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Vermouth Production Technology–An overview


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Aperitif wine known as 'Vermouth' is prepared from base wine by adding mixture of herbs and spices or their extract. Different parts of various plants (herbs and spices) such as the seeds, woods, leaves, barks or roots in dry form are used. These additives are infused, macerated or distilled in a base white wine and are added at the various stages of fermentation. The liquid is filtered, pasteurized, and fortified, i.e. additional alcohol is added. Some vermouths are sweetened; however, unsweetened, or dry vermouth tends to be bitter and both have different alcohol levels. It is known as aromatized liquor and it can be considered as a fortified wine. Vermouth prepared from grape fruits is the most common, although vermouths made from mango, plum, apple and sand pear have acceptable physico-chemical and sensory qualities. This review gives comprehensive information on the technology of vermouth production, various spices and herbs used and the commercial potential of non-grape fruits such as, mango, apple, sand pear, plum and tamarind for vermouth production.
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Natural Product Radiance
Review Paper
Natural Product Radiance, Vol. 8(4), 2009, pp.334-344
Vermouth Production Technology –An overview
Parmjit S Panesar1*, Narender Kumar2, Satwinder S Marwaha3 and Vinod K Joshi4
1, 2Biotechnology Research Laboratory, Department of Food Engineering and Technology
Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal-48 106, Punjab, India
3Punjab Biotechnology Incubator, SAS Nagar, Mohali-160 059, Punjab
4Department of Post-Harvest Technology, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry
Nauni, Solan-173 230, Himachal Pradesh, India
*Correspondent author, E-mail:; Phone: +91-9417494849 (M); +91-1672-305252 (O)
Received 9 April 2009; Accepted 10 June 2009
Aperitif wine known as ‘Vermouth’ is prepared from base wine by adding mixture of
herbs and spices or their extract. Different parts of various plants (herbs and spices) such as the
seeds, woods, leaves, barks or roots in dry form are used. These additives are infused, macerated
or distilled in a base white wine and are added at the various stages of fermentation. The liquid is
filtered, pasteurized, and fortified, i.e. additional alcohol is added. Some vermouths are sweetened;
however, unsweetened, or dry vermouth tends to be bitter and both have different alcohol levels. It
is known as aromatized liquor and it can be considered as a fortified wine. Vermouth prepared
from grape fruits is the most common, although vermouths made from mango, plum, apple and
sand pear have acceptable physico-chemical and sensory qualities. This review gives comprehensive
information on the technology of vermouth production, various spices and herbs used and the
commercial potential of non-grape fruits such as, mango, apple, sand pear, plum and tamarind for
vermouth production.
Keywords: Vermouth, Ethanol, Apple, Mango, Sand pear, Plum, Tamarind.
IPC code; Int. cl.8C12G 1/00
Vermouth is officially classified
as an ‘aromatized fortified wine’, a
tongue-twisting term meaning a base white
wine fortified and infused with a
proprietary recipe of different plants,
barks, seeds, fruit peels, collectively
known as botanicals. These types of wines
are quite popular in European countries
and in USA besides their commercial
production in Russia, USSR and Poland1,2.
The word Vermouth is derived from the
German word “Wermut” (or “Wer” means
man; “Mut” means courage, spirit,
manhood or English ‘worm wood’ which
is Artemisia absinthium Linn.3).
Wormwood is a plant with powerful
medicinal and psychoactive qualities and
the middle of the nineteenth country, the
north of Italy, mainly around Turin, and
the Chambery district of France, both
areas close to mountains where suitable
herbs may be found, became established
centers of herb production for vermouth.
The quality and type of vermouth depend
upon the quality and nature of base wine
and on the kind, quality and amounts of
various herbs used5.
Vermouth has been defined as a
fortified wine (alcohol 15 to 21%)
flavoured with mixture of herbs and
spices. Some of them impart an aromatic
flavour while others give a bitter flavour1.
The vermouth could be sweet or Italian
type and the dry or French type. In Italian
type, alcohol content varies from 15 to
17% with 12 to 15% sugar while French
have 18% alcohol with 4% reducing sugar.
The dry vermouth contains less herbs and
spices than the sweet. Traditionally,
vermouth or aperitif wines are
compounded from grape wine by adding
herb and spice mixture or their extracts.
These beverages are served straight in
European countries while in America these
are mostly used in the cocktails. While
the infusion gives vermouth its unique
flavour and aroma, it is precisely that
character that causes some people to
dismiss vermouth as being medicinal. The
antioxidant characteristics of a newly
was used to cure stomach problems,
including intestinal worms. Wormwood,
however, is a very bitter plant. Wormwood
as an ingredient is not in use, but
vermouth today is still characterized by a
bitter undertone moderated by the
botanicals. The addition of wormwood to
wine appears to date from early Roman
and probably early Greek times, although
the production of vermouth itself in Italy
did not begin until the eighteenth century.
This wine was made for the first time by
Antonio in 1786 in Italy by using
wormwood3. It is believed to be a method
developed for enhancing the taste of sour
or uncompromising wines with the
infusion of a variety of sweeteners, spices,
herbs, roots, seeds, flowers, and peels. In
Vol 8(4) July-August 2009
Review Paper
developed vermouth wine were studied
comparing with those of three red and
three white wines as well as of one rose
wine4. It has been observed that the usual
consumption of one unit from the
vermouth is medically acceptable.
Basically, the vermouth is
classified into two categories, which are
sweet vermouth and dry vermouth, the
main difference being the number and
types of botanicals used in the recipe.
Sweet (Italian-Type) vermouth
Sweet vermouth is produced in
Italy, Spain, Argentina and other countries
as well as in the United States. Typical
Italian vermouth is dark amber in colour,
with a light Muscat, sweet nutty flavour
and a well-developed and pleasing
fragrance with a generous and warming
taste and a slightly bitter but agreeable
aftertaste. The vermouth made in Italy
must contain at least 15.5% of alcohol
and 13% or more of reducing sugar6,7.
American vermouths are generally higher
in alcohol and somewhat lower in sugar
than the Italian. In France, the base wine
is normally flavoured by direct maceration
of the herbs and spices. The mixed herbs
are allowed to macerate in the wine for
one or two weeks, with periodic stirring8.
In California, a fortified sweet
wine of light colour such as a new angelica
or white port is used as the base wine for
making sweet vermouth. Further, the base
wine should be analyzed for copper and
iron content. The proper sugar level of
wine is maintained using grape
concentrate or sucrose. Further, the total
amount of water may not exceed 10% of
the volume of the vermouth. Citric acid
may be used to maintain the total acidity.
The alcohol content must be high enough
to allow for dilution when extracts low in
alcohol are employed for flavouring. The
final alcohol content of the sweet vermouth
is usually 17%, total soluble solids 13 to
14%, total acidity about 0.45% and tannic
acid about 0.04%. Caramel syrup may be
used if the colour is not dark enough.
However, it has been recommended that
grape concentrate darkened by heating
should be used instead of caramel to
darken the colour9.
Dry (French-Type) vermouth
Dry vermouths usually have higher
alcohol content, lower sugar content and
are lighter in colour than the sweet
vermouths. Further, these are sometimes
more bitter in flavour. In a typical French
dry vermouth8, the alcohol is 18% by
volume, reducing sugar 4%, total acidity
(as tartaric acid) 0.65% and volatile
acidity (as acetic acid) 0.053%.
The formulae for dry vermouth
contain much larger amounts of
wormwood and bitter orange peel as
compared to sweet vermouths10. Aloe, a
bitter herb, has also been recommended
as an additional ingredient. In the French
vermouth, a fewer number of herbs and
spices are used than in the Italian
A neutral sauterne-type wine is
mostly preferred as the base for dry
vermouth by California wine makers8,
which is usually made by fortifying a lot
of sauterne low in sulphur dioxide content
to 24% alcohol content and then mixing
the fortified wine with a sauterne of
12 to 14% alcohol content to give
a blend containing 18 to 18.5% of
alcohol. Further, the dry vermouths in
America are generally pale in colour and
lightly flavoured. Carbon is not
recommended to be used as
de-colourizing agent in vermouth itself as
the carbon absorbs flavouring and
aromatic compounds. Moreover, the
grapes which are balanced in acidity and
sugar content should be used for wine
Among those European vermouth
producers universally recognized for their
unique stylized vermouths are Martini and
Rossi of Italy and Noilly Prat of France.
Both are leaders in their respective
countries, but their vermouths are
uniquely different13. Martini and Rossi,
part of the Bacardi empire, is the world’s
largest vermouth firm, producing a range
of aromatized wines with a respect for
tradition merged with modern large-scale
wine making. The most popular Martini
and Rossi vermouth in the United States
is the Rosso, followed by the Extra Dry,
then Bianco. Other European vermouth
houses universally recognized for
their unique stylized vermouths are
Cinzano and Stock of Italy and Boisserre
and Dolin Vermouth de Chambery of
The composition of dry and sweet
vermouths studied by different scientists
from the samples of USA, France and Italy
is given in the Table 1.
Vermouth preparation
The vermouth is prepared
traditionally from grape by making the
base wine, extracting the herbs and
spices in wine and brandy mixture,
blending the extract with base wine,
fortifying the base wine to the desired level
of alcohol and finally maturation of
prepared vermouth1. The basic steps
involved in vermouth production have been
Natural Product Radiance
given in the Fig. 1. The base wine is
prepared from grape juice or a concentrate
as per the routine method. The essential
requirements of a base wine for
conversion into vermouth are that the wine
should be sound, neutral and cheap. For
example, among Italian vermouths, wine
from Emilia district is popular which is
fairly neutral wine with 10-11% (v/v)
alcohol and a low acidity of 0.5-0.6%. It
is prepared largely from Ugni Blanc grape.
Many Italian producers use refined beet
sugar for preparation of the vermouth,
although in France mistelas (fortified
grape musts) are preferred. Caramel is an
important constituent and is carefully
prepared5. American vermouth is
produced if a wine of natural higher acidity
is used. It should be fortified with neutral
high proof brandy. The extract can be
prepared by direct extraction method in
which their calculated amount is placed
in the base wine till the wine has absorbed
the desired flavour and aromas. The wine
may be heated during the extraction
process up to 60°C and the container
should be covered to minimize the loss
of aromas12. However, details of the
extraction processes differ among various
manufactures. Some companies use a type
of fractional blending system to maintain
consistency in the composition of the
botanical extract. It is believed that the
more important botanical ingredient
include wormwood, coriander, cloves,
chamomile, dittany of Crete, orris and
quassia. Brandy or alcohol extracts of
spices and herbs are available for
flavouring the vermouth11. Use of brandy
in the extraction of flavour can dispense
with the need of heating usually carried
out in the process with wine. Dry vermouth
should not be aged very long, rather should
be finished and bottled very young. Sweet
or dry vermouth should be low in
pH and preserved with SO2 to prevent the
spoilage by Lactobacillus trichodes.
It may also be flash pasteurized or
hot-bottled6, 12. Further, the quality and
type of vermouth depend upon the quality
and nature of base wine and on the type,
quality and amounts of various herbs
used. In general, the viscosity of wine,
that correlates with the body of the wine
the most, can be affected by parameters
like ethanol and dry extract concentration
of the wine14, 15. It has also been observed
that ethanol and dry extract of the wine
are the constituents that mainly affect its
viscosity, while glycerol has a negligible
effect due to its low concentration.
Herbs and spices
The different parts of various
plants (herbs and spices) such as the
seeds, woods, leaves, barks or roots in
dry form are used. The major flavouring
constituents of the herbs and spices used
in vermouth manufacture have been given
in the Table 2.
The quality of herbs and spices
is affected by the harvesting and storage
conditions. The specimens of the same
variety of plant grown under different
climatic conditions may differ markedly
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Table 1: Composition of dry and sweet vermouths
Source Number of Alcohol Extract Total Acid Tannin
samples (%) (g/100 ml) (g/100 ml) (g/100 ml)
Min Max Avg. Min Max Avg. Min Max Avg. Min Max Avg.
France 6 17.4 19.3 18.3 3.7 6.1 4.8 0.55 0.66 0.61 0.05 0.08 0.07
United States 77 15.0 22.0 17.7 1.4 7.9 3.8 0.31 0.66 0.50 0.03 0.07 0.04
Italy 20 15.5 17.1 16.1 14.9 20.7 18.6 0.36 0.52 0.28 0.05 0.11 -
Italy 10 13.7 16.9 15.7 14.0 17.2 15.6 0.36 0.52 0.45 0.05 0.11 0.08
United States 100 14.0 21.0 17.1 10.0 19.0 13.8 0.26 0.63 0.45 0.03 0.10 0.06
(Source: Ref. 6, 11)
Vol 8(4) July-August 2009
in character and quality. It has also been
reported that the longer the dried products
are stored before use, the poorer will be
their flavour. Therefore, the dried herbs
and spices should be as
fresh as possible.
Methods of flavouring
base wine
Different herbs
and spices may require
different extraction
methods. Thus, various
procedures for the
extraction of flavours and
their subsequent addition
to the wine are employed.
Direct extraction: It is
the simplest method of
flavouring the base wine
and in this, weighed
amounts of the herbs and
spices are placed in the
wine and leaving them
until the wine has
absorbed the desired
flavours and aromas10. To
hasten the extraction, the
plant materials may be
finely ground. However, it
may result in undesirable
flavouring. The wine is
usually circulated or
stirred at intervals during
extraction. Further, the
wine may be heated or
room temperature may be
applied. However,
extraction is usually more
rapid at the higher
temperature than lower
temperature. To minimize
the excessive loss of volatile
flavours and aromas, the
extraction tank should be
covered. The partial extraction is
preferable to the complete, as the latter
Fig. 1 : Basic processes involved in the preparation of vermouth
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Sorting and Washing
Pectolytic enzyme (if needed)
Raise TSS Level Sugar Fruit wine & brandy
(1:1 ratio)
Spices & herbs
(At 3-4°C)
Spices Extract
Optimum Temp.
Fortification & Blending
Maturation Bottling Labeling VERMOUTH
Spices & Herbs
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Italy, an alcoholic extract made from the
infusion of herbs and alcohol is preferred,
wherein, herbs are allowed to infuse with
alcohol and then this alcoholic extract
mixed with alcohol and white wine is
distilled8. Another method for an extract,
consisted of macerating a mixture of herbs
in sherry material at 140oF, cooling and
allowing standing for three to six weeks11.
The wine was then removed, the herbs
covered with hot wine and allowed to
stand for ten days. This wine was blended
with first extract. This blend was used to
flavour base wine for vermouth. However,
the use of a baked sherry as a base did
not produce vermouth of highest quality10.
It has also been recommended that the
herbs be first extracted with a wine and
brandy mixture of 50% alcohol content
Table 2 : List of herbs and their plant part used in the production of vermouth
Common/Commercial name Scientific name Plant part used
Allspice Pimenta dioica (Linn.) Merr. syn. P. officinalis Linn. Berry
Aloe (socotrine) Aloe perryi Baker Plant
Angelica Angelica archangelica Linn. Root (occasionally seed)
Angostura Cuspar febrifuga Bark
Anise Pimpinella anisum Linn. Seed
Benzoin, Gum benzoin tree Styrax benzoin Gum
Bitter almond Prunus amygdalus Batsch Seed
Bitter orange Citrus aurantium Linn. var. amara Peel of fruit
Blessed thistle Cnicus benedictus Linn. Aerial portion + seeds
Calamus, Sweet flag Acorus calamus Linn. Root
Calumba Jateorhiza palmata (Lam.) Miers. syn. J. calumba Miers. Root
Cascarilla Croton eleuteria Benn. Bark
Cinchona Cinchona calisaya Wedd. Bark
Cinnamon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Bark
Clammy sage, Common clary Salvia sclarea Linn. Flowers and leaves
Clove Syzygium aromaticum (Linn.) Merr. et L.M.Perry Flower
Cocao Erythroxylum coca Lam. Leaves
Common horehound Marrubium vulgare Linn. Aerial portion
may result in undesirable flavour or aroma.
Moreover, the pressing of spent materials
is also avoided.
Preparation of concentrates: The
concentrated extract is prepared by
placing the herbs and spices in a special
vessel outside the extraction tank and
circulating the wine from the tank through
the herbs in the extraction vessel until
most of the desired substances have been
extracted. This extract may then be used
to flavour a relatively large volume of base
wine. The wine is usually heated during
direct extraction12. An amount of 0.5 to 1
oz (14.17g to 28.35g) of mixed dry
flavouring materials per gallon (4.5 l) of
base wine is sufficient for sweet (Italian
style) vermouth. However, in case of dry
(French style) vermouth, 0.5 oz of the herb
and spice mixture is sufficient. Hot water
can also be used to prepare a concentrated
extract used in flavouring the base wine.
However, water extracts different
substances from the herbs and spices than
does alcohol or wine. Further, if the
softening of herbs and spices is carried
by hot water, then easy extraction can be
carried out with wine or brandy8.
Other extraction methods: The
brandy or alcohol extracts which are
commercially available may be used to
flavour a commercial lot of base wine for
vermouth. These extracts are also used in
small amounts to balance the flavour of a
lot of base wine previously flavoured by
direct extraction method or by the
addition of concentrated wine extract.
It has been reported that in Turin,
Vol 8(4) July-August 2009
Common/Commercial name Scientific name Plant part used
Common hyssop Hyssopus offcinalis Linn. Flowering plant
Coriander Coriandrum sativum Linn. Seed
Dittany of Crete Amaracus dictamnus Benth. Aerial portion+ flowers
Elder Sambucus nigra Linn. Flower (also leaves)
Elecampane, Common inula Inula helenium Hook.f. & Thom. Root
European centaury Erythraea centaurium (Linn.) Borkh. Plant
European meadowsweet Filipendula ulmaria (Linn.) Maxim. Root
Fennel Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Seed
Fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. Seed
Fraxinella, Gasplant Dictamnus albus Linn. Root
Galangal, Galingale Alpinia officinarum Hance Root
Gentian Gentiana lutea Linn. Root
Germander Teucrium chamaedrys Linn. Plant
Ginger Zingiber officinale Rosc. Root
Hart’s tongue Phyllitis scolopendrium (Linn.) Newman Plant
Hop Humulus lupulus Linn. Aerial Portion+ flower
Lemon balm, Common balm Melissa officinalis Linn. Flowering plant
Lesser cardamom Elettaria cardamomum Mat. Dried fruit
Lung wort, Sage of Bethlehem Pulmonaria officinalis Linn. Aerial Portion+ flower
Lungwort lichen, Lung moss Styeta polmonacea Plant (a lichen)
Marjoram Origanum vulgare Linn. Aerial Portion+ flower
Masterwort, Hog’s fennel Peucedanum ostruthium (Linn.)Koch. Root
Nutmeg, Mace Myristica fragrans Houtt Seed
Orris, Florentine iris Iris germanica Linn. var. florentina Dykes Root
Pomegranate Punica granatum Linn. Bark of root
Quassia Quassia amara Linn. Wood
Quinine fungus Fomes officinalis (Vill. ex Fr.) Lloyd Plant
Rhubarb Rheum rhapanticum Linn. Root
Roman camomile Anthemis nobilis Linn. Flowers
Roman wormwood Artemisia pontica Linn. Plant
Rosemary, Old man Rosmarinus officinalis Linn. Flowering plant
Saffron, Crocus Crocus sativus Linn. Portion of flower
Sage Salvia officinalis Linn. Aerial portion+ flowers
Savory (summer) Satureja hortensis Linn. Aerial portion of plant
Speedwell Veronica officinalis Linn. Plant
Star anise Illicium verum Hook.f. Seed
Sweet marjoram Majorana hortensis Moench. Aerial portion+ flower
Thyme, Garden thyme Thymus vulgaris Linn. Leaf
Valerian Valeriana officinalis Linn. Root
Vanilla Vanilla planifolia Andr. syn. V. fragrans Ames Bean
Wormwood Artemisia absinthium Linn. Plant
Yarrow Achillea millefolium Linn. Plant
Zedoary, Setwell, Curcum Curcuma zedoaria Rosc. Root
(Source: Ref. 8, 16)
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for ten days, then with wine for five days17.
Further, a moderate amount of heating can
also be employed.
Preparation of vermouth
from non-grape fruits
The method for the preparation
of vermouth from grapes is well
established. However, other fruits have
also been successfully used for the
vermouth preparation, as reviewed
Mango vermouth
The production of aromatic wine
from mango known as mango vermouth
has been carried out successfully18. The
base wine was made from cv.
‘Banganpalli’, raising TSS to 22°Brix,
adding 100ppm SO2, 0.5% pectinol
enzyme and carrying out fermentation at
22+1°C using Montrachet strain 522 of
Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The
composition of mango vermouths in
respect of pH, total acidity, alcohol,
aldehydes and total phenols was
comparable to the values reported for
vermouths prepared from grapes. The
herbs and spices mixture used in this
preparation are given in the Table 3.
Physico-chemical characteristics and
sensory quality of dry and sweet mango
vermouth prepared by Martinez et al 18
(Formula A, B, C and D) are given in Table
4. The formula A and C were found to be
optimum for the preparation of dry and
sweet vermouth, respectively.
Apple vermouth
Apple is produced and relished
all-over the world and used both for
dessert and processing purposes. In India,
only a small quantity of apple is processed
into various products including low
alcoholic beverages like cider compared
to other advanced countries19,20. Spices
like amla and ginger are known to
possess medicinal properties besides
antimicrobial activity19.
The method reported for the
production of apple vermouth was the
modified technique of grape vermouth,
due to the differences in the type of fruit21.
In this case it has been observed that base
wine had all the desirable characteristics
needed to make vermouth. Apple
vermouth with different ethanol
concentrations (12, 15 and 18%), sugar
content (4 and 8%) and spices extract
(2.5 and 5.0%) was prepared and
evaluated22. It has been observed that
composition of vermouth was influenced
by different alcohol levels, spices extract
or sweetness level in their sensory quality.
Level of spices extract (2.5 and 5.0) did
not effect TSS (°B), titrable acidity, colour,
total sugar, total tannins, volatile acidity,
increased mineral contents except for K,
esters and aldehyde contents. The physico-
chemical characteristics of apple
vermouth of different levels of alcohol is
given in Table 5. The product with 15%
alcohol, 4% sugar and 2.5% spices extract
was preferred the most in overall sensory
quality. Further, by increasing the acid
content, the acceptability of a product with
18% alcohol content can be enhanced
Table 3 : Herb mixture for dry and sweet mango vermouths
Herbs Amount used (g/l)of base wine
Dry wine Sweet wine
Black pepper 0.75 1.25 2.5 5.0
Coriander 0.70 1.25 2.5 5.0
Cumin 1.25 2.50 3.0 4.0
Bishop’s weed 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.0
Clove 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.0
Large cardamom 0.50 1.00 1.50 1.0
Saffron 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Fenugreek 0.50 1.50 2.0 2.50
Nutmeg 0.25 0.50 0.50 0.75
Cinnamon 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00
Poppy Seeds 1.00 1.50 2.0 2.50
Ginger 1.00 1.50 2.0 2.50
Flame of Forest 0.25 0.50 0.75 0.75
Lichen 0.25 0.50 1.00 2.00
A, B, C and D= Different formulas (Source: Ref. 18)
Vol 8(4) July-August 2009
Plum vermouth
Attempts to prepare plum
vermouth of commercial acceptability
have been made23. The herbs, spices, the
parts used and quantity/l are shown in the
Table 6. It has been reported that the
increase in the alcohol concentrations
increased the aldehydes, ester, phenol
content and TSS but acidity and vitamin C
decreased. Further, the herbs/spices extract
addition, increased the total phenols,
aldehydes and ester content of vermouth.
The composition of sweet and dry plum
vermouths has been given in the Table 7.
The sensory evaluation of the products
shown that the sweet products were
superior to the dry. The sweet vermouth
with 15% alcohol content was found to
be the best product.
Sand Pear vermouth
The juice of sand pear can also
be converted into vermouth as per the
standardized methodology24. Dry and
sweet vermouths with variable alcohol
levels were prepared from sand pear base
wine25. The conversion of base wine into
vermouth increased TSS, acidity, aldehydes,
Table 4: Physico-chemical characteristics and sensory quality of mango vermouths
Herbs Colour pH Total Volatile Alcohol Total Total Organoleptic
mixture (at 420 nm ) acidity acidity (%,v/v) aldehyde phenols scores
formula (tartaric (g. AA/ (ppm) (%) (out of 20)
& type of acid / 100 ml)
vermouth 100 ml)
Dry Vermouth
Formula A 0.420 3.40 0.59 0.088 17.0 15.8 0.055 13.00
Formula B 0.658 3.50 0.60 0.087 17.5 20.9 0.064 11.50
Sweet Vermouth
Formula C 0.678 3.42 0.59 0.071 17.2 26.4 0.070 15.50
Formula D 0.690 3.50 0.61 0.091 18.0 56.3 0.075 13.60
(Source: Ref. 18)
Table 5 : Physico-chemical characteristics of apple vermouth at
different levels of alcohol
Characteristics Alcohol level (%)* C.D.P=0.05
12 15 18
Total sugar (%) 9.2 7.8 7.3 0.4
Total soluble solids (oB) 16.0 16.2 16.3 N.S.
Titratable acidity (% MA) 0.43 0.39 0.37 N.S.
pH 3.36 3.29 3.26 0.04
Ethanol (% v/v) 11.9 15.2 19.2 0.36
Colour (units)
Red 3.75 2.92 2.40 0.38
Yellow 20.75 20.00 10.60 0.47
Apparent viscosity (flow) 1.62 1.95 2.02 0.03
Free aldehyde (mg/l) 46 46 68 6.03
Total esters (mg/l) 175.7 181.0 246.7 10.60
Volatile acidity (%) 0.046 0.040 0.040 N.A.
Total tannins (mg/l) 633 524 521 33.1
*Means are irrespective of sugar and spices extract level (Source: Ref. 22)
phenols and esters due to the addition of
extracts of herbs/spices. The sweet product
having 15% alcohol gave higher
acceptability. The herbs and spices and
their quantity used were the same as that
used for plum. The composition of sand
pear base wine and its vermouth25 has been
given in the Table 8.
Tamarind vermouth
Tamarind is one of important
tropical tree widely grown in India and
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its fruit can be used for production of
wine, but, its wine is not preferred due to
high level of acidity. Attempts have been
made to convert the fruit wine into
vermouth of acceptable quality26. In this
technique, the base wine was made from
tamarind fruit (50g/l), maintaining 0.9%
acidity followed by raising TSS to 23°Brix,
adding 150 ppm SO2, carrying out
fermentation with Saccharomyces
cerevisiae var ellipsoideus at a
temperature of 27+1°C. Both dry and
sweet vermouths having 17% alcohol
content were found to be acceptable.
Legal requirements
The production of vermouth in
wineries was illegal until 1936. As per the
Liquor Tax Administration Act of 1936
vermouth pays a single tax only, provided,
it is made by a bonded winery from
fortified wine without addition of more
alcohol during manufacture of the
vermouth itself. According to the
regulations, the product must have the
taste, aroma, and other characteristics
generally attributed to vermouth. The
producer may add an essence (brandy
extract of herbs) made with tax-paid
brandy which may be made by the
vermouth producer or obtained from a
manufacturer11. However, if essence is
used it must be stated in the formula.
Further, the base wine may be sweetened
with grape concentrate or sucrose. The
requirement of separate room or building
from other winery premises now no longer
applies and the vermouth may be made
in any tank on bonded winery premises.
It is however, compulsory that the formula
showing the ingredients used, details of
the process must be filed with the Assistant
Regional Commissioner of the Alcohol and
Table 7 : Physico-chemical characteristics of dry and
sweet plum vermouth
Physico-chemical characteristics Type of vermouth
Dry Sweet
Total sugar (%) ND 4.8
Titratable acidity (% malic acid) 0.81 0.79
Ethanol (% v/v) 15.0 14.5
Volatile acidity (% acetic acid) 0.03 0.04
pH 3.38 3.34
Vitamin C (mg/100m) 3.5 3.2
Total phenols (mg/l) 417 390
Aldehydes (mg/l) 411 112
Esters (mg/l) 204 219
(Source: Ref. 23); ND: Not detected
Table 6 : Spices and herbs used in the preparation of plum vermouth
Common name Botanical name Part used Qty g/l
Black pepper Piper nigrum Linn. Fruit 0.75
Coriander Coriandrum sativum Linn. Seeds 0.70
Cumin Cuminum cyaminum Linn. Seeds 0.50
Clove Syzygium aromaticum Linn. Fruit 0.25
Large cardamom Amomum subulatum Roxb. Seeds 0.50
Saffron Crocus sativus Linn. Flower 0.01
Nutmeg Myristica fragrans Houtt. Seed 0.25
Cinnamon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Beryn. Bark 0.25
Poppy seed Papaver somniferum Linn. Seed 1.00
Ginger Zingiber officinale Rosc. Dried root 1.00
Woodfordia Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz syn. Flower 0.25
W. floribunda Salisb.
Asparagus Asparagus sp. Leaves 0.10
Withania Withania somnifera Dunal Roots 0.20
Adhatoda Adhatoda sp. Leaves 0.25
Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis Linn. Flowering part 0.10
(Source: Ref. 23)
Vol 8(4) July-August 2009
Tobacco Tax Division of the Internal
Revenue Service and the producer must
obtain his approval before manufacturing
vermouth. Moreover, a natural wine must
be used in the making vermouth or the
flavoured special natural wines, but such
wine may be made with the usual
permitted cellar practices. A number of
botanicals, flavouring substances and
natural substances long used in wines have
been the subject of new regulations over
the several years. Further, in United States,
Regulation of the U.S. Treasury
Department, Internal Revenue Service
(1961) contains the various legal
requirements that apply in the production
of vermouth10. It has been reported that
in USA, it is mandatory that product should
be free from thujone.
Vermouths are prepared from
base wine by adding herbs and spices
mixture or their extract, which impart a
characteristic aromatic flavour. The quality
and type of vermouth depend upon the
base wine and the type, quality and
amounts of various herbs/spices used.
Besides grapes, other fruit juices such as
apple, mango, plum and sand pear have
shown their potential in the vermouth
production. Besides this attempts have
been made in production of vermouth
from tamarind, however higher acidity is
the major hindrance. Fortification of these
wines is carried by addition of ethanol
(derived from distillation of wine) at
particular stage during the process. In
addition to their high ethanol content,
their distinctive character is due to
specialized processes of maturation. Many
of the production techniques were devised
peculiar to one specific area and helped
to give the wine for that area its own
individual characteristics. However,
economics have forced to modify the
Table 8 : Physico-chemical characteristics of sand pear base wine
and sweet vermouth
Characteristics Wine Vermouth
Total soluble solids (°B) 6.1 13.0
Titratable acidity (%MA) 0.37 0.43
pH 3.99 3.95
Reducing sugar (%) - 4.17
Total sugar (%) - 4.35
Alcohol (% v/v) 10.80 14.95
Volatile acidity (%AA) 0.04 0.04
Ascorbic acid (mg/100m) 6.6 5.5
Aldehydes (mg/l) 103.21 133.15
Total phenols (mg/l) 226.26 264.46
Esters (mg/l) 197.4 268.04
Optical density 0.64 0.58
(Source: Ref. 25)
original methods, but, in doing so,
attempts were made to retain the flavours,
which were originated by the traditional
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... Method of preparation and quality characteristics of grape vermouth has been well established (Amerine et al., 1980;Wright, 1960). However, its preparation from other fruits and the effect of maturation is documented only for a few fruits (Panesar et al., 2009;Panesar et al., 2011;Joshi et al., 1991). This study aimed to investigate the effect of maturation on physico-chemical properties of wild apricot vermouth, which is rarely documented. ...
... The high acidity of wild apricot vermouth is correlated with the high acid contents of wild apricot fruits. Similar results have been reported in sand pear vermouth, plum vermouth and apple vermouth (Panesar et al., 2009;Joshi et al., 1991;Attri et al., 1994;Joshi and Sandhu, 2000). A significant but small decrease in alcohol concentration during maturation was attributed to the changes occurring during the maturation process i.e. the interaction between the acid and ethyl alcohol resulting in the production of ethyl acetate and consequently, the reduction of ethanol. ...
Full-text available
Wild apricot vermouths (WAV) of different sugar levels (8, 10 and 12 °Brix), different alcohol levels (15, 17 and 19%) and spice levels (2.5 and 5%) were prepared. The product was matured for six months and evaluated for physico-chemical characteristics at 0, 3 and 6 months of maturation. In general, ethyl alcohol content decreased in wild apricot vermouth of all treatments during maturation for six months, in proportion to their initial values. The decrease in TSS was revealed with the advancement of the storage period of six months. A similar trend was observed for total sugars with the advancement of the ageing period. The amount of reducing sugars, however, increased with the prolongation of the maturation period. The total esters content in WAV increased with the advancement of the ageing period, irrespective of their alcohol content. However, the volatile acidity showed a very little increase during ageing but remained non-significant among the different treatments. Total phenols content in WAV decreased by both the ageing period of six months and an increase in alcohol level. A non-significant increase in the titratable acidity with an ageing period was observed in all the WAV having different alcohol levels. The effect of spice extract levels added in the preparation of WAV showed that with the advancement of storage period total esters increased from 246.8 to 272.8 mg/L and 252.8 to 280.6 mg/L for WAV having 2.5 and 5% spices content, respectively. In brief, an overview of the entire results revealed that there was an interactive effect of alcohol level, the sugar level and the spice extract during maturation of wild apricot vermouth. It can be concluded that the maturation of WAV exerted a favourable effect on physico-chemical properties of wild apricot vermouth and is thus, considered desirable.
... Its distribution area fits with the elaboration area of the characteristic gitam and herberos. In Spain, leaves of D. hispanicus (Font-Quer, 1985;Mulet, 1991;Ríos and Martínez-Francés, 2003;Martínez-Francés and Ríos, 2005;Merle et al., 2006;Popović et al., 2014;Martínez-Francés et al., 2015) were used instead of the rhizome, contrary to what is commonly used in Central Europe (Fournier, 1947;Ivanova et al., 2004;Panesar et al., 2009;Tiţǎ et al., 2009). The parts most used in the spirits studied in eastern Spain are leaves (173), while the aerial parts including stems and flowers (if any) appear in nine and rhizomes only in two. ...
... But a complex absinthe preparation, called Vermouth, a wine-derived aperitif widely consumed (Morata et al., 2019), is also elaborated in some local distilleries of the studied territory. This aromatized liquor with a bitter taste is prepared from a base of white wine, fortified with wine spirit, colored by caramel, and aromatized with several dried herbs, spices, or their extracts (Panesar et al., 2009;Morata et al., 2019). Locally, Centaurium quadrifolium subsp. ...
Full-text available
Homemade herbal preparations from the East of Spain are the witness of traditional medicine inherited from the ancient complex formulas of herbal teas and medicinal wines. In this study, we document the use of traditional alcoholic beverages, identify their ingredients, almost exclusively botanical, record the local medicinal uses of these mixtures, and discuss patterns of distribution of this knowledge in regions of eastern Spain, the Balearic Islands and Andorra. We determine marker species and relevant patterns of herbal formulas in the different regions of the territory. Homemade liquors and liqueurs are consumed for their digestive and tonic-restorative properties but they also play in some cases an important social role. The elderly remember other medicinal uses such as aperitif, emmenagogue, or antidiarrheal, for some of the most popular preparations. The herbal liqueur formulas include predominantly Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Rutaceae, and Apiaceae species. Herbs (58%), fruits (28%), and mixtures of both (12%) are ingredients of liquors and wines, being the aerial parts the most frequent in terms of species (30%) and records (49%). Dictamnus hispanicus, Santolina villosa, Salvia blancoana subsp. mariolensis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, and Clinopodium serpyllifolium subsp. fruticosum are the species most frequently used. Others species used to a lesser extent as Polygonatum odoratum, Thymus moroderi, and Saxifraga longifolia are restricted to locally homemade preparations because their collection and uses require special knowledge of the rare or endemic flora. Sustainability of these practices is strongly limited by the overall loss of local traditional knowledge and by the limited availability of most of the wild species; some of them are endangered or threatened mainly by the loss of their natural habitats. Cultivation and domestication are a promising alternative to collecting from wild populations. The cultivation of Thymus moroderi in the province of Alicante and Polygonatum odoratum in the province of Teruel are good examples. There is a notable decrease in the complexity of the formulas registered throughout the nearly 15 years of the study. This is interpreted as a consequence of a loss of knowledge, less accessibility to wild resources, and changes in traditions and preferences.
... Officially, it is classified as an "aromatized fortified wine," referring to its derivation from a white base wine fortified and infused with a proprietary set of different plant parts: bark, seeds, and fruit peels. Vermouths are particularly popular in Europe and in the United States (Amerine et al. 1980;Panesar et al. 2009). When vermouth was introduced into Bavaria in the first half of the seventeenth century by the Piedmont producer Alessio, Vinum absinthianum was probably translated literally as Wermutwein. ...
... The leaves are reported to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, carminative, diaphoretic, astringent, digestive, stimulant, laxative, aromatic, diuretic and tonic activity [5,6]. Based on its properties, wall germander was used as spice, for imparting the aromatic flavor to base wine for vermouth or other liqueurs production [7], and to prepare, starting from the mid-1980s of the last century, herbal tea bags, or germander-containing capsules for weight loss [8]. Unfortunately, more than fifty hepatotoxicity reports (mainly hepatitis and liver cirrhosis), including a sudden death case, were recorded following wall germander-based supplementation [9,10]. ...
Full-text available
Dietary supplements based on Teucrium chamaedrys L. subsp. chamaedrys aerial parts were banned, due to the hepatotoxicity of furan-containing neo-clerodane constituents. Indeed, the plant leaf content in phenolic compounds could be further exploited for their antioxidant capability. Accordingly, bio-guided fractionation strategies have been applied, obtaining seven partially purified extracts. These latter were chemically investigated through 1D and 2D NMR techniques and tested for their antiradical, reducing and cytotoxic capability. Data acquired highlighted that, through a simple phytochemical approach, a progressive neo-clerodane depletion occurred, while maximizing phenylethanoid glycosides in alcoholic fractions. Thus, although the plant cannot be used as a botanical remedy as such, it is suggested as a source of healthy compounds, pure or in mixture, to be handled in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and/or cosmeceutical sectors.
... These conditions could have caused bacteria death or damage, resulting in the absence of ATP produced by those cells. On the contrary, yeasts can survive for more than 30 h at 20% (v/v) ethanol concentration [23], and in the presence of high sugar and essential oil concentrations [24]. Thus, ATP from yeast cells could still be measured in vermouth. ...
Full-text available
Microbial contamination may represent a loss of money for wine producers as several defects can arise due to a microorganism’s growth during storage. The aim of this study was to implement a bioluminescence assay protocol to rapidly and simultaneously detect bacteria and yeasts in wines. Different wines samples were deliberately contaminated with bacteria and yeasts at different concentrations and filtered through two serial filters with decreasing mesh to separate bacteria and yeasts. These were resuscitated over 24 h on selective liquid media and analyzed by bioluminescence assay. ATP measurements discriminated the presence of yeasts and bacteria in artificially contaminated wine samples down to 50 CFU/L of yeasts and 1000 CFU/L of bacteria. The developed protocol allowed to detect, rapidly (24 h) and simultaneously, bacteria and yeasts in different types of wines. This would be of great interest for industries, for which an early detection and discrimination of microbial contaminants would help in the decision-making process.
... A wine containing spices and herb is called vermouth. Preparation technique of vermouth has been optimized from other fruits also, like sand pear, plum and apples [7]. But there is no information on the suitability of this fruit for the preparation of vermouth nor there is any documentation of a method to prepare such a wine. ...
... The blending of different fruits has also been tested (Ahmed et al., 2017). In general, when vermouth wines are prepared from other fruits than grapes, it has been reported that the sweet style is better accepted than the dry (Patil et al., 2004;Panesar et al., 2009). The average composition of the base wine and the final vermouth product elaborated from different fruit sources is shown in Table 2.2. ...
Vermouth is a wine derivative produced from a base wine, usually white, fortified with wine spirit, colored by caramel with residual sugar level frequently about or higher than 100 g/L and aromatized with several dried herbs and extracts to get a typical bitter taste. Probably, it is the wine-derived aperitif most consumed worldwide. The present chapter reviews the technology and processes used in vermouth making highlighting the repercussion on the sensory quality. The effect of traditional herbs and spices on its sensory profile is also studied. Moreover, the effect of base wine in the aromatic complexity and stability is analyzed. The use of the caramel as colorant is compared with natural alternative products as grape anthocyanins in terms of stability, sensory quality, and consumer preferences. Finally, the use of barrel ageing or the use of alternative biological processes as ageing on lees is also considered.
... In addition to the surface area determination, both N 2 and CO 2 methods can be used to determine the pore volume and pore diameter in biochar. For that purpose, the Barrett-Joiner-Halenda (BJH) equation is commonly adapted (Ahmad et al., 2012b;Igalavithana et al., 2017) The BET surface area method used for biochar was originally adopted from the standard test method for black carbon (ASTM D6556-10, 2010; Uchimiya, 2015). The IBI (2015) included ASTM D6556-10 in the "standard product definition and product testing guidelines for biochar that is used in soil" as the standard method for determining the surface area of biochar. ...
Biochar is a carbon-rich by-product of the thermal conversion of organic feedstocks and is primarily used as a soil amendment. Identification and quantification of biochar properties are important to ensure optimal outcomes for agricultural or environmental applications. Advanced spectroscopic techniques have recently been adopted in biochar characterization. However, biochar characterization approaches rely entirely on the user's choice and accessibility to the new technology. The selection of proper methods is vital to accurately and consistently assess biochar properties. This review critically evaluates current biochar characterization methods of proximate, ultimate, physicochemical, surface and structural analyses, and important biochar properties for various applications.
Background Flavored wine is a type of specialized wine fortified with flavor additives such as herbs, spices, fruits and other natural flavorings, which has attracted increasing attention. In practice, the addition of flavor substances in winemaking is strictly regulated in many countries. Scope and approach This review evaluates traditional flavored wines in terms of history, botanical recipe, processing technique and sensory quality, and explores emerging flavored wines in the aspects of flavor additives, aroma profile and sensory properties. Additionally, the interactions between phenolic compounds and aroma compounds in flavored wines and their impacts on product quality are also discussed. Key findings and conclusions Traditional flavored wine, such as Vermouth, Bermet and Retsina, is among the most renowned alcoholic drinks. Basically, it is a blend of wine, botanical extracts, sugar and alcohol. Different parts (peel, seeds, flower heads, etc.) of aromatic plants (wormwood, cinchona, pine resin, etc.) are adopted as flavor additives, but with different combinations and proportions in recipe from company to company. At present, research on novel flavored wine is still at the early stage, although the inclusion of Ganoderma lucidum extract, Gentiana lutea root powders, grape skin extract, fruit juice, rice, dextrin, water and oak chips in winemaking have been proved to be successful in enhancing the aroma/flavor of wine and improving the mouthfeel. Addition of non-grape materials could introduce additional phenolics and aromatic compounds to the wine matrix, which is a critical factor impacting the flavor and palate of the flavored wine. Importantly, phenolics from non-grape materials may interact with saliva and oral mucosa and therefore has a prominent impact on the wine aroma volatility and thus wine organoleptic quality. In general, both traditional flavored wine and novel flavored wine are specially fortified wine characterized by the unique aroma and flavor of additional flavorings such as herbs, spices, fruits and other natural flavoring substances. This review provides comprehensive information on both old-fashioned and emerging flavored wines, which may trigger further investigation to exploit the potential of natural flavorings in winemaking.
Full-text available
The high content in gluconic acid and glycerol produced because of Botrytis infection can affect biological aging of the wine. In aging, if wine's gluconic acid content is more than 600 mg/L, heterolactic fermentations appear with certain intensity, producing high concentrations of lactic acid and volatile acidity; this last parameter will affect the quality of the wine. Under normal conditions, for lower contents of gluconic acid, one does not observe any increase in volatile acidity, since the acetic acid which is formed is consumed in the metabolism of the florforming yeasts. The lactic acid existing in the wine is also metabolized by yeasts, reducing its content in the last phase of the biological aging. High glycerol content in must is also metabolized by yeasts to very low levels; in the final phase, "solera", one finds levels below 0.5 g/L.
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The variation of the dry extract of sherry has been studied during its aging process. These variations have been evaluated, and it has been found that the dry extract of the wines depends fundamentally on the type of aging process to which they have been subjected. In the case of biological aging (Fino-type sherries), there is a decrease of dry extract of the wine in the aging process. This is due to the metabolism of the flor yeast of certain components of the wine, principally glycerol, and to the precipitation of potassium bitartrate during the long stocking period. For these reasons, the dry extract of wines which have been aged biologically can have values below 15 g/L. On the other hand, the dry extract in sherries which have been subjected to a physical-chemical aging process (Oloroso-type sherries) increases. This is due to the concentration of all the components of the wine produced by the evaporation in the aging. For this reason, the values of the dry extract of wines aged by this system can be over 22 g/L.
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The composition of apple base wine was found to be suitable for conversion into vermouth. The spices extract contained more TSS, tannins, esters, volatile acid but lower titrable acid than apple base wine. To optimize and develop apple vermouth with different ethanol concentrations (12%, 15%, 18%), sugar content (4%, 8%) and spices extract (2.5% and 5.0%) was prepared and was evaluated. Significant differences in physico-chemical characteristics and sensory quality amongst the vermouths having different levels of alcohol, sugar and spices extract were noted. Generally, increasing ethanol content decreased titrable acidity, tannins, macroelements and colour units while micro-elements, viscosity and total esters were increased. Increased sugar level affected TSS, apparent viscosity, pH, esters, free aldehyde, total sugar, K, Cu and Mn contents. Level of spices extract (2.5 & 5.0) did not effect TSS (ºB), titrable acidity, colour, total sugar, total tannins, volatile acidity, increased mineral contents except for K, esters and aldehyde contents. Increase in alcohol content upto 15% increased the sensory score of the product. Increased quantity of spices extract, however, decreased the mean sensory quality of vermouth. However, sensory scores for 4 or 8% sugar and 2.5 or, 5.0% spices extracted were similar. A product with 15% alcohol, 4% sugar and 2.5% spices extract was preferred the most in overall sensory quality. The studies revealed that apple fruit is suitable for making vermouth by the method described. The spices, herbs, their parts and the quantities used are also reported.
The viscosity of commercial red and white dry and sweet wines as well as model aqueous ethanol and glycerol solutions was measured with a falling ball viscometer. The dynamic viscosity values for NEMEA, NAOUSA, SANTORINI and MANTINEIA, four Greek “Appelation d’Origine Controllè” (AOC) wines, at 16 °C was found equal to 1.92 ± 0.05, 1.88 ± 0.07, 1.80 ± 0.07, 1.71 ± 0.02 mPa s, respectively. The dynamic viscosity values for the sweet wines AOC MAVRODAFNI and AOC SAMOS was found equal to 3.04 ± 0.1 and 3.16 ± 0.1, respectively. The decrease in viscosity with increasing temperature was adequately described by the Arrhenius equation with activation energy ranging between 21.92 and 22.48 kJ/mol. Alcohol content and dry extract were identified as the two factors that mainly influence the viscosity of the wine, while glycerol has a negligible contribution due to its low concentration. A multiple linear model describing first order effects of ethanol, dry extract and glycerol on the viscosity of the wine was fitted to the experimental results.
The contribution of glycerol, ethanol and sugar to the perception of viscosity and density of model wine (MW) solutions was examined. In study 1, the effects of individual components on perceived viscosity (PV) and perceived density (PD) were studied using 5, 20 or 50 g/L glycerol; 3, 7 or 15% v/v ethanol and 0, 80, 150 or 250 g/L sugar concentrations. In study 2, model ice wine mixtures of 8, 10 or 12% ethanol and 150, 250 or 300 g/L sugar were assessed for PV and PD. The physical viscosity and density of the MWs were also measured in both studies. Across the range of concentrations investigated, sugar influences the perception of viscosity and density the most, ethanol has a moderate effect and the contribution of glycerol is nominal. In model ice wine solutions, PV and PD increased with sugar concentration, but were minimally affected by changes in ethanol concentration. The PV elicited by the model ice wine solutions was well described by a linear model using physical viscosity as the independent variable (r: 0.907). This information may be useful for predicting the sensory properties of the ice wine for quality control purposes.
Eighty-six strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated for their ability to produce acetaldehyde in synthetic medium and in grape must. Acetaldehyde production did not differ significantly between the two media, ranging from a few mg/l to about 60 mg/l, and was found to be a strain characteristic. The fermentation temperature of 30 degrees C considerably increased the acetaldehyde produced. This study allowed us to assign the strains to different phenotypes: low, medium and high acetaldehyde producers. The low and high phenotypes differed considerably also in the production of acetic acid, acetoin and higher alcohols and can be useful for studying acetaldehyde production in S. cerevisiae, both from the technological and genetic point of view.