dans le contexte européen et wallon, leur intérêt patrimonial et les services écosystémiques qui leurs sont associés. Sont ensuite passées en revue les conditions nécessaires à leur existence, les menaces qui pèsent sur eux, les principes de leur évaluation qualitative et les mesures de gestion et de restauration. Chaque habitat fait ensuite l’objet d’une fiche descriptive individuelle permettant de définir sa déclinaison wallonne, son appartenance phytosociologique et la correspondance entre les différentes typologies utilisées dans les publications scientifiques. Les caractéristiques de l’habitat sont ensuite passées en revue, avec les espèces diagnostiques, la variabilité de l’habitat à l’échelle régionale et sa répartition connue. Lorsque l’habitat peut être confondu avec un autre, les différences permettant de les distinguer sont indiquées. Ceci est particulièrement utile pour les habitats forestiers où des faciès sylvicoles peuvent prêter à confusion lors de leur identification. Enfin, l’habitat est replacé dans son contexte évolutif et ses rapports éventuels avec d’autres habitats sont décrits. Le chapitre sur les habitats forestiers décrit les hêtraies (9110, 9120, 9130, 9150), chênaies climaciques (9160, 9190), forêts de ravins et de pentes (9180), forêts alluviales (91E0, 91F0) et boulaies tourbeuses (91D0).
... 2003;Geudens e.a. 2009;Vanhellemont 2009). Bij het ordenen van de informatie bleek al snel dat de vogelkers in deze publicaties, net als in vele andere, eigenschappen toegekend of ontzegd krijgt die in de beheerpraktijk anders waargenomen worden. ...
Article
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The introduction of black cherry (Prunus serotina) in northwest Europe has been driven in three main periods from different social needs. From 1623 the emphasis was on the aesthetic value. Late nineteenth century, the growing need for wood started dominating. From the first world war on intensive use by reforestation started. In each of these periods the tree species met the expectations. With the completion of reforestation, it lost its social utility and, nicknamed ‘forest pest’, eradication campaigns started. It seems that this narrow focus lengthy blocked research into the species and that objective assessments of its properties are still difficult to find.
... The invasion of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) -a species of alien origin and anthropophyte established in European floras -is becoming a growing problem for nature conservation, and locally also for forest management due to its wide and still increasing spread in Europe (Vanhellemont 2009;Tokarska-Guzik et al. 2012;Bijak et al. 2014). In Poland, black cherry occurs all over the country, but mainly in its central and southwestern part. ...
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... 386 : ʀ ʀ < 2251704 ) 0171 <( ʅ ʀ ʀ :ɷ ʀ ʀ z_karami_gua@yahoo.com ʀ ɷ> ʀ ɳ ʇ ʀ @ ɮ >ʈ ʀ ɳ ʀ >ɷɸ ɳ ɳ ɷ> ʆɮ ɷ <ʆ ʀ ɷ ɸɳ ʈ ʀ ʇ ʀ > ʀ (Vanhellemont, 2009) . ʇ ʀ ʀ ɳ ʀ ɷ> ʇɸ @ɷ ʀ ʈ ʀ ɷɳ ɾ ɸɳ ɵ ʀ ʈ ʀ >ɷɳ> < ɸɳ ʁɳ ʀ ɳ >ɷ ʀ ʈ ʀ ʀ ɳ ʆ> ʀ ʀ ɳ ɸɳ ʄ < ʇ > ɳ ʈ ʀ @ɳ ʀ ʆɮ ɷ> ʈ ʇ ʀ ʀ ʀ ɳ . ...
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