ArticlePDF Available

Effect of cement dust pollution on microbial properties and enzyme activities in cultivated and no-till soils

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Cement dust pollution is one of the sources of atmospheric pollution. The main impacts of the cement activity to the environment are the broadcasts of dusts and gases. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of cement dust pollution, which was generated by cement plant, on soil microbial population, microbial respiration, and some enzyme activities in cultivated wheat (CT) and no-till (NT) soils. The fields are located at distances of 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 km away from the cement plant. In dominant wind direction, three replicated 36 soil samples were taken from a depth of 0 to 20 cm and analyzed for chemical, physical and microbiological properties. Soil microbial population and CO 2 -C production showed significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation in CT and NT soils. The highest microbial population and CO 2 -C production was observed at 15 km away from the cement plant in CT and NT soils. Acid phosphatase, urease and dehydrogenase enzyme activities of the soils showed significant (p < 0.01) positive correlation with distance in CT and NT (r 2 = 0.80-0.86; r 2 = 0.90 to 0.92; r 2 = 0.79 to 0.82, respectively). There was negative correlation between alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity and distance in CT and NT (r 2 = 0.60, r 2 = 0.68; p < 0.05).
Content may be subject to copyright.
African Journal of Microbiology Research Vol. 4(22) pp. 2418-2425, 18 November, 2010
Available online http://www.academicjournals.org/ajmr
ISSN 1996-0808 ©2010 Academic Journals
Full Length Research Paper
Effect of cement dust pollution on microbial properties
and enzyme activities in cultivated and no-till soils
Serdar Bilen
University of Ataturk, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science, 25240, Erzurum-Turkey.
The Ohio State University, School of Environment and Natural Resources, 1680 Madison Avenue, Wooster, OH 44691,
United States. E-mail: sbilen@atauni.edu.tr. Tel: +90 442 231 1646. Fax: +90 442 236 0958.
Accepted 12 October, 2010
Cement dust pollution is one of the sources of atmospheric pollution. The main impacts of the cement
activity to the environment are the broadcasts of dusts and gases. The objective of this study is to
determine the effects of cement dust pollution, which was generated by cement plant, on soil microbial
population, microbial respiration, and some enzyme activities in cultivated wheat (CT) and no-till (NT) soils.
The fields are located at distances of 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 km away from the cement plant. In dominant wind
direction, three replicated 36 soil samples were taken from a depth of 0 to 20 cm and analyzed for chemical,
physical and microbiological properties. Soil microbial population and CO2-C production showed
significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation in CT and NT soils. The highest microbial population and CO2-C
production was observed at 15 km away from the cement plant in CT and NT soils. Acid phosphatase,
urease and dehydrogenase enzyme activities of the soils showed significant (p < 0.01) positive correlation
with distance in CT and NT (r2 = 0.80-0.86; r2 = 0.90 to 0.92; r2 = 0.79 to 0.82, respectively). There was
negative correlation between alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity and distance in CT and NT (r2 = 0.60, r2 =
0.68; p < 0.05).
Key words: Microbial respiration, CO2-C production, microbial population, cement dust pollution, soil enzyme
activity.
INTRODUCTION
Air pollutants generated by the cement manufacturing
process consist primarily of alkaline particulates from the
raw and finished materials. The direct effects of cement
dust pollution are the alkalization of the ecosystem and the
changing of the chemical composition of soils (Mandre,
1995). The main impacts of the cement activity on the
environment are the broadcasts of dusts and gases. The
pollutant particles can enter into soil as dry, humid or occult
deposits and can undermine its physicochemical properties
(Laj and Sellegri, 2003). Thus, cement dust pollution has a
negative effect on the physico-chemical properties and the
biological activity of the soil. Soil microbial activity is
important for the nutrient biogeochemical cycling and it is
negatively affected by the cement dust pollution (Ocak et
al., 2004; Nowak et al., 2003). The most commonly used
microbial activity indicators for soil health monitoring are
microbial biomass, soil respiration and soil enzyme activity
(Nielsen and Winding, 2002).
Microorganisms are the main source of enzymes in soils.
It is well known that all biochemical reactions are catalyzed
by enzymes, which are proteins with catalytic properties
owing to their power of specific activation. Soil enzyme
activities are often used as indices of microbial growth and
activity in soils. Enzyme activities play key roles in the
biochemical functioning of soils, including soil organic
matter formation and degradation, nutrient cycling, and
decomposition of xenobiotics (Frankerberger and Dick,
1983; Chen et al., 2003; Acosta-Martínez et al., 2007).
Their activity may correlate well with nutrient availability
and soil fertility (Nannipieri et al., 2003; Baum et al., 2003).
Soil enzymatic activities depend on optimum conditions
of moisture, pH, temperature and substrate concentration.
Soil pH can affect enzyme activity by influencing the
concentration of inhibitors or activators in the soil solution
and the effective concentration of the substrate. Enzymatic
activities may vary under stress when soil is contaminated
by heavy metals (Dick, 1997; Dick et al., 2000). Enzyme
activities have been found to be very responsive to
different agricultural soil conservation practices such as
non-tillage (Bergstrom et al., 1998), organic amendments,
and crop rotation (Miller and Dick, 1995). The difference in
microbial dynamics and population, due to soil
management practices, may also be reflected in the
differences in enzyme activities of soils. Although it has
been demonstrated that adoption of long-term cropping
system may affect several soil properties, limited
information is available about the effect of tillage on
enzyme activities of soils. Tillage and management
practices may lead to significant changes in biological,
chemical and biochemical properties of soils and alter the
composition, distribution, and activities of soil microbial
community and enzymes (Dick, 1984; Dick et al., 1988).
Acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, arylsulfatase,
invertase, amidase, and urease activity in 0 to 7.5 cm
surface soils were significantly greater in soils from no-till
plots, as compared with those from conventional tillage
plots (Dick, 1984).
Phosphatase enzymes can be a good indicator of the
organic phosphorus mineralization potential and biological
activity of soils (Dick and Tabatabai, 1993). Phosphatase
activity, which is related to soil and vegetation conditions,
responds to changes in management (Herbien and Neal,
1990), and can be related to seasonal changes in soil
temperature and moisture (Speir and Cowling, 1991). The
phosphatases are significantly affected by soil pH, which
controls phosphorus availability in soil, and this could occur
despite the level of organic matter content or disturbance
(Acosta-Martínez et al., 2007). Studies showed that acid
phosphatase is predominant in acidic soils but alkaline
phosphatase is predominant in alkaline soils (Deng and
Tabatabai, 1997). The inverse relationship between
phosphatase activity and soil pH suggests that the rate of
synthesis and release of this enzyme by soil
microorganisms or the stability of this enzyme are related
to soil pH. Since higher plants are devoid of alkaline
phosphatase activity, the alkaline phosphatase activity in
soils seems derived totally from microorganisms (Dick et
al., 1983).
Urease is a ubiquitous cell-free exoenzyme in nature that
is produced by plants and microorganisms. Urea is the
most widely used nitrogenous fertilizer in world agriculture
today. It is hydrolyzed enzymatically by soil urease and the
resulting release of ammonia and rise in pH can lead to
some problems. These problems are accentuated in alkali
soils where the high soil pH can induce appreciable
ammonia volatilization (Brynes and Frency, 1995). Alkali
soils have low amounts of organic carbon and nitrogen and
low levels of urease and dehyrogenase activity (Rao and
Ghai, 1985).
Dehydrogenase activity is commonly used as an
indicator of biological activity in soil (Beyer et al., 1992).
Dehydrogenase enzymes play a significant role in the
biological oxidation of soil organic matter by transferring
protons and electrons from substrates to acceptors (Dick
Bilen 2419
and Tabatabai, 1993). According to Frankenberger and
Dick (1983), dehydrogenase activity is often correlated with
microbial respiration when exogenous C sources are
added to soil. Skujins (1973) and Casida (1977) reported
close correlations of dehydrogenase activity with CO2
release and O2 uptake, respectively. The highest activity
occurred in top 3 cm of an arid soil, but there was no
correlation with microbial number because the
dehydrogenase activity depends on the total metabolic
activity and soil microorganisms. The value of metabolic
activity and soil microorganisms in different soils,
containing different populations, does not always reflect the
total numbers of viable microorganisms that are isolated on
a particular medium.
In this study, we aimed to detect possible impacts of
cement dust pollution, which are generated by cement
factory, on microbial population (bacteria and fungi),
microbial respiration (CO2-C production) and some enzyme
(acid, alkaline phosphatase, urease and dehydrogenase)
activities in cultivated with wheat and no-till soils.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Experimental site, soil sampling and soil analysis
The study was conducted in the vicinity of Askale town cement plant
(39°54’ N and 41013’ E at 1883 m above mean sea level), west of the
Erzurum, Turkey. Based on area distribution within a soil-mapping
unit, the sampling sites at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 km away from the
Askale cement plant were randomly selected in cultivated (CT) vs.
no-till (NT) soils. The chimney height of the Askale cement plant was
50 m. The composition of emissions for cement plant were particle
matter (48 kg h-1), CO (146 kg h-1), NO2 (186 kg h-1) and SO2 (6 kg h-
1). The dominant wind direction is north-west, and soil sampling was
coincided with the same wind direction. The minimum and maximum
temperatures were 11.4 and 26.5°C respectively, and average annual
temperature was 15.4°C. The mean relative humidity, wind speed,
daily sunshine, total precipitation, and total evaporation were in order
57.42%, 4.71 m s–1, 11.12 h, 61.4 mm, and 389.4 mm in 2008 (1 May
to 29 Sept.). Three replicated sub-plots were selected within each
site. Total 36 sampling sites (6 distance x 2 tillage x 3 replications)
were selected for soil collection. The soil was classified as Askale
series (ustorthents) according to the USDA soil taxonomy (Soil
Survey Staff, 1999). The experiment area soil texture classes were
determined loam to clay. The site has a semiarid climate and average
annual rainfall of 427 mm. The major crops grown in this area are
wheat, barley, secale, maize, cabbage, cotton, sugar beat, and
potatoes.
In this research, soil samples were taken from 0 to 20 cm depth
(tillage layer) in September 2008. The samples were composited and
2-mm sieved to remove stones, roots, and large organic residues and
analyzed. Total organic matter (SOM) content was determined by
following the standard loss-on-ignition (LOI) method (Nelson and
Sommers, 1996). The CaCO3 content was determined by using the
pressure calcimeter method (Leoppert and Suarez, 1996). Total N
content of soil was measured by the micro-Kjeldahl method (Bremner,
1996). Soil pH was determined by using a glass electrode meter in
1:2.5 soil: water ratio (Handershot et al., 1993). Effective cation
exchange capacity was calculated as the sum of exchangeable
cations (Sumner and Miller, 1996). Melich I solution was used to
extract exchangeable cations and determined by atomic absorption
spectrophotometer (Hanlon and DeVore, 1989). The available P in
soil was determined by following ammonium molybdate-ascorbic acid
2420 Afr. J. Microbiol. Res.
method (Knudsen and Beegle, 1988). Microelements in the soils were
determined by DTPA extraction method (Lindsay and Norvell, 1978).
Soil particle size distribution was determined by the hydrometer
method (Gee and Bauder, 1986). Soil textural class was determined
by following the USDA textural triangle. Electrical conductivity was
measured in saturation extracts according to Rhoades (1996). The
soils were analyzed for selected physical and chemical properties
(Table1).
Soil biological analysis
Culturable bacteria and fungi cells were enumerated by using spread
soil dilution plate method. For bacteria and fungi, each dilution of the
series (106–107) in PBS (0.15 M potassium phosphate 0.85% NaCl,
pH 7.2) was prepared and placed onto Petri-dishes (Zuberer, 1994).
Soil extract agar (SEA) was used for bacterial incubation at 30ºC for
7-d (Zuberer, 1994), dextrose-peptone agar (DPA) was used for
fungal incubation at 25oC for 7-d (Parkinson, 1994). After the
incubation, the average colony forming units (CFU) per gram of oven-
dried equivalent (ODE) of field-moist soil was calculated by using an
automated colony counter (Madigon et al., 2006) (Table 2).
Basal respiration (BR), as a measure of soil biological activity, was
determined by using in vitro static incubation of unamended field-
moist soil (Islam and Weil, 2000). About 20 g ODE of field-moist soil
adjusted at 70% water-filled porosity (WFP) was taken in 25 ml glass
beakers. Each soil sample was placed in a 1 L mason jar along with a
glass vial containing 10 mL of distilled deionized water to maintain
humidity and a plastic vial containing 10 mL of 0.5 M NaOH to trap
CO2 evolved from the incubated soil. The mason jars were sealed
airtight and incubated in the dark at 25 ± C for 20 days. The CO2
evolved over time was absorbed in the 0.5 M NaOH followed by
precipitation as BaCO3 by the addition of excess 1M BaCl2. The
remaining NaOH in each vial was then titrated to the phenolphthalein
endpoint with a standardized 0.5 M HCl solution (Table 2). The BR
rate was calculated as below:
BR rates (mg CO2/kg soil) = (CO2soil - CO2air)/20 days
Urease enzyme (UE) activity was assayed by using urea solution and
expressed as µg NH4-N per g soil and incubation time (2 h). Acid
phosphatase (AcdP) and alkaline phosphatase (Alk-P) activities were
assayed by using substrate pNPP (para-nitrophenyl phosphate) and
expressed as l µg pNPP per gram soil and incubation time (hours).
Dehydrogenase enzyme (DHE) activity was determined with TTC
(triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and expressed as µg TPF per gram
soil and incubation time (24 h) according to Tabatabai (1994) (Figure
1a,b, 2, 3).
Statistical analysis
Statistical analysis was done for soil microorganism population and
CO2-C production using repeated measures analysis of variance
(ANOVA). Comparison of means was performed, when the F-test for
treatment was significant at the 5% level, using Duncan’s multiple
means tests. In addition, we tested effects of cement dust pollution on
soil enzyme activities by calculating regression equation and simple
linear correlation coefficient (r) procedures. SPSS 17.0 package was
used for all statistical tests.
RESULTS
Some chemical and physical properties of the studied soils
are given in Table 1. According to Table 1, most soils had
an alkaline reaction between pH 7.40 to 9.24. Soil pH
y = 0.65x + 29.39
R
2
= 0.80
y = -1.54x + 83.20
R
2
= 0.60
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
0 5 10 15 20
Distance, km
CT
Phosphatase, ug pNP g
-1
soil h
-1
Acid Phosphatase Alkaline Phosphatase
Figure 1a. Acid phosphatase enzyme activities vs. polluted distance
by cement dust in CT soils.
y = -1.27x + 66.08
R
2
= 0.68
y = 0.93x + 23.33
R
2
= 0.86
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0 5 10 15 20
Distance, km
NT
Phospahatse, ug pNP g -1 soil h-1
Acid Phosphatase Alkaline Phosphatase
Figure 1b. Alkaline phosphatase enzyme activities vs. polluted
distance by cement dust in NT soils.
values at a distance of 1 km were 8.83 in CT and 8.52 in
NT and at distance of 15 km 7.40 in CT and NT soils.
Increasing distance from cement plant decreased soil pH in
CT and NT soils. The soils did not exhibit any salinity
y = 0.55x + 13.31
R
2
= 0.79
y = 0.50x + 15.57
R
2
= 0.90
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 5 10 15 20
Distance, km
Urease Activity, ug NH
4
-N g
-1
soil 2 h
-1
Cultivated Non-cultivated
Figure 2. Urease enzyme activities vs. polluted distance by cement
dust in CT and NT soils.
y = 7.16x + 24.00
R
2
= 0.82
y = 9.38x + 55.59
R
2
= 0.92
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 5 10 15
20
Distance, km
Dehydrogenas e Activity, ug TPF g
-1
soil 24 h
-1
Cultivated Non-cultivated
Figure 3. Dehydrogenase enzyme activities vs. polluted distance by
cement dust in CT and NT soils.
Bilen 2421
problem but there was enough lime (3.42 to 5.63%)
present in the soil to be classified calcareous soils.
Contents of organic matter of the soils were determined
between 1.45 to 2.86% (low-middle), total nitrogen
between 0.1 to 0.29% and contained sufficient N, available
phosphorus between 11.50 to 18.70 mg kg-1 (low) (FAO,
1990), and cation exchangeable capacity between 30.34 to
38.42 cmol kg-1 .
Effects of spatial variation on microbial population and
co2-c production
The quantitative analysis of bacteria, fungi, and soil CO2-C
production in CT and NT soils are given in Table 2.
According to the results of ANOVA, significant (p < 0.05)
differences on average number of bacteria and fungi were
observed among different distances from the cement
factory in CT and NT soils.
The highest number of bacteria were observed at
distance of 15 km (387.2 x 106 CFU g-1 soil) from the
cement plant in CT and the lowest were observed at
distance of 1 km (296.3x106 CFU g-1 soil) from the cement
plant in CT. The highest number of bacteria were obtained
at a distance of 15 km (370.6 x 106 CFU g-1 soil) in NT and
the lowest were obtained at distance of 1 km (215.7 x 106
CFU g-1 soil) from the cement plant in NT soils. Average
numbers of bacteria were higher in CT (332.5x106 CFU g-1
soil) soils than in NT (282.8 x 106 CFU g-1 soil) soils. Soil
microbial population showed a significantly positive
correlation with distance in CT and NT (r2 = 0.53; r2= 0.56,
p < 0.05) soils.
Significant (p < 0.05) differences in average number of
fungi were observed among different distances from the
cement factory in CT and NT soils. The highest number of
fungi was obtained at distance of 7 km and the lowest was
obtained at a distance of 1 km from the cement plant in CT
(37.2 x 104; 21.6 x 104 CFU g-1 soil) and NT (71.4 x 104;
42.6 x 104 CFU g-1 soil) soil. Average number of fungi was
determined 58.1 x 104 CFU g-1 soil in NT and 29.7 x 104
CFU g-1 soil in CT soils. Number of fungi showed
significant positive correlation with distance in CT (r2 =
0.58; p < 0.05) and NT (r2= 0.74, p < 0.05) soils (Table 2).
According to Table 2, statistical results showed a
significant (p < 0.05) differences between distance and
average CO2-C production depending on distance from the
cement factory. Increasing distance increased CO2-C
production in CT and NT soils. The highest CO2-C
production was observed at distance of 15 km from cement
factory in CT (31.5 mg CO2-C m2 h-1) and NT (21.8 mg
CO2-C m2 h-1) soils. The lowest CO2-C production was
observed at distance of 1 km from cement factory in CT
(21.6 mg CO2-C m2 h-1) and NT (16.0 mg CO2-C m2 h-1)
soils. The average CO2-C production was determined 27.2
mg CO2-C m2 h1 soil in CT, and 19.3 mg CO2-C m2 h-1 soil
in NT soils. Average soil CO2-C production showed
significant positive correlation with distance in CT and NT
(r2= 0.94, p < 0.01) soils.
2422 Afr. J. Microbiol. Res.
Table 1. Some chemical and physical properties of CT and NT soils.
Polluted distance by cement dust
Soil properties 1 km 3 km 5 km 7 km 10 km 15 km
CT NT CT NT CT NT CT NT CT NT CT NT
pH (1:2.5) (soil/water) 8.83 8.52 9.24 8.71 8.54 8.21 8.24 7.85 7.82 8.12 7.40 7.40
Organic matter, % 1.96 1.62 2.04 2.21 2.00 2.26 2.42 2.86 2.01 1.45 2.54 2.32
CaCO
3
. % 5.49 3.70 3.83 4.20 4.66 5.26 5.63 4.21 4.38 3.75 4.63 3.42
Total N, % 0.15 0.10 0.19 0.14 0.25 0.21 0.26 0.17 0.29 0.21 0.19 0.25
Available P, mg kg-1 soil 14.23 10.20 18.70 14.20 16.47 18.00 16.47 13.40 17.21 13.70 15.30 11.50
Exchageable Cations,
cmol kg-1 soil
Ca+2 23.11 25.46 20.18 24.53 21.65 23.45 21.65 18.46 21.16 21.45 17.56 18.63
Mg+2 9.70 7.87 8.48 9.56 9.09 8.23 9.09 6.85 8.89 7.23 6.05 7.26
K+1 3.17 4.12 2.76 3.74 2.97 1.86 2.97 2.76 2.90 3.25 3.56 4.85
Na+1 0.38 0.26 0.31 0.28 0.35 0.21 0.35 0.18 0.33 0.48 0.31 0.29
Micro Elements, ppm
Fe 24.11 25.45 20.54 23.05 21.37 25.93 23.17 17.95 23.30 24.15 21.85 22.83
Cu 2.56 3.66 2.57 3.60 2.63 3.21 3.48 2.89 4.46 4.99 4.59 3.01
Zn 2.85 2.19 1.60 1.91 1.23 2.17 2.30 1.06 2.93 2.30 2.82 2.76
Mn 8.29 9.63 11.19 9.03 13.14 9.15 6.58 11.17 11.16 10.87 13.30 13.83
CEC, cmol kg-1soil 36.29 38.24 35.77 38.42 36.03 34.59 36.03 30.65 35.94 33.25 30.34 33.24
Texture, % Clay 32.45 36.18 33.20 36.20 28.75 34.33 28.35 33.97 27.33 33.69 33.99 34.55
Silt 20.25 30.56 25.46 29.50 31.12 28.56 32.00 27.93 28.56 31.05 26.07 21.24
Sand 47.30 33.26 41.34 34.30 40.13 37.12 39.65 38.10 44.11 35.26 39.94 44.21
Texture class L CL CL L CL CL L CL CL CL L L
CT : Cultivated wheat, NT : No-Till soil, L : Loam, CL : Clay loam.
Table 2. Effects of cement dust pollution on population of bacteria and fungi, CO2-C production, Duncan test results and
correlation coefficient values (r).
Distance (km) Bacteria x10
6
(CFU g-1)
Fungi x10
4
(CFU g-1)
CO2-C Production
(mg C m-2 h-1)
CT NT CT NT CT NT
1 296.3 b 215.7 b 21.6 b 42.6 b 21.6 b 16.0 b
3 315.7 ab 281.5 ab 25.4 b 58.7 ab 24.6 ab 18.4 ab
5 362.5 a 243.0 b 29.8 b 42.2 b 25.6 ab 18.6 ab
7 337.6 ab 343.2 a 37.2 a 71.4 a 29.7 a 20.2 a
10 297.6 b 243.5 b 37.1 a 65.5 a 30.3 a 21.1 a
15 387.2 a 370.6 a 27.0 b 68.4 a 31.5 a 21.8 a
Average 332.5 A 282.8 B 29.7 B 58.1 A 27.2 A 19.3 B
r-values 0.53* 0.56* 0.58* 0.74* 0.94** 0.94**
CT: Cultivated wheat , NT: No-Till Soil, † The means with the same letter are not statistically significant (p < 0.05). *, ** : Indicate
significance at the 5 and 1%, respectively.
Effects of spatial variation on some soil enzyme
activity
We also monitored the activities of four enzyme groups:
AcdP, AlkP, urease (UE) and dehydrogenase (DHE) at
different distance from the cement plant in CT and NT
soils. According to our results, phosphatase enzyme
activities varied widely in relation to distance CT and NT
soils. The highest AcdP enzyme activity was observed at
distance of 15 km (37.6 µg pNP g-1 soil h-1) in CT and the
lowest AcdP enzyme activity was observed at distance of 1
km (29.0 µg pNP g-1 soil h-1) away from the cement factory
in CT soils. Similarly, the highest AcdP enzyme activity
was obtained at distance of 15 km (35.3 µg pNP g-1 soil h-1)
in NT soils and the lowest AcdP enzyme activity was
obtained at distance of 1 km (23.0 µg pNP g-1 soil h-1) away
from the cement factory in NT soils. AcdP enzyme activity
showed a significant positive correlation with distance in
CT (r2 = 0.80, p < 0.01) and NT (r2 = 0.86, p < 0.01) soils
(Figure 1a and b).
The highest AlkP enzyme activity was observed at
distance of 2 km (84.60 µg pNP g-1 soil h-1), and the lowest
AlkP enzyme activity was observed at distance of 15 km
(58.40 µg pNP g-1 soil h-1) away from the cement factory in
CT soils. The highest AlkP enzyme activity was observed
at distance of 1 km (68.10 µg pNP g-1 soil h-1) and the
lowest AlkP enzyme activity was observed at distance of
10 km away from the cement factory (47.50 µg pNP g-1 soil
h-1) in NT soils. The results in this particular case showed a
significant negative correlation between cement dust
pollution and distance in CT (r2 = 0.60, p < 0.05) and NT (r2
= 0.68, p < 0.05) soils. AcdP enzyme activity was
significantly lower than AlkP enzyme activity in CT and NT
soils (Figure 1a and b).
Urease enzyme activity was highly correlated with the
distance of CT and NT soils. The regression equations and
simple correlation coefficients for these relationships are
shown in Fig. 2. The highest UE activity was observed at
distance of 15 km (24.08 mg NH4-N kg-1 soil 2h-1) and the
lowest was observed at distance of 1 km (16.25 mg NH4-N
kg-1 soil 2h-1) away from the cement factory in CT soils.
The highest UE activity was observed at distance of 15 km
(21.24 mg NH4-N kg-1 soil 2 h-1) and the lowest was
observed at distance of 1 km (12.20 mg NH4-N kg-1 soil 2 h-
1) away from the cement factory in NT soils. UE activity
showed a significant positive correlation with distances in
CT (r2= 0.90, p < 0.01) and NT (r2= 0.79; p < 0.01) soils.
Maximum variation based on distance from the cement
factory was observed for dehydrogenase activity in various
soils. The highest DHE activity was determined at 15 km
distance (180 mg TPF kg-1 soil 24 h-1) and the lowest was
determined at 1 km distance (51.16 mg TPF kg-1 soil 24 h-
1) away from the cement factory in CT soils. The highest
DHE activity was observed at distance of 15 km (150 mg
TPF kg-1 soil 24 h-1) and the lowest was obtained at a 1 km
distance (37.88 mg TPF kg-1 soil 24 h-1) from the cement
factory in NT soils. Strong positive correlation among DHE
enzyme activity and distances was observed in CT (r2 =
0.92, p < 0.01) and NT (r2 = 0.82, p < 0.01) soils (Figure 3).
DISCUSSION
Our findings that soils under cement dust have lower
enzyme activity, compared to the CT and NT soils, are due
to the negative impacts of the cement dust on soil
properties including the microbial populations and
activities. The effects of cement dust on soil microbial
population and CO2-C fluxes were significantly correlated
with distance in CT and NT soils. Increasing distance
increased the average number of bacteria, fungi and soil
Bilen 2423
CO2-C production and decreased lime contents of the soil
in CT and NT soils (Table 1 and 2). The increases in
amount of lime were related to the increase of soil pH.
Microorganism activity was affected negatively by
cement pollution and the other environmental conditions
resulting from cement pollution; it most likely would have
negative effects on the other ecosystem functions (Bayhan
et al. 2002; Nowak et al. 2003; Fabbri et al. 2004; Ocak et
al. 2004).
The pH affected the activity of enzymes as amino acid
functional groups that alter conformational and chemical
changes of amino acids essential for binding and catalysis
were very sensitive to pH range (Dick et al., 2000).
Phosphomonoesterases such as AcdP and AlkP
significantly were affected by changes in soil pH (Table 1
and Figure 1) and each enzyme was observed more
predominant in acidic and alkaline soils, respectively (Deng
and Tabatabai, 1997). Changing soil pH is connected with
content of cement dust of the soil. Cement dust pollution
effected soil pH directly, and affected soil acid
phosphatase enzyme activity in directly. AcdP responded
negatively to the soil acidity and the tested enzymes were
ordered according to their susceptibility of soil acidity as
follows: dehydrogenases>urease>alkaline
phosphatase>acid phosphatase (Wyszkowska et al.,
2006).
The highest urease activity was observed around pH =
7.4 and the lowest urease activity was at pH = 8.8 (Table
2). Optimum pH for soil UE activity was 8.8 to 9.0
(Tabatabai and Bremner, 1972; May and Douglas, 1976).
However, Singh and Nye (1984) reported that soil pH for
UE activity was around 6 for the overall reaction and 6.8 for
the high affinity reaction. Alkaline soils have low amounts
of organic carbon and nitrogen and low levels of urease
and dehydrogenase enzyme activity. Urease enzyme
activity was significantly correlated not only with organic
carbon and CaCO3, but also with pH (Rao and Ghai, 1985).
Urease turned out to be more resistant to soil acidity than
dehydrogenases (Wyszkowska et al., 2006). Phosphatase
and urease enzyme activities were greater in CT soils than
NT soils (Gupta and Bhardwaj, 1990). Especially, urease
activity was much lower in NT soils than in CT soils. When
compared to the corresponding undisturbed or less-
disturbed soils, our results are in agreement with previous
studies showing enzyme activity values reported by
Acosta-Martinez et al. (2004) and Fenn et al. (1992).
Dehydrogenase enzyme activity showed a positive
correlation with decreasing cement dust, CaCO3, and pH in
CT and NT soils (Figure 3, Table 1). The maximum
dehydrogenase enzyme activity was observed at pH 7.4
under wheat vegetation. Similar results were observed in
pH 6.6-7.2 during barley vegetation under different air-
water conditions (Brzezinska et al., 2001). We determined
positive correlation between dehydrogenase enzyme
activity and pH. Similarly, Moore and Russell (1972) and
Onet et al. (2007) observed that there was strong
correlation between dehydrogenase enzyme activity and
2424 Afr. J. Microbiol. Res.
organic matter (Khan, 1999) and weakly positive with pH
and nitrogen. Dehydrogenase enzyme activity in CT (Ph
7.4-8.52) soils was greater than NT (pH 7.4 to 9.24) soils.
Dehydrogenase enzyme activity decreased significantly
with the decline in soil pH values in acidic soils. These
results are in agreement with that reported by Rao and
Ghai (1985) and Aoyama and Nagumo (1996).
REFERENCES
Acosta-Martínez V, Cruz L, Sotomayor-Ramírez D, Pérez-Alegría L
(2007). Enzyme activities as affected by soil properties and land use in
a tropical watershed. Appl. Soil Ecol., 35: 35-45.
Acosta-Martínez V, Zobeck TM, Allen V (2004). Soil microbial, chemical
and physical properties in continuous cotton and integrated crop-
livestock systems, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 68: 1875-1884.
Aoyama M, Nagumo T (1996). Factors affecting microbial biomass and
dehydrogenase activity in apple orchard soils with heavy metal
accumulation. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr., 42: 821-831.
Baum C, Leinweber P, Schlichting A (2003). Effects of chemical
conditions in re-wetted peats temporal variation in microbial biomass
and acid phosphatase activity within the growing season. Appl. Soil
Ecol., 22: 167-174.
Bayhan YK, Yapici S, Kocaman B, Nuhoglu A, Cakici A (2002). The
Effects of cement dust on some soil characteristics. Fresenius Environ.
Bulletin, 11: 1030-1033.
Bergstrom DW, Monreal CM, Millette JA, King DJ (1998). Spatial
dependence of soil enzyme activities along a slope. Soil Sci. Soc. Am.
J., 62: 1302·1308.
Beyer L, Wachendorf C, Balzer FM, Balzer-Graf UR (1992). The effect of
soil texture and soil management on microbial biomass and soil
enzyme activities in arable soils of northwest Germany. Agrobiol. Res.,
45: 276–283.
Bremner JM (1996). Nitrogen-Total. In Bartels, J.M, Bigham, J. M. (Eds)
Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3-Chemical Methods. ASA-SSSA,
Madison, WI, pp. 1085-1123.
Brynes BH, Frency JR (1995). Recent developments on the use of urease
inhibitors in the tropics. Fert. Res., 42: 251-259.
Brzezinska M, Stepniewska Z, Stepniewski W (2001). Effect Of oxygen
deficiency on soil dehydrogenase activity (pot experiment with barley).
Int. Agrophysics, 15: 3-5.
Casida LE (1977). Microbial Metabolic activity in soil as measured by
dehydrogenase determinations. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 34: 630-636.
Chen SK, Edwards CA, Subler S (2003). The influence of two agricultural
biostimulants on nitrogen transformations, microbial activity, and plant
growth in soil microcosms. Soil Biol. Biochem., 35: 9-19.
Deng SP, Tabatabai MA (1997). Effect of tillage and residue management
on enzyme activities in soils: III. Phosphatases and arylsulfatase. Biol.
Fert. Soils., 24: 141-146.
Dick RP (1997). Soil enzyme activities as integrative indicators of soil
health. In: C.E. Pankhurst, B.M. Doube and V.V.S.R. Gupta, Editors,
Biological Indicators of Soil Health, CAB International, pp. 121–157.
Dick RP, Rasmussenand PE, Kerfe EA (1988). Influence of long-term
residue management on soil enzyme activities in retention to soil
chemical properties of a wheat fallow system. Biol. Fertil. Soils, 6: 159-
164.
Dick WA (1984). Influence of long-term tillage and rotation combinations
on soil enzyme activities. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 48: 569–574.
Dick WA, Cheng L, Wang P (2000). Soil acid and alkaline phosphatase
activity as pH adjustment indicators, Soil Biol. Biochem., 32: 1915-
1919.
Dick WA, Juma NG, Tabatabai MA (1983). Effects of soils on acid
phosphatase and inorganic pyrophosphatase of corn roots, Soil Sci.,
136: 19-25.
Dick WA, Tabatabai MA (1993). Significance and potential uses of soil
enzymes. In: Metting, F.B. (Ed.), Soil Microbial Ecology: Application in
Agricultural and Environmental Management. Marcel Dekker, New
York, pp. 95-125.
Fabbri J, Queen J, Rigdon K (2004). Southdown Portland Cement Plant,
Lyons, Colorado: Pollution Effects on Soil pH, Water Quality and
VegetationPatterns. http://www.enci-
stop.nl/web/pags/Southdown%20Portland%20Cement.htm
FAO (1990). Micronutrient assesment at the levels an international study.
FAO. Soil Bulletin, Rome, p. 63.
Fenn LB, Tipton JL, Tatum G (1992). Urease activity in two cultivated and
non-cultivated arid soils. Biol. Fertil. Soils., 13: 152-154.
Frankerberger WT, Dick WA (1983). Relationships between enzyme,
activities and microbial growth and activity indices in soil. Soil Sci. Soc.
Am. J., 47: 945-951.
Gee GW, Bauder JW (1986). Particle-size analysis. In A. Klute (Ed.)
Methods of soil analysis. Part 1. 2nd ed. Agron. Monogr. 9. ASA and
SSSA, Madison, WI. pp. 383–411.
Gupta RH, Bhardwaj KKR (1990). Phosphatase and urease enzymatic
activities in some soil profiles of North West Himalayas. J. Ind. Soc.
Soil Sci., 38: 759-759.
Handershot WH, Lalande H, Duquette M (1993). Soil Reaction and
Exchangeable Acidity. In Martin R. Carter (Ed.) Soil Sampling and
Methods of Analysis. Canadian Society of Soil Science. Lewis
Publishers. Boca Raton, Florida, USA, pp. 141-147.
Hanlon EA, De Vore JM (1989). IFAS extension soil testing laboratory
chemical procedures and training manual. In: FL Coop. Ext. Serv., Circ.
812, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, Univ. FL, Gainesville,
FL.
Herbien SA, Neal JL (1990). Soil pH and phosphatase activity.
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 21: 439-456.
Islam KR, Weil RR (2000). Land use effect on soil quality in tropical forest
ecosystem of Bangladesh. Agric., Ecosystems Environ., 79: 9-16.
Khan KM, Khaljl-ur-Rehman, Kanwal M, Rafiq U, Ghani HS (1999).
Comparative Enzymatic Studies on Soils Under Cultivation of. Wheat
and Sugarcane. Department of Chemistry. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 1: 133-
135.
Knudsen D, Beegle D (1988). Recommended phosphorous tests. In: W.C.
Dahnke, Editor, Recommended chemical soil test procedures for the
north central regionNorth Central Region Publication, 221: 12–15.
Laj P, Sellegri K (2003). Les aérosols atmosphériques: impacts locaux,
effets globaux. Revue française des Laboratoires., 349: 23-34.
Leoppert RH, Suarez DL (1996). Carbonate and Gypsum. In Bartels, J.M,
Bigham, J. M. (Eds) Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3. ASA-SSSA,
Madison, WI, pp. 437-475.
Lindsay WL, Norvell WA (1978). Development of a DTPA test for zinc,
iron, manganese, and copper. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J., 42: 421-428.
Madigon MT, Martinko JM (2006). Biology of Microorganisms.11th Edition.
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Mandre M (1995). Physiological and biochemical responses of coniferous
trees to alkaline dust impact. In M. Mandre(Ed) Dust Pollution and
Forest Ecosystem, A Study of Conifers in an Alkalized Environment.
Inst. of Ecol. Pub. Tallinn, pp. 44-65
May PB, Douglas LA (1976). Assay for soil urease activity. Plant Soil., 45:
301-305.
Miller M, Dick RP (1995). Thermal stability and activities of soil enzymes
as influenced by crop rotations. Soil Biol. Biochem., 27: 1161-1166.
Moore AW, Russell JS (1972). Factors affecting dehydrogenase activity
as an index of soil fertility. Plant Soil., 37: 675-82.
Nannipieri P, Ascher J, Ceccherini MT (2003). Microbial diversity and soil
functions [I]. Eur. J. Soil Sci., 54: 655-670.
Nelson DW, Sommers LE (1996). Total Carbon, Organic Carbon, and
Organic Matter. In Bartels, J.M, Bigham, J. M. (Eds) Methods of Soil
Analysis, Part 3-Chemical Methods. ASA-SSSA, Madison, WI, pp. 961-
1011.
Nielsen MN, Winding A (2002). Microorganisms as indicators of soil
health. National Environmental Research Institute, Denmark, technical
report no. 388,
http://www2.dmu.dk/1_viden/2_Publikationer/3_fagrapporter/rapporter/
FR388.pdf
Nowak J, Szymczak J, Słobodzian T (2003). The test of qualification 50%
threshold of toxicity of doses different heavy metals for soil
phosphatases. Zesz. Probl. Post. Nauk Rol. 492: 241–248, (in Polish).
Ocak I, Sulun Y, Hasenekoglu I (2004). The Effect of Cement Dust
Emitted From Gaziantep Cement Plant on Microfungus Flora of
Surroundings Soils, Turkey. Trakya Univ. J. Sci., 5: 107-115.
Onet A, Onet C, Laslo L (2007). Relationship Between Soil Enzymes And
Physicochemical Properties of Preluvosoil. Analele Uni. din Oradea,
Fascicula: Protecia mediului, p. 12.
Parkinson D (1994). Flamentous Fungi. In: R.W. Weaver, J.S. Angle and
P.S. Bottomley, (Ed’s), Methods of Soil Analysis: Microbiological and
Biochemical Properties. Part 2. SSSA Book Ser. 5, SSSA, Madison,
WI, pp. 329–350.
Rao DLN, Ghai SK (1985). Urease and dehydrogenase activity of alkali
and reclaimed soils. Aus. J. Soil Res., 23: 661–665.
Rhoades J (1996). Salinity: electrical conductivity and total dissolved
solids. In Bartels, J.M, Bigham, J. M. (Eds) Methods of Soil Analysis,
Part 3-Chemical Methods. ASA-SSSA, Madison, WI, pp. 417-435.
Singh R, Nye PH (1984). The effect of soil-pH and high urea
concentrations on urease activity in soil. J. Soil Sci., 35: 519-527.
Skujins L (1973). Dehydrogenase: an indicator of biological activities in
arid soils. Bulletin from the Ecological Research Committee
(Stockholm). 17: 235-241.
Soil Survey Staff (1999). Soil Taxonomy a Basic System of Soil
Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Surveys 2nd ed. US
Dept. of Agri. Soil Con. Serv. Washington.
Speir TW, Cowling JC (1991). Phosphatase activity of pasture plants and
soils: relationship with plant productivity and soil P fertility indices,
Biology and Fertility of Soils, 12: 189–194.
Bilen 2425
Sumner ME, Miller PE (1996). Cation Exchange Capasity and Exchange
Coefficients. In Bartels, J.M, Bigham, J. M. (Eds) Methods of Soil
Analysis, Part 3-Chemical Methods. ASA-SSSA, Madison, WI, pp.
1201-1231.
Tabatabai MA (1994). Soil enzymes. In: R.W. Weaver, J.S. Angle and
P.S. Bottomley, (Eds) Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 2-Microbiological
and Biochemical Properties. SSSA Book Ser. 5, SSSA, Madison, WI,
pp. 775-833.
Tabatabai MA, Bremner JM (1972). Assay of urease activity in soils. Soil
Boiol. Biochem., 4: 479-487.
Wyszkowska J, Zaborowska M, Kucharsk J (2006). Activity of Enzymes in
Zinc Contaminated Soil. Elect. J. Polish Agric. Univ. Topic:
Environmental Development, 9: 1.
Zuberer DA (1994). Recovery and enumeration of viable bacteria. In:
R.W. Weaver, J.S. Angle and P.S. Bottomley, (Ed’s), Methods of Soil
Analysis: Microbiological and Biochemical Properties. Part 2. SSSA
Book Ser. 5, SSSA, Madison, WI, pp. 119-144.
... One industry that emits pollutants in form of dust and gases which find their way into the soil is the production of cement (Addo, 2013). Cement production is often associated with significant dust particle pollution which can remain airborne and can spread over large areas through wind and rain, accumulating in soils and plants (Isikli et al., 2003;Bilen, 2010). Dust from cement and other factories leads to considerable change in pH and accumulation of emitted metals in soil which may affect both the composition and physiological processes of microorganisms leading to a reduction in microbial biomass and enzymatic activity (Zwolinski et al., 1988;Hemida et al., 1997;McCarthy, 2003;Biyik et al., 2005). ...
... Enzymes primarily derived from microorganisms drive the biochemical processes of the soil. Microbial biomass and soil enzyme activity are good indicators for soil health monitoring and are sensitive to changes in soil properties due to presence of pollutants (Bilen, 2010). Attention has been drawn to pollution of soil surrounding cement factories because of the threat of toxicity of heavy metals on all life forms. ...
... This finding is so because the principal component of cement is limestone which is alkaline in nature. Bilen (2010) reported that soil pH changes is connected with content of cement dust of the soil, with the cement dust pollution affecting soil pH directly, and affecting soil acid phosphatase enzyme activity indirectly. The soil water content and temperature and levels of all the metals except Zn were higher within the factory than in the control as shown in Table 2. ...
Article
A study was conducted to investigate the impact of cement dust pollution from LARFAGE cement WAPCO, Ewekoro on physicochemical and microbiological properties of surrounding soil. Soil samples were collected inside the cement plant and from fields located 100m, 300m, 500m and 1 Km away from the cement plant. Soil samples were taken from a depth of 0-10cm and analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological properties. The physiochemical characteristics determined were soil pH, moisture content, soil metals content (Fe, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni). Population and diversity of culturable microbial species and soil enzyme activities were also examined. The pH ranged from 8.20 ± 0.20-9.50 ± 0.42. Temperature ranged from 27.50 ± 0.26-30.30 ±0.26. The areas closer to the factory site had higher temperatures and pH values. The soil moisture content ranged from 13.35±0.02-20.10±0.20, with values increasing progressively as you move away from the factory site. The levels of all the metals except Zn were higher within the factory than in the control. Cr, Fe, Pb and Ni were significantly higher in all localities than in control. Isolated microbial flora consists of 4 bacteria genera belonging to, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Micrococcus, and 4 fungal genera belonging to, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria and Fusarium. The bacterial population ranged from 0.98±0.01-8.50±0.02, while the fungal population ranged from 0.04±0.02-0.48±0.02. Microbial diversity and population increased steadily as you move away from inside the factory. The isolates are considered tolerant to alkakine pH and heavy metals from cement dust. The soil enzyme activity varied with each sampling site. Dehydrogenase activity increases as you move away from the factory site. The variation is attributed to the impact of pH and heavy metals on microbial population.
... Nitrogen-fixing bacteria have the capacity to transform atmospheric nitrogen into inorganic compounds that can be used by plants (Bilen, 2010). ...
... The spread of dust and gases such as sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide have been the leading consequence of cement production in the environment (Amani et al., 2018;Sandar et al., 2019). These dust particles are spread over large areas through wind and rain with subsequent accumulation in soil and plants (Aneja, 2003;Bilen, 2010;Orji et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Nitrogen fixing bacteria play a vital role in transforming atmospheric nitrogen into inorganic form easily available for plant use. However, environmental pollution due to effluent from industrial activities could accumulate in soil, significantly altering the soil chemical and microbiological characteristics, such as nitrogen fixing bacteria. The effect of cement dust on nitrogen-fixing bacteria is presented in this study. Homogenized soil samples 0-20 cm in depth from the cement factory and other communities 200m-2km away from the factory were evaluated for soil physicochemical properties and nitrogen-fixing bacterial bioload using standard procedures. Soil pH, total nitrate, and total phosphate decreased as distance increased away from the factory. Elevated conductivity values of 605.94-621.80(µs/cm) was recorded for soil samples from the factory, indicating the presence of higher dissolved solutes. Total culturable Azotobacter count increased as distance increased away from the factory lcation, with SR1 (Akinbo) recording the highest of 10 4-10 5 cfu/g, while Azospirillium and Clostridium count significantly reduced. Pollution due to cement production activities may not have had a significant negative effect on the bioload of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. A higher amount of nitrate in soil samples around the cement plant showed that nitrogen-fixing activities occurred at a lower rate compared to the locations farther away from the cement plant.
... Cement manufacture can be a significant source of heavy metals which have a toxic effect on the environment. Arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, thallium, aluminum, beryllium, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc have all been released in emissions from cement plants [10,11]. These heavy metals can be absorbed by the human body and, consequently, can cause health issues like organ damage, cancer, nervous system damage, and, in extreme cases, death. ...
... 12) [27] was used to calculate organ doses from external irradiation due to dispersed cement and granite dust on the ground. The Effective dose to any organ (H T ) can be calculated as [28]: (10) Activity concentration (A) of cement and granite was converted to Bq/m 3 . Exposure time (T) was considered to be (3600 s/h × 8 h/d × 5 d/week × 50 week/year).Dose coefficients in tissue t per unit integrated exposure (h t ) to different organs were used (Sv m 3 /s Bq). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this work, investigations and analyses were carried out to evaluate workers' hazards exposure level due to radiological impacts and heavy metal content in granite and cement factories. Based on these evaluations, the hazardous exposure level assessment was conducted through two stages. The first stage includes the evaluation of the radiological hazards via the quantification of multiple parameters: the internal hazard due to radon and its short-lived progeny (represented by its internal and external hazard indices (H in) and (H ex) respectively), the gamma exposure due to the levels of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, Radium equivalent activity (Ra eq), the Absorbed gamma dose (D) of granite and cement powder which were distributed homogeneously in the working area, the Annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) due to gamma radiation through a working time 2000 hours/year, Committed effective dose (CED) due to the ingestion and inhalation of dust containing naturally radionuclides, Excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) due to the exposure to 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K, the index of excess alpha radiation (I α), Representative level index (RLI), Effective organ doses due to dispersion of cement and granite dust in air (D A) and on the ground (E). The second stage involves the hazardous assessment due to exposure to heavy metal elements. The elemental analysis was performed by using inductively coupled plasma optical emissions spectroscopy (ICP-OES). In this assessment, several elements such as copper, lead, arsenic, nickel, chromium, zinc and cadmium were determined and used to calculate the carcinogenic hazard quotient as well as the total hazard index. Additionally, a discussion and interpretation of the results was given and tabulated.
... Differentiations significantly influence soil physical and chemical properties in cement dust production, which may negatively impact plant growth (Arul and Nelson, 2015). Due to its impacts on soil pH and chemical composition, cement dust pollution can cause alkalization (Bilen, 2010;Mlitan et al., 2013;Lamare and Singh, 2020). Therefore, cement dust deposition is destructive to soil functionality. ...
... Soil pH was also negatively associated with distance from the cement plant. This can be due to greater accumulation of CaCO 3 , Ca +2, and Mg +2 by deposition of cement dust (Zerrouqi et al., 2008) since the pH at a longer distance is more neutral (Bilen, 2010;Kara and Bolat, 2007;Khamparia et al., 2012). A significant correlation of soil pH with Ca +2 and Mg +2 contents support this justification ( Figure 4). ...
Article
Full-text available
Global cement production has rapidly grown due to increases in fossil fuels and land-use change. Similar to intensive tillage practice, the cement dust emission is the third-largest source of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. The main focus of the present study is therefore to evaluate the effects of cement dust production and different tillage practice on soil health indicators and CO2 emissions. In this study, composite soils from conventional tillage (CT) and no-till (NT) fields under wheat-sugar beet (potato)-fallow cropping sequence were randomly collected (0-30 cm depth) in three replications at 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, and 10th km distance from a cement factory. The two-way ANOVA was used to determine differences in individual treatments and distances. Duncan?s LSD test was also conducted to determine the differences between the impacts of tillage practices. Pearson?s correlation analysis was conducted to investigate relationships between soil health indicators and CO2 fluxes under cement dust accumulation. Soil microbial community compositions, enzyme activities, soil pH, CaCO3, and alkaline phosphatase (PAlk) showed significant correlations. Soil organic carbon (SOC), total C (TC), urease activity (UAc), and bacterial populations (Bpop) showed a significant association with sampling distance from the cement respiration. Soil pH, CaCO3, and SOC were significantly influenced by increasing distance.
... By immediately covering the leaf surface, the dust also hinders intercellular functions and changes plant biodiversity [4]. Bilen [5] reported that human health is harmed by cement dust accumulating in and on plants, animals, and soils. e distribution of particle deposition in different parts of the respiratory tract influences the health concerns caused by inhaled dust particles. ...
Article
Full-text available
The release of harmful particles from industries is one of the important sources of environmental pollution worldwide. The goal of this study was to determine the amounts of dust deposition and heavy metal pollution in the soils surrounding a cement mill in Konongo, Ghana. Topsoils (0-10 cm) were sampled at the four geographical axes of the factory within a radius of 400 m, while at the same time, about 500 g of cement was sampled with a hand trowel. A Frisbee dust sampler was used to examine the levels of dust depositions at the various geographical axes of the factory. The heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb) were measured in a total of 20 soil samples using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The results obtained for climatic elements such as wind speed and direction, temperature, and relative humidity were 2.25, 25.7, and 49.5 m³/s, respectively. The average deposition of dust within the study period using the geographical axis indicated that the southern axis recorded the highest dust accumulation with a mean of 60.2 g/m² per month. The mean concentrations of metals at the various axes were 1.04 mg/kg, 4.78 mg/kg, 8.95 mg/kg, 9.30 mg/kg, and 18.4 mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb, respectively. The concentration of chemical components investigated in the soil was below the WHO/FAO standard, except for Cd. The spatial distribution pattern of the examined heavy metals showed that Cd, Cr, and Cu represent possible sources of soil contaminants. According to the conclusions of this research, this paper suggests an approach to investigate the areas contaminated with heavy metals to call out the attention of local authorities to take action.
... Cement production is often associated with significant dust particle pollution which can remain airborne and can spread over large areas through wind and rain, accumulating in soils and plants (Isikli et al., 2003;Bilen, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was aimed at identifying some negative impacts of cements production on soil ecosystem in cement factory area of Ewekoro Local Government area, Ogun state Nigeria. Soil samples were aseptically collected into sample bottles using soil auger, and transported to the biotechnology laboratory, within 1-2 hours of collection. The microbiological and heavy metals properties of the soil were determined using standard procedures. Heavy metals contaminations in the various soils were determined and shows that Iyana-Egbado soils, had the highest concentration of zinc (129.86mg/kg), copper (70.45mg/kg), Pb(87.83mg/kg), and cadmium (2.59mg/kg). The heterotrophic bacterial populations of the soils from various locations showed that the range of populations were within the range of 1.21 × 10 4-1.10 ×10 5 , 1.48 × 10 6-2.06 × 10 6 , 5 ×10 7-4 × 10 8 cfu/g and 6 ×10 4-3.5 × 10 6 cfu/g, for soils of factory, Lakatabu, Iyana-Egbado, and control, respectively. The populations of the fungi in the soils from various locations were significantly lower than that of bacteria in each location and the fungal populations in the horizon B (10-20cm) were significantly higher than the fungal populations in the horizon A (0-10cm). The bacterial isolates encountered in the control soils were Acinetobacter sp (CT 518), and Bacillus cereus (CT512) from Iyana-Egbado were Bacillius brevis (IE173) Bacillus subtilis (IE184) while the isolates from Lakatabu were Bacillus laterosporus(LK110), Bacillus cereus (LK541),and Bacillus badius (LK117). In addition the bacterial isolates from the factory soil were Bacillus cereus (FT 629), and Corynebacterium sp (FT620), Aureobasidium pullalans, Aspergillus glaucus, Trichoderma harzianium, and Penicillium species. This study is actually not adequate to conclude that cement factory in Ewekoro is responsible for the high concentrations of heavy metal in nearby communities (Lakatabu, and Iyana-Egbado). However there is need to run elaborate post impact assessment (PIA) in two rainy and dry seasons, and comparing with the environmental impact assessment carried out before establishing the cement industry.
... The highest pH (6.03) was observed in the hundred and fifty meters sample, indicating highest particulate pollution. Bilen (2010) reported that the soil pH changes are connected with content of cement dust. Cement dust affects soil pH directly, and soil acid phosphatase enzyme activity indirectly. ...
Thesis
The study examined the impact of Cement dust on physical and chemical nutrients properties of forest topsoil in close proximity to a major private cement industry in Obajana, Kogi State, Nigeria using standard methods by collecting Topsoil samples for physical and chemical properties analyses which are particle size, moisture content, pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, cation exchange capacity and organic matter. Data revealed a strong influence of the particulate pollutants on the forest topsoil in close proximity to the Cement factory. It was observed that the soil properties; moisture content and soil pH varied at distances away from the factory. The result showed that the Cement dust particles entering the soil increased the pH of the soil, it more alkaline. The highest pH (6.03) was observed from hundred and fifty meters sample indicating the highest particulate pollution. There were also variations in the other soil nutrient properties; carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, cation exchange capacity and organic matter arising from the effect of cement dust. High organic matter content was recorded in the location samples compared with the control sample. This is attributed to the addition of cement dust to the soils, resulting in improved organic-matter cycling and plant growth. The result also showed that the chemical properties; organic carbon (OC), organic matter (OM), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) are significantly higher in the study areas than the control. The study therefore concludes that the emission of cement dust on the forest stands over the years was found to have significantly affected the topsoil properties.
... The production of cement is often associated with a significant contamination of the dust particles that remain in the air and propagate on large areas due to wind and rain and accumulate in land and plants (Isikli et al., 2003;Bilen, 2010). These contaminants can cause significant pH changes and the accumulation of metals emitted in the soil affects both the composition and the physiological processes of the soil and can lead to a reduction in crop yield (McCarthy, 2003;Biyik et al., 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
This present study evaluated the impact of cement factories on the soil physical and chemical characteristics. Soil samples were collected from two cement factories and a control site within Port Harcourt Metropolis. The different physical and chemical parameters were analyzed using standard laboratory procedures. The mean values of the physicochemical parameters in the soil were thus: pH 7.965±0.256, electrical conductivity 286.3±5.165 µS/cm, total organic carbon 2.971±0.243%, total organic matter 4.23±0.849%, and nitrate 0.709±0.055mg/kg. Moisture content was 14.2±0.061%, clay 20.95±0.065%, silt 17.075±1.50% and sand 63.98±1.615%. The inorganic parameters; phosphate was 2.25±0.125%, ammonia 0.565±0.022mg/kg, nitrogen 1.045±0.05% and sulphate 4.583±0.0345mg/kg. The result of physico-chemical parameters from the control site were thus; pH 6.510±0.489, electrical conductivity 252.4±3.908 µS/cm, total organic carbon 2.701±0.213%, total organic matter 3.100±0.094% and nitrate was 0.631±0.065mg/kg, others were moisture content 16.61±1.025%, clay content 19.35±1.731%, silt content 18.11±1.556%, sand content 62.00±2.224%. While the inorganic parameters were phosphate 2.105±0.009%, ammonia 0.381±0.003mg/kg, nitrogen 2.201±0.105% and sulphate 3.657±0.211mg/kg. The result showed that the soil contamination due to cement dust reduced sharply with distance from the factories, this suggests that soil samples analysed in the studied areas were a bit contaminated. Therefore, it is recommended that cement factories be moved to places that are far from human environment and settlements.
... The highest pH (6.03) was observed in the hundred and fifty meters sample, indicating highest particulate pollution. Bilen (2010) reported that the soil pH changes are connected with content of cement dust. Cement dust affects soil pH directly, and soil acid phosphatase enzyme activity indirectly. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study examined the impact of Cement dust on physical and chemical nutrients properties of forest topsoil in close proximity to a major private cement industry in Obajana, Kogi State, Nigeria using standard methods by collecting Topsoil samples for physical and chemical properties analyses which are particle size, moisture content, pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, cation exchange capacity and organic matter.Data revealed a strong influence of the particulate pollutants on the forest topsoil in close proximity to the Cement factory. It was observed that the soil properties; moisture content and soil pH varied at distances away from the factory. The result showed that the Cement dust particles entering the soil increased the pH of the soil, it more alkaline. The highest pH (6.03) was observed from hundred and fifty meters sample indicating the highest particulate pollution. There were also variations in the other soil nutrient properties; carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, cation exchange capacity and organic matter arising from the effect of cement dust. High organic matter content was recorded in the location samples compared with the control sample. This is attributed to the addition of cement dust to the soils, resulting in improved organic-matter cycling and plant growth. The result also showed that the chemical properties; organic carbon (OC), organic matter (OM), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) are significantly higher in the study areas than the control. The study therefore concludes that the emission of cement dust on the forest stands over the years was found to have significantly affected the topsoil properties.
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, environmental pollution with heavy metals has become a global issue. Heavy metals can enter the environment through human and natural resources. Soil can hold environmental pollution and these pollutants can be checked by chemical analysis. The purpose of this field survey is assessment of soil pollution by heavy metals around Ilam Cement factory. In this regard, a total of 20 soil samples taken in different directions and the concentration of Zinc, Cobalt, Manganese, Molybdenum, Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Chromium and Nickel in soil samples was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. In order to better understand about distribution of heavy metals, Geoaccumulation Index, Contamination Factor, modified Contamination Degree, Pollution Load Index methods applied. Results showed that although the concentration of all of heavy metals in the study area is less than standard but the correlation coefficient (R2) of elements in different directions show that the highest correlation coefficient for elements is in the North West direction of study area which is in agreement with main winds direction in the region. So wind direction is effective in elements distribution and their concentration decreased with distance from the factory.
Article
Full-text available
This work presents an investigation on the changes in some characteristics of the soil due to the cement dust of air originated pollutants emitted from Erzurum-Askale Cement Plant. The comparative examination showed that the pollution caused an increase of 22.00% in lime, 15.93% in exchangeable cation, and therefore, 12 66% in pH and 7.86% in electrical conductivity. The sand and clay amounts were also observed to increase. These changes resulted in a decrease of 6.5% in organic matter content, 37.01% in field capacity and 32.52% in wilting point in polluted region. Since all these changes affect negatively the quality of the soil, the ecology controlling the microbial activities breaks down, affecting negatively the developments of the plants in the polluted region. The factory was refitted with a dust filtration system after this work.
Chapter
This chapter describes prevalent laboratory methods for determining salinity based on measurements of electrical conductivity (EC) or total dissolved solids after evaporation at 180°C. It discusses various methods for determining the concentrations of individual inorganic solutes in waters and soil extracts in common use in laboratories having modern instrumentation. The extraction ratios are easier to make than that of saturation, but they are less well related to field soil water composition and content. More importantly, salinity and compositional errors from dispersion, hydrolysis, cation exchange, and mineral dissolution increase as the water/soil ratio increases. Soil salinity may be estimated from measurement of the EC of the saturated soil-paste and estimates of saturation percentage. The amount of total dissolved solids in a sample is determined by weighing the residue obtained after evaporating a sample that has been filtered to remove particulate matter.