Article

Water Is an Economic Good: How to Use Prices to Promote Equity, Efficiency, and Sustainability

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... The fourth principle of the Dublin statement recognises water as an economic good implying that water in its uses should have a price tag (ICWE, 1992;GWP, 2000). Studies have shown that water pricing can improve allocation and water use efficiency as long as there are appropriate management instruments to achieve economic efficiency in water usage, and an enabling environment through legislation and policies to address equity issues and sustainability (Rogers et al, 1998;Rogers et al., 2002;Jonch-Clausen, 2004;GWP, 2005;Placht, 2007). When water is considered as an economic good implies subjecting water to some appropriate value that would avoid overuse and inefficient use, but still ensure social equity and affordability to the poor (Briscoe, 1996;Yuling and Lein, 2010). ...
... However, the implementation of efficiency principle in WRM requires improved infrastructure and strong institutions with elaborate monitoring and enforcement frameworks, which appear to be lacking in most basins in SSA (UN-WATER, 2006). Allocating water as an economic good with full cost recovery still needs huge public budgetary support, which if subjected to economy of scale without ensuring equitable access to water, stands to deprive the poor of the reasonable use of the resource (Rogers et al., 2002). ...
... Failure to balance efficiency and social equity appears to have impacted on water availability, and more so, with the rapidly increasing demands amidst dwindling economies. However, the integrated approach of water resources recognises pricing as a major component of improving the core values of IWRM; equity, sustainability and efficiency in the resource use (Rogers et al, 2002). Proper pricing of water changes consumption preferences, motivates consumers to use water much more efficiently and improves in-stream water availability by decreasing demands on the resource base (Rogers et al., 2002). ...
... Nearly 300 of 655 cities in China have suffered from insufficient water supplies, and 110 have been subject to severe water shortages (Jiang, 2009). Recognizing that natural water availability is not always able to meet ever increasing demands, demand management has emerged as an important approach that complements traditional supply-driven management (Savenije, 2002;Rogers et al., 2002). Because poor water resources management often leads to inefficient water use and allocation, water conflict may be intensified by poor management (Jiang, 2009). ...
... In addition, a higher water price generally led to less underestimation on water use. This can be explained by the fact that water price conveys the information of water scarcity to the public and may inspire water conservation (Rogers et al., 2002;Panagopoulos, 2013). Tap water users were more accurate than users of other water sources (i.e., well, river, lake) in perceiving water use, likely because of the water bill received from tap water use (well/ river/lake water in many cases does not need to be paid in China). ...
Article
Ensuring access to water is one of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. Water demand management, which has emerged as an important approach to secure water supply, should be underpinned by a good understanding of how the public perceive their use of water. In this study, we investigated public perceptions of physical and virtual water in China through online surveys using the multi-level regression models (two-level models). Based on 3262 responses, we found that overall, participants underestimated water uses and differences between water uses (daily potable water of an adult, shower, toilet flushing, etc.). Most participants did not possess the knowledge of virtual water embedded in their daily consumed products. Individuals showed rather different perceptions in water use, which were affected by gender, age, education, resource and environmental attitude, water saving behaviors, water price and residential water source. In combination with previous findings in the United States, we concluded that despite different natural water endowment and socio-economic and cultural conditions, underestimation of water use is commonly shared by Chinese and Americans. This highlights a need of strengthening public knowledge of water use. The results are useful in informing policies to enhance the public's awareness of water use towards improved water demand management.
... When water users see a high bill, they may voluntarily give up the cost of services improvement, though others may be willing to pay a certain annual fee as the cost of the water sector to improve the quality of service [110,111]. In addition to bills, water citizens want a clearer understanding of water prices and payment of water fees, and more information on water price regulation needs to be disclosed [112][113][114]. In England and Wales, the water sector is regulated under the RPI − X + K (Retail Prices Index − X, where K is based on capital investment requirements) price cap method [115]. ...
... When considering the current citizens' perceptions of water prices, the water sector should improve the water price mechanism as far as possible based on the needs of multiple parties and the actual situation. Those would enable the water price to positively impact water saving, water supply and distribution efficiency [112] and ensure that citizens can save water within the acceptable water price range. ...
Article
Full-text available
At present, many studies have used social survey methods to explore UK water citizens’ perceptions of the water sector’s water services, but there are few more targeted and systematic studies. This paper mainly displays the perceptions of UK water citizens on water services in the water sector in recent years and analyses the main reasons for different perceptions and possible strategies. We conduct extensive research from four aspects that are highly related to water services: water citizens’ perceptions of the water supply services and technology application (infrastructure construction) provided by the water sector; the state of communication between the water sector and water citizens and their perceptions of water supply management; water citizens’ perceptions of the comprehensive utilisation of water resources in the water sector; water citizens’ perceptions of the water prices set by the water sector. These discussions aim to discover citizens’ perceptions of the water sector and the effects on the public participation mechanism. These insights help attract the water sector’s attention so that the public’s opinions can genuinely support water policymakers and provide sure support for the water sector to formulate corresponding solutions.
... Les défenseurs d'une participation du secteur privé (PSP) (McIntoch, 2003 ;Merrett, 1997 ;Rogers et al., 2002 ;Winpenny, Camdessus, 2003) développent plusieurs arguments en lien avec l'efficacité et la performance des services. Ils assimilent les défaillances des systèmes d'alimentation d'eau urbains à un manque de performance de l'État dû à son fort taux d'endettement, ou aux interférences politiques et aux risques de corruption. ...
... Il serait le plus en mesure de répondre aux besoins de financement nécessaires au développement des services d'eau potable (Ménard, 2013). Il améliorerait les performances techniques, économiques et commerciales du service de l'eau en recherchant une augmentation de la productivité et de la couverture du service pour rentabiliser leurs activités (Rogers et al., 2002). ...
Thesis
La thèse part du constat d’une difficulté à articuler des objectifs de protection des ressources en eau avec ceux visant l’accès à une eau potable pour tous. Dans un contexte de pressions anthropiques et climatiques sur les ressources en eau, ces objectifs ne peuvent plus être appréhendés de façon déconnectée dans le cadre de politiques publiques comme sur le plan théorique. Pourtant, leur articulation est rarement étudiée comme objet d’étude à part entière en sciences humaines et sociales. La thèse vise donc à discuter cette articulation, en élaborant un cadre d’analyse original. Elle combine des approches institutionnalistes pour étudier la construction des règles de gouvernance des eaux (ressources, eau potable) avec les recherches conduites en political ecology qui prennent en compte les rapports de pouvoir dans la coordination des acteurs. Ce cadre permet aussi d’analyser les diverses qualifications de l’eau utilisées par les acteurs pour justifier un mode de gouvernance de l’eau spécifique. La thèse s’appuie sur deux études de cas complémentaires dans le contexte indonésien, fondée sur une méthodologie qualitative. En Indonésie, cette question de l’articulation apparaît comme centrale. Ce pays est en effet marqué par de forts enjeux de répartition des eaux entre les usagers et de pollution des ressources qui constituent une entrave à l’accès à l’eau potable. La première étude de cas porte sur le processus de construction d’une règle controversée, la loi sur l’eau, qui encadre le secteur (ressource et eau potable). Nous analysons ce processus à travers les discours de justification des acteurs qui oscillent entre accès équitable à l’eau potable et protection des ressources. La seconde étudie une ville indonésienne, Surakarta, qui concentre des enjeux portant à la fois sur la durabilité des ressources et l’accès à l’eau potable : pollutions aux points de captage, densité, ou encore conflits relatifs à l’allocation des ressources pour l’accès à l’eau potable. Dans les deux cas, une lecture sur le long terme des dynamiques institutionnelles permet d’identifier les moments de changements, caractérisés par de nouvelles hiérarchisations des finalités entre protection des ressources et accès à l’eau potable. Nous montrons aussi l’importance des rapports de pouvoir entre acteurs pour privilégier une finalité plutôt qu’une autre, en lien avec le processus de qualification de l’eau. Nous mettons enfin en évidence des différences dans la façon d’appréhender l’articulation dans des contextes locaux urbains et dans d'autres aterritorialisés, lors de la négociation de règles.
... WDM aims at providing efficient resource use and conservation through technology and market principles (Huber, 2000;Rogers et al., 2002;Savenije & Van der Zaag, 2002). Prices can stimulate users to be more prudent in consuming water, and, at the same time, fulfil cost-recovery requirements. ...
... The first is that price increases would lead to lower consumption. The second is that higher prices may act as a stimulus for water companies to invest in the enlargement of water networks in growing urban areas (Rogers et al., 2002). However, these assumptions often do not materialize because higher water prices may have unfavourable effects on low-income households. ...
Article
Using a socioenvironmental perspective, this paper analyses strategies of water demand management (WDM) in Arequipa, Peru, and their perception by residents through a survey of six city districts (three in the core and three on the periphery) complemented with interviews with key stakeholders. The results show significant differences in WDM. Strategies to reduce demand through pricing are dominant. Domestic water-saving technologies are uncommon, and awareness campaigns are limited to periods of water stress. Despite differences in water access, improvements in water networks (leak repair, adequate water pressure and continuous supply) are the most demanded actions by residents.
... Of course, given our current understanding of the hydrologic cycle, an argument can be made that most water has always been recycled or reused at some level. While few doubt the desirability of reuse when it reduces the need for new supply development, and the technology has been shown to work, the big question centers around discovering those conditions in which it pays in the sense of producing benefits or revenues greater costs incurred (Rogers et al., 2002). ...
... Incentivized pricing: Recycled water can be cheaper than the alternative where the latter is scarce. But where recycled water is priced higher than the alternative, few will use it (Rogers et al., 2002), a special problem that occurs when there is a weak customer base. ...
Article
Full-text available
Successful climate adaptation needs to sustain food, water, and energy security in the face of elevated carbon emissions. Hydroeconomic analysis (HEA) offers considerable potential to inform climate adaptation plans where water is an important element of economic activity. This paper's contribution is to identify how HEA can inform climate adaptation plans by minimizing economic costs of responding to climate induced changes in water supplies. It describes what HEA is, why it is important, how researchers implement it, who has made significant contributions, and places where it has informed policy debates. It also describes future directions for the use of HEA to guide climate adaptation.
... Småros, Lehtonen, Appelqvist and Holmström, 2003) and supply chain management (Kärkkäinen, 2003), among others. From a sustainability landscape, in turn, the idea of efficiency is usually related to the optimum use of water (Rogers, De Silva, and Bhatia, 2002) and energy (Ayres, Turton and Casten, 2007), along with a broad debate around the responsible use of other inputs, the generation of waste, as well as the general consequences of human activities for societies and the environment. ...
... Småros, Lehtonen, Appelqvist, & Holmström, 2003) and supply chain management (Kärkkäinen, 2003), among others. From a sustainability landscape, in turn, the idea of efficiency is usually related to the optimum use of water (Rogers, De Silva, & Bhatia, 2002) and energy (Ayres, Turton, & Casten, 2007), along with a broad debate around the responsible use of other inputs, the generation of waste, as well as the general consequences of human activities for societies and the environment. ...
Thesis
The association of firms to crimes, condemnable management practices, operational difficulties and / or fails carried out by their partners suggests that negative events occurred in a firm (i.e. source firm) hold the potential to negatively affect others. As firms’ direct and indirect relationships with their partners become less obvious, supply chain risks (March and Shapira, 1987) must be reconsidered to account for this contemporary and possibly hazardous prospect. In addressing this issue, the present dissertation investigates the impacts of negative corporate events to supply chain partners. Throughout three individual but interconnected articles, empirical evidence suggest that beyond the interruption of physical flows, unfavorable circumstances may not be restricted to firms originating them, spreading across their networks. More specifically, based on the premises of the Efficient Market Hypothesis (Fama, Fisher, Jensen and Roll, 1969; Fama, 1970; Jensen, 1978), the utilization of the event study method (Fama, 1970; Brown and Warner, 1980) allowed the demonstration of negative reactions from investors of supply chain partners upon the disclosure of adverse news. In referring to these outcomes, the concept of supply chain contamination is here defined as “the dissemination of negative events through supply chains, negatively affecting not only the market value of customers and suppliers (possibly that of customers of customers and suppliers of suppliers and so on), as well as potentially other dimensions such as corporate reputations, for instance” (Fracarolli Nunes, 2018: 581).Initial theorization of this process is also proposed. The mechanics leading a company to be affected by events originated out of its organizational borders is portrayed in the concept of the inertial effect, illustrated in the image of “the waves caused by a stone that hits the water previously rested” (Fracarolli Nunes and Lee Park, 2016: 292). Within the reasoning of unintended or unanticipated consequences (Merton, 1936), the occurrence of supply chain contamination through the inertial effect is considered a collateral effect. From the intersection of the literatures on supply chain management and the Stakeholder Theory, a new conceptual model is developed. Building on the idea that stakeholders stand for any individual, entity or group that shall either affect or be affected by the operations of a company (Freeman, 1984), the empirical demonstration that investors of a supply chain partner must be affected (i.e. collateral effect) by negative events occurred in or caused by a source firm (i.e. supply chain contamination through the inertial effect), allows the proposition of the concept of incidental stakeholders, here defined as “stakeholders of stakeholders, which, as such, may not be aware of their links with other companies, or even not consciously willing to take the risks associated with such a subsidiary connection” (Fracarolli Nunes, 2019: 4). In this sense, the investigation of 30 cases classified in 5 distinct categories (environmental disaster, corporate social and environmental irresponsibilities, operational failure, corporate fraud and corruption) is expected to offer new perspectives on the structural risks associated to supply chains. Along with the theoretical discussions, practical utilizations are approached, as well as avenues for future inquiries.
... O Brasil também aderiu à cobrança, inspirado na tendência mundial de associar instrumentos econômicos à regulação das águas, bem como, na experiência francesa sobre o tema; o país implantou a cobrança pelo uso dos recursos hídricos através da Lei nº 9.433, de 08 de janeiro de 1997, conhecida como a Política Nacional de Recursos Hídricos (PNRH) (ANA, 2014;Matsushita;Granado, 2017;Rogers et al., 2002.). A arrecadação dos valores da cobrança ocorre conforme o domínio dos recursos hídricos no Brasil. ...
Article
Full-text available
Em vários países o preço da água pode e melhorou quantitativa e qualitativamente a distribuição deste recurso. O preço adequado e bem utilizado levou a uma melhor sustentabilidade e conservação da água por meio de regulamentos prescritivos, incluindo até o racionamento de água. O uso de preços para gerenciar a demanda de água é mais econômico do que a implementação de programas de conservação sem preços. No Brasil, através de instrumentos legais, é prevista a cobrança pelo uso dos recursos hídricos, sinalizando pela necessidade do reconhecimento do valor econômico da água associado ao seu uso, ao desenvolvimento sustentável mediante aos desafios da escassez hídrica futura. Para que a cobrança pelo uso da água não se torne um mero mecanismo de arrecadação pública, e devido também, a inexistência de estudos que investiguem e expressem de forma clara os objetivos e finalidades da cobrança em Minas Gerais, esta pesquisa se fez necessária. Desta forma, este trabalho objetivou investigar e avaliar a cobrança pelo uso da água e sua eficácia na melhoria do Índice de Qualidade da Água (IQA) estabelecida pelo órgão gestor. Em Minas Gerais, de 91,67% das Unidades de Planejamento e Gestão de Recursos Hídricos (UPGRHs), onde existe a cobrança instituída, não se constatou uma tendência na melhoria do IQA. Apenas 36,36% das bacias estaduais que cobram pelo uso da água melhoraram os níveis de IQA, enquanto 63,63% pioraram ou não tiveram variação significativa. Charging Effectiveness for the Use of Water Resources conditioned to the Water Quality Index: Case Study, Minas Gerais, Brazil A B S T R A C TIn several countries the price of water can and has improved quantitatively and qualitatively the distribution of the resource. The appropriate and well-used price has led to better sustainability and conservation of water through prescriptive regulations, including even water rationing. Using prices to manage water demand is more economical than implementing price-free conservation programs. In Brazil, through legal instruments, charging for the use of water resources is foreseen, signaling mainly the need to recognize the economic value of water associated with its use, sustainable development through the challenges of future water scarcity. So that, charging for the use of water does not become a mere mechanism for public collection, and also due to the lack of studies that investigate and clearly express the objectives and purposes of charging in Minas Gerais state, this research was necessary. Thus, this study aimed to investigate and evaluate the charge for water use and its effectiveness in improving the Water Quality Index (WQI) established by the managing body. In Minas Gerais, of 91.67% of the Water Resources Planning and Management Units (UPGRHs), where the collection is in place, there was no trend in improving the IQA. Only 36.36% of the state basins that charge for the use of water improved the levels of IQA, while 63.63% worsened or had no significant variation.Keywords: Water scarcity. Water availability. Water Value.
... e exhaustion of water and other natural resources is progressively seen as the driving force behind the displacement of internal and international migration. Rogers et al. [2] considered water as an economic commodity and used prices to motivate efficiency, equity, and sustainability. In China, a series of regulations were issued to regulate water resources management. ...
Article
Full-text available
Water retailer managed inventory is a classical and inevitable inventory management mode in present economic society. Stochastic models can more clearly explain demand uncertainty and are closely related to water supply chains. Risk preferences are widely valued in behavioral operation management. Related to the risk preferences in inventory management, the research on risk aversion is dominant, while risk-seeking is insufficient. Based on the model assumptions, the risk-seeking retailer’s optimal decision-making inventory model with stochastic demand in a water supply chain is studied. The risk-seeking retailer’s optimal inventory quantity, optimal inventory cost, supplier profit, retailer profit, and the profit of the entire water supply chain are derived. The validity of the equations is proved. The sensitivity analysis of the risk-seeking retailer’s optimal inventory decision-making is carried out. The risk level effects on the five dimensions, the retail price, wholesale price, unit shortage cost, unit inventory cost, and unit residual value, are displayed through numerical simulation. The optimal inventory quantity and optimal inventory cost of the risk-seeking retailer are obtained.
... Therefore, the land investor is unable to properly assess the marginal value of the water used in agricultural production. An alternative approach explored in this paper, based on a volumetric water pricing, should help to efficiently allocate water in the face of scarcity and to recover the costs of water supply while promoting environmental protection (Rogers et al., 2002). Although the flat rate per area pricing implemented in the ON has been largely criticized (Brondeau, 2011;Hertzog et al., 2012), options for implementing a volumetric water pricing system have not been investigated. ...
... Source: own elaboration based on official project contracts. 14 CREDIT POPULAIRE D ALGERIE ("CPA"), located at 2, boulevard Colonel Amirouche, Algiers, registered in the commercial register of the wilaya of Algiers under number B 2 2, NIS: 1 1 552, represented by its Chairman and Managing Director, Mr. Mohamed Djellab [3 ]. the plant is built, the water purchase and sale contract will be implemented, in which the selling price of the water will be . 513 m3. ...
Article
Full-text available
There is an extensive bibliography that analyses the structure of a desalination project from the perspective of chemical engineering, but there is another "engineering" that has been much less studied, which is just as decisive for the plant to be able to operate. The aim of this work is to analyse the economic and legal factors that condition the proper operation of a project and, to this end, we will place special emphasis on the usual agents and contractual agreements. We intend to arrive at a general model of operation that we will construct from the study of three particular cases: Algeria, Tunisia and Egypt. These three countries represent different ways of structuring a project, with the involvement of the public sector being the main element that varies between them.
... Los precios, además de contribuir a la financiación del servicio, presentan una serie de efectos que los convierten en una herramienta clave para la gestión económica de recursos hídricos GARCÍA-LÓPEZ y MONTANO, 2020). Estos efectos son variados, pero destacan su capacidad para reducir el consumo de los usuarios, para incentivar a la oferta, para redistribuir los escasos recursos disponibles, para mejorar la gestión y, en resumen, para alcanzar la sostenibilidad del recurso (ROGERS, DE SILVA y BHATIA, 2002). En este sentido, hay diversos aspectos que deben tenerse en cuenta para aprovechar dichas ventajas. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
For the methodological proposal focusing on rural water resources management, there are six bases that support the managers' initiative for decision-making: (i) identification of communities and quantitative survey of households, (ii) application of a form for data collection; (iii) action planning, (iv) budget and origin of financial resources; (v) implementation of structural measures; (vi) monitoring via structural measures.
... Although prescriptive regulation could change residential water use behaviors to some extent, water pricing policy is potentially a more effective means to foster urban water conservation, while maintaining equity in scarcity situations [5][6][7][8][9]. The shift of water policies to discontinuous pricing structures, such as increasing-block rates, is a typical instance of current attitudes toward water pricing [10]. However, the current increasingblock rates in most regions fail to be economically efficient in water conservation, since water prices are often underestimated [11][12][13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In drought years, most residents fail to improve water use efficiency due to residential water supply normally being prioritized in many regions, which makes other low-priority industrial water users suffer more from water shortage. This paper proposes a Pricing Strategy for Residential Water (PSRW), a water tariff that changes on annual time scale, based on the scarcity value of water resources, aiming to promote residential water conservation and reallocate water resources across the residential and industrial sectors during droughts. An optimization model to maximize the total benefit of residents and industrial sectors is introduced based on marginal benefit and price elasticity. The water shortage of industrial sectors is used to reflect the scarcity of water resources, and the lowest water supply standard for households and the maximum proportion of household water fee expenditure (HWFE) to household disposable income (HDI) are used to ensure the residents’ acceptability to price raising. It shows an “S-type” relationship between the optimal price raising coefficient and industrial water shortage, and two turning points are found in the curve, which are the starting and stopping points of price raising. The appearance of starting point depends on the non-negative net benefit, and the stopping point is affected by the factors that represent the residents’ acceptability to price raising. The application to Tianjin, a city in northern China with the rapid growth of population and economy but scarce water resources, shows PSRW is a potential means to improve water efficiency and optimize water resource allocation in water scarcity situations.
... Here, the pressure on target groups is strong, since these are forced to comply with the rules. Market-basedinstruments aim at encouraging a desired behavior through positive or negative financial incentives (Olmstead, 2010 ;Rogers et al., 2002). Subsidies for the development of more environmentally friendly production processes are an example for a positive incentive, whereas imposing taxes on less environmentally friendly products represents a negative incentive. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This dissertation set out to investigate whether studying the public debates on water pollution by agricultural nitrate and contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) contributes to an enhanced understanding of differences in respective policymaking in Germany. Theoretically, the articles of this cumulative dissertation predominantly built on previous literature on public debates, discourse networks and narrative strategies. A growing literature in political science suggests that public debates influence policymaking processes in democratic systems and has shown that analyzing public debates contributes to a better understanding of observed variation in policy outcomes. Empirically, the articles investigated public debates and policymaking on two cases of water pollution in Germany: nitrate water pollution caused by agricultural activities and CECs with special attention on pharmaceutical contaminants. Both cases varied regarding the characteristics of the public debates and the policy outcomes. The debate on agricultural nitrate water pollution became increasingly polarized over time and coincided with a significant change in fertilizer regulation, whereas the persistence of comparatively liberal regulation on CECs was accompanied by a non-polarized and largely non-disputed public debate. The four articles of this cumulative dissertation are structured into two parts. In the first part, two articles engaged with the empirical case of agricultural pollution of water. The first article investigated the public debate on agricultural nitrate pollution. More specifically, it analyzed whether political actors used narrative strategies to influence policymaking. The second article focused on German political parties and investigated whether their attention and positioning on agricultural pollutants in water was associated with policymaking on the issue. In the second part, the two articles shed light on the public debate on water pollution by CECs. The first article explained the policy outcome on pharmaceutical contaminants by examining the German public debate on the issue. The second article compared the approach of discourse and policy networks and their respective empirical findings on the issue of CECs. Overall, the dissertation makes several theoretical, methodological and empirical contributions to literature on public debates, policy narratives, agenda-setting, policy integration, social network analysis, and the issue of water pollution in Germany.
... At a more normative level, multi-level, decentralized and polycentric governance have been advocated (Pahl-Wostl, 2009), especially when water is considered as a common pool resource (Villamayor-Tomas, 2018). According to some water experts, great leaps forward have been made at the policy level with the recognition of water as an economic good (Rogers et al., 2002) and as a human right (Salman and McInerney-Lankford, 2004), and more integrated and participative management practices have been advocated around the globe. By the end of the 20th century, Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) has taken precedence over state-led water management (Biswas, 2004;Merrey et al., 2005;Medema et al., 2008;Petit and Baron, 2009). ...
Article
This paper introduces the special section entitled “Ecological Economics of Water: social and political perspectives”, which brings together articles published in successive issues of the journal in 2020 and 2021. By discussing the literature, we review contemporary issues and controversies surrounding water management and water policies to highlight the importance of the social and political dimensions that an ecological economics of water should address. We promote comprehensive and reflective approaches that consider institutions and institutional change seriously, e.g. to discuss the role of water-related indicators in water policies. We demonstrate the relevance of this special section that comes after two water-related special issues already published in Ecological Economics. Finally, we introduce each of the articles of this special section, which we believe can help shape a new avenue of research among ecological economists of water.
... This follows the principle that water demand responds to price signals, where water prices lead to more efficient water allocation between competing users (Rogers et al. 2002). Nevertheless, this strategy is arguable as the price information are imperfect or unobserved, and when the price demand elasticity is very low (Banda et al. 2007;Gaudin 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Water sustainability is central to modern political and academic debates. Despite increasing efforts to promote regional and global integrated water management, climate change, population, and economic growth, and increasing consumption of water-intensive goods project higher water deficiency. Robust economic analyses rely on information about water supply and consumption across different production sectors, type of procurement source (public or private water supply), and water prices. Nevertheless, developing current and future economic water assessments and indicators is impeded by the absence of data. Despite the lack of official national statistics on water withdrawal and consumption, a small number of international and global databases have been constructed and attempt to combine available national water information into databases. Water databases do not commonly define and/or distinguish terms such as water use, water consumption, water supply, or water abstraction, and the associated aspects of water scarcity and sustainability. They comprise variable data quality, provided by numerous sources, and estimated values. This paper evaluates the current state of knowledge of national statistics, international and global water databases. We describe the data collection methods, identify basic concepts and definitions of water terms, followed by the criteria of consistent water databases. We inform about data availability across regions, and present the data content and definitions of national, international, and global water databases. The results show inconsistencies of data content and definitions, suggesting no evidence of data harmonization among databases. Therefore, our study cautions researchers to be careful when manipulating and comparing the available water data, especially when deriving policy recommendations or economic conclusions. In the long run, the headway of water research and political assessments depend on political enforcements to refine the meaningfulness of water data and support water collection, reporting, and monitoring. Alternatively, in the short- and medium-run, water data challenges can be addressed by joint research efforts for water data harmonization.
... All this makes water a complex economic good (Hanemann, 2006). For this reason, water generally enjoys a special legal status, managed according to the 'public trust' doctrine, which aims to ensure efficiency, equity, and environmental sustainability (Rogers et al., 2002). According to this doctrine, water management is usually based on centralized allocation regimes involving water rights (also called entitlements, licenses, concessions, or permits) granted by a public authority that determines how much water can be diverted from water bodies and who is allowed to use these resources (rights holders only). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the effectiveness of reforming water rights regimes in the agricultural sector by replacing allocation procedures based on the proportional rule with the implementation of a priority rule that establishes security-differentiated water rights. The main objective is to assess whether this change improves the economic efficiency of water allocation at the irrigation district level, particularly during cyclical scarcity events. To this end, a Positive Mathematical Programming model is built to simulate the performance of the proposed reform in an irrigation district in southern Spain. The results show that the efficiency gains brought about by this change are very small, which casts doubt on its ability to improve water-use efficiency in the agricultural sector at the local level (i.e., irrigation district) under current local climate and water availability conditions. In any case, further research is needed to assess the suitability of this change in allocations rules at basin scale with greater farm heterogeneity, especially given the likelihood of more frequent, more intense droughts due to climate change.
... • Capacity and economy restrictions associated with spaciotemporal finite resources such as water (Rhoades, 1995;Rogers et al., 2002) • Long distance and long-term effects that disrupt natural equilibria caused by the energy-based water demand Grill et al., 2015;Annandale, 2013) • Differing scales. The W4EF acts locally. ...
Article
Full-text available
The seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were designed to lead the modern Anthropocene to a lifestyle that was demanded by the Brundtland commission. Their objective is a common good that does not exploit the planet’s environment and is thus long-term. Though virtually separated, contemporary research shows that the seventeen SDGs are in- tertwined. This is also the case for water and energy (SDG 6 and 7). The present research offers the first holistic indicator set that is designed to demonstrate the synergies and trade-offs between electrical energy gener- ation and necessary water supply. It is founded on the SDG principles, follows a mindset based on the security definition established by Grey and Sadoff and is designed around the various technical dependencies of electrical energy and water. The set endeavors to reflect the manifoldness by which electrical energy is dependent on water supply in a dynamic eco- logic, economic and social environment. As electrical energy and water interactions are identified for a regional level, the set is designed to be applicable on any administrative or basin area with moderate data avail- ability. Thereby, the set includes industrializing and non-industrialized countries. It is based on six main indicators and sixteen sub indicators and seen as conceptual design for further discussion before application. The present paper argues and presents how those indicators are formed, why they are need, how and why they should be applied and why it is necessary if not inevitable to design cross-SDG indicators in a holistic view.
... The reallocation of water supplies across space and time requires storage and network infrastructure and is often constrained by unpredictable supplies (stochastic hydrology). Moreover, raw water supplies are typically unpriced [61][62][63][64] ; thus, the economic value of water is not included in economic data (e.g., social accounting matrices and input-output tables). ...
Article
Full-text available
The landscape of water infrastructure in the Nile Basin is changing with the construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam. Although this dam could improve electricity supply in Ethiopia and its neighbors, there is a lack of consensus between Ethiopia, Sudan, and Egypt on the dam operation. We introduce a new modeling framework that simulates the Nile River System and Egypt’s macroeconomy, with dynamic feedbacks between the river system and the macroeconomy. Because the two systems “coevolve” throughout multi-year simulations, we term this a “coevolutionary” modeling framework. The framework is used to demonstrate that a coordinated operating strategy could allow the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam to help meet water demands in Egypt during periods of water scarcity and increase hydropower generation and storage in Ethiopia during high flows. Here we show the hydrological and macroeconomic performance of this coordinated strategy compared to a strategy that resembles a recent draft proposal for the operation of the dam discussed in Washington DC.
... İnsanlığın gıda ve lif ihtiyacının %40'ı sulu tarım alanlarından sağlandığı için sulama İBY hizmetleri giderek daha fazla önem kazanmaktadır. Gelecek 50 yılda, gıda ihtiyacını karşılamak, kötü beslenme koşullarını azaltmak ve artan dünya nüfusunu karşılayabilmek için mevcut tarımsal üretimin üç katına çıkarılması gerekmektedir (Gerards, 1994;Rogers & Bhatia, 2002). Sulu tarıma yeni maliyetler getiren Su Çerçeve Direktifi (SÇD)'nin devam eden uygulamaları sulama teknolojileri ve su tasarrufu sağlayan yöntemlerin benimsenmesini teşvik etmektedir (Cornish vd., 2004;Gómez-Limón & Riesgo, 2012;Medellín-Azuara vd., 2012;Levidow vd., 2014). ...
... Since 1960, there has been taken place a huge increase in urban water demand in developed countries, reached its highest peaking in the late 1990s (Deoreo and Mayer, 2012;March and Saurí, 2016;Roger et al., 2002). This has been due to a widespread increase in housing and population growth in areas such as urban and tourist areas. ...
... Pricing water consumption correctly can be an imperative means for managing their wrong practice. Through increasing water prices in accordance with the established rules of economic theory (Rogersa 2002), reduction in the waste of water can be attained. Thus, an increase in water price can be an important incentive for sustainable use of irrigation water. ...
Article
Full-text available
Agriculture, the main economic driver of Barind Tract, is highly dependent on groundwater for surface water paucity in the area. Notwithstanding, farmers use water capriciously due to its low price that makes a substantial drop in the water table. In this context, the research attempts to determine a market-based water pricing mechanism to encourage an optimal use of the scarce non-renewable resource. Required data was collected by questionnaire survey, Focus Group Discussion (FGD), Contingent Valuation Method, expert-opinion survey and subsequent literature works. The results reveal that depletion level has arrived at 20, 11, 7.5 feet in high, mid and low tract respectively over the last 22 years, which results in a number of economic-environmental externalities in the area. The research monetarily evaluated the cost of externalities and incorporated it with the marginal cost of extraction to increase efficiency of an existing pricing system. Regarding human reaction to price elasticity, the new price can be a reliable attempt to reduce an overconsumption pattern of water. Quantity of consumed water can be reduced to 14190.4 m3, 17759.59 m3 and 38510.6 m3 in a year in high, mid and low tract area respectively with its implementation. The research will serve as an initiative to conserve the valuable groundwater resource for future generations by managing consumer practice.
... In the field of resource use and management, Edward (2003) analyzed the effect of property rights behavior of the governments of Sweden and New Zealand through case studies, and found that reducing the control of forest land could achieve win-win economic and environmental benefits, pointed out that the government could not be an effective manager of public land. In terms of the use of water resources, Rogers et al. (2002) pointed out that water resource pricing can be used to promote equity, efficiency and sustainability of the water sector, but its use pricing policy requires large-scale government intervention to ensure full coverage of equity and public goods issues. When Randall (1981) studied the current water pricing and distribution policy in Australia, he believed that it suffered a great loss of efficiency. ...
Article
Full-text available
Water diversion projects realize the change of water rights ownership by diverting water resources, but most of the water diversion projects are dominated by the government in the operation stage, which can't realize complete market-oriented transaction of resources. In this study, the water source area, project management department and users involved in water resources trading of a water diversion project are regarded as stakeholders, and an evolutionary game model is established to analyze the feasibility and restrictive conditions of the free trading of water resources in the water diversion project. The research results show that the three parties can realize the balance and stability of interests (the water source area supplies good water, the project management department supplies sufficient water, users take water according to the supply), which means that the water market transactions are feasible. Meanwhile, it also gives clear restrictions on the water price of the three parties transaction: the project management department water price for purchase is less than on the premise of lower than + , the sale water price is not higher than . The free trading of water resources in the water diversion project under the market mechanism is of great significance for clarifying the water rights and reducing the financial pressure of the government. HIGHLIGHTS Establish an evolutionary game model of three stakeholders involved in the water resources transaction of a water diversion project.; Analyze the feasibility of the water resources market transaction.; Restrict the water selling price of the water source area and project management department.; Promotion of market-oriented trading of water resources is of supporting significance to clarify water rights and reduce government financial pressure.;
... Los precios, además de contribuir a la financiación del servicio, presentan una serie de efectos que los convierten en una herramienta clave para la gestión económica de recursos hídricos GARCÍA-LÓPEZ y MONTANO, 2020). Estos efectos son variados, pero destacan su capacidad para reducir el consumo de los usuarios, para incentivar a la oferta, para redistribuir los escasos recursos disponibles, para mejorar la gestión y, en resumen, para alcanzar la sostenibilidad del recurso (ROGERS, DE SILVA y BHATIA, 2002). En este sentido, hay diversos aspectos que deben tenerse en cuenta para aprovechar dichas ventajas. ...
Book
Full-text available
É com muita alegria que entregamos à comunidade uma obra com a intenção de trazer apontamentos de soluções para o grande problema vivenciado pela humanidade: a crise de água. Essa, sem dúvida, a maior crise já presenciada por todos. É uma crise essencialmente de acesso que atinge especialmente os mais vulneráveis. Essa crise aponta para outras crises, dentre elas a crise energé- tica em países que dependem da energia produzida pelos cursos de água como o Brasil. Aponta também para um crise de alimentação, pois sem água não há como produzir alimentos. Com base nisso, a Editora da Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, em mais uma atitude pioneira, buscou trazer uma discussão dos nos- sos tempos focando nas bases para a mudança, em 17 trabalhos, divididos em 12 segmentos ou eixos, contando com a participação de 34 especialistas do mais alto nível, de várias regiões do país, da Colômbia e Espanha. A intenção é iniciar um ciclo de publicações propositivas, que visam apresentar soluções para o problema do acesso ao saneamento no país, com destaque para à água potável, coleta e tratamento de esgoto. O problema é profundo e expõe o quão injusto é ainda a implementação de certas políticas públicas. A universalização ainda está distante da realidade de muitos brasileiros, sendo alvo de críticas e tendo consequências dramáticas para a saúde com reflexos no trabalho e na educação, equivalente aos efeitos de uma pandemia persistente em nosso território. A despeito da meta 6 dos Objetivos do Desenvolvimento Sustentável das Nações Unidas, certamente não chegaríamos à uni- versalização, mesmo sem a pandemia do COVID 19, muito menos agora com mais essa tragédia que se abate sobre o planeta. O acesso à água, à coleta e ao tratamento de esgoto são direitos humanos que precisam se traduzir em realidade na vida das pessoas. Não se pode aceitar que em pleno século XXI mulheres tenham que caminhar quilômetros para ter acesso a um reservatório de água. Além disso, é preciso incluir nas estratégias públicas do Estado o saneamento rural, que vem sendo relegado a um terceiro plano, o que destoa do que se preconiza na essência de uma gestão integrada dos recursos hídricos. Portanto, esperamos que todos possam ler a presente obra com um olhar prospectivo de futuro, sem a intenção de abranger todas as dimensões relacionadas com a água, mesmo porque pretendemos que esse seja um primeiro volume de muitos.
... Since the recognition of water as a scarce, vulnerable, and valuable economic commodity by the United Nations (UN) in the 1990s, many countries have introduced various water pricing instruments. In 1992, the famous Dublin Principles set the foundation for considering water as an economic good (Rogers et al., 2002). Dublin Principle (1) recognizes water as a vulnerable and finite resource, whereas Dublin Principle (4) defines water as a public commodity, which has social and economic value (GWP, 1999). ...
... For instance, the introduction of taxes to water resources promote its efficient management even in the food and energy sectors through the introduction of technologies to use the resource sparingly. In this regard, Rogers et al. (2002) noted that the high economic and market value associated with water resources in reference to the other nexus components necessitates its prioritized management. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
WFE nexus is an important aspect in building sustainable economies. Water is used in food production while water supply and food processing require energy. Understanding the interrelationships of the nexus components is a growing interest for researchers and policymakers towards sustainable development. This chapter analyses the in-depth meaning of the WFE nexus, its importance, and its involved processes. The chapter also evaluates the effects of climate change on the nexus using case examples in South Africa. It also proposes a road map to facilitate better management of the nexus by recommending useful action plans. These action plans prioritize on baseline data collection, optimization of WFE nexus processes and cooperative management of resources, and climate change adaptation.
... Water price regulations have been introduced in many countries to better control and promote efficient water use (Rogers et al., 2002;Seagraves and Easter, 2010;Hoekstra, 2013;Schmidt, 2019) and improve water valuations and irrigation water efficiency (Molle, 2009;Speelman et al., 2009;Giannoccaro et al., 2010). Many studies have found that using economic means to optimize water resource allocation efficiency and adjust water prices is an effective strategy for regulating water demand (Ohab-Yazdi and Ahmadi, 2015) and cost-effectively allocating water resources (D'Odorico et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Water prices are an efficient way to manage and allocate water resources. A scientific and reasonable water price standard can assist farmers to optimize their water allocations and ensure an efficient agricultural water system. However, under the current agricultural water pricing policy, it is difficult for water resource management departments to achieve sustainable operation because of unreasonable water price standards and the unwillingness of farmers to pay for agricultural irrigation water. Therefore, to ensure the sustainable management of agricultural water departments, it is important to design scientific and reasonable water price mechanisms that give full play to the regulatory role of agricultural water prices and encourage farmers to pay agricultural water fees. Based on survey data from 335 farming households in the Dujiangyan Irrigation Area, Sichuan, China, in 2019, a double-hurdle model was used to assess the willingness to pay for agricultural irrigation water. The willingness to pay was positively impacted by age, education level, willingness to participate, the arable land area, the water fee proportion, and water-saving awareness but negatively impacted by the water price standard and the farmers’ perceptions of the water price standard. Based on these results, to encourage farmers to participate in and afford agricultural water payments and to give full play to the water price adjustment function and other countermeasures, it is proposed that 1) water-saving awareness training be strengthened; 2) agricultural modernization be promoted; and 3) water price standards be scientifically and rationally formulated.
... Extremely limited research that focuses explicitly on accessible sanitation and disability-inclusive employment was found to exist. The societal economic benefits of providing good sanitation are well established (Hutton and Bartram 2008;Hutton et al. 2007;Rogers et al. 2002;Rogers et al. 1998). For example, one global estimate suggests that 'for every dollar invested in sanitation, there is about a nine-dollar long-term benefit in costs averted and productivity gained' (UN 2010: 1). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the relationship between accessible sanitation and disability-inclusive employment in Bangladesh and Nigeria. Both countries have sanitation and hygiene challenges as well as disability-inclusive employment challenges, but the existing evidence on the intersection of these issues that is focused on Nigeria and Bangladesh is extremely limited. Building on the literature where this complex issue is addressed, this paper presents the findings of a qualitative pilot study undertaken in Nigeria and Bangladesh. It focuses on the need for toilets at work that are easy for people with disabilities to use in poor countries. These are sometimes called accessible toilets. Accessible sanitation is not regarded as a challenge that must be addressed by people with disabilities themselves, but as a challenge that must be addressed by many people working together – including governments, employers, and the community.
... Water is often underpriced, so the quantity demanded exceeds supply, which leads to an unsustainable use of resources. Properly managed, this instrument has the potential to promote improved economic efficiency, equity, and sustainability (Rogers et al., 2002;Ward & Pulido-Velazquez, 2008). Several international institutions have promoted the application of the principle of full cost recovery, and many countries have engaged in some form of pricing reform. ...
Chapter
The management of water resources systems involves influencing and improving the interaction among three subsystems: natural (biophysical), economic, and legal-institutional frameworks. In this sense, hydroeconomic models have the advantage of analyzing water management problems through models that explicitly represent these interactions. The combination of economic, engineering, and environmental aspects of management provides better-informed results for decision making in the complex environment in which water management operates.
... USD) per cubic meter, and the annual water expense per household is merely 0.5-0.6% of the overall consumption expenditure [53,54]. Owing to low water prices, users often do not value water resources, thus making it difficult to promote water conservation [27,55]. Low water prices also make it impossible for water companies to obtain reasonable economic benefits, making it difficult to effectively improve the problem of water leakage. ...
Article
Owing to the extreme climate and growing water demand, water shortage problem has become a new norm. Desalination fills the gap in the water supply, and the daily capacity of desalinated water is increasing. However, desalination projects may be delayed due to the conflicts from stakeholders and the public. Therefore, it is crucial to explore social acceptability to understand social risks in desalination development. This study employed semi-structured interviews and grounded theory to summarize the qualitative factors and conceptual framework of stakeholders' perceptions on desalination. Additionally, quantitative questionnaires were conducted to survey the general trend in public perception. The interview results clarify five emerging themes regarding stakeholders' opinions on desalination. A conceptual framework of interplay among the five themes is also established to elaborate on the stakeholders' perceptions. According to the questionnaire results, 66.7% of the respondents believed problems of water scarcity in the future, 63.4% supported the implementation of desalination, 75.1% considered that the location and time of public hearings should accommodate the residents' needs. Most respondents (81.8%) agreed that desalination plants use green energy to reduce environmental impacts. Furthermore, it was found that the public's occupation is correlated with the acceptance of the desalination plant project.
... Rogers et al. 2002 ) ‫جدی‬ ‫تردید‬ ‫مورد‬ ‫تنهایی‬ ‫به‬ ‫آن‬ ‫كارایی‬ ‫و‬ ‫دارد‬ ‫قرار‬ (Balali et al. 2010;Ahmadpour and Sabouhi 2009;Sabouhi and Azadegan 2014;Chen et al. 2014;Mamitimin et al. 2015;Huang et al. 2006;Tsur and Dinar 1997;Kahil et al. 2016) . wellcoef g t = (w31 g t +w32 g t +w4 g t )rtr g needwater g t ∀ g, t ( ‫رابطه‬ 9 ‫می‬ ‫نشان‬ ‫را‬ ‫زمین‬ ‫محدودیت‬ ) ‫اراضی‬ ‫میزان‬ ‫دهد.‬ ...
Article
Full-text available
In order to study the effect of various groundwater resource management policies on sugar beet cultivation area in Khorasan Razavi province, a positive mathematical programming model was used. The studied areas included Mashhad, Neyshabur, Sabzevar, Torbat-Jam and Torbat-e-Heidariyeh. Required information was obtained by completing the questionnaires as well as information banks and publications of Jihad-e-Agriculture Organization and Khorasan Razavi Districts Organization. The studied scenarios included increasing the price of water, reducing the discharge of water from wells, and increasing irrigation efficiency in the form of improving irrigation management, as well as developing new irrigation systems which were studied in the form of several sub-scenarios. Results showed that the policy of increasing the price of water not only leads to sharp decrease in the area under sugar beet cultivation but also reduces the farmers’ income. However, the policy of less water withdrawal from agricultural wells showed less reduction. The policy of increasing irrigation efficiency along with controlling the area under cultivation, in addition to preserving groundwater, increased the sugar beet cultivation area and farmers’ income.
... This is an additional difficulty when designing the policy, but it 55 allows it to be developed more efficiently, thus reducing the difficulty of recovering costs 56 . Although the full costs recovery is essential in the long term to 57 avoid inefficiencies, it should be borne in mind that it is not the only criterion to be 58 assessed when designing pricing policy, since a number of other factors must be 59 considered in the short term (Rogers, de Silva & Bhatia, 2002). It may also be the case 60 that total costs are too high and recovering them will have a significant impact on 61 consumers. ...
Article
This research examines the differences in the price for water supply for the Spanish households according to the type of household and the region of residence, which is of great relevance in terms of equity. The analysis covers the entire Spanish territory with the aim of establishing comparisons between regions, determining the current situation of the various household types and highlighting some considerations on the water policy financing. The evidence obtained shows how the invoice has an unequal impact on the various types of household, as well as that there are large differences between territories. Nevertheless, it is worth noting that the differences are greater as household income decreases, thus affecting households with tighter budgets or more members. For this reason, modifying the water price policy with the objective of inducing equality and efficiency, in addition to pursuing cost recovery, would be convenient.
... Water pricing is increasingly becoming one of the important policy tools to manage scarce resources more efficiently because of price-demand elasticity [133,134]. Multiple objectives are addressed by a welldesigned water price structure, including economic efficiency, equity, and environmental and financial sustainability [41,43,135]. It has already been proved to be a viable strategy for incentivizing water consumption reduction, which in turn, assists the conservation of a valuable environmental resource, groundwater [48,56,125]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Dhaka city is experiencing high water use and rapid declination of groundwater. The current water price in the city is low and based on a uniform rate. To arrest the resource degradation along with pursuing cost recovery and promoting social equity, this paper develops a new pricing model for domestic water uses using the integrated water resources management principles. The development is accomplished through estimation of domestic water usage, evaluation of current water prices, and assessment of groundwater degradation externalities in the Tejgaon area of the city using both primary and secondary data. Two economic and two environmental externalities are incorporated. The model is based on an increasing block tariff strategy, and the estimated unit prices for the first and second blocks are respectively 5% and 75% higher than the existing price. The model has the potential to reduce the domestic water use in the city by up to 27%, increase the revenue for the Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority by up to 75%, and reduce the water bill for poor households by up to 67%. The model has a great potential for practical deployment and the concept can also be applied to other cities and water uses. Keywords: water pricing; integrated water resources management; domestic water use; increasing block tariff; resource degradation externalities
... The Government of Gujarat (2018) has published official guidelines for achieving targets for recycling of treated sewage (Government of Gujarat 2018). This shows the light at the end of tunnel in form of acceptance of the theory that water is an economic good and prices can be used to promote equity, efficiency and sustainability (Rogers et al. 2002). Studies have shown willingness to pay by even low-income households for improved water supply and sanitation services (Davis et al. 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Pollution from wastewater discharges requires the treatment of all wastewater to maintain water bodies in good condition, as well as the possibility of reusing this water. Thus, wastewater treatment is an activity that has developed significantly in the Region of Valencia and has significant costs, including energy, which represents the main economic cost and an important environmental cost. In this way, efficiency and adequate financing of this activity are essential to minimise our environmental impact. However, the main funding tool currently does not allow us to address this issue, so we have a wastewater treatment with a high environmental cost in the form of greenhouse gas emissions. This tool is part of the revenues of water services, so it is not entirely independent, but it also seeks to prevent households from paying too high a total price. This leads to a situation where changes are needed to improve the financing of the different water services, as the financial resources obtained are insufficient and do not allow the current environmental problems to be solved. The analysis shows the importance of an appropriate tariff structure, as well as the need to include aspects such as water pollution and energy costs in the wastewater treatment tariff.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Soil organic carbon (SOC) imparts better soil structural stability which in turn enhances the soil physical environment. Further, SOC plays a key role in maintaining soil health especially soils under stress. With aim of improving soil resilience under heavy metal stress, this study was formulated to find out the effect of soil amendments on rejuvenating soil organic carbon content under heavy metal stress. The field experiment was conducted in a farmer’s field near SIPCOT industrial area, Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India during June - September 2017. A randomized block design with seven amendments [Farmyard manure (FYM), Press mud (PM), Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), Lime, Gypsum, Potassium humate (PH), Natural Zeolite (NZ)] and control were replicated thrice for assessing the effects on SOC enrichment in soil and its interventions with heavy metals in soil and plant using sunflower as a test crop. The outcome of the study confirmed that the application of FYM and PM distinctively enriched the soil organic carbon (0.65 and 0.57 g kg-1, respectively) content than the other amendments used from the initial SOC status (0.41 g kg-1). Consequently, the organic amendments halt the heavy metals (lead and cadmium) progress in the soil thus bioavailability is reduced. In contrast, among inorganic amendments application of EDTA induces the mobility of heavy metals in soil (52.3 -65.7 % over control) so increased the bioavailability and resulted in more uptake by sunflower plants. Keywords: EDTA, FYM, Heavy metals mobility, Soil organic carbon, Sunflowe
Article
Full-text available
Data relative to the water services industry in Italy indicate that there is a serious infrastructure gap between the southern regions and isles and the rest of the country. In these geographical areas, water utilities are provided with substantial public grants from the central and local governments to support investments necessary to mitigate the infrastructure divide by increasing capacity and improve service quality. This paper implements a meta-frontier non-parametric approach based on a data envelopment analysis (DEA) to evaluate the efficiencies of 71 Italian water utilities, accounting for the differentiated contexts in which they operate. A short-term perspective was assumed to estimate efficiency, considering the production factors associated with the infrastructure assets as non-discretionary inputs in the specification of the meta-frontier model. The results showed that water utilities operating in the southern regions and isles suffer from an efficiency gap in comparison to those in the northern and central regions. The average efficiency gap was 9.7%, achieving 24.9% in the worst case. Moreover, a more in-depth analysis focusing on the water utilities in the southern regions and isles indicated that scale inefficiencies might be an important determinant of such an efficiency gap. Indeed, slightly more than 69% of the water utilities operated at increasing returns to scale. Evidence from this study raises concern about the appropriate structure of the Italian water service industry and, particularly, the optimal size of the utilities and the financial sustainability of water services in the southern regions and isles.
Thesis
Full-text available
Previous research concluded that integrating water quality variability into raw water pricing system has a significant consequence of spreading the effects of pollution between upstream-downstream users. The preceding studies targeted Vaal Basin, in particular the Upper and Middle Vaal Water Management Areas in South Africa. The fluctuation of raw water price due to diminishing water quality was not incorporated in the gazetted raw water pricing strategy of 2007, yet raw water quality variability is a crucial issue that has a substantial influence on raw water treatment cost. Under these circumstances, the strategy neglects the marginal cost required when utilising water of diminished quality and promotes imbalance amongst upstream-downstream users. Against this background, the key objective of this study was to provide practical methods towards restructuring the raw water pricing strategy to reflect an integrated water resources approach as envisaged in the South African National Water Act No. 36 of 1998. Since this study is a sequel to the aforementioned research and considering the interdependence between the two (2) studies, it was therefore more practical to consider the same Water Management Area. Thus Vaal Water Management Area (VWMA). Rand Water Board (RWB) and Sedibeng Water Board (SWB) data spanning from 2004 to 2006 was utilised for the current study. Throughout the three (3) year data span, twenty one (21) parameters were tested weekly for RWB amounting to one hundred and five (105) samples. The data set suffered considerable amount of missing values, achieving only 33.33% record of consistent in sampling the entire list of variables considered for this study. Both the water quality variability model and the treatment cost prediction model were developed using the same data set from Rand Water Board. In achieving the study objective, water quality index (WQI) developed for Vaal Basin was modified and tested against a newly developed WQI. Two (2) different water quality variability models (WQVMs) were developed and each conforming to a particular WQI. Weighted sum method (WSM) was employed for the modification of the Vaal Basin water quality index whereas the newly developed WQI is founded on scope, frequency and amplitude of explanatory variables differing from the targeted values and or guidelines. Both WQVMs demonstrated their accuracy and permutation abilities by producing water grading values of similar ranking and comparable trends, thus the peaks and troughs of the grading values. Average water quality grading values of 82.757 and 77.069 were achieved for Water Quality Variability Model I and Model II respectively. The ranking criterion consist of five (5) categories, Class 1 being the upper most desirable water quality classification and Class 5 denoting the worse possible contaminated water resource. Subsequently, a treatment cost projection model was developed using ordinary least square (OLS) regression coefficients obtained through the application of principal component analysis (PCA) of the observed variable data. Based on the PCA results, chlorophyll 665 (Chl-a) and turbidity (Turb) demonstrated lower statistical significance towards forecasting of the real chemical cost (RCC) required to treat raw water. Therefore, two (2) model equations were developed, Model A including Chl-a and Tub and Model B exclusive of Chl-a and Turb. Though with marginal differences, the projected values of Model B are more comparable to the actual chemical cost of the existing plant with an average predicted RCC of R 64.87 per megalitre. Adjustment of the raw water abstraction charge (RWAC) is recommended with efforts to resolve the challenges of water quality variability and incorporating the WQI into the current raw water pricing strategy (RWPS) of South Africa. In order to encompass the variation of water quality, it is further recommended that the review of RWAC follow the natural climatic seasons. Finally, rebate for abstraction users and special levy for Water Authority is suggested to level the differences that might arise between the predicted and the actual charge.
Article
Water pricing is one of the fundamental tools for water resources management. However, the current tariff structure in Spain has associated problems in relation to the composition of households. This paper analyses the current tariffs of Spain's Valencia region and studies the effect of alternative tariff structures. The results show an imbalance irrespective of the tariff applied even when the number of household members is considered, as the relationship between the number of household members and water consumption is not linear. Therefore, the problem is not the tariff structure per se but not including the composition of the household in the tariff.
Article
This study asks whether different types of water systems serve different types of communities and differ with respect to affordability. Using 2017 data for California we match service area boundaries with census income data and rate structures to compare the geography, income distribution and affordability of water rates within communities served by systems of different ownership types. We find that for-profit and publicly owned systems serve communities of similar income distributions, while not-for-profit mutual water companies serve higher-income communities. Regulated privately-owned systems charge more for water while providing more low-income assistance and shutting off fewer households than publicly owned systems.
Article
Serious constraints in increasing water supply have led countries around the world to seek solutions for managing water demand. Proper pricing of water is one of the foremost water demand management policies which can lead to the optimal water use. On the flip side, the quality of agricultural water is declining due to the uncontrolled abstraction of groundwater. In this regard, the present study aims to determine the economic value of different qualities of water throughout pistachio-growing regions of the Rafsanjan-Anar plain in Iran. Results reveal that the economic value and price elasticity of water demand differ among different groups. Freshwater, moderately saline water and highly saline water have the highest to lowest elasticity and shadow price, respectively. Additionally, comparison of the gross margin, which represents the profit from each activity, in two conditions including the unsustainable status quo and sustainable conditions intended by the Ministry of Energy, shows that although water use has declined by 50%, the gross margin has decreased by only 36%. This implies it is feasible to reduce water use in pistachio orchards by water re-allocation with a minimum decline in profit, which will both reduce water use and ensure high economic benefits for farmers.
Article
Water pricing policies seek to balance cost recovery, conservation, equity, and affordability. Two-part tariffs are commonly deployed with the volumetric portion often using increasing block tiers. Setting a uniform-sized first tier too small can put more burden on lower income groups that may have less efficient homes and more people per household. Setting the tier too large will allow many people outdoor use at the lowest rate. This paper analyzes the effects of the growing trend to use average winter consumption (AWC) to create individualized rate structures tailored to revealed indoor use. I use nearly eight million monthly household bills from before and after the implementation of AWC pricing to explore two questions. First, do consumers respond to the implicit discount for winter use embedded in AWC pricing and reduce indoor conservation? Second, how does AWC alter equity in terms of varying average price both across and within water use levels? On average, winter use does not increase, but the trend in reductions is slowed after AWC is introduced and a small subset of consumers do appear to respond strategically. Furthermore, AWC results in a progressive structure whether holding water use constant or allowing it to vary.
Article
Understanding the characteristics of urban green-space water consumption is crucial to sustainable urban development under urbanization and water scarcity. However, temporal–spatial and driving characteristics of urban green-space water consumption are still unknown. Characteristics and driving factors of urban green-space water consumption in 286 cities in China are analyzed in this study. Results showed that the urban green-space water consumption (m³/ha) of 286 cities changed (decreased: 250, increased: 36, and p < 0.05) from 2004 to 2017. The urban green-space water consumption (m³/ha) decreased by 57.54% from 9,490 m³/ha to 4,030 m³/ha. In addition, 44 cities demonstrate high water consumption (>12,570 m³/ha) and 74 cities present low water consumption (≤6,380 m³/ha). High and low water consumption cities are aggregated in southern and northern China, respectively. Urban water supply, education, number of patents, GDP per capita, temperature, rainfall, and park areas significantly increased the urban green-space water consumption (p < 0.05), while built-ups, green land, and built-up coverage rate significantly reduced the urban green-space water consumption (p < 0.05). Water recovery rate and water price minimally affect the urban green-space water consumption but provide new ideas for sustainable utilization of water resources. This study highlights the potential of water recovery subsidies and water markets in urbanization.
Article
The influence of quantitative and qualitative population conditions needs to be jointly considered in the assessment of urban water demand. Through fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), quantitative and qualitative conditions can be jointly analysed to obtain the patterns or recipes that explain the hypothesis tested. This work assesses the influence of water price, income level, ageing index, number of members in household, household antiquity and household surface on the urban water consumption from a district-level approach. The approach proposed is a novelty since it is focused on urban water demand and the related socioeconomic conditions in Valencia city. Results obtained show the influence of water price and members in household as main conditions that explain the water consumption of Valencia districts. This work highlights the relationship between the conditions analysed and water consumption, allowing the identification of the water consumption patterns in a developed urban area from a district-level approach.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) has published the KNMI’06 climate scenarios in 2006. These scenarios give the possible states of the climate in The Netherlands for the next century. Projections of changes in precipitation were made for a time scale of 1 day. The urban drainage sector is, however, more interested in projections on shorter time scales. Specifically, time scales of 1 h or less. The aim of this research is to provide projections of precipitation at these shorter time scales based on the available daily scenarios. This involves an analysis of climate variables and their relations to precipitation at different time scales. On the basis of this analysis, one can determine a numeric factor to translate daily projections into shorter time scale projections.
Article
The integrated agricultural water pricing reform (IAWPR) is by far the most systematic, complex and longest reform in the agricultural sector of China. It has lasted for decades from the stage of reform exploration to the current reform development. IAWPR can effectively address resourced price distortion and promote rational allocation of agricultural water resources. By improving China's agricultural water pricing mechanism, government agricultural subsidy mechanism, water-saving incentive mechanism, operation and management (O&M) mechanism of irrigation systems and water quota mechanism, the reform will promote water conservation in agriculture and ensure the effective operation of irrigation systems. It is a major strategic decision made by the Chinese government to address the water security challenges facing sustainable development. This paper reviews the course of the reform, introduces the policy design, key tasks and implementation of the reform, and takes Jiangsu Province as an example to demonstrate the effect of the reform, but also discusses the problems existing in the reform. HIGHLIGHTS This paper reviews IAWPR, which is the most systematic reform in China's agricultural field so far.; The government's reform policies were discussed.; The driving force and measures of the reform were analyzed.; The effects and difficulties of IAWPR were discussed.; Water price structure and proportion of government subsidies were analyzed.; The affordability of farmers in the reform was discussed.;
Article
Rational coastal groundwater planning is of great significance to freshwater supply for sustainable social-economic development, and to environmental protection in case of seawater intrusion (SI). Quantifying the relation among groundwater quality, quantity, and the related social-economic benefits in a coastal region with intense spatio-temporal variation in groundwater abstraction is helpful to the restoration of the coastal aquifer, and the practical policymaking. However, due to the comprehensive reality involving interdisciplinary principles, it is usually difficult to integrate all the main attributes of groundwater resources into a mono-policymaking process, which might lead to biased decisions, producing a series of adverse impacts on the environment and the social economy. This study thereby develops a combined simulation-optimization model (S-O model) in the coastal part of Longkou City, China, for striking the balance among the three main attributes of groundwater, i.e., the groundwater quantity, groundwater quality or its environmental function, and its related economic yield involving the agricultural and industrial sectors. It is seen that the industrial sector contributed over 80% of the economic yield by consuming over 10% of the total groundwater resource, and the massive agricultural use of groundwater was mainly responsible for the SI. The results of the multi-objective optimization provided practical alternative schemes for groundwater abstraction in terms of maximizing economic yield and minimizing SI. Moreover, the decision discrepancy caused by partial management only considering the groundwater quantity and quality would lower the water use efficiency, and then cause unacceptable economic losses for the enterprises and the government. Our research highlights that the interdisciplinary management of groundwater resources based on the S-O model could significantly improve practicability in groundwater policymaking, and provides a typical reference for the other developing regions facing difficulty in groundwater management during coastal urban planning and economic transformation.
Article
The impact of the water-pricing policy in irrigated agriculture in Emilia Romagna (Italy) is evaluated through the analysis of farmers' water use. The policy assessment is performed by a novel application of the Difference in Differences (DID) method considering the periods of analysis in a reversed form. The results indicate that farmers react to volumetric pricing by reducing water use per hectare.
Article
In the longstanding debate over efficiency and effectiveness in drinking water provision between public versus privately governed systems, one of the main contention points is the reasons for different bill levels imposed by city-run as compared to privately owned water systems. In this study, we examine one potential explanation for disparities in bills: whether cities use their general funds to subsidize their drinking water fund operations or vice versa. Either practice goes against “user pays” principles, as pointed out by critics of municipal operation. However, the claims have not been tested empirically at scale. We extract and analyze city water enterprise fund financial data from the California State Controller Cities Raw Data of Financial Transaction Reports to empirically assess the extent to which and reasons why interfund transfers occur in California's 267 municipally owned water utilities. We find very little evidence that substantial interfund transfers, in either direction, occur between water enterprise funds and general funds within California cities, indicating that enterprise fund control measures are generally successful. These findings suggest that with proper regulation, the municipal fund subsidy debate is essentially a distraction from the real reasons why municipal and other water provider rates differ substantially.
Article
Full-text available
"The potential role of economic tools in providing socially acceptable public decisions is not widely appreciated, particularly in many highly regulated situations. Furthermore, this paper suggests, contrary to the public perception, that with the improvement of the use of economic tools, the role for government regulation in managing water as an economic good is increased, not decreased. The paper is divided into three sections following this introduction: Section I presents the general principles and methodologies for estimating costs and values in the water sector. In section II, some illustrative estimates of costs and values in urban, industrial, and agricultural sectors are presented based on available data. Section III provides a summary of results and conclusions."
Article
This paper assesses the financing challenges which have to be met by developing countries if water resources are to be managed efficiently, if the quality of the aquatic environment is to be improved and if water related services are to be delivered in a responsive, efficient and equitable way. This paper takes the view that attaching ‘price tags’ to water supply and sanitation, as was tentatively done in Agenda 21, is a misguided approach and that what is needed is articulation of clear principles which should underpin the financing of water supply and sanitation investments. To illustrate the approach the paper focuses heavily on experiences from World Bank water supply, sanitation and urban development projects over the past 30 years. The challenge is to develop appropriate institutional and financial arrangements. The essence of such arrangements is that they ensure that societies mobilize appropriate levels of resources for providing water related environmental services and that these resources are used in the most efficient and effective way possible.
Article
The rapid growth, urbanization and migration in Metro Manila has increased water demand which has outpaced the capacity of the water agency, The Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS), to expand supply. Unserved sectors have resorted to well construction while others have resorted to tapping illegal connections to MWSS pipes. Considering that only 65% of the population in the study area is served by the MWSS, and groundwater accounts for only 3% of the MWSS water supply sources, there is a need to focus attention on the private extraction and utilization of groundwater resources in Metro Manila. Average annual groundwater withdrawal for the period 1982-1990 was estimated to be about 235.01 million cubic meters (MCM) while the average annual recharge for the same period was only 206.16 MCM (IDRC-UP-NHRC, 1993). Thus, the rate of mining during this period is 28.84 MCM, resulting in the lowering of the water table by 2.5 meters annually. For the period 1990-96, groundwater level declined at an estimated rate of 6-12m per year. Groundwater resources are, therefore, being threatened by salt water intrusion, contamination, and eventual depletion. This implies that current extraction and utilization of a unit of those resources involve an opportunity cost which is the value that can be gained in the future. Economists would define over-exploitation as any pumping rate in excess of that which yields the maximum present value of net benefits (Young, 1991). This approach would call for the utilization of groundwater stocks if demand so requires, but scale back extraction rates as the aquifer becomes depleted and the "full costs" become higher. The main coverage of the study is the National Capital Region or Metro Manila which consists of eight cities and nine municipalities. The jurisdiction of MWSS includes the National Capital Region (NCR), Rizal province, and parts of Cavite province in Region IV. Its land area is about 2,125-sq. km., with a populatio
Article
Renewable resources are being used in non-sustainable ways in many countries in the world. The costs of non-sustainability need to be enumerated and valued in order to establish the desirability or otherwise of such development paths. The appropriate concept is marginal opportunity cost (MOC), a measure of the social costs of resource depletion. This concept is set in the context of models of the development process which stress the relationship between environment and development as a “coevolutionary” one rather than one of trading off material gain against environmental quality. Measures of MOC need to reflect the often intricate physical and ecological interlinkages within ecosystems, allowing for, e.g., the relationship between deforestation, soil erosion, streamflow and sedimentation. In turn, MOC comprises direct costs of resource use, the externalities arising from ecological interlinkage, and a user cost component which arises because of non-sustainable resource use. Formulated in this way, MOC has implications for shadow pricing exercises, national accounting, and for the choice of sector and geographical area for project appraisal.
Water utilities data book: Asian and Pacific region. Asian Development Bank Second water utilities data book: Asian and Pacific region
  • Asian Development
Asian Development Bank. (1993). Water utilities data book: Asian and Pacific region. Asian Development Bank. (1997). Second water utilities data book: Asian and Pacific region.
Water as a social and economic good: How to put the principle into practice. Global Water Partnership/Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
  • P Rogers
  • R Bhatia
  • A Huber
Rogers, P., Bhatia, R., & Huber, A. (1998). Water as a social and economic good: How to put the principle into practice. Global Water Partnership/Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, Stockholm, Sweden. UNCED. (1992). A guide to Agenda 21: A global partnership. Geneva: UNCED.
Can the removal of economic subsidies be beneficial to the environment? 1–1996 Feem News Letter. Extract from the speech on the Contributions of Economic Instruments in Environmental Policy of OECD Countries Dilemmas in water and wastewater pricing: Case study of Bangkok
  • M Potier
Potier, M. (1996). Can the removal of economic subsidies be beneficial to the environment? 1–1996 Feem News Letter. Extract from the speech on the Contributions of Economic Instruments in Environmental Policy of OECD Countries, Manila, 6–8 February, 1996. Potter, J. (1994). Dilemmas in water and wastewater pricing: Case study of Bangkok, Thailand. Masters thesis submitted to the Department of Urban Studies and Planning, MIT.
Paying for Urban Services
  • D Whittington
  • Donald Lauria
Whittington, D., Donald Lauria, & Xinming Mu (1989). Paying for Urban Services, World Bank Case Study, Report 1NU 40, Washington, DC, World Bank.
Promoting conservation with Irvine Ranch Water District's ascending block rate structure
  • A K Wong
Wong, A. K. (1999). Promoting conservation with Irvine Ranch Water District's ascending block rate structure. In Sustainable Uses of Water: California Success Stories, Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security, Preservation Park, Oakland, CA. World Water Commission. (2000). A water secure world. UK: Thanet Press.
Possible adverse effects of IBT in developing countries. Paper Presented at the World Bank Seminar on Pricing of Sanitation and Water Services
  • D Whittington
Whittington, D. (1997). Possible adverse effects of IBT in developing countries. Paper Presented at the World Bank Seminar on Pricing of Sanitation and Water Services, February 18-19, 1997.
Dilemmas in water and wastewater pricing: Case study of Bangkok, Thailand. Masters thesis submitted to the Department of Urban Studies and Planning
  • J Potter
Potter, J. (1994). Dilemmas in water and wastewater pricing: Case study of Bangkok, Thailand. Masters thesis submitted to the Department of Urban Studies and Planning, MIT.
Developer selected for 25 MGD Florida West Cost seawater desalting plant. The International Desalination Water Reuse Quarterly, 9/1, 1999
  • G F Leitner
Leitner, G. F. (1999). Developer selected for 25 MGD Florida West Cost seawater desalting plant. The International Desalination Water Reuse Quarterly, 9/1, 1999. OECD. (1987). Pricing of water services.
Water utilities data book: Asian and Pacific region
  • Asian Development Bank
Asian Development Bank. (1993). Water utilities data book: Asian and Pacific region.
The political economy of increasing block tariffs in developing countries. Paper Presented at the World Bank Sponsored Workshop on Political Economy of Water Pricing Implementation
  • J J Boland
  • D Whittington
Boland, J. J., & Whittington, D. (1998). The political economy of increasing block tariffs in developing countries. Paper Presented at the World Bank Sponsored Workshop on Political Economy of Water Pricing Implementation, Washington, DC, November 3-5, 1998.
Can the removal of economic subsidies be beneficial to the environment? 1-1996 Feem News Letter. Extract from the speech on the Contributions of Economic Instruments in Environmental Policy of OECD Countries
  • M Potier
Potier, M. (1996). Can the removal of economic subsidies be beneficial to the environment? 1-1996 Feem News Letter. Extract from the speech on the Contributions of Economic Instruments in Environmental Policy of OECD Countries, Manila, 6-8 February, 1996.
Improving the environment through reducing subsidies. Part I. Summary and policy conclusions Industrial water pricing
OECD. (1998). Improving the environment through reducing subsidies. Part I. Summary and policy conclusions, Paris. OECD. (1999a). Industrial water pricing.
Second water utilities data book: Asian and Pacific region
  • Development Asian
  • Bank
Asian Development Bank. (1997). Second water utilities data book: Asian and Pacific region.
Pricing urban water: Principles and compromises. Paper presented at the World Bank seminar on Pricing of Sanitation and Water Services
  • J J Boland
Boland, J. J. (1997). Pricing urban water: Principles and compromises. Paper presented at the World Bank seminar on Pricing of Sanitation and Water Services, February 18-19, 1997.
Water pricing: An overview. Paper Presented at the World Bank Seminar on Pricing of Sanitation and Water Services
  • C W Howe
Howe, C. W. (1997). Water pricing: An overview. Paper Presented at the World Bank Seminar on Pricing of Sanitation and Water Services, February 18-19, 1997.
Recent developments in the pricing of water services in OECD countries. Paper Presented at the World Bank Sponsored Workshop on Political Economy of Water Pricing Implementation
  • T Jones
Jones, T. (1998). Recent developments in the pricing of water services in OECD countries. Paper Presented at the World Bank Sponsored Workshop on Political Economy of Water Pricing Implementation, Washington, DC, November 3-5, 1998.
Improving the environment through reducing subsidies. Part I. Summary and policy conclusions
  • Oecd
OECD. (1989). Water resources management: Integrated policies. OECD, Paris. OECD. (1998). Improving the environment through reducing subsidies. Part I. Summary and policy conclusions, Paris. OECD. (1999a). Industrial water pricing. OECD. (1999b). Pricing of water services: An update. OECD. (1999c). Household water pricing in OECD countries. OECD. (1999d). Agricultural water pricing.
Masters thesis submitted to the Department of Urban Studies and Planning
  • J Potter
Potter, J. (1994). Dilemmas in water and wastewater pricing: Case study of Bangkok, Thailand. Masters thesis submitted to the Department of Urban Studies and Planning, MIT.