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Nutritional properties of the leaf and stem of rice straw

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Abstract

The proportion of the leaf blade, leaf sheath and stem fractions in six rice straw varieties averaged 30, 40 and 30%, respectively. In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVD) of these fractions, estimated by the cellulase-neutral detergent solution procedure, was 503, 513 and 610 g/kg, respectively. The lower IVD of the blade and sheath was due to lower degradation parameters estimated by a simple technique of incubating samples in a cellulase-buffer solution at 388C for 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Treatment with 4% urea solution for 21 days increased the IVD and the degradation characteristics of the leaf fraction more than the stem but treatment with a 4% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution for 21 days improved the IVD and degradability characteristics of all straw fractions to the same extent. The leaf had a lower neutral detergent fibre (NDF), higher total and insoluble ash than the stem. Urea treatment which increased total ash but decreased insoluble ash in the leaf were increased in the stem. NaOH treatment increased total and insoluble ash in all fractions. The NDF content, lower in the untreated leaf compared to the stem, was unaffected by but decreased after urea and NaOH treatment, respectively. Crude protein (CP) content, similar between untreated straw fractions, increased after urea but decreased after NaOH treatment .Principal component scores of the leaf and stem fractions derived from a principal component analysis of the analysed variables showed that the leaf ranked higher in nutritive value than the stem before and after chemical treatment. The high leaf content of modern rice straw varieties should therefore promote the utilisation of rice straw as a ruminant feed. # 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

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... Relatively, rice straw has a higher proportion of leaves at 60% compared with other cereal straw, such as barley (35%) and oats (43%) (Sarnklong et al. 2010;Theander and Aman 1984). Having this high proportion of leaves to stems promotes lower in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of the leaves at 50-51% compared to the stems at 61% (Vadiveloo 2000). These data were supported by Phang and Vadiveloo (1992) who observed that, in goats, IVDMD for rice leaves is 56.2% while for stems is at 68.5%. ...
... These data were supported by Phang and Vadiveloo (1992) who observed that, in goats, IVDMD for rice leaves is 56.2% while for stems is at 68.5%. To increase the degradability of rice straw leaves, pretreating them with 4% urea solution for 21 days shows significant increase in the IVDMD of the leaves compared with the stems (Vadiveloo 2000). This improvement of the feeding value of rice straw should be taken into consideration to optimize digestibility. ...
... Feeding NAOH-treated straw in cattle showed better performance than ammonia treatment of straw. Similar improvement in animal performance was also reported by Chaudhry and Miller (1996) and Vadiveloo (2000) when NAOH-treated rice straw was fed to cattle compared to untreated straw. This was due to the improvement in palatability and intake of the animals and increase in digestibility of treated straw. ...
Chapter
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Rice straw is a readily available, practical, and cheap source of fodder for feeding ruminants such as buffaloes, cattle, goats, and sheep. Livestock producers commonly haul and stack rice straw from their rice farm, which then forms reserved feed for their animals during lean months or when good-quality roughages are scarce. The feeding of pure rice straw to ruminants during the stages of fast growth and early lactation has been shown to affect both body condition score and animal performance. This is due to lower dry matter intake and protein content (from 4.0% to 4.7% crude protein) of the straw. The high silica and lignin contents of straw also contribute to poor nutrient (dry matter and protein) digestibility (<50%). So, pretreatment of straw is necessary to enhance its contribution to improving meat and milk production. Science- and technology-based farm strategies to optimize the nutritive and feeding values of rice straw had been developed with significant improvement on intake, nutrient digestibility, and animal performance. These technologies were also proven effective in contributing additional income to livestock producers from the sales of milk or live animals. This chapter presents and discusses current innovations and developed technologies on how the nutritive (nutrient composition and fiber fraction) and feeding values of rice straw can be improved. Specifically, this focuses on pretreatment (optimization process), enrichment, and recycling of rice straw by physical, chemical, and biological processes. Also covered are practical feeding protocols when rice straw—or its combination with other feed ingredients—is used in formulating a ration. The authors also share secondary information on the effect of rice straw as animal fodder on the improvement in animal performance and production efficiencies; as well as its impact on food production (meat and milk), increasing farmers’ income, and on the protection of the environment.
... In past years, several studies have been reported on the physical and chemical characterization and utilization of rice straw as ruminant feed (Shen et al., 1998;Abou-El-Enin et al., 1999;Vadiveloo, 2000;2003). In addition, numerous methods of physical, chemical and biological treatments have been investigated, including supplementation with other feed stuffs or components in order to improve the utilization of rice straw by ruminants (Reddy, 1996;Karunanandaa and Varga, 1996a,b;Shen et al., 1999;Vu et al., 1999;Liu and Ørskov, 2000;Selim et al., 2004). ...
... Rice straw contains a relatively high proportion of leaf (60%), compared to other cereal straws such as barley (35%), oats (43%) and wheat (20-41%) (Theander and Aman, 1984). Leaves of rice straw contain less NDF than the stems, but more ash and acid-insoluble ash, resulting in a lower in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of the leaves (50-51%) compared to the stems (61%) (Vadiveloo, 2000). In goats, Phang and Vadiveloo (1992) observed an in vivo dry matter digestibility of 56.2% for rice leaf and 68.5% for the stem. ...
... In goats, Phang and Vadiveloo (1992) observed an in vivo dry matter digestibility of 56.2% for rice leaf and 68.5% for the stem. However, treatment with a 4% urea solution for 21 d increased the IVDMD of the leaf fraction more than that of the stem fraction (Vadiveloo, 2000). Since rice straw consists of approximately 60% leaves (Vadiveloo, 1995), which are less degradable than stems, improving the feed value of rice straw should focus on improving the degradability of the leaves. ...
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This paper gives an overview of the availability, nutritive quality, and possible strategies to improve the utilization of rice straw as a feed ingredient for ruminants. Approximately 80% of the rice in the world is grown by small-scale farmers in developing countries, including South East Asia. The large amount of rice straw as a by-product of the rice production is mainly used as a source of feed for ruminant livestock. Rice straw is rich in polysaccharides and has a high lignin and silica content, limiting voluntary intake and reducing degradability by ruminal microorganisms. Several methods to improve the utilization of rice straw by ruminants have been investigated in the past. However, some physical treatments are not practical because of the requirement for machinery or treatments are not economical feasible for the farmers. Chemical treatments, such as NaOH, NH3 or urea, currently seem to be more practical for on-farm use. Alternative treatments to improve the nutritive value of rice straw are the use of ligninolytic fungi (white-rot fungi), with their extracellular ligninolytic enzymes, or specific enzymes degrading cellulose and/or hemicellulose. The use of fungi or enzyme treatments is expected to be a more practical and environmental-friendly approach for enhancing the nutritive value of rice straw and can be cost-effective in the future. Using fungi and enzymes might be combined with the more classical chemical or physical treatments. However, available data on using fungi and enzymes for improving the quality of rice straw are relatively scarce.
... As per Theander and Aman, (1984), rice straw contains a relatively high proportion of leaf (60%), compared to other cereal straws such as barley (35%), oats (43%) and wheat (20-41%). Vadiveloo, (2000) reported that leaves of rice straw contain less NDF than the stems, but more ash and acid-insoluble ash, resulting in a lower in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of the leaves (50-51%) compared to the stems (61%). In goats, Phang and Vadiveloo (1992) observed an in vivo dry matter digestibility of 56.2% for rice leaf and68.5% for the stem. ...
... In goats, Phang and Vadiveloo (1992) observed an in vivo dry matter digestibility of 56.2% for rice leaf and68.5% for the stem. However, treatment with a 4% urea solution for 21d increased the IVDMD of the leaf fraction more than that of the stem fraction (Vadiveloo, 2000). Since rice straw consists of approximately 60% leaves (Vadiveloo, 1995), which are less degradable than stems, improving the feed value of rice straw should focus on improving the degradability of the leaves. ...
... In past years, several studies have been reported on the physical and chemical characterization and utilization of rice straw as ruminant feed (Shen et al., 1998;Abou-El-Enin et al., 1999;Vadiveloo, 2000Vadiveloo, , 2003. In addition, numerous methods of physical, chemical and biological treatments have been investigated, including supplementation with other feed stuffs or components in order to improve the utilization of paddy straw by ruminants (Reddy, 1996;Karunananda and Varga, 1996a,b;Shen et al., 1999;Vu et al., 1999;Liu and Orskov, 2000;Selim et al., 2004). ...
... Several NaOH treatment methods to improve the use of crop residues for ruminant feeding have been developed as reviewed by Jackson (1977), Berger et al. (1994) and Arieli (1997). The principal advantages of the different NaOH treatment methods increase degradability and palatability of treated straw, compared to untreated straw (Chaudhry and Miller, 1996;Vadiveloo, 2000). However, NaOH is not widely available as a resource for small-scale farmers and may be too expensive to use. ...
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This review paper describes the improvement of the degradability and voluntary intake of rice straw. After the review it was found that the pretreatment of paddy straw should either be avoided or made simple and cheap so that the process of treatment is economically viable. There is a need for improvement of already existing strains of lignin degrading microorganisms. The large scale treatment methods of feed production from paddy straw should be standardized and the end-product should be evaluated, so that no toxic end-products are present.
... As per Theander and Aman, (1984), rice straw contains a relatively high proportion of leaf (60%), compared to other cereal straws such as barley (35%), oats (43%) and wheat (20-41%). Vadiveloo, (2000) reported that leaves of rice straw contain less NDF than the stems, but more ash and acid-insoluble ash, resulting in a lower in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of the leaves (50-51%) compared to the stems (61%). In goats, Phang and Vadiveloo (1992) observed an in vivo dry matter digestibility of 56.2% for rice leaf and68.5% for the stem. ...
... In goats, Phang and Vadiveloo (1992) observed an in vivo dry matter digestibility of 56.2% for rice leaf and68.5% for the stem. However, treatment with a 4% urea solution for 21d increased the IVDMD of the leaf fraction more than that of the stem fraction (Vadiveloo, 2000). Since rice straw consists of approximately 60% leaves (Vadiveloo, 1995), which are less degradable than stems, improving the feed value of rice straw should focus on improving the degradability of the leaves. ...
Article
Full-text available
Paddy straw is a major agro-residue fed to ruminants in India. Feeding only rice straw does not provide enough nutrients to the ruminants even for maintenance due to the low nutritive value of this highly lignified material containing high concentration of anti-nutrition factors like lignin, silicates and oxalates. Despite the improvements of crop residues through various processing methods such as physical and chemical, the efficient utilization to desirable extent is still awaited. So utilization of paddy straw in association with concept of complete feed along with biological agents is need of the hour to maximize advantage from given feeds in animal production systems.
... The TMR that contained four different varieties of rice straw were also similar on DM, OM, NDF, NFC and CP content, however, their EE and ash content was significantly different. Previous researches have evaluated rice varieties for their composition and nutritive value and found that there is considerable variation among varieties relative to straw quality (Singh and Singh, 1995;Vadivelloo, 1995;Vadivelloo, 2000;Vadivelloo and Phang, 1996). In addition, short and tall varieties are different in chemical composition and digestibility relative to leaf, sheath and stem proportions. ...
... Leafiness is associated with height among varieties in contrast to other grasses (Vadivelloo, 1995). Leaves tend to be less digestible than stems (Vadivelloo, 1995;Vadivelloo, 2000;Vadivelloo and Phang, 1996). The total mixed rations that contained Taroum Neda had lesser EE and ash content than others (Table 1). ...
Article
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In order to determine of physical characteristics of rice straw as an effective source of fiber in ruminants, alfalfa hay, four varieties of rice straw (Taroum Neda, Taroum Neamat, Taroum Sangi, and Asgari), and four rations that contained four varieties of rice straws were investigated. The chemical (dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC) and crude protein (CP)), and physical characteristics (bulk density, water holding capacity (WHC), and soluble and insoluble DM and ash of samples, kinetics of hydration and change in functional specific gravity (FSG) and feed particle size, physically effective factor (pef)) of forages and total mixed ration (TMR) were determined. Except on ether extract and ash content, the DM, OM, NDF, NFC, and CP content of four rice straw and rations were similar but there was different among alfalfa and rice straws. The rice straws had a bulk density lesser than alfalfa. However, TMR had a similar bulk density, WHC, hydration rate, insoluble DM and ash and greater than alfalfa hay. Alfalfa had lesser WHC than rice straws and there were not different in straws. The soluble DM and FSG of rice straws were similar and lesser than those of alfalfa hay. The TMR had similar physical characteristics. Alfalfa hay had greater FSG than rice straw at all incubation times. Four rice straws and four rations were similar in indegradable NDF (iNDF) and total tract NDF digestibility (TTNDFD). Results showed that regardless the system, rice straws were similar in physically effectiveness and physically more effective than alfalfa because of having greater NDF and iNDF content, geometric mean and pef than al-falfa.
... Rice straw like other straws decribed low quality forages may be treated with different physical (ground, pelleting/ chopping for reducing particle size, soaking, steam or X-rays treatment, cooking under pressure etc.), chemical (sodium/calcium/potassium/ammonium hydroxide, urea/ ammonia treatments etc.) physico-chemical (reducing particle size and chemical treatment, sodium hydroxide treatment and pelleting, urea treatment and pelleting, chemical treatments and steaming etc.) or biological (enzyme/white rot fungi treatment etc) methods for improving its feeding value. Although application of chemical treatments like sodium hydroxide to improve of digestibility of straw increased degradability of straw [3] , it can be a cause of enviromental pollution. Therefore, the interest is focused on the biological treatments due to the outgoing concerns on food safety in animal originated food. ...
... Theander and Aman [21] stated that rice straw has higher leaves compared to that of other cereal straws such as barley, oats and wheat. Vadiveloo [3] reported that IVDMD of the leaves and the stems was 50-51% and 61%, respectively. Phang and Vadiveloo [22] stated that IVDMD for the leaf and stem of rice straw in goats was 56.2% and 68.5%, respectively. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different levels of cellulase enzyme treatments and incubations on digestibility of rice straw. Rice straw was treated by using cellulase from Trichoderma reseei at 0 (Control, C), 1 (RS+CEL1), 1.5 (RS+CEL1.5) and 2% (RS+CEL2) levels (dry matter basis, DM), and treated rice straw samples were ensiled in 6 glass jars for C, RS+CEL1, RS+CEL1.5 and RS+CEL2. For control and each level of cellulase treatment, 3 glass jars were incubated at room temperature (22ºC) in the dark for 30 days, 3 glass jars were incubated at 40±0.2ºC in an incubator for 30 days. After the treatment, the significant increases (P<0.05) were determined in treatment groups compared to control for the percentage of in vitro true digestibility as fed (IVTDas fed), in vitro true dry matter digestibility (IVTDMD), in vitro true neutral detergent fiber digestibility in DM basis (IVTNDFDDM) and in vitro true organic matter digestibility in DM basis (IVTOMDDM) of rice straw. The best results obtained from the highest level of cellulase (RS+CEL2) treatment at 40ºC for IVTDas fed, IVTDMD, IVTNDFDDM and IVTOMDDM were 62.99±0.22, 60.43±0.23, 30.70±0.23 and 63.58±0.34%, respectively. In conclusion, observed results showed that treatment of rice straw with cellulase improved the true digestibilitiy.
... Several NaOH treatment methods to improve the use of crop residues for ruminant feeding have been developed as referred to in the review by Home (1984) and . The principal advantages of the different NaOH treatment methods are increased degradability and palatability of treated straw, compared to untreated straw (Chaudhry and Miller, 1996;Vadiveloo, 2000). However, NaOH is not widely available as a resource for small-scale farmers and may be too expensive to use. ...
Chapter
In Cameroon as in many parts of the world, ruminant production plays an important role in the predominantly agricultural economy, especially in mixed animal-crop production systems. In addition to providing meat and milk for human consumption, these animals provide draft power and manure for crop production. The crop residues constitute the main feed of these animals. Land scarum and the trend of sustainable agricultural development in some highly populated zones of Cameroon like the West Region necessitate better utilisation of crop residues in general and rice straw in particular for ruminant feeding. Rice straw is rich in polysaccharides and has a high lignin and silica content, limiting voluntary intake and reducing degradability by rumen microbes. The treatment of rice straw can improve its quality and digestibility and enhance protein content. Suitable treatment techniques in combination with nutrient supplementation could result in improved utilisation of rice straw with better benefits. In recent years, biological treatments have been investigated for improvement in nutritional value of rice straw. The use of ligninolytic fungi and their extracellular ligninolytic enzymes for treatment of rice straw results in degrading the cellulose and hemicelluloses contents which improve its nutritional value. The use of fungi and enzyme treatments is expected to be a practical, cost-effective and environmental-friendly approach for enhancing the nutritive value and digestibility of rice straw. The treatment of rice straw could therefore be a good potential as feed for ruminants.
... Several NaOH treatment methods to improve the use of crop residues for ruminant feeding have been developed as referred to in the review by Home (1984) and . The principal advantages of the different NaOH treatment methods are increased degradability and palatability of treated straw, compared to untreated straw (Chaudhry and Miller, 1996;Vadiveloo, 2000). However, NaOH is not widely available as a resource for small-scale farmers and may be too expensive to use. ...
Chapter
Rice, a staple food widely consumed in Asian countries, is classified according to its morphological appearance, i.e., shape, texture, size, and color. As of January 2017, the International Rice Genebank has stored more than 100,000 rice accessions. Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima are two types of rice that are cultivated on a large scale. Each is different in its nutritional content. While its main constituent is carbohydrates, rice also has dietary fibers, vitamins, fats, and proteins. Different varieties of rice are used in signature cuisines worldwide. As rice is an agricultural product in high demand, much research has been conducted to improve the quality of the crop as well as ensure its continuous supply. Post-harvest losses and the need for appropriate handling have been identified as major challenges. Measures should be taken to ensure that the quality of harvested rice does not deteriorate as this will affect its supply for consumption. The quality of rice presented to the consumer can be affected by factors such as post-harvest diseases, storage, and packaging. Advancements in biotechnology, especially in genetic modification, will help to increase rice production to meet global demand, as well as to improve the quality of the rice grain.
... improve the use of crop residues for ruminant feeding Physical Treatment: Physical treatments of crop residues advantages of the different NaOH treatments are have received an appreciable amount of research. Crop increased degradability and palatability of treated straw residues can be ground, soaked, pelleted or chopped to compared to untreated straw [33,34]. However the reduce particle size or can be treated with steam and/ application of NaOH can be a cause of environmental pressure or X-rays. ...
Article
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Rice is the world's second largest cereal crop after wheat, however, it produces large amounts of crop residues. Only about 20% of rice straw was used for purposes such as ethanol, paper, fertilizers and fodders and the remaining amount is either removed from the field, in situ burned, piled or spread in the field, incorporated in the soil, or used as mulch for the following crop. Burning causes air pollution called the "Black Cloud" and loss of nutrients depending on the method used to burn the straw. Rice straw is unique relative to other cereal straws in being high in silica and lignin with low digestibility and protein content. Rice straw in developing countries is used as a main feed for ruminants. Enhancement of the nutritive value of rice straw with physical, chemical or biological treatments has been the focus of recent research work. Physical treatments such as crushing are related to breaking the silicified encrusting layer of straws. Chemical treatment of straw with alkalis such as ammonia and sodium hydroxide, has been commonly used for improving both apparent digestibility, bacterial colonization on cellulose and voluntary intake of straws. Fiber explosion (FIBEX) and soaking straws in wood ash extract processes showed significant increase in vivo digestibility. Supplementation with oilseed meal/cakes or rapeseed meal (RSM) and mulberry leaves as protein supplements was found to improve animal performance. Certainly, treatments using fungi and their enzymes for improving the quality of rice straw are relatively scarce. These techniques should be further developed. It was concluded that although several treatments have been used to improve the degradability and voluntary intake of rice straw, such as physical or chemical treatments, the practical use of these treatments is still restricted in terms of safety concerns, costs and potentially negative environmental consequences. Moreover, the application of ligninolytic fungi or their enzymes combined with chemical pre-treatments to rice straw may be an alternative way to shorten the period of the incubation and or decrease the amount of chemicals, affecting some synergy.
... It is clear that upon second harvest (following a mixed cropping with legumes), a remarkable switchgrass hay yield of roughly 5 tons per ha may be produced, even without any N-fertilization. Such hay yields reach or even exceed the hay outputs recorded from many other cultivated cereals (e.g., oats Independent of cultivation practice, the protein content measured in switchgrass forage (5-6%) is substantially greater than the values reported for rice hay [52], barley (Hordeum vulgare L., 4.3%) [53], and wheat (3.5%) [54], but lacks behind the protein content reported for oats hay by 1-1.8% [55]. Nevertheless, the digestibility of switchgrass hay, as measured by ADF and NDF values, appears to be greater than that of oats [55]. ...
Article
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Nowadays, the lack of cattle feed, particularly green fodder, has become a key limiting factor in the agricultural economy. Switchgrass appears to offer a viable solution to the feed shortage. An improved cultivation practice might be needed to boost switchgrass forage production all season long. This study was conducted to quantify the positive effects of introducing different legume crops (vetch and pea), optimally fertilized, on the production and quality of mixed harvested switchgrass–legumes hay in late spring (May) and switchgrass hay harvested once more in early fall (September). The studied intercropping systems, independently of the legume species used, increased forage productivity (almost threefold), reaching 7.5 t ha−1 and quality characteristics, with protein content almost rising threefold, reaching 12.5%. The aforementioned practice can assist the perennial crop (switchgrass) in providing a high hay production during the early fall harvest, even without fertilization. The overall annual economic benefit for the farmers may be increased by 90–720 € per ha, depending on the prevailing weather conditions. Overall, it may be concluded that the suggested cropping system produces a significantly higher yield of cattle feed compared to traditional monocultures, improving the agricultural economy while reducing the negative effects of modern agriculture on the environment.
... Generally, cellulose is the main constituent of the cell wall in most plants, including cotton, flax, wood, hemp, sugarcane bagasse (SCB), cereal straws and rice straws. Cellulose constitutes approximately one-third to one-half of the plant tissues comprised of hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin (Goodger, 1976;Vadiveloo, 2000). However, its content depends on the plant species, the part of the plant, environmental conditions during growth, location, normal growth and maturity (Sun et al., 2004a;Liu & Sun, 2010). ...
Article
The substantial amount of agricultural waste associated with rice stubble is a critical issue in Thailand as it still contains a high amount of cellulose. Thus, the conditions for cellulose isolation from Thai rice stubble were developed. It was found that cellulose at a higher NaOH concentration (10%) or higher isolation temperature provided a higher whiteness index (WI) value and α-cellulose content after 3 h of isolation process. Extraction using 10% NaOH at 55 °C for 3 h was determined as optimum conditions for the isolation of cellulose from rice stubble. The removal of most hemicelluloses and lignin was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The yield, WI value and α-cellulose content of rice stubble cellulose were 30.67%, 75.69% and 90.05%, respectively. Cellulose from rice stubble is suitable for use as fibre or for the synthesis of cellulose derivatives that are widely used in food and pharmaceutical products.
... Even if lignin could be degraded in the rumen it would not provide much energy to the animals. Lignin, however, has important effects on livestock production by effecting degradability and feed intake (Vadiveloo, 2000). The chemical composition of rice straw varies between varieties and growing seasons, with higher nitrogen and cellulose contents in early-season rice compared to others (Shen et al., 1998). ...
Article
Rice straw, a by-product of the rice production is mainly used as a source of feed for ruminant livestock is the major forage in rice-producing areas in India. The disposal of the rice straw is a serious problem in areas where it is the major agricultural product. It is rich in polysaccharides and has a high lignin and silica content, limiting voluntary intake and reducing degradability by rumen microbes. By rice straw treatment, its quality and digestibility can be improved and enhanced the protein content. Several methods have been used to improve the utilization of rice straw by ruminants or supplemented by other ingredients to increase digestibility and nutrient value before it can be considered a suitable animal feed. In recent years, biological treatments have been investigated for improvement in nutritional value of rice straw. The use of ligninolytic fungi and their extracellular ligninolytic enzymes for treatment of rice straw results in degrading cellulose and hemicelluloses contents which improve its nutritional value. The use of fungi and enzyme treatments is expected to be a practical, cost-effective and environmental-friendly approach for enhancing the nutritive value and digestibility of rice straw. Therefore, the treated rice straw has a good potential as feed for ruminants.
... For better utilization of straw as feed by ruminants, indepth research needs to be conducted on the physicochemical composition of straw and the anatomy of tissues related to rumen fermentation, as well as other inherent factors. A large body of work shows that the chemical composition and nutritive value of plant tissues vary in different straw fractions of rice and wheat (Sannasgala and Jayasuriya, 1987;Shand et al., 1988;Tan et al., 1995;Vadiveloo, 2000;Wang et al., 2006). However, few reports are available on the major chemical composition of corn stover (Ahmed and Zhu, 2006;Hess et al., 2002), and no study has assessed the nutritive value of different fractions of corn stover for feeding ruminants. ...
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This study investigated the chemical composition and ruminal degradability of corn stover in three maize-planting regions in Qiqihaer, Heilongjiang Province, China. The whole stover was separated into seven morphological fractions, i.e., leaf blade, leaf sheath, stem rind, stem pith, stem node, ear husk, and corn tassel. The assessment of nutritive value of corn stover and its fractions was performed based on laboratory assays of the morphological proportions, chemical composition, and in situ degradability of dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF). The chemical composition of corn stover was significantly different from plant top to bottom (p<0.05). Among the whole corn stover and seven morphological fractions, leaf blade had the highest crude protein (CP) content and the lowest NDF and ADF contents (p<0.05), whereas stem rind had the lowest CP content and the highest ADF and acid detergent lignin (ADL) contents (p<0.05). Ear husk had significantly higher NDF content and relatively lower ADL content than other corn stover fractions. Overall, the effective degradability of DM, NDF, and ADF in rumen was the highest in leaf blade and stem pith, followed by ear husk. The results indicate that leaf blade, ear husk, and stem pith potentially have higher nutritive values than the other fractions of corn stover. This study provides reference data for high-efficiency use of corn stover in feeding ruminants.
... Fibers, especially cellular membranes constitute barriers between cell compartments thereby limiting cellulolytic enzymatic degradation in forages. Although previously, quantitative studies have been focused on the need to improve forage utilization by increasing the degradability of fibrous materials using many chemical treatments (Lindberge et al., 1984;Vadiveloo, 2000). Unfortunately some detergents disrupt lipid layers as well as hydrophobic interactions that contribute to the stability of many globular proteins (Castanon and Wilke, 1981). ...
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The study evaluates the enzymatic dry matter (DM) degradability and water holding capacity of leaf and stem fractions of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) at different growth stages with or without the presence of surfactant Tween 80. While Tween 80 significantly (p<0.05) increased water and enzyme holding capacities in the leaf blades fraction, less was observed in the fraction of leaf sheath and stem of orchardgrass. The enzyme holding capacity in the leaves was also altered more than that for water holding capacity. This resulted in the increased rate and extent of enzymatic hydrolysis of the leaf blade fractions at two growth stages, whereas little was with leaf sheath and stem fractions. It was also observed that at 0.005% concentrations of Tween 80 the enzymatic DM degradability of young leaf blades was higher (p<0.05) by 20-30% compared to that of the control, as well as for water and enzyme holding capacity. For matured leaf blades the DM degradability were increased with over 0.01% concentrations of the surfactant, but the increase was less than leaf blades of young orchardgrass. This result suggests the possibility of using the surfactant Tween 80 to improve forage digestibility in the rumen.
... The nutritional value of cereal straws is also related to their botanic characteristics (Abou-El-Enin et al., 1999;Agbagla-Dohnani et al., 2001). Vadiveloo et al. (2000) revealed that the digestibility of rice morphological fractions were different, and followed as: Stem>leaf sheath>leaf blade. BM had larger leaf sheath proportion than that of WT ( Figure 2). ...
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Rice straw is an important roughage resource for ruminants in many rice-producing countries. In this study, a rice brittle mutant (BM, mutation in OsCesA4, encoding cellulose synthase) and its wild type (WT) were employed to investigate the effects of a cellulose synthase gene mutation on rice straw morphological fractions, chemical composition, stem histological structure and in situ digestibility. The morphological fractions investigation showed that BM had a higher leaf sheath proportion (43.70% vs 38.21%, p<0.01) and a lower leaf blade proportion (25.21% vs 32.14%, p<0.01) than WT. Chemical composition analysis showed that BM rice straw was significantly (p<0.01) higher in CP (crude protein), hemicellulose and acid insoluble ash (AIA) contents, but lower in dry matter (DM), acid detergent fiber (ADFom) and cellulose contents when compared to WT. No significant difference (p>0.05) was detected in neutral detergent fiber (NDFom) and ADL contents for both strains. Histological structure observation indicated that BM stems had fewer sclerenchyma cells and a thinner sclerenchyma cell wall than WT. The results of in situ digestion showed that BM had higher DM, NDFom, cellulose and hemicellulose disappearance at 24 or 48 h of incubation (p<0.05). The effective digestibility of BM rice straw DM and NDFom was greater than that of WT (31.4% vs 26.7% for DM, 29.1% vs 24.3% for NDFom, p<0.05), but the rate of digestion of the slowly digested fraction of BM rice straw DM and NDF was decreased. These results indicated that the mutation in the cellulose synthase gene could improve the nutritive value of rice straw for ruminants.
... Por medio de técnicas de optimización es posible predecir la composición de un preparado completo mediante la utilización de diferentes métodos estadísticos, identificando cuáles son las características más importantes que se deben relacionar, agrupándolas por sus propiedades y determinando cuáles podrían ser las más relevantes (15,16). Una de estas técnicas es el análisis de componentes principales (ACP), el cual permite analizar rápidamente las correlaciones entre N variables, y además permite proponer un nuevo grupo de P factores no correlacionados (P<=N) para ser reutilizados por otros métodos (17,18). ...
Article
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In this work a procedure to optimize the physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of several dietary fiber sources, which are processed as tablets, is presented. Optimization means the use of a series of mathematical techniques for reducing the number of variables to one or to a minimum number of them in such way that the most suitable answer among several possible ones be obtained. In this study a method is used that involves a linear summation of percentages and makes an analysis of the main components (AMC) or fiber sources. The method evaluates how many of the initial fiber sources are needed in order to preserve the optimum nutritional benefit that is expected from the fiber tablet elaborated by adjusting the quantities of different fiber sources. With this method it is shown that by using only maracuyá fruit remainders it is possible to obtain a tablet optimized as far as its functional characteristics and the use of resources, compared with the obtained one from mixtures of other 5 dietary fibers.
... That rice plants before harvest had higher CP values than rice straw could be due to physical and/or chemical losses during field drying, as loss of leaves during drying (i.e., the part of the rice plant with higher CP (Vadiveloo, 2000;Wang et al., 2006)), dissipation of non-protein N formed by respiration (Carpintero et al., 1979), formation of chemical linkages between proteins and structural polysaccharides (McDonald et al., 2002;Hindrichsen et al., 2006), or to reactions with fermentable carbohydrates (McDonald et al., 2002). The lack of differences among our 'stages' in ADF levels could be because the proportion of ADF increases in the plant during maturation and, consequently, the increase in ADF may have occurred before stage Pre (Wang et al., 2006). ...
Article
Due to the recent expansion of the motor fuel ethanol industry, which is largely based upon traditional food and feed crops, supplies of ruminant feeds have become limited in many areas of the world thereby creating a need for alternatives. Rice straw, a substantial biomass source worldwide, could fill this role if its nutritional value was higher. Our aims were to determine changes in the nutritive value of rice straw during long term storage, and short term field drying, as well as the voluntary DM intake of rice straw by heifers before, during and immediately after field drying. In Experiment I, rice straw was macerated and stored for 82 days after baling, but there was no effect on chemical components or 30h in vitro fermentability of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) due to maceration or storage time. In Experiment II, samples of a late maturity tall (M401) and an early maturity short (M202) rice straw variety were collected prior to harvest, during simulated field drying and when fully dried. The M401 had higher acid detergent fiber (473 versus 445g/kg dry matter (DM); P
... The most commonly used alkaline agents are sodium hydroxide (NaOH), ammonia (NH 3 ) and urea. Sodium hydroxide treatment on low-quality forages and crop residues increased degradability and palatability of roughages (Vadiveloo, 2000), while NH 3 not only increases the degradability of the straw, but also adds nitrogen (Abou-EL-Enin et al., 1999) and preserves the roughages by inhibiting mold growth (Calzado and Rolz, 1990). As another source of ammonia, urea is safer for practical use by farmers than using anhydrous or aqueous NH 3 and also provides a source of N (Schiere and Ibrahim, 1989). ...
Conference Paper
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This research was aimed to improve the nutritive value and in vitro digestibility of 8 tropical forages. Four alkaline treatments [without treatment, ammonium hydroxide (NH 4 OH), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), or urea] were applied to 5 tropical legumes (Albizia lebbek, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena leucocephala × L. pallida (cv. KX2), and Tipuana tipu) and 3 tropical grasses (Panicum maximum, Setaria sphacelata, and Hordeum sp. straw) in a 8×4 factorial design. About 250 g chopped fresh or air-dry (55°C) forages were placed in air-tight double-layered polyethylene bags. The NH 4 OH and urea treatments were applied at concentrations which equivalent amounts of N at 4% of DM sample, while the NaOH treatment was 3% of DM of sample. All samples were incubated at 21°C for 14 days. To determine the digestibility of forages, all treated samples were incubated for 48 h in a two-stage in vitro system. The NH 4 OH and urea treatments increased CP concentration of legumes by 4.9 and 12.1% units, and of grasses by 5.4 and 12.1% units, (p<0.05), while no effects on CP concentration was detected due to NaOH treatments. Although alkaline treatments decreased NDF concentration of grasses and increased that of legumes (p<0.05), there were no effects on the in vitro digestibility.
... In comparison to traditional cereal crops straw [e.g. barley 4.3%, (Vadiveloo, 2000); wheat 3.5%, oat 4.4%, (National Research Council, 1996)], switchgrass has higher protein content which is in the rate of pea and lentil straw [6.5% and 6.4%, respectively, (NRC, 1996)]. The total N uptake from switchgrass fodder production is 60 kg ha -1 in dry soils (Velestino) to 120 kg ha -1 in aquic soils (Palamas). ...
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Panicum virgatum could produce cattle feed with lower costs due to the low input requirements and its perennial nature. Dry biomass yield vs. N-P-K nutrient uptake relations as well as the N-mineralization and the N-fertilization recovery fraction for Panicum virgatum (cv. Alamo) were determined under field conditions for four N-fertilization (0, 80, 160 and 240 kg ha-1) and two irrigation levels (0 and 250 mm), οn two soils in central Greece with rather different moisture status. It was found that the dry fodder yield on the aquic soil may reach 14 t ha-1 using supplemental irrigation; while on the xeric soil a lower yield of 9-10 t ha-1 may be produced only under supplemental irrigation. Moreover, the average N, P and K concentration was 1.3%, 0.14% and 1.3% in leaves, and 0.5%, 0.85%, and 1.5% in stems, respectively, showing the very low crop requirements. Furthermore, linear biomass yield-nutrient uptake relationships were found with high R2, pointing to nutrient use efficiency of 132 and 75 kg kg-1, for N and K respectively. The base N-uptake ranged from 71-74 kg ha-1 on the aquic to 60 kg ha-1 or less on the xeric soil. Finally, it was found that N-recovery fraction was 20% on the aquic soil and lower on the xeric. Therefore, it could be conclude that Panicum virgatum seems to be a very promising crop for fodder production and its introduction in land use systems (especially οn aquic soils of similar environments) should be taken into consideration.
... Treating rice straw with calcium hydroxide improves feeding value and raises calcium content compared to untreated (Fadel Elseed, 2003;Wanapat et al., 2009). NaOH treatment increased degradability and palatability of treated straw (Vadiveloo, 2000). The increases for calcium in blood plasma may increase abortion in ewes (Aytekin and Aypak, 2011). ...
Article
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We treated barley straw with sodium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide and urea to improve the nutrition efficiency. Some macro minerals "calcium, potassium and phosphor were measured. No effect for chemical treatments on Ca, K and P (%). Potassium content (%) was 0.033, 0.038, 0.042 and 0.035 for untreated straw or treated with NaOH, NH 4 OH and Urea. Phosphor content (%) was 0.6, 0.65, 0.89 and 0.82, while calcium (%) was 0.90, 0.95, 0.88 and 0.93 for untreated straw or treated with NaOH, NH 4 OH and Urea respectively. In conclusion: No effects for treated straw with NaOH, NH 4 OH or urea on macro minerals like Ca, K and P and in respectively for other minerals.
... Treating rice straw with calcium hydroxide improves feeding value and raises calcium content compared to untreated (Fadel Elseed, 2003;Wanapat et al., 2009). NaOH treatment increased degradability and palatability of treated straw (Vadiveloo, 2000). The increases for calcium in blood plasma may increase abortion in ewes (Aytekin and Aypak, 2011). ...
Research Proposal
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Chemical and Process Engineering Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-7467 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0913 (Online) Vol.36, 2015 47 Effect of Chemical Treatments for Cellulosic Plants on Some Macro Minerals Jamal A. Tawfeeq (1), Rasha M. Shaker (2), Zainab A. Aldhaher (3), Sahar H.A. Kareem (3) and Tala A.A.Wahab (3) 1. Dept. of Anim. Res., College of Agric., Univ. of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq 2. Biochemistry Section, College of Density, University of Baghdad, Iraq 3. Dept. of Basic Science/ College Of Dentistry/ Univ. Of Baghdad. Iraq. Abstract We treated barley straw with sodium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide and urea to improve the nutrition efficiency. Some macro minerals “calcium, potassium and phosphor were measured. No effect for chemical treatments on Ca, K and P (%). Potassium content (%) was 0.033, 0.038, 0.042 and 0.035 for untreated straw or treated with NaOH, NH4OH and Urea. Phosphor content (%) was 0.6, 0.65, 0.89 and 0.82, while calcium (%) was 0.90, 0.95, 0.88 and 0.93 for untreated straw or treated with NaOH, NH4OH and Urea respectively. In conclusion: No effects for treated straw with NaOH, NH4OH or urea on macro minerals like Ca, K and P and in respectively for other minerals. Key word: Chemical treated straw, calcium, potassium, phosphor, macro elements. 1-Introduction Highly cellulosic plants like barley straw are widely uses for ruminants feeding with high crude fiber contents and low in other nutrients like nitrogen, fats, soluble carbohydrate. So, researchers treated straw with different treatments: physical, chemical and biological treatments to improve nutritive value Hassan and Tawffek (2009). Straw introduced to ruminants in a winter and in rear feed stuff season. Its agricultural byproduct for gramineae family crops production. Chemical treatments affect positively to ligno-cellulose/hemicelluloses linkage but it may negatively to other component (Al-Ani, 1986). Minerals, macro and trace minerals, important for microbial growth efficiency, digestibility and intake of forage, movement of calcium ion (Ca+2) into and out of cytoplasm make a signal for many cellular processes. Most minerals received from diets. However, more details are required in order to clarify the effects of traditionally chemical treated like sodium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide and urea for cellulosic plants. 2- Materials and Methods The effect of three chemical treatments for barley straw: sodium hydroxide (NaOH), ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and urea (NH2-CO- NH2) were investigated. Chemical treated straw was done using sodium hydroxide solution 4% as straw dry matter basis, ammonium hydroxide solution 23% and urea solution (N 3.3% as straw dry matter basis) at 39°c and 60% humidity for 30 days for all treatments (Hassan et al., 1998). Putting barley straw in plastic pans with water to give 60% humidity and mixed well. Added 4% sodium hydroxide solution as a percent 1:1 with continuous mixing to mixture then put it in nylon bags and closed well for 30 days. After that, opened to dried in plastic pens and sampled for further analysis. The same thing when treated barley straw as dry matter basis with ammonium hydroxide or urea (3.3% N). 2-1-Chemical Analysis Samples of treated/untreated barley straw were dried at 60°c for 48 hour before chemical analysis, then ground through a 1mm screen for chemical analysis. Dry matters (DM), organic matter (OM) and total nitrogen (TN) were determined according to A.O.A.C. (2005). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) were determined by the method of Goering and Van Soest (1970), Hemicellulose was estimated as the difference between NDF and ADF, Cellulose was estimated as the difference between ADF and ADL (table1). Determination of some macro minerals which it calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and phosphor (P) was done according to Tandon(2005) using quantitive procedure for calcium, colorimetrically method for phosphor at the standard curve (fig. 1.) with absorption at 882nm. in LKB,Bio chrom\ Novaspec spectrophotometer and ignition method for potassium with standard curve (fig.2.). Chemical and Process Engineering Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-7467 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0913 (Online) Vol.36, 2015 48 Fig. 1. Standard curve for phosphor standard solution Fig. 2. Standard curve for potassium standard solution 2-2-Statistical Analysis Data was statistically analyzed with completely randomized design (CRD) (2006). Duncan’s multiple range tests was used to determine the significance of differences between treatments means (1955). Table1. Chemical composition for untreated and treated straw Chemical Composition Untreated Straw Treated Straw With NaOH Treated Straw With NH4OH Treated Straw With Urea Dry Matter (gm/kg) 943.228 925.03 900.93 935.57 ASH (%) 14.187 10.889 10.787 12.870 Organic Matter (%) 80.136 81.604 79.306 80.687 Nitrogen (% ) 0.297 0.301 1.408 1.197 NDF (%) 78.556 66.936 74.337 74.356 ADF (%) 47.985 45.591 47.708 46.849 Cellulose (%) 35.506 39.627 38.763 36.125 Hemicellulose (%) 30.571 21.345 26.629 27.507 (ADL)Lignin (%) 12.479 5.964 8.945 10.724 NDF= Neutral detergent fiber, ADF=Acid detergent fiber, ADL=Acid detergent lignin Chemical and Process Engineering Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-7467 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0913 (Online) Vol.36, 2015 49 3-Results and Discussion 3-1- Effects of NaOH Treated The content of calcium, potassium and phosphor for untreated straw or treated with sodium hydroxide are presented in fig.(3). Treated barley straw with NaOH was no effects on the minerals content comparing with untreated. There was little increasing in these macro minerals for treated barley straw but it wasn’t significant. Strong alkaloids significantly effect on glycoside linkage and lignin-cellulose/hemicelluloses ester bounds (Zhu et al., 2005) with no effects on other components. Fig.3. Ca, P and K contents (%) for untreated straw and treated with NaOH Treating rice straw with calcium hydroxide improves feeding value and raises calcium content compared to untreated (Fadel Elseed, 2003; Wanapat et al., 2009). NaOH treatment increased degradability and palatability of treated straw (Vadiveloo, 2000). The increases for calcium in blood plasma may increase abortion in ewes (Aytekin and Aypak, 2011). So, this real problem increases when treated straw with calcium hydroxide. Feeding ruminants treated straw with NaOH lead to increase renal excretion of phosphorus (Becker et al., 1984). 3-2- Effects of NH4OH Treated The main effect of ammonium hydroxide treatments on calcium, potassium and phosphor was measured and the resulted in fig. (4). All results wasn’t significant with little increasing in phosphor and potassium value in treated barley straw comparing with non treated. The supply of minerals needed to meet requirements of rumen microorganisms which it more important from availability of energy for fermentation (Durand at al., 1988) and ruminants have to feed roughages in daily feeding about 60% from all diets. So, it’s important to added minerals as supplemented with ruminants daily feeding as additives to the concentrate or mixing with water or submitted as blocks in the pasture (Wu et al., 2005). Fig.4.Ca, P and K contents (%) for untreated straw and treated with NH4OH(3%N) Chemical and Process Engineering Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-7467 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0913 (Online) Vol.36, 2015 50 Most of low quality roughages needed to minerals as supplemented when administrated to ruminants for improving rumen environmental especially the efficiency of microorganisms growth (Milad et al. 2010). 3-3- Effects of Urea Treated Treated straw with urea solution (3.3% N) as a proportion 1:1 dry matter straw: urea solution 3.3% N resulted in fig. (5). The dehydration of urea with urease into two groups of ammonia as following equation: NH2 – CO – NH2 2NH3 + CO2 The resulted weak base (ammonia) effects on organic materials. So, there were no significant differences between untreated and treated straw with urea on macro minerals. While the treated with urea leading to significant increases in proportion of nitrogen content and agree with Nisa et al. (2010) when treated wheat straw with urea and molasses, without affecting the milk yield and its quality or mineral contents for early lactating buffaloes. Fig. 5. Ca, P and K contents (%) for untreated straw and treated with urea References A.O.A.C.2005.Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Official Methods of Analysis, 14th edn. Washington, DC. Al-Ani, A.N.1986. Associative effects of untreated and ammoniated wheat straw and Alfalfa fed to sheep. PhD. thesis. Oklahoma State Univ. U.S.A. Aytekin, I. and S. U. Aypak .2011. Levels of selected minerals, nitric oxide, and vitamins in aborted Sakis sheep raised under semitropical conditions. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 43(2):p.511-4. Becker, K.; S, Bartels and E, Pfeffer. 1984. Nitrogen and mineral metabolism of growing lambs fed straw treated in different ways. Arch Tierernahr.34(3):p.219-225. Duncan, D. B.1955. Multiple ranges and multiple "F" test. Biometrics, 11: p. 1-12 Durand, M and S, Komisarczuk. 1988. Influence of major minerals on rumen microbiota. J. Nutriyion.118 (2):249-260. Fadel Elseed, A. M.; J. Sekine; M. Hishinuma and K. Hamana. 2003. Effects of ammonia, urea plus calcium hydroxide and animal urine treatments on chemical composition and in sacco degradability of rice straw. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:p.368-373. Goering, H.K. and P.J. Van Soest.1970.Forage Analysis.No.98.387-598. Agriculture Handbook, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington DC, p.156-194. Hassan, S.A. and J. A. Tawffek. 2009. Effect of washing and physical form of chemical treated barley straw on nutritive value, phenolic compound and activity of rumen bacteria. 1-Sodium hydroxide treatment. Iraqi J.of Agric.Sci.40 (1):138-147. Hassan, S.A.; .A.Al-Sultan and A.N. Al-Darraji.1998. Effect of dried reed treated with caustic soda or ammonia hydroxide or urea on intake and nutrients digestion coefficients (in vivo). Dirasat. Agric. Res.25 (1):135- 145. H2O U rease Chemical and Process Engineering Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-7467 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0913 (Online) Vol.36, 2015 51 Milad, I. S.; C. Rymer and R. W. Radley.2010. Effects of ammonia treatment and undegradable protein supplementation on nutrient digestion of sheep fed on wheat straw based diets. Archiva Zootechnica. 13(1):p. 39-46. Nisa, M. ; M. Sarwar ; M. Shahzad and Z. Hassan. 2010. Influence of urea-molasses treated wheat straw fermented with cattle manure on nutrient intake, digestibilities, milk yield and its composition in early lactating nili ravi buffaloes.Italian J.of Ani. Science. http://www.doaj.org/doaj. SAS.2006. SAS/STAT User’s Guide for Personal Computers. Release 6.12.SAS.Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA. Tandon, H.L.S.2005. Methods of Analysis of Soils, Plants, Waters, Fertilizers & Organic Manures. Fertiliser Development and Consultation Organisation, pp.203. Vadiveloo, J. 2000. Nutritional properties of the leaf and stem of rice straw. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 83:p. 57- 65. Wanapat, M., S. Polyrach, K. Boonnop, C. Mapato and A. Cherdthong. 2009. Effect of treating rice straw with urea and calcium hydroxide upon intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and milk yield of dairy cows. Livest. Science 125:p.238-243. Wu, Y.M.; W. L. Hu and J. X. Liu.2005. Effects of supplementary urea-minerals lick block on the kinetics of fibre digestion, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization of low quality roughages. Journal of Zhejiang, University Science 6(8):p. 793- 797. Zhu, S.; Y. Wu; Z. Yu; J. Liao and Y. Zhang. 2005. Pretreatment by microwave/alkali of rice straw and its enzymic hydrolysis. Process Biochemist. 40:p.3082-3086.
... Furthermore, sub-samples were taken from the prepared silages and oven dried at 60 o C for 48h for proximate analysis. Source: Vadiveloo, 2000. ...
Article
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An experiment was conducted to evaluate the ensiling quality of Rice straw (RS) using graded levels of Molasses, Salt and Urea as additives. Rice straw collected from the University Farm after harvest in 2016 growing season was chopped to 2 – 3 cm sizes, mixed with the three additives at 5g, 7.5g and 10g each. Nine treatments; T1 (RS + 5g Molasses), T2 (RS + 7.5g Molasses), T3 (RS + 10g Molasses), T4 (RS + 5g Salt), T5 (RS + 7.5g Salt), T6 (RS + 10g Salt), T7 (RS + 5g Urea), T8 (RS + 7.5g Urea) and T9 (RS + 10g Urea) were replicated three times and then ensiled for 21 days. The results revealed significant (p<0.05) difference in all parameters evaluated. The result on pH showed a linear increase with the exception of T3 (RS + 10g molasses). The pH varied from 4.04 in T3 (RS + 10g Molasses) to 7.02 in T9 (RS + 10g Urea). In terms of physiochemical characteristics T1 (RS + 5g molasses), T2 (RS + 7.5g molasses) and T3 (RS + 10g molasses) resulted in better quality silage with very sweet to sweet aroma, yellowish green to pale yellow colour, high DM (90.76 - 93.35%), OM (89.55 - 92.05%), CF (29.06 - 37.32%) and NFE (53.52 - 62.71%), with moderate %CP (6.16 - 6.56%), %EE (0.53 - 1.77%), %NDF (53.52 - 62.71%) and ash (1.21 - 1.30%) content. T4 (RS + 5g Salt), T5 (RS + 7.5g Salt) and T6 (RS + 10g Salt) results in silage with putrid to pleasant aroma, light to dark brown colour low CP (5.47 - 5.61%), %DM (88.60 - 91.93%) and Ash (0.81 - 1.85%) contents. While T7 (RS + 5g Urea), T8 (RS + 7.5g Urea) and T9 (RS + 10g Urea) had significantly (p<0.05) highest crude protein (9.40 - 14.18%), Ash (1.50 - 1.88%) and metabolisable energy (2143.54 - 2478.98 kcal/kg) among the treatments evaluated. Addition of additives to rice straw silage improved the silage physiochemical qualities and farmers should add molasses or urea at 7.5% for better silage production. Keywords: Molasses, Salt, Urea, Physiochemical, Ensiling Quality and Rice straw.
... Research has indicated that treating straw with urea or sodium or calcium hydroxide could increase the nutritive value, palatability, and degradability of straw and hence increase the intake compared to untreated rice straw [17]- [19]. However, due to the price of urea, sodium or calcium hydroxide, supplementation of RS with fodder tree leaves could be more effective approach by small holder ruminant producers. ...
Article
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Three experiments were conducted to measure the preference, voluntary feed intake (VFI), and digestibility of forest type (FT) sheep fed untreated rice straw (RS) and supplemented with either sole or combined fodder tree leaves [Leucaena (L), Samanea (S) or Gliricidia (G) and their equal combinations]. The preference index (PI) was determined by consumption difference of the three fodder tree leaves (FTL), using 12 FT sheep (6 rams and 6 ewes of average weight 17.0 ± 1 kg). The sheep were offered the FTL in a cafeteria-style, and the consumption within the first 1 h was used to rank them. The sheep showed marked preference (P < 0.0001) for Leucaena over either Samanea or Gliricidia. The PI followed this order: Leucaena > Samanea > Gliricidia. For the VFI study, a total of 24 FT sheep (16 rams and 8 ewes) of average weight 17.0 ± 1.0 kg were randomly assigned to 1 of 8 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. The treatments were T1 (100% urea-ammoniated straw), T2 (RS + 100% L), T3 (RS + 100% S), T4 (RS + 100% G), T5 (RS + 50% L: 50% S), T6 (RS + 50% L: 50% G), T7 (RS + 50% G: 50% S), T8 (RS + 33% L: 33% G: 33% S). There were significant differences in the total and straw DM intakes. Total DM intake ranged from (523 to 694 g/d) whilst straw DM intake ranged from (430 to 692 g/d). The highest (P < 0.0001) total and straw DM intake were observed in sheep fed T8 and T1 diets compared to the other treatment diets. Feeding sole Gliricidia resulted in the lowest straw and total DM intakes but combining it with either Leucaena or Samanea improved intakes. In the digestibility study, 16 rams (average weight = 17.0 ± 1.0 kg) and same treatments for the VFI study were used to determine DM digestibility (DMD) and digestible organic matter in dry matter (DOMD). The DMD values ranged from 52.50% to 67.20 % while the DOMD was between 55.14 and 70.36%. Feeding T1 resulted in the highest (P = 0.027) DMD, and (P < 0.0001) DOMD but combining the FTL improved DMD and DOMD for the supplemented diets. The results of the study indicated that feeding combined FTL (3 FTL) resulted in a similar performance as that of the urea-ammoniated straw and could be used a low-cost protein supplement for sheep on low-quality roughage. Index Terms-Digestible organic matter in dry matter, dry matter digestibility, preference, voluntary feed intake.
... On the contrary, average ash content in rice straw (13.7%) was higher than that stated by Fedna (2013) for winter cereals (7.2%). Ash content varied significantly from 12.0% to 16.1%, which are in reasonable agreement with values reported by others (Hasanjanzadeha et al., 2014;Bakker et al., 2013;Sarnklong et al., 2010;Vadiveloo, 2000;Vadiveloo and Phang, 1996). RFV values varied significantly among varieties and were higher than those (61.0-68.0) ...
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Rice straw remains almost unutilised in the majority of cases and is usually burned. Data on rice residue production under European conditions are extremely limited. A detailed assessment of rice biomass yield, partitioning and straw collection was carried out in Spain. Eleven commercial rice varieties were evaluated in 2015, and two baling trials were performed in 2014 and 2015. The average straw yield was 9.7 t·ha ⁻¹ . Straw yield, biomass partitioning indices and fibre composition varied significantly according to rice variety. Straw to grain ratio and harvest index were 1.00 and 0.50 on average for rough grain, and 1.25 and 0.41 for husked grain. Biomass partitioning indices significantly correlated with grain yield. Mean content of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and ash of rice straw was 32.5%, 19.8%, 6.5% and 13.7%, respectively. Straw amount of less than 3.0 t·ha ⁻¹ can be collected during the baling trials. Rice straw could represent an eco-friendly source of lignocellulosic biomass in Europe, however, in order to achieve this, baling machine improvements and special crop management should be carried out.
... Treating rice straw with calcium hydroxide improves feeding value and raises calcium content compared to untreated (Fadel Elseed, 2003;Wanapat et al., 2009). NaOH treatment increased degradability and palatability of treated straw (Vadiveloo, 2000). The increases for calcium in blood plasma may increase abortion in ewes (Aytekin and Aypak, 2011). ...
Research
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We treated barley straw with sodium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide and urea to improve the nutrition efficiency. Some macro minerals "calcium, potassium and phosphor were measured. No effect for chemical treatments on Ca, K and P (%). Potassium content (%) was 0.033, 0.038, 0.042 and 0.035 for untreated straw or treated with NaOH, NH 4 OH and Urea. Phosphor content (%) was 0.6, 0.65, 0.89 and 0.82, while calcium (%) was 0.90, 0.95, 0.88 and 0.93 for untreated straw or treated with NaOH, NH 4 OH and Urea respectively. In conclusion: No effects for treated straw with NaOH, NH 4 OH or urea on macro minerals like Ca, K and P and in respectively for other minerals.
... The main protein and digestibility & high level of lignification and advantages of the different NaOH treatment methods are silicification. Rice straw contains about 3% crude protein increased degradability and palatability of treated straw (air dry basis), 35% crude fiber and 1900 kcal DE/kg of [7]. Among numerous treatments, the biological treatment straw [1]. ...
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Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of probiotic on nutrient improvement, digestibility and milk yield and composition in Crossbred dairy cows. In both the experiments (1 and 2), rice straw was treated using commercial probiotic protexin. In experiment 1, a complete randomized design (CRD) was used with eight Holstein Friesian Crossbred heifersaverage weighing 180.25±21 kg. The animals were allocated into two groups (4 in each group) based on their weight and fed untreated (T1) or probiotic-treated (T2) rice straw for 15 days. The dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), detergent fibre (ADF) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) intake did not vary significantly (P<0.05) among treatments. However, there was a significant (P < 0.05) difference of CP digestibility (63.60 vs 77.58%) in probiotic-treated rice straw compared to control. In experiment 2, ten Holstein crossbred dairy cows, weighing 235±17 kg, from the livestock and poultry farm of BSMRAU, Gazipur-1706, Bangladesh, were individually fed in free-stalls and milked once daily. Experiment 2 had the same treatments as of experiment 1, using a CRD and it was conducted during the first 30 days in early lactation. The fat, solid not fat (SNF), protein, lactose, ash and total solid (TS) % were in an expected range as a milk constituent but did not vary significantly (P<0.05) after feeding probiotic treated rice straw. The present study demonstrated that probiotic treated rice straw led to nutrient improvement, especially CP content, enhance digestibility and maintain normal milk composition in dairy cows.
... Treating rice straw with calcium hydroxide improves feeding value and raises calcium content compared to untreated (Fadel Elseed, 2003;Wanapat et al., 2009). NaOH treatment increased degradability and palatability of treated straw (Vadiveloo, 2000). The increases for calcium in blood plasma may increase abortion in ewes (Aytekin and Aypak, 2011). ...
Research Proposal
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We treated barley straw with sodium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide and urea to improve the nutrition efficiency. Some macro minerals "calcium, potassium and phosphor were measured. No effect for chemical treatments on Ca, K and P (%). Potassium content (%) was 0.033, 0.038, 0.042 and 0.035 for untreated straw or treated with NaOH, NH 4 OH and Urea. Phosphor content (%) was 0.6, 0.65, 0.89 and 0.82, while calcium (%) was 0.90, 0.95, 0.88 and 0.93 for untreated straw or treated with NaOH, NH 4 OH and Urea respectively. In conclusion: No effects for treated straw with NaOH, NH 4 OH or urea on macro minerals like Ca, K and P and in respectively for other minerals.
... According to Sing et al. (2016) only about 20% of rice straw has been utilized as a raw material in industrial process whereas 80% of it is left on the field as waste. Rice straw consists of 70% leaves (leaf blade and leaf sheath) and 30% stem (straw) (Vadiveloo, 2000). The chemical composition of rice straw as reported by Hessien et al (2009) in Singh et al. (2016) consists of cellulose (33-47%), hemicellulose (19-27%), lignin (5-24%), and silica (18.3%). ...
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Merang, part of rice straw, waste generated from rice harvesting process, is abundantly available in Indonesia. Incomplete burning of merang generates carbonized rice straw (CRS). This study is aimed to identify selected minerals (K,Ca, Na and Fe) contents of CRS using AAS, and to evaluate the effect of differentconcentrations (1.5-3%) of CRS addition on the pasting properties of rice:sago mixflour (55:45), and on the black color intensity, texture, and sensory properties of dawet gel. CRS contains potassium (20599.91±776.44 ppm), calcium (307.58±70.71), sodium (30.59±1.03ppm) and iron (1079.98±20.75 ppm). Despite the temperature similarity, pasting properties of mixed flour such as final viscosity and peak time are significantly decreased in response to CRS addition. Increase in CRS concentration results to significant increase of the black color intensity and texture of dawet gel. Sensory evaluation suggests that most of the panelists prefer the color and firmness showed by dawet gel with addition of 2.5% of carbonized rice straw. This result suggests that CRS could be an interesting new food ingredient for increasing black color intensity and texture of food product.
... Samples were centrifuged and the residues were washed with HCl (pH 2.0) and lyophilized. After lypholization, lignin contents were obtained after weighing of tubes taking empty tube as control (Van Soest et al., 1991;Vadiveloo, 2000). Cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin content of each variety was determined in three replications. ...
Article
Rice straw is a useful bio-resource with worldwide annual production of approximately 731 million tons. However, this valuable biomass is unfortunately burnt on field as waste that causes air pollution, global warming, plant nutrient losses and environment menace. About 60% of rice straw produced in Asia in general and India in particular is burnt in field. As for the basic requirement to predict their suitability for best alternative industrial uses biochemical, morphological and chemical (functional group) characterization of straws of 18 most widely grown rice cultivars from eastern region of India was carried out. Biochemical characterization was done on the basis of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and silica content. The surface morphology of straws was observed through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), while, presence of functional groups were analyzed through Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Primarily, quantified biochemical profiles were used to group cultivars for best alternate uses of straw like bio-ethanol, biochar, compost and mushroom production. Morphological feature (from SEM) of straw and functional group (through FTIR) were used to support the grouping. Cultivars with higher hemicelluloses and cellulose with low to medium lignin and Si were better suited for bio-ethanol production while, straw having higher lignin and low to medium cellulose and hemicellulose were selected for biochar. Therefore, considering all the three characterization methods (chemical composition, morphological features, presence or absence of functional groups), we found straws of rice cultivars, Tapaswini and IR 64 were best suited for bio-ethanol and biochar production, respectively. There are overlapping as well as contradictory observations found during grouping, when the three approaches were followed together. This indicate that the grouping of straw for better alternative uses could be done by biochemical and morphological characterization but this should be validated in small scale at farm or factory level for final recommendation.
... In this chemical process, the straw is sprayed or sprinkled with a dilute solution of NaOH (about 5%) at the rate of 1 litre/kg and the moist straw is immediately fed to animals. It increases degradability and palatability of treated straw (Chaudhry and Miller, 1996;Vadiveloo, 2000). However, this technology is not being used widely, because it may be costly for the poor farmers and not readily available to them. ...
... Treating rice straw with calcium hydroxide improves feeding value and raises calcium content compared to untreated (Fadel Elseed, 2003;Wanapat et al., 2009). NaOH treatment increased degradability and palatability of treated straw (Vadiveloo, 2000). The increases for calcium in blood plasma may increase abortion in ewes (Aytekin and Aypak, 2011). ...
Research Proposal
Full-text available
We treated barley straw with sodium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide and urea to improve the nutrition efficiency. Some macro minerals "calcium, potassium and phosphor were measured. No effect for chemical treatments on Ca, K and P (%). Potassium content (%) was 0.033, 0.038, 0.042 and 0.035 for untreated straw or treated with NaOH, NH 4 OH and Urea. Phosphor content (%) was 0.6, 0.65, 0.89 and 0.82, while calcium (%) was 0.90, 0.95, 0.88 and 0.93 for untreated straw or treated with NaOH, NH 4 OH and Urea respectively. In conclusion: No effects for treated straw with NaOH, NH 4 OH or urea on macro minerals like Ca, K and P and in respectively for other minerals.
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This study was to investigate the feeding quality of rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw at different cutting heights and the related stem morphological traits. Wuyujing 3, Yangfujing 8 and Liangyoupeijiu in 2010, and Wuyujing 3, Nanjing 44, Nanjing 46, and Liangyoupeijiu in 2011 were used in this study. In 2010, we investigated the feeding quality related traits (such as nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC), crude protein (CP), hemicelluloses and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents) of rice straw among three cutting heights 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm. In 2011, we investigated the nutrient contents (such as NSC, CP, hemicelluloses and ADF contents and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD)) of leaf, sheath and stem in the top 1st, 2nd and 3rd nodes and the stem morphological characteristics by free hand sections. The results in 2010 indicated that the NSC content of rice straw at 10 cm cutting height was higher than that at 20 cm and 30 cm cutting heights, CP content of rice straw at 10 cm cutting height was lower than that at 20 cm and 30 cm cutting heights, hemicelluloses and ADF contents were not significantly different among 3 cutting heights. The results of 2011 indicated that the NSC content in stem of the top 3rd node was much higher than that in the 2nd and 1st node, and higher than that in leaf and sheath of the same node. CP content in leaf was much higher than that in stem and sheath. Hemicelluloses content in leaf and sheath was higher than that in stem, and ADF content was higher in sheath than that in leaf and stem, but all not significantly (p > 0.05). IVDMD of stem was higher than leaf and sheath. Those results could explain the feeding quality differences of rice straw at different cutting heights. Wall thickness (WT) and the parenchyma area percentage of stem were significantly positively correlated with NSC content and IVDMD (p < 0.05), which could be used as selection traits for more digestible rice straw.
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The purpose of this study was to assess the chemical composition of dual purpose pearl millet stover and to evaluate its effects on the productive performance of goats. Thirty-six goats aged 18–24 months, with an average initial live weight of 23.8 kg, were randomly assigned to six treatments, defined by the type of variety of pearl millet stover fed as basal diet. In each treatment, goats were fed ad libitum for 90 days with the pearl millet stover complemented with cowpea hay (600 g/day/individual). There were significant variations in the crude protein and neutral detergent fiber contents of stover of the pearl millet varieties. The animals fed Chakti and ICMV167005 had the highest average daily live weight gains, compared with the other treatments (p = 0.07). Daily fecal output (wet basis) ranged from 666–751 g/day/goat. These results indicate that Chakti and ICMV167005 stover varieties may be suitable goat feeds.
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The comparison was made between wild and gene mutant variety brittle culm1 (bc1) rice straw harvested at four different growth stages in terms of morphological proportion, chemical composition and in vitro gas production. Both varieties were harvested on day 73, 95 (anthesis), 105, and 116 (physiological maturity) of growth post-sowing, designated as Cut 1, Cut 2, Cut 3 and Cut 4, respectively. During the growing stage, the bc1 variety had significantly higher proportion of stem, but lower proportion of leaf blade than the wild. The rice straw and straw fractions for bc1 variety were significantly lower in acid detergent fiber and ash contents, and higher in lignin (pm) and crude protein contents than those for wild variety. The bc1 rice straw was significantly higher in gas production rate, but lower in potential gas production and lag time than the wild, with little varietal difference in organic matter digestibility between two varieties. With the increasing harvest date, the lignin (pm) content increased, while the crude protein content decreased for both rice straw. No drastic variation was showed on gas production and organic matter digestibility of rice straw near physiological maturity from Cut 3 to Cut 4. The neutral detergent fiber and silica insoluble in acid detergent and neutral detergent were lower for stem than those for the other fractions. The gas production and estimated organic matter digestibility of the stem were significantly higher than those of other straw fractions. The result indicated that the gene mutant led to a reduction in gas production and an increase in gas production rate. The physiological maturity stage was optimal harvesting time for both grain and straw production.
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Livestock farming is very important in Asia and the pacific region as a source of livelihood for resource poor farmers’ — provision of food and food products and as a source of income. However, livestock productivity in many countries is below their genetic potential because of inadequate and imbalanced feeds and feeding, poor reproductive management and animal diseases exacerbated by lack of effective support services, such as animal husbandry extension, artificial insemination (AI) and/or veterinary services. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific (RCA), with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, implemented a Technical Cooperation (TC) project entitled “Integrated Approach for Improving Livestock Production using Indigenous Resources and Conserving the Environment” (RAS/5/044). The overall objective of the project was to improve livestock productivity through better nutritional and reproduction strategies while conserving the environment. The specific objectives were (i) to improve animal productivity and decrease emission of selected greenhouse gases, (methane and carbon dioxide) and selected nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) into the environment; and (ii) to identify and adopt better breeding strategies that would improve animal productivity. This publication contains research results presented by scientists during the final review meeting incorporating the contributions of the experts associated with RAS/5/044. It is hoped that this publication will help stimulate further discussion, research and development into ways of improving the efficiency and productivity of livestock thus leading to higher income for smallholder farmers in the region. The IAEA officers responsible for this publication were O. Perera, A. Schlink and E.N. Odongo of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture.
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To expand the use of whole crop rice (WCR), accurate information on the nutritional value of newly developed varieties is required. We cultivated three new WCR varieties (Oryza sativa cv. Suweon 605, Yeongwoo and Mogwoo) developed by the National Institute of Crop Science in the southern Korean Peninsula and evaluated their feed value (crude protein, CP; acid detergent fiber, ADF; neutral detergent fiber, NDF; in vitro dry matter digestibility, IVDMD; total digestible nutrients, TDN; and relative feed value, RFV) and functional materials (β‐carotene and α‐tocopherol). Oryza sativa cv. Suweon 605 showed the earliest heading date and Yeongwoo the highest dry matter (DM) yield; however, there were no significant differences among varieties (p > 0.05) in DM yield. The CP content was highest in Mogwoo, and higher in leaves and grains than in stems. Oryza sativa cv. Suweon 605 had the lowest ADF and NDF contents but the highest TDN and RFV. The grain nutrient value changed drastically in all varieties by 10 days after heading. The grain ratio was highest in Oryza sativa cv. Suweon 605 at 65.6% and lowest in Mogwoo at 12.3%. The leaf β‐carotene content was 7–15 times higher than that in stems and grains, and this increase was higher in Yeongwoo (66.25 mg/kg) than those of all other measured objectives in this experiment (p < 0.05). Similar trends were observed in α‐tocopherol content. Based on these results, Oryza sativa cv. Suweon 605 is recommended in terms of feed value and Yeongwoo is recommended for its high productivity. Because the feed value changed rapidly by 10 days after heading, it is desirable to ensure a later harvest time. The effects of functional materials on livestock performance require further study.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate rumen bacteria activity on degradation of untreated Rice Straw (RS) and treated with low temperature steam, sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) and exogenous enzyme using disappearance of Dry Matter (DM) and Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) in rumen bacteria culture for 96 h incubation. Treatments were including; untreated RS, RS treated with low temperature steam (120°C for 120 min), RS treated with 80 g kg -1 DM NaOH, RS treated with 20 g kg -1 DM exogenous enzyme and RS treated with enzyme+NaOH. The result showed disappearance of dry matter after 96 h incubation by rumen bacteria was 60.3, 75.2, 85.3, 81.3 and 96.2 g/100 g for untreated rice straw and treated with steam, NaOH, enzyme and enzyme+NaOH, respectively. Sodium hydroxide, enzyme and steam caused to increase disappearance NDF of rice straw in media culture in compared with the other samples, 96 h after culturing and the highest increase of NDF disappearance was for rice straw treated with enzyme+NaOH (345.3 mg g -1) (p<0.05). Therefore, it may be resulted that low temperature steam, exogenous enzyme and NaOH influence the growth and activity of rumen bacteria on rice straw in compared to untreated RS.
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This study was conducted to determine the effect of chemical treatment on fermentative activity and nutritive value of Sesame stover by in situ and in vitro gas production techniques. Treatments were untreated Sesame Stover (SS), SS+Sulphunc Acid (SSA), SS+Urea (SSU), SS+NaOH (SSN) and SS+Urea+NaOH (SSUN). Nylon bags (9 ×17 cm) each containing 5 g sample (2 mm screen) were incubated in the rumen of fistulated sheep for 0.0, 4, 8, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h to determine the ruminal disappearance. Cumulatve gas production was recorded at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation and the equation of P = A (l-e-ct) was used to describe the kinetics of gas production. Results showed that NDF concentration of the samples was significantly (p <0.05) decreased by sulphuric acid treatment also the urea caused a significant (p <0.05) increase in CP content of sesame stover. Dry matter ruminal disappearance was significantly (p <0.05) increased by NaOH treatment. Moreover, the in situ quickly degradable fraction of CP was increased (0.625±024) when urea applied. The b fraction and rate of gas production were significantly (p<0.05) increased (72.32 ±2.88) and decreased (0.029 ±0.002), respectively by adding the NaOH to SS.
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The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of chemically treatment of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) residues including stem, capsules and leaves on chemical composition, in vitro gas production parameters and in situ disappearance. Samples were taken from different forms and then composited to provide two different type of the residues as high leaves and low leaves. Chemically treated samples were prepared by adding NaOH (NaOH as 4g in 100 ml water/ 100g DM), keeping for 48 h, followed by adding urea (urea as 4g in 100 ml water/ 100g DM). Experimental treatments were high leaves and low leaves in forms of untreated and chemically treated in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Gas production and in situ DM disappearance were measured at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation. In vitro gas production and in situ DM degradation kinetics were described using the exponential equation. Chemical treatment increased (P < 0.05) crude protein (CP) content of both high leaves and low leaves. In addition, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of the residues significantly (P < 0.05) decreased following the chemically treatment. Whereas, organic matter content of the samples treated was not affected (P > 0.05) by the chemical treatment. Slowly degradable fraction (b) and constant rate (c) of the gas production were significantly higher in high leaves untreated samples than those of the low leaves (P < 0.05). High leaves sample had higher the in situ quickly DM degradable fraction (a) than those of the low leaves sample. Chemically treatment positively affected on the gas production and in situ DM degradation parameters. In the way that NaOH + urea treatment increased (P < 0.05) the in situ soluble DM fraction and slowly degradable fraction of gas production. Our result indicates that high leaves residual had higher degradability potential than those of the low leaves residual. Also, chemically treatment is an effective method of altering the rumen degradation characteristics of DM in by products.
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Sweet sorghum is a variant of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L) Moench, grown in Botswana for edible juicy sweet stem instead of grain. Suitability of sweet sorghum as forage for livestock was investigated by evaluating twelve local landraces for chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD). The samples were collected from a randomised complete block design trial that had three replicates. Samples of whole plant and parts (leaf and, stalk and panicle) were analysed for crude protein, calcium, phosphorus, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), neutral detergent bound nitrogen (NDF-N), IVDMD and ash. The different landraces had similar chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility. Neutral detergent fibre was significantly different among the landraces and was highest in Moitshopari (645 g/kg) and lowest in Botala landrace (550 g/kg). IVDMD averaged 78% and was not significantly different among landraces. Leaf had significantly higher calcium, ADF, NDF, NDF-N, Ash and phosphorus. Crude protein tended to be different between plant parts. There was a significant interaction between landrace and plant parts for phosphorus only. The results showed that local sweet sorghum landraces might provide a viable energy resource for ruminants due to high IVDMD. It is necessary to screen these local landraces for biomass production and nutritional evaluation through animal trials.
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Three substrates, sago fibre, rice straw and sawdust supplemented with either palm kernel cake, rice bran, sodium nitrate or urea were fermented by the white-rot fungus, Pleurotus sajor-caju, for 0 (control), 10 or 25 days at 25°C in the dark. The rate of supplementation with palm kernel cake and rice bran was 200 g supplement/kg substrate and the rate with sodium nitrate and urea was 100 g supplement/kg substrate. After fermentation the spent waste was analysed for total ash (TA), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), crude protein (CP) and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVD). All substrate-supplement combinations except with urea, promoted fungal growth. The characteristics of the spent waste of the three substrates after 25 days were different indicating fungus-substrate specificity during fermentation. With sago fibre, primary metabolism of the soluble carbohydrates was not followed by secondary metabolism of the structural carbohydrates. This was reflected in an increase in TA and NDF. With sago fibre, a depressed IVD was associated with an increase in CP reflecting antagonism between these two processes. With sawdust, primary and secondary metabolism of the carbohydrates was evident with the sodium nitrate supplement. With rice straw, although there was also a loss of organic matter, secondary metabolism of the structural carbohydrates occurred with the rice bran and sodium nitrate supplements. Of the three substrates, rice straw supplemented with either palm kernel cake or rice bran yielded a spent waste suitable for animal feeding, with an IVD of 63.3% and composed of 20.0% TA, 11.2% CP and 55.2% NDF.
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Samples of straw from two varieties of rice, namely Biris and Saratani were collected and separated into leaf (including leaf blade and sheath) and stem fraction and were analyzed for chemical composition and predicted digestibility. The grain yield, straw yield, grain to straw ratio and leaf to stem ratio were determined in terms of dry matter. Varietal differences in the straw chemical composition were significant where Saratani had higher concentration of organic matter (P<0.01) and digestibility (P<0.01) while Biris produced higher concentration of acid detergent lignin (ADL) (P<0.001), acid detergent fiber (ADF) (P<0.05) and ash (P<0.01). Between the two varieties, Saratani variety is superior to Biris in view of the higher grain yield, grain to straw ratio and digestibility. The result showed that rice variety with good agronomic characteristics produced straw with better nutritive quality.
Chapter
Feed unavailability has become a major concern in sustenance of livestock rearing adopted as an occupation. To meet the increasing demand for livestock products, higher quantities of feed resources are required in the coming years. In this context, there is a need to look for alternate feed resources, which are available in sufficient quantity but have not been given much attention for their efficient utilization in livestock feeding. Among these, crop residues have enormous potential for their utilization as a potential livestock feed.
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This study was conducted to determine the effects of cellulase and xylanase treatments on in vitro 24-h gas production (GP), organic matter digestibility (OMD), and metabolizable energy (ME) values of rice straw (RS). Rice straws were treated with cellulase and xylanase at the levels of 0% (C1), 0.5% (RS+CEL0.5), 1% (RS+CEL1), 1.5% (RS+CEL1.5), and 2% (RS+CEL2) and 0% (C2), 0.5% (RS+XYL0.5), 1% (RS+XYL1), 1.5% (RS+XYL1.5), and 2% (RS+XYL2), respectively. Rice straws treated with each level of cellulase and xylanase were ensiled in 6 glass jars. For each level of cellulase and xylanase treatment, 3 glass jars were incubated at room temperature, while 3 glass jars were incubated at 40 ± 0.2 °C in an incubator for 30 days. In vitro GP for 24 h, OMD, and ME values in RS+CEL2 were higher (P < 0.05) than those of C1 and the other groups treated with cellulase, while significant increases (P < 0.05) for the same parameters were obtained from RS+XYL1 incubated at 40 ± 0.2 °C, RS+XYL1.5, and RS+XYL2 compared to C2, RS+XYL0.5, and RS+XYL1 incubated at room temperature. In conclusion, in vitro 24-h GP, OMD, and ME values were the highest (P < 0.05) in the groups treated with the highest level of cellulase and xylanase incubated at 40 ± 0.2 °C.
Article
The objectives of the study were to estimate the effect of agronomic improvement on rice straw nutritional value and to compare the response of straw varieties to urea treatment. The agronomic characteristics (i.e. grain yield, days to maturity, culm height and morphological composition) and straw characteristics (i.e. chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVD)) before and after 4% urea treatment of two single-crop and six double-crop rice varieties were measured. The single-crop varieties were taller, 89cm versus 78cm, late maturing, 130 days versus 122 days, lower in grain yield, 1450kg/ha versus 4382kg/ha and contained more stem, 48% versus 28%, than the double-crop varieties. The total ash, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), insoluble ash, IVD and crude protein (CP) of the single-crop varieties averaged 18.0, 60.9, 6.2, 41.2 and 6.0%, respectively, in comparison with 17.8, 63.5, 5.2, 54.0 and 3.3%, respectively, for the double-crop varieties. Covariance-adjusted means of the single-crop varieties after urea treatment were 20.4, 64.5, 6.5, 64.4 and 11.6%, respectively, and corresponding estimates for the double-crop varieties were 19.5, 61.7, 9.2, 59.6 and 5.2%, respectively. The IVD and CP of straw, respectively, improved and declined (P
Multivariate statistical procedures were used to analyse data on the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of four varieties of rice straw after treatment with 4% NaOH solution, 4% urea solution or distilled water (control) for 48 hours. For each treatment, stepwise discriminant analysis identified the variables which maximised differences between varieties and the eigenvectors from principal component analysis quantified the contribution of these criterion variables to varietal differences. The overall response of varieties to chemical treatment was demonstrated qualitatively, by cluster analysis, and quantitatively, from the magnitude of the principal component scores. The analyses revealed that the urea and control treatments elicited the same response whereas NaOH had the greatest effect on the poorest straw variety. Similar analyses conducted on the botanical fractions of the varieties showed that the relative response of the inflorescence, stem, leaf blade and leaf sheath fractions was not altered by chemical treatment.
Article
Untreated and urea-treated straw and straw fractions of seven rice varieties from three cultivation seasons have been evaluated on their DM, OM loss and degradation characteristics from in sacco disappearance and in vitro gas production measurements. Drying temperatures from 45°C to 100°C did not seem to influence the degradability of urea-treated rice straw, whereas urea-treated straw dried at freezing temperatures (-35°C) gave slightly higher degradability than higher temperatures. Untreated early season rice straw showed higher degradability than straw of middle and later season rice. There was a significant increase in the degradation of straw after urea treatment, and greatest for late and middle season rice straw. On average, urea-treatment of rice straw increased the DM and OM in sacco losses after 48 h of incubation (48 h) by 24.0% and 30.7%, respectively. In order to study the kinetics of the degradation of fibre fractions, the disappearance in sacco was also estimated for the loss of hemicellulose, cellulose and extractable biogenic silica (EBSi). There was a great variation in the content of silica between varieties. Rice straw degradation seemed to be related to the biogenic silica content (acid detergent insoluble silica (ADISi)). Urea treatment increased the extraction of biogenic silica and hence increased the degradation of hemicellulose and cellulose. The improvement in sacco disappearance of cellulose due to urea treatment was 36.8%, 19.5% and 5.3% for late, middle, and early rice straw, respectively. The degradability was higher for the stem than for the leaf blades and leaf sheaths. The response to urea treatment, however, was higher for leaf sheaths and leaf blades than for the stems, evening out differences in degradability. Urea treatment tended to increase the production of acetic acid whereas there was no effect on propionic and butyric acid production.
Article
Rice straws were either treated with urea (50 g urea in 600 ml of water) and stored for 2 weeks or sprayed with urea solution (20 g urea in 600 ml of water kg−1 DM straw) and fed immediately. These two basal diets were supplemented with rice bran (RB), mineral and vitamin premix, common salt, with or without fish meal (FM) to form four treatment diets.In situ degradability studies and chemical analyses were used to test the effectiveness of urea treatment or supplementation in a completely randomized design using three fistulated sheep fed a standard diet. Animal response when fed urea-treated rice straw (UTRS) or urea-supplemented rice straw (USRS), supplemented with RB with or without FM, was studied using 32 growing female dairy goats in a completely randomized design. Growth rate and dry matter intake (DMI) were recorded for 90 days.The results showed that N content increased from 7.0 (untreated rice straw (URS)) to 17.4 and 18.6 g N kg−1 DM for USRS and UTRS, respectively. The rate of DM degradation was significantly (P < 0.01) increased from 1.9% (URS) and 3.5% (USRS) to 4.5% h−1 (UTRS). The 48 h DM degradability was improved from 42.5% (URS) and 55.1% (USRS) to 65.7% (UTRS).The effective degradability (ED) calculated assuming passage rates of 2% h−1 and 4% h−1, respectively, were 39.6% and 31.3% (URS), 45.3% and 37.3% (USRS) and 53.6% and 44.1% (UTRS).Urea treatment increased daily straw DMI to 59.3 g kg−1W0.75 compared with 23.1 g for USRS. This corresponds to 2.9% and 1.2% of body weight, respectively. The total DMI was increased from 45.8 (2.3% of body weight) to 89.4 (4.3% of body weight) g kg−1W0.75 day−1 for USRS and UTRS based diets, respectively. Both urea treatment and FM supplementation significantly (P < 0.001) increased average daily gain (ADG) from 3.3 ± 1.5 (USRS) to 36.9 ± 1.5 g day−1 (UTRS) and from 13.0 ± 1.5 g day−1 (USRS + FM) to 49.1 ± 1.5 g day−1 (UTRS + FM).It was concluded that urea treatment promoted DMI with a corresponding increased growth performance by goats due to increased rate and extent of degradation of UTRS compared with USRS. Similarly, when a small amount of FM was supplemented increased weight gains and feed efficiency were observed on both USRS and UTRS based diets.
Article
Rapid, inexpensive, and accurate procedures are required for predicting in vivo dry matter digestibility (DMD) of forages, particularly in a forage breeding program when many samples may be analyzed simultaneously. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the relationships of several cellulase digestion procedures to in vivo DMD, in vitro DMD using rumen liquor, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), and hemicellulose for several temperate forage species. A cellulase solution was produced by culturing the conidia from Trichoderma reesei Simmons in a mineral medium containing 10 g L⁻¹ cellulose. Apparent activity of the cellulase solution was determined by digesting cool season forages of known DMD and solka floe substrate. Fortytwo dried cool season forages which previously had been evaluated for per cent NDF, ADF, ADL, in vitro DMD using rumen liquor, and in vivo DMD using sheep were subjected to different cellulase digestion procedures. Correlations between the various cellulase DMD techniques and in vivo DMD were highly significant (p < 0.01) and ranged from 0.89 to 0.97. Correlations of the cellulase in vitro DMD techniques and NDF, ADF, ADL, and hemicellulose were negative and similar in magnitude to the same parameters .when correlated to in vitro DMD using rumen liquor. The data suggested that the in vitro DMD obtained by using a prepared cellulase solution was an excellent predictor of in vivo DMD and the digestion was similar to that when digesting forages with rumen liquor. Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left. Copyright © . .
Article
Twelve Katjang-cross goats were fed, ad libitum, whole rice straw of varieties MR 84, MR71 and MR1 in Expt. 1 and the leaf and stem fractions of MR84 and MR71 in Expt. 2. A daily supplement of 20 g/kg liveweight (LW) of a 3 : 1 or 1 : 1 ratio of dehydrated palm oil mill effluent (POME) and palm kernel cake (PKC) was fed in both experiments. In Expt. 1, except for crude protein (CP) which was highest in MR84 (7.3%) and total dry matter (DM) intake which was highest in MR1 (35.4 g DM kg LW), there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in chemical composition, straw intake and DM digestibility (DMD) between straw varieties. Means were: neutral detergent fibre, 61.5 ± 3.1%; total ash, 19.7 ± 2.0%; ether extract 1.3 ± 0.3%; straw intake, 15.9 ± 6.6 g DM/kg LW; DmD, 52.4 ± 9.6%. In Expt. 2, there were differences in composition between leaf and stem fractions especially in total ash content, which was 20.9% and 12.7% respectively (P < 0.001). The voluntary intake of leaves was higher than stems in MR84 (P < 0.01) and MR71 (P < 0.05); overall mean intake of leaves and stem was 11.8 and 5.8 g DM/kg LW. However, the DMD of leaf diets was lower than stem diets for both varieties (P < 0.05); overall mean DMD was 56.2% and 68.5%, respectively. There were small but significant differences in composition between the supplement ratios but these had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the intake and digestibility of the diets in Expt. 1 and Expt. 2.This study suggests that the leafiness of modern rice varieties and the high intake of leaf fractions increases the potential of rice straw as a feedstuff for small ruminants. Palm oil byproducts make good supplements with rice straw.
Article
The relationship between silica distribution and microbial colonization in the cuticle of rice straw was examined using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). Rice straw stems cut into 1 -cm lengths were either treated with 40 g NH3 kg−1 dry matter (DM) or left untreated. Microbial colonization was examined using cultures of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 grown on rice straw as the sole source of carbohydrate. The nylon bag technique was also used to study the colonization of rice straw by mixed ruminal microorganisms and to determine in sacco dry matter disappearance (ISDMD). Examination by EDX revealed the outer (abaxial) surface of the leaf sheath to be virtually covered by silica, with high levels of accumulation within distinctly arranged opaline bodies (phytoliths). Silica was distributed diffusely over most of the inner (adaxial) surface of the leaf sheath, but phytoliths were absent and some regions were devoid of silica. Ammonia treatment dramatically increased the ISDMD of rice straw, but did not alter the content or distribution of silica on either surface of the leaf sheath. Trichomes contained no silica and were major sites of invasion and colonization in the intact cuticle of rice straw. Cuticular damage and loss were more prevalent in treated than in untreated rice straw, and underlying tissues were found to be devoid of silica and extensively colonized. The improved digestibility of ammonia-treated rice straw may be partially due to a weakening of the adhesion between the cuticle and underlying tissues. Detachment of the cuticle removes this barrier to digestion and exposes underlying silica-free tissues to bacterial colonization.
Article
Eleven sun-cured hays with a crude protein and neutral-detergent fibre contents ranging from 57 to 207gkg−1 and 428 to 744gkg−1 dry-matter (DM) respectively, were used to study the suitability of different in vitro and in situ methods to estimate the extent and rate of degradation in the rumen. The methods used to study degradation kinetics were: (1) DM disappearance when a sample of each hay was placed in nylon bags and incubated in the rumen for different lengths of time, (2) gas production (GAS) at different incubation times when hays were incubated in vitro with buffered rumen fluid, (3) DM disappearance at different incubation times in a cellulase solution (CEL), (4) sugars (SUGAR) release to the supernatant after incubation in the cellulase solution and (5) optical density of the supernatant at λ=280nm (as indicator of phenolic compounds release) after solubility in the cellulase (PHEN). All kinetic data were fitted to first-order kinetic models. From the relationships between gas production and DM degradation in situ it was estimated that 0.295ml (SE 0.0335) gas were produced per mg of DM degraded for incubation times beyond 24h, although this ratio was significantly lower for short incubation times. There were significant (P
Article
The Hohenheimer gas production test has been adapted to describe the kinetics of fermentation based on the exponential model p = a + b(1 − e−ct). Ten cereal straws previously fed ad libitum to growing steers and consisting of two varieties of winter barley, two varieties of spring barley and one variety of winter wheat either untreated or treated with anhydrous ammonia, were examined. In vitro gas production was compared with in vivo results and with nylon bag degradabilities; the sources of the gas were determined. Total gas production a + b as described by the exponential equation were correlated with intake (0.88), digestible dry matter intake (0.93) and growth rate (0.95) in a multiple regression model. Use of the rate of gas production, c, did not improve the precision of correlation.The gas volume could be explained by the amount of volatile acids produced and their proportions. About 50% of the gas volume consisted of CO2 and CH4 arising from fermentation, the remainder being CO2 released from the buffer solution.
Article
The intake and digestion by goats of urea-treated rice straw and untreated straws given alone or supplemented with urea were measured in a Latin square design study. Intake was measured when the straws were offered ad libitum. Digestibility and nitrogen (N) balance of the diets were measured at 85% of the ad libitum intake. Organic matter intake (45.2 g kg−1 W0.75) and digestibility (578 g kg−1) of the total diet were higher for urea-treated straw than for supplemented straw (39.4; 534) or straw alone (41.1; 527). Urea supplementation of untreated straw had no significant effect on intake or digestibility. Rumen ammonia levels were similar in goats fed on urea-treated (42.7 mg l−1) and urea-supplemented (39.7 mg l−1) straw, and were much higher than those in goats fed on untreated straw (25.7 mg l−1). The positive response to urea-treated straw was thought to be due to its higher N content in the presence of higher digestible energy. The urea treatment apparently caused a change in the physical and chemical structure of the straw, resulting in increased digestible organic matter intake, whereas urea-added to the diet immediately before it was consumed did not affect intake or digestibility.
Article
Modern cereal varieties tend to have higher grain yields, improved harvest indices, be shorter and earlier maturing than their traditional counterparts. Since neither higher grain yields nor harvest indices appear to be consistently associated with reduced straw digestibility, the potential exists for breeding or selecting varieties combining these characteristics. Shorter varieties of barley and wheat contain higher proportions of leaf blade in the straw than taller material. In rice, conversely, more leaf blade is found in taller varieties. In barley and wheat, leaf blade is more digestible in vitro than either leaf sheath and stem and thus, straw from shorter varieties is more digestible. In rice, leaf blade is less digestible than the stem fraction. Thus, in rice, as well as barley and wheat, shorter material is likely to result in higher feeding value. Stem diameter does not influence straw quality in barley. A greater number of days from planting to either flowering or grain maturity results in increased leaf-blade content in barley and rice straw. In barley, selection for early maturity is likely to lead to reduced straw digestibility but in rice, straw digestibility could be expected to improve. Feeding trials suggest that early maturity in barley results in lower straw voluntary intake.
Article
Untreated and urea-treated straw and straw fractions of seven rice varieties from three cultivation seasons have been evaluated on their DM, OM loss and degradation characteristics from in sacco disappearance and in vitro gas production measurements. Drying temperatures from 45°C to 100°C did not seem to influence the degradability of urea-treated rice straw, whereas urea-treated straw dried at freezing temperatures (−35°C) gave slightly higher degradability than higher temperatures. Untreated early season rice straw showed higher degradability than straw of middle and later season rice. There was a significant increase in the degradation of straw after urea treatment, and greatest for late and middle season rice straw. On average, urea-treatment of rice straw increased the DM and OM in sacco losses after 48h of incubation (48h) by 24.0% and 30.7%, respectively. In order to study the kinetics of the degradation of fibre fractions, the disappearance in sacco was also estimated for the loss of hemicellulose, cellulose and extractable biogenic silica (EBSi). There was a great variation in the content of silica between varieties. Rice straw degradation seemed to be related to the biogenic silica content (acid detergent insoluble silica (ADISi)). Urea treatment increased the extraction of biogenic silica and hence increased the degradation of hemicellulose and cellulose. The improvement in sacco disappearance of cellulose due to urea treatment was 36.8%, 19.5% and 5.3% for late, middle, and early rice straw, respectively. The degradability was higher for the stem than for the leaf blades and leaf sheaths. The response to urea treatment, however, was higher for leaf sheaths and leaf blades than for the stems, evening out differences in degradability. Urea treatment tended to increase the production of acetic acid whereas there was no effect on propionic and butyric acid production.
Article
Seven rice varieties selected according to three cultivation seasons were examined with regard to their grain and straw production, and the chemical composition of straw. Weather conditions, fertiliser application and harvesting time were major factors affecting grain yield and straw composition. The following correlations were found: grain yield and straw length (r=0.82, p<0.05), grain yield and ear length (r=0.90, p<0.01), and grain yield and weight of thousand grains (r=0.85, p<0.05). Seasonal differences in chemical composition of straw were found for nitrogen (p<0.001), hemicellulose (p<0.001), cellulose (p<0.001), and content of K (p<0.01). The stem contained less hemicellulose (p<0.001), less acid detergent insoluble lignin (p<0.01), less total biogenic silica (Si) (p<0.001) but more cellulose (p<0.001) than sheath and blade. Urea treatment caused an increase from 35 to 171% in nitrogen (N) level as compared to untreated straw (p<0.001), and significantly reduced the hemicellulose content (p<0.001). The K content in straw was related to the efficiency of extracting biogenic Si from straw with neutral detergent solution (r=0.77, p<0.05). K and Si content in straw were identified as indicators of straw quality. The Si content of the stem was found low and the extractable portion was extremely high (>80%). The blade retains a higher level of Si and the Si was less extractable than that of sheath. Extractable Si seemed to increase after urea treatment and this response was greatest in leaf sheath. Moreover, supplement of K to the rice land, especially to the late season rice, appeared to have a beneficial effect on yield and straw quality.
Article
The nutritive value of a feedstuff is dependent on the intake and on the amount of nutrients absorbed from the ingested feedstuff during its passage through the gastro intestinal tract. This paper, however, focuses only on the potentials and limitations of some methods found appropriate to estimate the feed intake, energy value and the protein value of feedstuffs. It was concluded that experiments should be made to establish the potential feed intake of different tropical feeds. A system based on the physical fill of feed in the rumen is appropriate as the dominant limitation for intake in ruminants is physical fill of partly digested plant fibers in the rumen. The degradation and passage rates of NDF in the rumen is a potentially useful method to predict the physical fill of fibrous feeds. The potential digestibility of a wide variety of feeds can be determined with reasonable accuracy by using rumen fluid in vitro. The energetic value of concentrate feeds can moreover be determined by enzymatic methods which do not require rumen fluid. For very poor roughage, in vitro methods are less reproducible and should be supplemented with the nylon bag method. The traditional chemical analyses, e.g. for crude fibre, NDF or ADF do not predict the digestibility well, except for feeds where the relationship between the chemical analysis and the digestibility has been established beforehand. The protein value of a feed depends on rumen degradation as well as the amino acid content and digestibility of the undegraded protein passing to the small intestine. The nylon bag method is the only available tool to generally predict the rumen degradation but the between laboratory variation is too big and figures obtained can only be used within laboratory. To improve reproducibility and reduce costs an alternative method is required, e.g. an enzymatic method. The intestinal digestibility of undegraded protein can only be predicted with the mobile bag technique and also here there is a need for alternative methods. Too little research is concerned with quantitative and qualitative protein need of the rumen microbes.
Article
The proportion in whole straw, chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVD) of the leaf blade, leaf sheath and stem (including inflorescence) fractions of 32 varieties of rice straw harvested from the same location, year and season, were measured. The composition and IVD of whole straw was then calculated. The mean proportion of blade, sheath and stem was 32.4%, 25.5% and 41.0%, respectively, in whole straw. Stem had a significantly higher IVD (58.9%), lower insoluble ash (6.9%) and lower total ash (18.9%) but a higher neutral detergent fibre (NDF, 62.7%) and lower crude protein (CP, 3.4%) than blade or sheath. For whole straw, the range in composition and IVD was: NDF, 54.2–63.2%; IVD, 44.4–64.7%; CP, 2.0–5.3%; insoluble ash, 6.2–14.4; total ash, 16.6–25.1%.Canonical correlation analysis showed that varietal differences in the composition and IVD of whole straw were significantly correlated (P < 0.001) with varietal differences in these parameters in the blade, sheath and stem fractions. Varietal differences in whole straw were not significantly correlated (P > 0.05) to their leaf, sheath and stem proportions or to their agronomic characteristics (culm height, days to maturity and grain yield). There is thus potential for breeding and selecting rice varieties with good straw and agronomic characteristics.
Article
The chemical composition (nitrogen fractions, fibre components, phenolic compounds, neutral sugars and uronic acids) and rumen degradability of the dry matter (DMD) and neutral detergent fibre (NDFD) of six crop by-products (raw palm oil mill effluent (POME), dried POME, palm kernel cake, palm press fibre, cocoa pods and rice straw) and the leaves of two legumes (Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium) were measured. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to compare and classify the feeds according to chemical composition and degradability. Lignin poorly differentiated between feeds and was poorly related to 48 h DMD; the major anomalies were with rice straw and Gliricidia (low lignin, low DMD) and cocoa pods (high lignin, high DMD). The xylose: arabinose ratio, an indicator of hemicellulose digestion, was higher in the legumes than in the by-products. The ratio of rapidly degradable (arabinose + glucose) to slowly degradable (xylose + uronic acids) sugars was not a good indicator of cell wall digestion; the correlation with 48 h NDF degradability (NDFD) was only 0.69. Cluster analysis showed that conventional classification of the feeds into by-products and legumes did not reflect their compositional or degradability attributes. These attributes were also poorly related to each other. Two unusual feeds were identified, cocoa pods and palm kernel cake.
Article
Ten rice varieties, five modern semi-dwarf (SD) and five traditional tall (TA), were studied for their chemical and morphological characteristics, over two seasons (wet 1987 and dry 1988) with two different levels of applied nitrogen fertiliser (0 and 90 kg N ha−1). Harvested plants were fractionated into their component parts and physically and chemically analysed in order to demonstrate varietal differences in their characteristics and determine the environmental effects on these, as well as to attempt to identify predictors of straw quality. There were statistically significant differences (P < 0.01) within the semi-dwarf and tall varieties in nutritive value, as measured by in vitro digestibility, but these differences were not consistent between the wet and dry seasons. Although a statistical comparison between the semi-dwarf and tall varietal groups was not possible, it was clear that there was no overall difference between them as the range of variety means was completely overlapping. This implies that breeding for increased grain yield, through the use of semi-dwarf varieties, does not necessarily increase or decrease straw quality. The effect on nutritional quality of added nitrogen to the soil varied with variety. In vitro dry matter cellulase solubility (IVDMS) and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) using rumen liquor were significantly correlated (r = 0.64** for wet season and 0.72** for dry season), although they did not rank the varieties in the same order of digestibility. Also, this order of ranking was inconsistent for the two seasons. IVDMS results demonstrated a difference between seasons which was not obvious in the IVDMD results. Although there were significant individual varietal effects (P < 0.01) in both the crude protein and ash contents of the straw from the semi-dwarf and tall varieties, there appeared to be no consistent overall relationships between the two groups. No single plant characteristic was shown to be consistently reliable in predicting straw quality. However, multiple regression, using ash (silica) content of the harvested straw and days to maturity of the plant, produced the most promising coefficient of determination for all varieties (except for one traditional variety, Gam Pai) over two seasons (R2= 0.74** for wet season and 0.81** for dry season). This suggests that other physical or chemical characteristics, not measured in this trial, must also affect straw digestibility. The results from this investigation suggest that although there are differences between varieties in the in vitro digestibility of straw, there is no consistent difference between the modern and traditional varieties overall. Fundamentally, though, the taller varieties have the advantage of providing more nutrients per hectare from their straw.
Article
A method is proposed for estimating the percentage of dietary protein that is degraded by microbial action in the rumen when protein supplement is added to a specified ration. The potential degradability, p , is measured by incubating the supplement in artificial-fibre bags in the rumen and is related to incubation time, t , by the equation p = a+b (1 – e -ct ). The rate constant k , measuring the passage of the supplement from the rumen to the abomasum, is obtained in a separate experiment in which the supplement is combined with a chromium marker which renders it completely indigestible. The effective percentage degradation, p , of the supplement, allowing for rate of passage, is shown to be p = a +[ bc/(c+k) ] (1- e -(e+k)t ) by time, t , after feeding. As t increases, this tends to the asymptotic value a+bc /( c+k ), which therefore provides an estimate of the degradability of the protein supplement under the specified feeding conditions. The method is illustrated by results obtained with soya-bean meal fed as a supplement to a dried-grass diet for sheep. The incubation measurements showed that 89% of the soya-bean protein disappeared within 24 h and indicated that it was all ultimately degradable with this diet. When the dried grass was given at a restricted level of feeding the allowance for time of retention in the rumen reduced the estimate of final degradability to 71% (69% within 24 h). With ad libitum feeding there was a faster rate of passage and the final degradability was estimated to be 66% (65% within 24 h).
Article
Four varieties of rice straw, MRl, MR71, MR84 and MR27, were separated into the following botanical fractions; inflorescence, stem, leaf blade and leaf sheath. The relative proportion of each fraction in whole straw was estimated and analysed for its chemical composition and in vitro digestibility (IVD). The composition and IVD of whole straw was then calculated. Cluster analysis showed that MRl was distinct from the other varieties. This could be attributed to a high proportion of stem (32·3%), high IVD (36·9%), low insoluble ash (4·0%) and a low silica content (2·7%) in the whole straw. The genetic distance between any two varieties ranged from 5·4 × 10-3 to 47·8 × 10-3 and was largest between MRl and the other varieties. Cluster analysis also showed that within a variety, the chemical composition and IVD of the stem, leaf blade and leaf sheath were similar, suggesting that sampling errors may be reduced if the inflorescence, which comprises 7–13% of the whole straw, is excluded when the material is analysed. Stepwise and canonical discriminant analyses indicated that the important variables to be measured when comparing straw varieties were IVD, crude protein and insoluble ash.
Article
Two varieties of barley straw, Corgi and Gerbel, which varied in degradability when incubated in the rumen in nylon bags, were chosen for further examination of botanical fractions and to see how each fraction responded to treatment with ammonia. The straws were separated into leaves, internodes, nodes and chaff. The average proportions of these fractions were respectively 0·499, 0·380, 0·055 and 0·065 in Corgi straw and 0·404, 0·512, 0·059 and 0·025 in Gerbel straw. For both varieties the degradability of the botanical fractions were leaves > chaff > nodes > internodes. Despite a similar chemical composition, the dry-matter loss (DML) values of leaves, internodes and nodes of Corgi were higher than those of Gerbel straw. The differences between varieties were larger for internodes and nodes than for leaves. The difference in DML of the two varieties at 48-h incubation was 132 g/kg DM. Of this difference, 25 g were due to differences in distribution of the botanical fractions and 107 g to differences in DML of the fractions. Ammonia treatment significantly increased the DML of all fractions except the nodes. The overall improvement due to ammonia treatment of the different fraction was internode > chaff > leaves > nodes.
Article
The artificial fibre bag technique was evaluated for assessing the proportions of dietary D. M. and N which disappear in the rumen. The most important factor determining the variability in disappearance from bags incubated together was the sample size in relation to bag size. For incubation of 5 g air dry feed, a bag size of 17 ✗ 9 cm was found to be adequate. There were also variations in substrate disappearance between animals and between days of incubation. It was estimated that three sheep and the measurement of substrate disappearance twice were necessary in order to obtain acceptable repeatability. The technique was found to be satisfactory as a simple and rapid guide for measuring nutrients disappearance in the rumen such as protein degradation and carbohydrate fermentation. It has been used in subsequent work to measure the effect of features of the rumen environment, such as pH and NH 3 concentration, on rate of fermentation.
Article
Two varieties of rice straw, long variety — no. 370 Basmati traditional (L) and short variety — no. PR106 hybrid (S) were separated into botanical fractions giving the proportion of leaf plus leaf sheath, internode, node and chaff (g/kg dry matter) as 633, 247, 83 and 37 for L and 680, 156, 76 and 88 for S, respectively. Samples of whole plants, leaves plus leaf sheaths and internodes were subjected to ammonia treatment. The chemical composition and the rumen degradability of dry matter and organic matter determined by the nylon bag technique were ascertained for treated and untreated samples of whole plants and botanical fractions of plants from both varieties. The ash and silica content were higher in leaf plus leaf sheath, 211 and 102 g/kg for the L and 190 and 67 g/kg for the S, than in internodes, 160 and 29 g/kg for L and 184 and 29 g/kg S, respectively. The potential degradability ( a + b ) value from the formula p = a + b(−e −ct ) for dry-matter loss (DML), organic-matter loss (OML) and degradability of organic matter in dry matter (DOMD) were significantly higher for the S being 622, 659 and 544 g/kg, than for the L being 561, 586 and 500 g/kg, respectively ( P < 0·01). The degradation rate too was significantly higher for the S than for the L for DML, OML and DOMD ( P < 0·01). The ammonia treatment significantly improved the potential degradability for DML, OML and DOMD for both the varieties and their fractions ( P < 0·01).
Article
The composition and degradability of four varieties of rice straw were examined. The varieties were tall or short and early or late maturing. The straws and their botanical parts (leaf blade plus leaf sheath, internode, node and chaff) varied in acid-detergent fibre, ash and silica contents, but not in nitrogen and neutral-detergent fibre. There were some trends but no significant difference in proportions of parts between varieties. Milled samples of whole straw and its parts were either untreated, treated with a cellulase preparation plus propionic acid, treated with ammonia, or treated with cellulase then ammonia. Rumen degradability was measured by incubating the samples in polyester bags suspended in the rumen of sheep. The soluble fraction and potential degradability were greater in untreated short and early than in tall and late varieties, but rates of degradation did not vary significantly. Internode was more degradable than leaf. Cellulase and/or ammonia treatments increased the soluble fraction, especially in tall and late varieties, and increased potential degradabiiity except in internode. Degradability correlated positively with ash and silica contents.
Article
Several supervised (stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA), statistical isolinear multi category analysis (SIMCA) and nearest neighbour analysis (KNN)) and unsupervised (principal components analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA)) classification techniques have been applied to analytical data from different whisky samples in order to distinguish between genuine whisky of a well known and expensive brand and other less expensive whiskies that could be used to replace the original contents of the bottle.
Article
Several multivariate statistical methods (principal component, discriminant (linear, quadratic and nearest neighbour), cluster analysis and outliers detection) have been applied to chemical data for terpenic compounds collected from various gin samples, in order to differentiate three gins from each other; the results have been used to explore other samples.
Article
Rumen degradation of cell wall polysaccharide constituents using the in sacco technique was studied for untreated cereal brans (oats, wheat and barley) and nine technically alkali-treated batches of barley straw. The alkali treatment included four ammonia treatments, two dry sodium hydroxide treatments and three wet sodium hydroxide treatments. On degradation of the cell wall polysaccharides, their main constituents, xylose and glucose, were released at about the same rate for the ammonia treatments and the dry sodium hydroxide treatments. For the wet sodium hydroxide treatments the degradation of the xylose residues was faster than the liberation of the glucose residues. For all treatments the liberation of the arabinose residues was faster than that of the xylose and glucose residues. The reason for the increased digestibility of the cell wall polysaccharides is suggested to be the breaking of ester and hydrogen bonds and the breaking of alkali-labile linkages in lignin, as well as changes in the surface layer of the straw. For the wet sodium hydroxide treatments the larger amount of water present during the alkali treatment processes is suggested to increase the diffusion of the alkali into the straw and to translocate a part of the hemicellulose. On the degradation of wheat and barley bran the liberation of xylose residues was fast whereas xylose and arabinose residues in oat bran were slowly liberated.
Article
Application of principal component regression (PCR) was proposed for the development of a prediction equation of forage composition by near infra-red spectroscopy. PCR involves two steps: (a) the creation of new synthetic variables by principal component analysis (PCA) of spectral data, and (b) multiple linear regression with these new variables. Results obtained by this procedure have been compared with those generated by the conventional application of multiple linear regression (MLR) on spectral data. The comparison used the determination of protein content and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) in 345 samples of lucerne forages. For protein determination, results of both procedures were quite similar (correlation coefficients: 0.978 and 0.980; standard errors of calibration: 0.86 and 0.84% DM; standard errors of prediction: 0.81 and 0.80% DM respectively for MLR and PCR prediction equations). The same was observed for IVDMD determination (correlation coefficients: 0.942 and 0.951; standard errors of calibration: 1.89 and 1.71% DM; standard errors of prediction: 2.22 and 2.22% DM, respectively). A large number of PCA variables were necessary for an accurate prediction of both constituents. The influence of the number of regression terms introduced in the PCR equation has been studied. The criterion for stopping the introduction of new terms in PCR did not seem as critical as in MLR.
Article
The action of sodium hydroxide on the rate and extent of loss of wall polysaccharides from wheat and barley straws incubated in the rumen of the sheep was studied using a nylon bag technique. Cellulose loss reached a maximum in straws treated with 10 g NaOH 100 g−1 straw. Further increase in amounts of alkali applied resulted in additional solubilisation of straw constituents, particularly xylan, but did not further enhance cellulose degradation. Rates of degradation of isolated straw, cotton and wood celluloses correlated with three of four measures of cellulose crystallinity obtained by X-ray diffraction and infrared analysis. Treatment of cellulose samples with 20 g NaOH 100 g−1 cellulose did not affect rates of loss or produce detectable changes to cellulose morphology. Loss of acetic acid esters, which accompanied alkali treatment, did not relate to improvements to digestibility. The rate of loss of cellulose from delignified neutral detergent fibre (NDF) was that shown by the isolated straw cellulose, despite the presence of acetylated hemicellulose. Deacetylation of delignified NDF with NaOH or sodium methoxide did not enhance rates of xylose or cellulose loss. In lignified wall material (NDF) the molar ratio acetyl:xylose (approximately 1:3.5) and proportion of the major phenolic acids (p-coumaric and ferulic acids) remained essentially constant throughout the course of degradation in the rumen. It is suggested that loss of phenolic acids, while not directly contributing to digestibility enhancement, may model the susceptibility of ester linkages formed between polysaccharide and polyphenolic material to alkali. The extent of solubilisation of p-coumaric acid produced by NaOH showed a linear relationship with cellulose digestibility. An upper limit of 40% acid detergent lignin and 55% of total phenolics were released by NaOH, the extent of release closely paralleling cellulose digestibility. Phenolic material resistant to alkali remained associated with wall polysaccharides and was not released from nylon bags until over 50% of cellulose (and hemicellulose) had been degraded.
Article
The degradation in the rumen and change in chemical composition of untreated and four samples of alkali-treated barley straw were studied in farm-scale treatments with ammonia, ‘dry’ sodium hydroxide and two different aqueous sodium hydroxide systems. The alkali treatments increased the fraction soluble in organic solvents and decreased the lignin content (determined as Klason lignin). The amounts of cellulose and arabinoxylans were not significantly changed. The degree of rumen degradability increased with the order of alkaline treatment given above. The degradation rates of dry matter and the NDF fraction were parallel to each other but varied considerably with the treatments. The two most efficient aqueous alkaline treatments showed a degradation rate four times that of untreated straw. For these two samples the arabinoxylans were solubilised faster than cellulose during the first part of the incubation. In the other samples the degradation of arabinoxylans and cellulose ran almost parallel. During the rumen incubation the lignin content of the straw residues increased for all samples. There was an inverse relationship between the content of p-coumaric and ferulic acids on the degree of digestibility. A relationship between acetyl groups and digestibility was not found.
Article
A data analysis procedure involving principal component and canonical variate analyses was used to investigate the effects of three sample variables (particle size, temperature and sample rotation) on the near infra-red spectra of six teas of different geographical origin. The effects of milling method were shown to be much larger than those of sample temperature or rotation. The analysis provided a rational basis for the choice of a milling technique and sample presentation for a study of the possible relationship between tea quality and near infra-red spectroscopic data.
Article
The composition and rumen degradability of straw from three varieties of oilseed rape Brassica napus L. (cv. Bienvenu, Rafal and Jet Neuf) grown under the same conditions were compared. Analysis accounted for greater than 97% of dry matter in each case. Although the composition of the three straws was broadly similar, Jet Neuf had a lower carbohydrate (67% of dry matter) and phenolic (8.4% of dry matter) content and a higher crude protein (9.4% of dry matter) content than Bienvenu (74.5, 10.0% and 5.4% respectively) or Rafal (73.9%, 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively). Values obtained for neutral and acid detergent fibre and acid detergent lignin were consistent with these differences. Additional information about the nature of the polysaccharides present in straw was obtained by methylation of whole straw samples. Degradability measurements in a sheep, made using the nylon bag technique, showed that the rate and extent of dry matter disappearance from Bienvenu and Rafal were virtually identical. Both straws were poorly degraded, showing only a 35% loss of dry matter after extended incubation. Jet Neuf had a higher degradability with 45% of dry matter lost after 72 h. Ammonia treatment had little effect on straw composition and no effect on its degradability. Sodium hydroxide solubilised between 10–20% of the total phenolics initially present in straw and improved the degradability of Bienvenu and Rafal by approximately 10 units but produced little improvement in the degradability of Jet Neuf. Autoclaving straw samples in water at 160°C and 200°C for 1 h resulted in a substantial solubilisation of dry matter. The degradability of the recovered insoluble residues, however, was not increased. Sulphur dioxide, ozone and alkaline hydrogen peroxide selectively degraded phenolic material without modifying the carbohydrate content of the straw. The degradability of ozone-treated straw was substantially increased, whereas sulphur dioxide treatment had a lesser effect, and treatment with alkaline hydrogen peroxide was largely ineffective. Results obtained are discussed in relation to the structure of rape straw cell walls.
Article
There is a need to standardize the NDF procedure. Procedures have varied because of the use of different amylases in attempts to remove starch interference. The original Bacillus subtilis enzyme Type IIIA (XIA) no longer is available and has been replaced by a less effective enzyme. For fiber work, a new enzyme has received AOAC approval and is rapidly displacing other amylases in analytical work. This enzyme is available from Sigma (Number A3306; Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO). The original publications for NDF and ADF (43, 53) and the Agricultural Handbook 379 (14) are obsolete and of historical interest only. Up to date procedures should be followed. Triethylene glycol has replaced 2-ethoxyethanol because of reported toxicity. Considerable development in regard to fiber methods has occurred over the past 5 yr because of a redefinition of dietary fiber for man and monogastric animals that includes lignin and all polysaccharides resistant to mammalian digestive enzymes. In addition to NDF, new improved methods for total dietary fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides including pectin and beta-glucans now are available. The latter are also of interest in rumen fermentation. Unlike starch, their fermentations are like that of cellulose but faster and yield no lactic acid. Physical and biological properties of carbohydrate fractions are more important than their intrinsic composition.
Near infra-red analysis: the use of multivariate statistics for investigation of variables in sample preparation and presentation of tea leaf Degradation rate and chemical composition of different types of alkali-treated straws during rumen digestion
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Appropriate methods for the evaluation of tropical feeds for ruminants Application of several statistical classification techniques to the differentiation of whisky brands Application of multivariate statistical methods to the differentiation of gin brands
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Madsen, J., Hvelplund, T., Weisbjerg, M.R., 1997. Appropriate methods for the evaluation of tropical feeds for ruminants. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 69, 53±66. Martin-Alvarez, P.J., Cabezudo, M.D., Herranz, A., de la Serna, P., Barro, C., 1988. Application of several statistical classification techniques to the differentiation of whisky brands. J. Sci. Feed Agric. 45, 347±358. Martin-Alvarez, P.J., Herranz, A., 1991. Application of multivariate statistical methods to the differentiation of gin brands. J. Sci. Food Agric. 57, 263±272.
Comparison of in vitro gas production and nylon-bag degradability of roughage in predicting feed intake in cattle Digestion of several temperate forage species by a prepared cellulase solution Genetic variation in the feeding value of cereal straw
  • M Blummel
  • E R Orskov
Blummel, M., Orskov, E.R., 1993. Comparison of in vitro gas production and nylon-bag degradability of roughage in predicting feed intake in cattle. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol. 40, 109±119. Bughrara, S.S., Sleper, D.A., 1986. Digestion of several temperate forage species by a prepared cellulase solution. Agron. J. 78, 94±98. Capper, B.S., 1988. Genetic variation in the feeding value of cereal straw. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 21, 127± 140.
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