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... The approach to acceptability judgement tasks outlined in Collins, Guitard and Wood (2009) was adapted for the purposes of the study. The task was set up in Google Forms and shared remotely with participants. ...
... The subject was always a definite DP of between two and four syllables or a proper name. Participants rated the acceptability of the sentences on the scale presented in (19) below, adapted from Collins, Guitard and Wood (2009). Any analysis of judgement data entails a range of tricky issues relating especially to statistical techniques, which it is beyond the scope of this paper to address (see Schütze & Sprouse 2014: 42 for discussion). ...
... The key practical advantage is that the scale is easy to administer and permits remote data collection without detailed training on degrees of grammaticality. The categories also correspond to the standard grammatical/ungrammatical/marginal distinction used in theoretical literature (see Collins, Guitard & Wood 2009: 3). ...
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This paper examines knowledge of constraints on quotative inversion in L2 English in order to test predictions of Multiple Grammars Theory (Roeper 2016). Upper-intermediate proficiency L1 German-speaking learners of L2 English and native English speakers completed a grammaticality judgement task which tested acceptability of quotative inversion with transitive, ditransitive and particle verbs. Learners had similar patterns of judgements as native speakers, except for cases of inversion with particle verbs. On inversion with particle verbs, learners had indeterminate judgements and did not distinguish clearly between inversion with and without pied-piping of the particle. However, against expectation learners did not show evidence of accepting verb second structures. The results are discussed in terms of lexical restrictions on (sub)grammars and potential L1 influence in the form of application of selectional constraints from German to the equivalent English particle verbs.
... Survey evidence supports this conclusion. Collins, Guitard, and Wood (2009) report on the results of an anonymous online survey ofNYU students. All 15 students in the sample rejected (12a), but only 2 rejected (12b). ...
... For example, a number of audience members have found (13c), where the reflexive is the object of a raising-toobject verb, relatively more acceptable. There are many subgeneralizations concerning these data that we will not be able to develop here, but that may be possible to investigate using corpus studies or survey techniques of the type used by Collins, Guitard, and Wood (2009). ...
... The marking on (13b) indicates that while one of us finds such cases perfect, the other finds them somewhat doubtful'. Th.e j~dgments are supported by the anonymous online survey of grammaticality Judgments reported inCollins, Guitard, and Wood 2009. The results from 15 respondents were as follows· (13a) bad 12 · 1 3 . ...
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A study of pronominal agreement with imposters, third person DPs (this reporter, yours truly, my lord, Madam) that denote the speaker or addressee. © 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. All rights reserved.
... We reflect the same gradation in our experimental scale, where the score '1' should be assigned to a word that does not exist in Russian, and the highest score of five points '5' should be assigned to a perfectly normal Russian word. This explains why we preferred to use the five-point scale instead of a three-point (Collins et al., 2009) or seven-point scale (Bermel and Knittl, 2012). Moreover, the school evaluation system motivated us to use the scale of 1 to 5 instead of other options like −2, −1, 0, +1, +2. ...
... Adults completed the survey over the internet, where they had to fill out a virtual questionnaire created in the software package http://www.questionpro.com. The use of an online questionnare form easily shared via internet is a common practice used in many recent surveys of acceptability judgments (Keller and Asudeh, 2001;Collins et al., 2009). The software made it possible to make sure that people who participated online took the survey only once. ...
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This paper contributes to the ongoing debate over Likert scale experiments, in particular the issues of how to treat acceptability judgment data (as ordinal or interval) and what statistical model is appropriate to apply. We analyze empirical data on native speakers’ intuitions regarding marginal change-of state verbs in Russian (e.g. ukonkretit’ ‘concretize’, ovnešnit’ ‘externalize’) and compare the outcomes of five statistical models (parametric and non-parametric tests): (1) ANOVA; (2) Ordinal Logistic Regression Model; (3) Mixed-Effects Regression Model for Ordinal data; (4) Regression Tree and Random Forests Model; and (5) Classification Tree and Random Forests Model. We make four claims: (1) all five models are appropriate for this data to a greater or lesser degree; (2) overall, the outcomes of parametric and non-parametric tests applied to this data provide comparable results; (3) Classification Tree and Random Forests
... However, using orthography stimuli has virtues as well. Orthography stimuli are easier to use, especially in web-based experimentation, which has been receiving a growing body of interests in linguistics and elsewhere (Collins et al., 2009;Hayes et al., 2009;Kawahara, 2011a,b;Kawahara and Kao, to appear;Sprouse, 2011b;Zuraw, 2006;Reips, 2002). Moreover, orthography-based tests avoid a problem of listeners' potentially mishearing the stimuli, which could affect the results (though see also Berent 2008). ...
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Generative linguistics has primarily used introspection-based data for its theory construc-tion. However, we now witness the rise of experimental approaches to linguistic judgments, in which linguistic judgment patterns are investigated through experimentation. Using patterns of obstruent devoicing in Japanese loanwords as a test case, the current project attempts to contribute to this growing body of work by investigating how different experimental variables affect phonological judgments. The three variables tested in the current experiments are (i) scalar rating judgments vs. binary yes/no judgments, (ii) real words vs. nonce words, and (iii) orthography stimuli vs. audio stimuli. The results show that (i) scalar rating tests and binary yes/no tests show very similar patterns, (ii) nonce words show less variability in accept-ability across different grammatical conditions than real words, and (iii) orthography stimuli and audio stimuli yield comparable results, but (iv) audio-based experiments exaggerate the effect of particular phonetic implementation patterns as compared to orthography-based tests. Building on these results, this paper provides some suggestions for future experimentation on phonological judgments.
... Daddy will shave {himself/*myself } and To keep {himself/ ? myself } from getting sunburned, Daddy will put on suntan lotion); see Collins et al. (2009) for a questionnaire study. Whatever underlies the difference between anaphoric and cataphoric dependencies, it seems clear that being used with reference to the speaker does not give 'imposters' a blanket licence to take on formal first-person properties. ...
Article
The linguistic literature abounds with discussions of phi-feature inflection. The formalist tradition has, in a variety of ways, approached this phenomenon predominantly in terms of an agreement relationship between two terms of a syntactic structure—for instance, the subject and the finite verb (typically showing agreement for person and number), or the object and a past participle (which, e.g. in the Romance languages, may agree for number and gender, but not for person). But not all these agreement relationships affect all phi-features equally, which raises the question of whether there is to be a unified approach to phi-features in general. And two terms that can entertain an agreement relationship for certain phi-features do not seem to engage in such agreement every time they might be expected to so do. On the surface, plural subjects can co-occur with singularly inflected finite verbs, and vice versa; and sometimes a subpart of the subject seems to control the selection of the inflection on the finite verb, in so-called ‘attraction’ cases. These kinds of phenomena give rise to an in-depth exploration of the nature and reality of agreement relationships, including the possibility of an analysis treating phi-featural properties as autonomous vis-à-vis one another, assigned to each term separately, not under agreement. This special issue brings together a collection of papers and commentaries reflecting on these matters in various ways. In this introduction, I set the stage for the discussion to follow.
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The aim of this methodological paper is to present an overview of research methods in speech act and politeness research, providing evidence in support of the triangulation approach (Jucker 2009; 2018). By taking research on politeness and speech acts as an example, I show that the respective advantages of different qualitative and quantitative methods such as corpus methods, roleplays, and interviews, are in fact complementary. Different research methods should be combined in the research design in order for the reliability and validity of the research tool to be increased and a fuller understanding of various pragmatic phenomena to be obtained.
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O livro surge da problemática do que é “pronome”, geralmente utilizado para referir a diferentes conjuntos de itens, tais como: os pronomes pessoais, demonstrativos, interrogativos, indefinidos, relativos, entre outros, mas cuja definição tradicional é considerada insatisfatória. Com o objetivo principal de contribuir com as discussões sobre pronome, o volume reúne trabalhos sobre os mais diversos aspectos dessa categoria gramatical, sendo fruto de pesquisas desenvolvidas nos últimos anos por pesquisadores ligados à área, versando acerca de aspectos morfossintáticos e semânticos da categoria pronome, em suas principais e mais recentes vertentes do estudo, além de aspectos relacionados ao processo de percepção pelo falante-ouvinte e das relações socioculturais dos pronomes.
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Este trabalho aborda o licenciamento dos impostores em português brasileiro, expressões referenciais utilizadas para denotar o falante e/ou o ouvinte, cuja principal descrição foi feita por Collins e Postal (2012). A concordância pronominal com DPs impostores é sujeita à variação interlinguística, que será ilustrada no presente trabalho a partir da descrição do fenômeno no português brasileiro e sua comparação com o inglês e o italiano. Assumimos com Das (2014) que o sistema de flexão verbal de uma língua é fator crucial de restrição para as possibilidades de concordância pronominal. Mais especificamente, se a categoria pessoa é abertamente marcada no verbo finito, então concordância verbal com uma fonte secundária é sintaticamente bloqueada. Esta hipótese leva em conta a reestruturação do paradigma flexional do português brasileiro apontada por Duarte (1993). Os exemplos envolvendo concordância pronominal ilícita (DAS, 2014) mostram violação do princípio da homogeneidade.
Conference Paper
This paper is concerned with the language phenomena in Chinese that some nominal phrases as DPs with the default third person can refer to the speaker with the first person or the addressee with the second person. In English, such nominal phrases are called imposters (Collins & Postal 2012), which refer to the speaker or the addressee and keep the agreement with verbs in third person form when existing in the position of subject. However, unlike English, Chinese is lack of morphological forms to show the subject-verb agreement, and there is no grammatical person form, so the phenomenon of imposter is more popular in Chinese, especially in classic Chinese expressions. The paper, with many instances of such use, intends to interpret the reason why the Chinese nominal phrase in some context have the non-third person interpretation from both syntactic and semantic perspectives.
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1. Introduction In the abstract of his target piece, Featherston states that ‘it is no longer tenable for syntactic theories to be constructed on the evidence of a single person's judgements’. In our commentary, we focus on this issue and on (what we perceive to be) Featherston's claims that individual speakers' judgments are intrinsically unreliable and ‘noisy’, that variation among individuals' judgments should be smoothed out by averaging the judgments of a large pool of informants, and that only this golden mean counts as genuine data. We argue that these claims are at odds with the basic premises of Chomskian linguistics, which is centered on the I-language of the individual speaker/hearer, not the E-language of the speech community. This is not to say that the way generative grammar approaches and accumulates its data is in no need of improvement: we will make some specific recommendations of our own to this end in the last section of our commentary.
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2016 printing has a new preface and expanded indexes. Available at http://www.amazon.com/empirical-base-linguistics-Grammaticality-methodology/dp/3946234046/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1456093168&sr=8-1&keywords=schutze+carson