Article

Psychomotor Therapy and Psychiatry: What's in a Name?

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

In Belgium and the Netherlands, psychomotor therapy as a kind of physical activity and body-oriented therapy has been well integrated into mental health care since 1965. In contrast to its acceptance in most European countries, the term "psychomotor therapy" has not found its way into the Anglo-Saxon literature. Psychomotor therapy is defined as a method of treatment that uses body awareness and physical activities as cornerstones of its approach. In Flemish psychiatric hospitals, psychomotor therapy is imbedded in different treatment programmes for different diagnosis related patient settings. The purpose of this article is to summarize the history, the practical implementations, and the research concerning psychomotor therapy. Its relationship to other similar approaches is described. With this article, we hope to cross borders and build bridges between different international interventions with the same background.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Body-and movement-oriented interventions (BMOIs), such as sensorimotor psychotherapy (Langmuir, Kirsh, & Classen, 2012;Ogden et al., 2006), somatic experiencing (Levine, 2010), body-oriented psychotherapy (BOP; Röhricht, 2009), and psychomotor therapy (Probst, Knapen, Poot, & Vancampfort, 2010), provide such a bottom-up approach and may form a valuable addition to current cognitive behavioral and exposurebased treatments. Body-and movement-oriented interventions can be defined as those in which physical activity and corporeality are the central themes and core focus of the intervention; they are characterized by their use of movement activities and focus on bodily experiences (Probst et al., 2010). ...
... Body-and movement-oriented interventions (BMOIs), such as sensorimotor psychotherapy (Langmuir, Kirsh, & Classen, 2012;Ogden et al., 2006), somatic experiencing (Levine, 2010), body-oriented psychotherapy (BOP; Röhricht, 2009), and psychomotor therapy (Probst, Knapen, Poot, & Vancampfort, 2010), provide such a bottom-up approach and may form a valuable addition to current cognitive behavioral and exposurebased treatments. Body-and movement-oriented interventions can be defined as those in which physical activity and corporeality are the central themes and core focus of the intervention; they are characterized by their use of movement activities and focus on bodily experiences (Probst et al., 2010). Methods derived from sports as well as from more body-oriented approaches, such as relaxation therapy and body awareness therapy, are subsumed under this definition. ...
... Röhricht (2009) created an overview of the field of therapies that explicitly employ body-oriented, nonverbal techniques. The BMOIs aim at decreasing PTSD symptomatology and increasing psychosocial and physiological well-being by enhancing body awareness and integrating cognitive, affective, and somatic processing (Probst et al., 2010;Röhricht, 2009). These aspects are considered important in achieving effective emotion regulation and processing of traumatic experiences (Langmuir et al., 2012;Ogden et al., 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
To assess the efficacy of body‐ and movement‐oriented interventions (BMOIs) in traumatized adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), we conducted a systematic review and meta‐analysis of pertinent literature. Four bibliographical databases (PsycINFO, Ovid MEDLINE(R), EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) were searched using keywords and text words for trials on BMOIs addressing PTSD. The search included articles published between October 2005 and August 2017. Studies were included if participants were adults suffering from PTSD, if BMOIs were the therapeutic strategy under investigation, and if a psychometrically evaluated standardized outcome measure for PTSD was used. No limitations for control conditions were applied. Hedges’ g was computed as the effect size (ES) for the treatment versus control condition. The meta‐analysis included 15 studies, which resulted in a mean ES of g = 0.85, 95% CI [0.31, 1.39], with very high heterogeneity, I2 = 91%. After removing one study as outlier, a mean effect size of g = 0.56, 95% CI [0.29, 0.82] (i.e., medium effect), still with considerable heterogeneity, I2 = 57%, was found. BMOIs seem to be effective in reducing symptoms of PTSD, but more research is needed to identify working mechanisms and to determine which types of intervention are most effective for various subgroups of patients.
... The motor domain is employed as a gateway to ameliorate the social affective functioning of an individual. Within this approach, the physiotherapist creates a setting that favors the onset and the development of a process in the patient using their specific working methods in order to stimulate the patients to get in touch with their inner world [15]. ...
... By offering some wide range activities around the theme of " body in motion," patients are invited to come out of their comfort zone, to experience new things, thoughts (obsession, perfectionism, worrying), and many emotions (depressive feelings, fear, guilt, anger, stress, feelings of unease, estrangement, and dissatisfaction), and to get more in touch with their inner world. This allows them to gain a better insight into their own performance [2,15]. ...
... The patient shares his behavior, his feelings, and thoughts with the therapist and eventually with his peers. More emphasis is put on experiences, and how reactions to these experiences function as a dynamic power [15]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Physiotherapy or body-oriented therapy is often overlooked as an adjunctive treatment for patients with eating disorders (ED). However, the integration of physiotherapy is based on the physiotherapists’ experience in both the body and the body in movement, two important issues integral to eating disorder pathology. From our clinical experience, physiotherapeutic techniques represent a potent clinical addition to available treatments. Patients with eating disorders have an intense fear of gaining weight and present a negative body experience. Excessive exercise and drive for activity or hyperactivity are considered to be a secondary symptom and are characterized by a voluntary increase in physical activity, a compulsive urge to move and by the dissociation of fatigue. Both characteristics are the two cornerstones for physiotherapy in children, adolescents, and adults in an inpatient or outpatient treatment. More concrete, the objectives for physiotherapy are (1) rebuilding of a realistic self-concept, (2) curbing hyperactivity, and (3) developing social skills. Physiotherapists have a wide array of skills that can be applied successfully in the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN). The goal of this chapter is to present practical guidelines for physiotherapeutic management in eating disorder, more specific about mirror exercises, film images, and some additional individual or group exercises, recommendations based on more than 35 years of clinical experience. When I look at my body, you are the part that I hate the most. I don’t know why you’re so important in my life. You decide who I am and how I feel. It’s just like you encourage me every day, and after every meal, to vomit. I sometimes think you’re so fat! Why can’t you just stay thin? I hate to be confronted with you day after day. Because I hate you so, you obstruct a part of my healing. Why do I have the feeling that everything I eat is stored in my belly? There is not an hour that goes by without thinking of you. I don’t want this anymore. I want to go on, whether or not you want to help me out. I won’t let you live my life, but from now on I take matters into my own hands. I was a happy woman and I still have everything to be that happy woman again. You can’t take that away from me. You’re a part of me that will always be difficult for me, but gradually I will try to accept you. Give me some time and I really hope that we can be buddies for life in the future. What do you think? Since about 2 years I’ve been one of the most important things in your life. You’ve done me a lot of deficit by eating less. I often longed to eat, but that you did not give me. I know you’re proud of me because I’m flat but that is a wrong idea. You’d better gain some weight and be happier than to stay lean and be unhappy. Yet I know it won’t be easy for you. I will never say that. But think of all the people who believe in you and want to help you. You have cheated on them for years and yet they continue to support you. Isn’t that more important to you than me, a body part? You say you want to be different from the others. Realize that you are unique because of who you are and not for what you do. Keep on fighting.
... Psychomotor therapy (PMT), an experiential therapy, is defined as a treatment that uses body awareness and physical activities as cornerstones of its approach. It is based on a holistic view, which integrates cognitive, emotional and motor aspects of an individual's functioning (Probst, Knapen, Poot, & Vancampfort, 2010). PMT aims to offer 'a playground' for participants to increase their ability to recognise differences in one's own body signals, i.e. 'interoceptive awareness' (IA), and practice with different forms of responding. ...
... PMT is well embedded in health care in Europe although the term PMT is not an established term in the English literature. Other terms like Body-oriented Psychotherapy or Dance and Movement Therapy are more commonly used (Probst et al., 2010). ...
... Step 3b: programme design. Two PMT categories, namely action-oriented PMT and experience-oriented PMT, were used by the therapists (Probst et al., 2010). Action-oriented PMT focusses on learning by repeating or automatising skills, whereas experience-oriented PMT focusses more on insight into emotions and the way of responding (caused by their emotional state). ...
Article
Difficulties with anger regulation in individuals with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning (MID-BIF) are often associated with aggressive behaviour. Psychomotor therapy (PMT), a mind-body intervention often applied in Dutch facilities for this target group, uses body awareness and physical activities as a medium to learn how to gain control over one’s anger and reduce aggressive behaviour. With Intervention Mapping as a framework, 17 Dutch psychomotor therapists were asked to describe their PMT programme to investigate its content and coherence. Results suggested that interoceptive awareness (IA) and adaptive coping skills (ACS) are key elements of the PMT programmes. The theoretical basis of the PMT programmes is however limited and specific instruments for evaluating PMT are not available yet, especially for IA. Psychomotor therapists would gain from a well-described PMT programme. Future research is warranted on IA, and specific instruments need to be developed and validated for this target group.
... According to this understanding, the human body and mind are united. In this holistic view, the cognitive, emotional and physical aspects are integrated, as well as the capacity of being and acting in a psychosocial context (Probst, Knapen, Poot, Vancampfort 2010). ...
... From the present point of view, the history of the term 'psycho-motorics' is marked by a range of concepts developed in various countries. The (dis-)similarities should be understood in the light of cultural differences (Probst, Knapen, Poot, Vancampfort 2010). For example, in the Romance-language countries, "psychomotricity" was developed in the fields of pedagogy, psychology and psychiatry. ...
... Gradually, the term "movement therapy" appeared, and attention switched from physical activity to the question of how people move in relation to their environment, and how they use physical activity in their tasks, activities and responsibilities. The main idea behind psychomotor therapy was the interaction between physical activity and the mind (Probst, Knapen, Poot, Vancampfort 2010). Therefore, movement therapy began to include movement-oriented and bodyoriented (relaxation, sensory and body awareness) types of therapy, and the term "psychomotor therapy" was chosen (Broadhead, Vermeer, Boscher 1997). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses psychomotor development in early childhood and consists of three parts. The first part is a brief historical overview of the theoretical description and analysis of movement. The second part gives an overview of the variety of movement therapies and activity methods, which are effective in kindergarten work. The third part of the paper is an attempt to analyse and to reflect on the authors' own practical experiences of psychomotor work in kindergartens in Poland and Norway. POVZETEK Članek obravnava psihomotorični razvoj v zgodnjem otroštvu in sestoji iz treh delov. V prvem delu je kratek zgodovinski pregled teoretičnega opisa in analize gibanja. Drugi del daje pregled raznih gibalnih terapij in metod dejavnosti, ki so učinkovite pri delu v vrtcu. Tretji del članka poskuša analizirati in reflektirati praktične izkušnje avtorjev pri psihomotoričnem delu v vrtcih na Poljskem in na Norveškem. Ključne besede: zgodnje otroštvo, gibalni razvoj, analiza gibanja, psihomotorična dejavnost, območje bližnjega razvoja 152 | Revija za elementarno izobraževanje št. 1-2
... Based on a biopsychosocial approach, it is a movement-and body-oriented therapy that uses techniques such as body awareness exercise, relaxation and sensorimotor exploration to foster the mind-body connection. 6,7 The person is considered as a whole by including the physical, cognitive and emotional dimensions, as well as the psychosocial context. 7 The specificity of psychomotor therapy is to emphasize personalized care centered on the lived body of both the patient and the therapist. ...
... The term "psychomotor" was first introduced by W. Griesinger, a german psychiatrist, in 1844 6 to describe the motor effects of psychological disorders. 8 In France, the concept was then redefined by E. Dupré at the beginning of the 20th century and later developed by J. de Ajuriaguerra, G. Soubiran and others after the Second World War. ...
... 8 In France, the concept was then redefined by E. Dupré at the beginning of the 20th century and later developed by J. de Ajuriaguerra, G. Soubiran and others after the Second World War. 6,8 J. de Ajuriaguerra and his team initially worked on psychomotor disorders in children by integrating theories drawn from developmental psychology and psychoanalysis. 6,8 Parallel to the developments in France, concepts around psychomotor therapy also flourished in various European countries such as Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Psychomotor therapy is an innovative complementary approach that enhances the mind-body connection. It could have a positive effect on chronic pain syndromes but has not yet been specifically studied for spinal pain. We thus aimed to explore the experiences of chronic spinal pain patients with psychomotor therapy. Design We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. 17 patients with chronic spinal pain were recruited from a multidisciplinary spinal pain program in a rehabilitation hospital in Switzerland. Participants received psychomotor therapy as part of this care. All interviews were transcribed and thematic analysis was performed. Setting Division of General Medical Rehabilitation, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland. Results Four themes emerged from thematic analysis: 1) Connecting body and mind; 2) Passive individualized care; 3) Effect on mobility and well-being versus pain; and 4) Need for further care. Participants particularly appreciated the person-centered approach, relaxation and link between body and mind in the psychomotor therapy sessions. They shared positive effects of psychomotor therapy on mobility, kinesiophobia and overall well-being, rather than on pain. Finally, they would have liked more follow-up care at the end of the program. Conclusions Experiences reported by patients in this study suggest that psychomotor therapy could be a promising complementary therapy for chronic spinal pain within a biopsychosocial approach. To better understand the benefits of psychomotor therapy for chronic spinal pain, further research is needed and should consider patient-reported outcome measures such as well-being, fear-avoidance belief and disability.
... Under a psychomotor therapy conceptual framework, the psychomotor assessment is prior to interventions based on action and bodily mediated activities aiming the development of motor, cognitive, emotional, social and behavioural functions (Probst, Knapen, Poot, & Vancampfort, 2010). Based on a comprehensive view of the human being, psychomotor therapy is a complement and support for the pharmacological treatment (Probst et al., 2010) and intends to work on disturbed behavioural and instrumental functions (Michel, Roux, Albaret, & Soppelsa, 2009). ...
... Under a psychomotor therapy conceptual framework, the psychomotor assessment is prior to interventions based on action and bodily mediated activities aiming the development of motor, cognitive, emotional, social and behavioural functions (Probst, Knapen, Poot, & Vancampfort, 2010). Based on a comprehensive view of the human being, psychomotor therapy is a complement and support for the pharmacological treatment (Probst et al., 2010) and intends to work on disturbed behavioural and instrumental functions (Michel, Roux, Albaret, & Soppelsa, 2009). Although some studies provided evidences of movement and expressive based therapies' benefits in the promotion of healthy aging or as a rehabilitation tool in pathological aging (de Winckel, Feys, & De Weerdt, 2004;Hu et al., 2014;Bossers et al., 2014), it is still necessary to present scientific evidence of its effectiveness, in particular as regards early intervention focused in the area of dementia. ...
Article
Aging involves concomitant and interrelated changes in sensory, motor and cognitive function, with a decrease in psychomotor skills, such as balance, spatial orientation, mobility, and motor coordination visible in increased difficulties performing daily instrumental activities (e.g. self care and domestic activities). The absence of valid psychomotor instruments for the elderly population to be used by psychomotor therapists can be identified as one of the reasons why there is a scarce research in this area. Currently, in Portugal, psychomotor therapists do not have any specific validated scale within the psychomotor domain built and/or adapted to guide psychomotor interventions with the elderly population. Therefore, the aim of this study was the translation, adaptation and validation of the Portuguese version of the Éxamen Geronto-Psychomoteur (P-EGP) in a population of 497 elders, aged between 60 and 99 years, with and without dementia. Results of the study are presented and discussed in terms of the reliability and validity of P-EGP. The results demonstrate that P-EGP appears to be a valid and reliable assessment of psychomotor skills for the elderly population in Portugal. Practical implications and future directions of research are also discussed.
... The current study aimed to explore the impact of psychomotor therapy programmes on the mental health of long-term patients with schizophrenia. While some studies and reviews (Faulkner, 2005;Hölter, 2011;Probst, Knapen, Poot, & Vancampfort, 2010;Sampogna et al., 2018;Schuch et al., 2018;Stubbs et al., 2018;Vancampfort et al., 2012) have demonstrated that mental changes may also be achieved through physical activity as a result of removing patients from their immersion in their own world by focusing their attention on physical activity, the causes that may underlie this link are not yet thoroughly studied. ...
... It is obvious that when using physically oriented therapeutic methods, it is generally easier to establish contact with mentally ill patients, making this kind of therapy more suitable than most other kinds of therapy (Probst et al., 2010). In other words, when using physical therapy, communication on a non-verbal level may be more understandable and less difficult for the patient (Hátlová, 2003;Hátlová, Adámková Ségard, & Kynštová, 2015). ...
... PMT can be used as a complementary treatment for individuals with psychological or behavioural problems, in which a continuum of body-oriented techniques, such as Progressive Relaxation and deep breathing, to movement-oriented techniques, derived from sports and exercises, are allocated (Boerhout, van Busschbach, Wiersma, & Hoek, 2013;Probst, Knapen, Poot, & Vancampfort, 2010). These mainly non-verbal exercises are often guided by psychomotor therapists. ...
... However, in cases where existing evidence-based practices (e.g., function-based operant interventions) have failed to yield desired outcomes or when research indicates that an individual's characteristics are not well suited for a treatment approach tailored for a different population (e.g., when CBT is precluded by an individual's verbal or cognitive deficits), PMT may be considered a potential treatment option (McDonnell et al., 2015;Reynolds & Field, 2013). Because PMT is primarily a nonverbal approach for teaching skills that can be used across environments and social situations it may be best used as a complementary therapy to augment other approaches such as CBT and function-based behavioural intervention (Probst et al., 2010). PMT is consistent with previous research suggesting that efforts to reduce aggression in individuals with MBID should aim to teach people self-management skills, functional skills, emotional regulation skills and problem-solving skills (Didden et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Poor anger regulation is considered a risk factor of aggression in individuals with mild or borderline intellectual disabilities. Psychomotor therapy (PMT) targets anger regulation through body- and movement-oriented interventions. This study aims to inform practitioners on efficacy and research-base of PMT in this population. Method: This systematic review evaluated nine studies which met inclusion criteria in terms of participants, intervention procedures, outcomes and certainty of evidence. Results: Seven studies revealed a substantial reduction of aggressive behaviour or anger. Certainty of evidence was rated inconclusive in most cases due to absence of experimental control. Conclusions: We can conclude that body-oriented PMT, involving progressive relaxation and meditation procedure “Soles of the Feet”, is a promising approach. However, the paucity of studies and methodological limitations preclude classifying it as an evidence-based practice. This suggests stronger methodological research and research aimed at PMT’s mechanisms of action (e.g., improved interoceptive awareness) is warranted.
... Under a psychomotor therapy conceptual framework, the psychomotor assessment is prior to interventions based on action and bodily mediated activities aiming the development of motor, cognitive, emotional, socia,l and behavioral functions (Probst, Knapen, Poot, & Vancampfort, 2010). Based on a comprehensive view of the human being, psychomotor therapy is a complement and support for the pharmacological treatment (Probst et al., 2010), and it intends to work on disturbed behavioral and instrumental functions (Michel, Roux, Albaret, & Soppelsa, 2009). ...
... Under a psychomotor therapy conceptual framework, the psychomotor assessment is prior to interventions based on action and bodily mediated activities aiming the development of motor, cognitive, emotional, socia,l and behavioral functions (Probst, Knapen, Poot, & Vancampfort, 2010). Based on a comprehensive view of the human being, psychomotor therapy is a complement and support for the pharmacological treatment (Probst et al., 2010), and it intends to work on disturbed behavioral and instrumental functions (Michel, Roux, Albaret, & Soppelsa, 2009). Some studies provided evidence of movement and expressiveness based on the therapies' benefits in the promotion of healthy aging or as a rehabilitation tool in pathological aging (Bossers et al., 2014;De Winckel, Feys, & De Weerdt, 2004;Hu et al., 2014). ...
... Support provider organizations are rethinking how resources can be used to develop effective services and to support and enhance personal outcomes [1]. In Portugal, one of the services usually provided by institutions and organizations to persons with intellectual disability is psychomotor therapy (PMT) This intervention can provide the framework in which individualized therapeutic objectives can be achieved [2]. ...
... The importance of personal outcomes and personal well-being of persons with IDD has been recognized [22][23][24], as well the provision of supports [25]. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of psychomotor interventions, with different populations and within diversifi ed settings, and to develop more evidence-based treatment programs, much research still needs to be done [2]. Therefore, our main goal was to analyze the effects of a psychomotor intervention in water to improve both the QOL and aquatic skills of adults with IDD, through an analysis of differences (improvement) between PMT' pre and post intervention. ...
Article
Full-text available
Improving the quality of life (QOL) of persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) is one of the goals of supports providers. This study’s goal is to analyze the contribution of a psychomotor intervention in water on the QOL and aquatic skills of adults with IDD. All 29 participants, four males and twenty-fi ve females, with ages ranging from 19 to 45 years old (28.55±5.49), diagnosed with “mild” and “moderate” IDD at the Occupational Activity Center (OAC), were evaluated by the Portuguese version of Personal Outcomes Scale and the Ficha de Avaliação do Comportamento em Meio Aquático in three different moments (baseline, final and retention) A Psychomotor Program Intervention in water was implemented during four months, of three 50 minute sessions per week. Findings showed benefits of psychomotor intervention in the promotion of some QOL domains and aquatic skills of adults with IDD. Differences were found on QOL domains and aquatic skills. Implications for future research and psychomotor practice are discussed.
... Adding a component aimed at developing body awareness might improve the clinical outcomes of multidisciplinary programs (11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17). Psychomotor therapy (PMT) is an experience-based treatment that incorporates body awareness as a primary target of intervention (18). By improving body awareness, patients learn to use body signals, other than just pain-related signals, to determine in what physical and mental state they are (19). ...
... PMT is a therapy based on experience of participants. Movement, body-oriented techniques, and verbal reflection on self-experiences are used to explore behaviors, feelings, and thoughts (18). In the PMT group we focused on two main topics: body experience, and interaction and communication. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: This study assesses the cost-effectiveness (CE) of a multidisciplinary pain rehabilitation program (treatment as usual [TAU]) with and without psychomotor therapy (PMT) for chronic pain patients. Methods: Chronic pain patients were assigned to TAU + PMT or TAU using cluster randomization. Clinical outcomes measured were health-related quality of life (HRQOL), pain-related disability, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Costs were measured from a societal perspective. Multiple imputation was used for missing data. Uncertainty surrounding incremental CE ratios was estimated using bootstrapping and presented in CE planes and CE acceptability curves. Results: Ninety-four chronic pain patients (n = 49 TAU + PMT and n = 45 TAU) were included. There were no significant differences in HRQOL, Pain Disability Index, and QALYs between TAU + PMT and TAU. Direct costs in TAU + PMT were significantly higher than in TAU (mean difference €3327, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1329; 5506). However, total societal costs in TAU + PMT were not significantly higher than in TAU (mean difference €642, 95% CI −3323; 4373). CE analyses showed that TAU + PMT was not cost-effective in comparison with TAU. Conclusions: Adding PMT to a multidisciplinary pain rehabilitation program is not considered cost-effective in comparison with a multidisciplinary pain rehabilitation program alone. The results of this study should be interpreted with caution because of the small sample size and high drop-out rate.
... Like in other rehabilitation professional fields, the psychomotor therapy is supported by a methodology that should be based on evidence and the indicators should be obtain through valid assessments. 28 These indicators, where we may include the assessment of motor NSS, assume an important role in the early detection of neurodevelopmental disorders, in the design of therapeutic programs and in the assessment of the impact at the level of policies, practices and personal evolutions. 29 Varambally et al 30 recommend the need of standardized objective and valid measurement as well as the agreement on cut -off scores. ...
... Furthermore, this study might in the future contribute to improve the care and services for this subgroup and help in the design and implementation of individualized psychomotor programs. 29,28 Moreover, it will allow monitoring the evolution of NSS along the course of the disease. Recognizing the need to use standardized instruments to delineate concrete, measurable and operational objectives, 30,32 the current findings demonstrated that BMS_pt has the adequate properties in what concerns its content validity in the Portuguese version to be used in Portugal. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introdução: Os sinais neurológicos discretos (NNS) indicam uma disfunção cerebral não específica e têm sido documentados no curso clínico da esquizofrenia, sendo considerados como sintomas importantes para a monitorização da doença. A Brief Motor Scale (BMS) tem sido amplamente utilizada para avaliar os sinais neurológicos discretos em pessoas com esquizofrenia, mas a versão portuguesa continua indisponível. O objetivo deste estudo é a investigação da validade e confiabilidade da versão portuguesa Brief of Motor Scale (BMS_pt). Material e Métodos: As orientações internacionais para o processo de adaptação transcultural do instrumento foram consideradas. Participaram no estudo 43 adultos com esquizofrenia, entre os 23 e 63 anos (39,74±11,16), 38 homens e 5 mulheres. Resultados: Os índices de validade de conteúdo (>0,75) da BMS_pt demonstraram um acordo moderado/forte entre os especialistas. A consistência interna foi confirmada, com alfa de Cronbach variando de 0,82 a 0,87. As correlações de Pearson variaram entre 0,93 e 0,99 (p
... 13 The aim of PMI is to derive a positive effect on these three dimensions by using goal-directed movements. 14 Behavioural and magnetic resonance imaging findings have indicated that two-handed coordination, a fine motor skill affected by age, positively relates to verbal memory performance. 15 Furthermore, the beneficial effects of music, which triggers pleasant emotions in and movement of participants, have been widely examined with regard to cognition. ...
... 16 However, there are insufficient quantitative findings regarding PMI because of its developmental history, diverse definitions, multidimensional approaches, and the fact that observation is used as a traditional assessment . 14 For this reason, it seems worthwhile to conduct a pilot study to examine the effects of PMI so that evidence-based preventative and treatment methods can be developed for older adults with cognitive impairment. For our experimental design, the term psychomotor intervention has been used instead of 'psychomotor therapy' because a single intervention session was executed for this study. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: The aim of this pilot study was to examine the acute effect of a psychomotor intervention (PMI) on auditory-verbal memory, emotional state, and electrocortical activity recorded by electroencephalography on subjectively healthy older adults (sHE) and older adults diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCIs). Methods: Eleven MCIs and 11 sHE underwent a single 45-min PMI. Resting state electroencephalography, the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test, MoodMeter®, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule were compared between groups and pre- and post-PMI. Results: Electroencephalography current source density and activity within the theta frequency band were higher in MCIs than in sHE at baseline, and brain frequency had a tendency to decrease in MCIs after training. Both groups showed improvement on the auditory-verbal memory test. Only among MCIs were there increases in perceived physical state and psychological strain and an improvement in negative affect. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that acute psychomotor activity may be more effective for MCIs than for sHE. It supports the notion that PMI does have functional influences on the central nervous level and therefore might prevent and treat cognitive, psychological, and psychiatric symptoms of people with mild cognitive impairment.
... Support provider organizations are rethinking how resources can be used to develop effective services and to support and enhance personal outcomes [1]. In Portugal, one of the services usually provided by institutions and organizations to persons with intellectual disability is psychomotor therapy (PMT) This intervention can provide the framework in which individualized therapeutic objectives can be achieved [2]. ...
... The importance of personal outcomes and personal well-being of persons with IDD has been recognized [22][23][24], as well the provision of supports [25]. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of psychomotor interventions, with different populations and within diversifi ed settings, and to develop more evidence-based treatment programs, much research still needs to be done [2]. Therefore, our main goal was to analyze the effects of a psychomotor intervention in water to improve both the QOL and aquatic skills of adults with IDD, through an analysis of differences (improvement) between PMT' pre and post intervention. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Psychomotor Intervention it’s a nationally growing intervention area that still requires efficiency-evidence (at motor, emotional, social and cognitive level). The “aquatic environment” it’s a context with already well established positive results focusing on self-esteem, motivation, self-concept, cognitive abilities and postural control. The most recent definition of Intellectual and Developmental Disability (IDD) combines services and support for autonomy and independence, with impact in Quality of Life (QOL). This construct aligns personal and professional needs, considering the quality of the person-individual intervention. The aims of this study it to analyze of the contribution of the psychomotor intervention in QOL and water skills of adults with IDD. Methods: The sample is composed by 29 participants, four males and twenty five females, with ages ranging from 19 and 45 years old, diagnosed with mild and moderate IDD. All participants were at the Occupational Activity Center. It were applied the Portuguese version of Personal Outcomes Scale (Simões & Santos, 2014) and Ficha de Avaliação do Comportamento em Meio Aquático (Matias & Vieira, in press), in three different moments (initial, final and retention). After that, it was implemented a program of Psychomotor Intervention in water during four months, through three sessions per week (50 minutes each). Conclusions: Findings points out the benefits of the psychomotor intervention in the promotion of QOL and water skills of adults with IDD. Conclusions will be discussed and recommendations will be presented.
... Support provider organizations are rethinking how resources can be used to develop effective services and to support and enhance personal outcomes [1]. In Portugal, one of the services usually provided by institutions and organizations to persons with intellectual disability is psychomotor therapy (PMT) This intervention can provide the framework in which individualized therapeutic objectives can be achieved [2]. ...
... The importance of personal outcomes and personal well-being of persons with IDD has been recognized [22][23][24], as well the provision of supports [25]. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of psychomotor interventions, with different populations and within diversifi ed settings, and to develop more evidence-based treatment programs, much research still needs to be done [2]. Therefore, our main goal was to analyze the effects of a psychomotor intervention in water to improve both the QOL and aquatic skills of adults with IDD, through an analysis of differences (improvement) between PMT' pre and post intervention. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
O objetivo da comunicaão objetiva a análise do contributo da intervenção psicomotora em meio aquático na QV e nas competências aquáticas de adultos com DID, procurando avaliar a sua eficácia. A amostra foi constituída por 29 participantes, 4 do género masculino e 25 do feminino, com um diagnóstico de DID “moderada” e “ligeira” (utilizou-se esta terminologia dado estas constarem nos diagnósticos individuais), com idades entre os 19 e 45 anos (M=28,55 5,49). Todos os sujeitos estavam no Centro de Atividades Ocupacionais. Foram aplicadas a versão portuguesa da Escala Pessoal de Resultados e a Ficha de Avaliação do Comportamento em Meio Aquático, em três momentos distintos (avaliação inicial/baseline, final e retenção). Em seguida, implementou-se um programa de intervenção psicomotora em meio aquático com a duração de quatro meses e com uma periodicidade de três sessões/semana (de cerca de 50min cada). Conclusões: Os resultados obtidos apontaram os benefícios da intervenção psicomotora na promoção da QV dos participantes. Foram verificadas diferenças em alguns domínios de QV, e ao nível das competências aquáticas constatou-se que não houve uma evolução significativa em todos os domínios, talvez devido à abrangência dos itens inerentes à QV associadas à curta duração do programa que pode não ter sido suficiente para a aquisição, consolidação e transfer das competências vivenciadas.
... In this system, arts therapies refer to the creative arts therapies, i.e. art-, dance-, music-, drama therapy, and psychomotor therapy (PMT). PMT is a method of treatment that uses body awareness and physical activity (sporting activities, games, and body experiences) as means to achieve treatment goals (Probst et al., 2010). Both are believed to rely on an experiential orientation, apply a holistic view of the human being with a unity of body and mind, and stress non verbal dimensions within a therapy. ...
Article
Research has established that outcomes of psychotherapeutic therapies depend on the ability to create an open and cooperative alliance (task, bond, goal) between client and therapist. The present research investigated the influences of 17 weeks of arts therapies on the therapeutic alliance and symptom change among 164 adults with mental health problems using the Working Alliance Inventory-12 and the Brief Symptom Inventory. Results show that alliance scores increased over time during arts-therapies, and psychomotor therapy specifically for the task subscale. Furthermore, results show that there was a significant effect of the therapeutic alliance on symptom reduction (depression and anxiety) during treatment. Results indicate that participants who experienced the alliance as positive showed a higher decrease in depressive symptoms in the early phase and for anxiety symptoms in the later phase of the therapy. The present results give first implications of the role of the therapeutic alliance in arts-therapies and psychomotor therapy within adults with mental health needs.
... Also various studies have shown physical health benefits of yoga in both healthy and diseased populations (Büssing, Michalsen, Khalsa, Telles, & Sherman, 2012;Ross & Thomas, 2010). As in many forms of BOP, exercise and yoga based interventions are an essential part of the therapy (Probst, Knapen, Poot, & Vancampfort, 2010;Röhricht, 2009), BOP may also decrease or prevent physical health problems in PTSD (Price, McBride, Hyerle, & Kivlahan, 2007). Interestingly, few studies on the effectiveness of BOP for PTSD also administered a measure of physical complaints, fitness or vitality. ...
Article
Full-text available
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with an increased risk of physical disorders as a consequence of chronic stress reactions and adverse lifestyle behaviours. In addition, various other physical signs and symptoms may be present, as well as problems with emotional awareness, such as alexithymia, which may impede verbal information processing. Therefore, a psychomotor diagnostic instrument (PMDI) is developed, based on non-verbal information to contribute to a careful and reliable diagnostic procedure. The PDMI is designed to identify specific goals for body and movement oriented treatments of PTSD. It consists of a manual with an assessment procedure, guidelines for scoring items and for the calculation of cluster scores based on item scores. In this paper, the PMDI and its development are discussed, and illustrated by brief vignettes.
... Of interest is as well that 46 of 65 participants or 71% adhered to the physical activity recommendations. A possible reason for this high rate might be that physical activity is considered a cornerstone in the multidisciplinary in-and outpatient treatment of people with bipolar disorder in Belgium (Probst, 2012;Probst et al., 2010). ...
Article
The most significant contributor to premature mortality in patients with bipolar disorder is preventable cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated if the Physical Activity Vital Sign (PAVS) assessment (two questions which clarify if a person meets the recommended 150 min of physical activity per week) can identify patients with bipolar disorder at higher risk of cardio-metabolic abnormalities. Clinical differences between those who adhere and those who did not adhere to the physical activity guidelines were investigated using an ANCOVA controlling for age and gender. Sixty-five (29♂) in- and outpatients with bipolar disorder (age=45.1±9.8years) completed the PAVS-questions, underwent full-fasting metabolic screening, and performed a six-minute walk test (6MWT). Those patients not meeting the physical activity recommendations had a higher body mass index, performed worse on the 6MWT and were at a significantly higher risk for cardio-metabolic diseases. Relative risks ranged from 1.33 for having dyslipidemia to 5.33 for hyperglycemia. The current data offer the first evidence that the PAVS assessment might be a useful vital sign in the routine assessment of in- and outpatients with bipolar disorder.
... Lékařské a psychologické vědy přiznávají pohybu podíl na somatopsychickém stavu člověka v průběhu života od stimulujících podnětů v raném dětství po psychoaktivující účinky pohybu ve stáří (Adámková Ségard, Hátlová, & Louková, 2013; Hátlová, Adámková Ségard, Wedlichová, Louková, & Bašný, 2014). Pojem " psychomotorický " se poprvé objevil v neurologii v roce 1845, kdy použil Greisinger termín " psychomotor " (Probst, 2010). Termín byl převzat a dále se rozvíjel v psychiatrii. ...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Any scholar developing a therapeutic method shall be concerned with its historical and theoretical groundings, scientifically verifiedfacts, and information from professional publications. As a result of that, one is qualifi ed to discuss relevancy of the method.OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to highlight the ideas that the current psychomotoricity draws.METHODS: We assume that psychomotor activity is based on natural cognitive and social movement behavior. In its essence, the inherited principles that develop throughout life. Development is strengthened primarily by personal experiences with positive and negative feedback of social relations. The foundations of psychomotr activity developed upon scientific knowledge stem from the needs of psychosomatic rehabilitation. The term gradually came to be used for movement therapies and movement education. This study mentions the scientific orientations and the authors who most influenced the development of psychomotor skills used for personal development.CONCLUSION: Psychomotor activities are developed from two basic areas of operation. Psychomotor development as a pedagogical direction linking the physical and mental is used in the teaching process with an eff ort by moving positively with an influence from the human psyche. By monitoring the simple actions there is stimulated the physical and psychical development. Psychomotor development and sports therapy inherently encourages the patient to actively participate in therapy. Physical activity is one of supporting policies which affect the psychical „negative“ symptoms and may enhance the patient’s resistance to daily stress.
... The DANCIN model under evaluation was designed and based on the Psychomotor Therapy model which has been reported in detail in previous publication (Guzmán et al., 2016c). In summary, Psychomotor Therapy involves three domains: (i) motor (balance, fast/slow interpersonal coordination, hand-grip, gesture, and facial expression), (ii) emotional-affective (feeling expression, verbal, and non-verbal communication), and (iii) cognitive (planning movement in space), with the aim of using movement activities and paying attention to bodily experiences (Wallon, 1932;Dröes, 1997;Calmels, 2003;Probst et al., 2010). The approach is complemented by hand to hand touch, relaxation, and breathing techniques (Camacho and Paolillo, 2004). ...
Article
Background In a previous paper, we presented results from a 12-week study of a Psychomotor DANCe Therapy INtervention (DANCIN) based on Danzón Latin Ballroom that involves motor, emotional-affective, and cognitive domains, using a multiple-baseline single-case design in three care homes. This paper reports the results of a complementary process evaluation to elicit the attitudes and beliefs of home care staff, participating residents, and family members with the aim of refining the content of DANCIN in dementia care. Methods An external researcher collected bespoke questionnaires from ten participating residents, 32 care home staff, and three participants’ family members who provided impromptu feedback in one of the care homes. The Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy v1 (BCTTv1) provided a methodological tool for identifying active components of the DANCIN approach warranting further exploration, development, and implementation. Results Ten residents found DANCIN beneficial in terms of mood and socialization in the care home. Overall, 78% of the staff thought DANCIN led to improvements in residents’ mood; 75% agreed that there were improvements in behavior; 56% reported increased job satisfaction; 78% of staff were enthusiastic about receiving further training. Based on participants’ responses, four BCTTv1 labels–Social support (emotional), Focus on past success and verbal persuasion to boost self-efficacy, Restructuring the social environment and Habit formation–were identified to describe the intervention. Residents and staff recommended including additional musical genres and extending the session length. Discussions of implementing a supervision system to sustain DANCIN regularly regardless of management or staff turnover were suggested. Conclusions Care home residents with mild to moderate dementia wanted to continue DANCIN as part of their routine care and staff and family members were largely supportive of this approach. This study argues in favor of further dissemination of DANCIN in care homes. We provide recommendations for the future development of DANCIN based on the views of key stakeholder groups.
... A specific evidence-based intervention protocol targeted at aggression is missing. In this respect, psychomotor therapy (PMT)a body and movement oriented therapy frequently used in mental health care in the Netherlands and Belgium (Probst, Knapen, Poot, & Vancampfort, 2010)may prove useful. PMT is characterized by using body awareness and physical activities to help patients to improve their understanding of emotions and their expression skills. ...
Article
Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of a brief body and movement oriented intervention on aggression regulation and eating disorder pathology for individuals with eating disorders. Method: In a first randomized controlled trial, 40 women were allocated to either the aggression regulation intervention plus supportive contact or a control condition of supportive contact only. The intervention was delivered by a psychomotor therapist. Participants completed questionnaires on anger coping and eating disorder pathology. Independent samples t-tests were performed on the difference between pre-treatment and post-treatment scores. Results: Twenty-nine participants completed questionnaires at pre-intervention and post-intervention. The intervention resulted in a significantly greater improvement of anger coping, as well as of eating disorder pathology. Discussion: Results indicate that body and movement-oriented aggression regulation may be a viable add-on for treating eating disorders. It tackles a difficult to treat emotion which may have a role in blocking the entire process of treating eating disorders. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
... We chose an experience based approach which combines body awareness exercises with physical activity, in contrast to primarily verbal interventions because victimization often occurs and derives from factors at a nonverbal level. This approach has its origin in what in some countries is called psychomotor therapy [29] or body-oriented psychotherapy [30]. Patients will be offered the opportunity to learn to recognize their own emotional and behavioral reactions to different social situations. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Individuals with a psychotic disorder are at an increased risk of becoming victim of a crime or other forms of aggression. Research has revealed several possible risk factors (e.g. impaired social cognition, aggression regulation problems, assertiveness, self-stigma, self-esteem) for victimization in patients with a psychotic disorder. To address these risk factors and prevent victimization, we developed a body-oriented resilience training with elements of kickboxing: BEATVIC. The present study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. Methods/design: Seven mental health institutions in the Netherlands will participate in this study. Participants will be randomly assigned to either the BEATVIC training or the control condition: social activation. Follow-ups are at 6, 18 and 30 months. Short term effects on risk factors for victimization will be examined, since these are direct targets of the intervention and are thought to be mediators of victimization, the primary outcome of the intervention. The effect on victimization will be investigated at follow-up. In a subgroup of patients, fMRI scans will be made before and after the intervention period in order to assess potential neural changes associated with the effects of the training. Discussion: This study is the first to examine the effectiveness of an intervention targeted at victimization in psychosis. Methodological issues of the study are addressed in the discussion of this paper. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN21423535 . Retrospectively registered 30-03-2016.
... These movements contrast with tango or foxtrot, which involve stylized walking with strong lifted marked steps between beats (Flores y Escalante, 2006). Psychomotor Therapy approach involves three dimensions: (i) motor (balance, fast/slow interpersonal coordination, hand-grip, gesture, and facial expression); (ii) emotional-affective (feeling expression, verbal, and non-verbal communication); and (iii) cognitive (attention and planning movement in space), with the aim of using movement activities and paying attention to bodily experiences (Wallon, 1932;Dröes, 1997;Calmels, 2003;Probst et al., 2010). The approach is usually complemented by hand by hand touch, relaxation, and breathing techniques (Camacho and Paolillo, 2004). ...
Article
Background: A Psychomotor DANCe Therapy INtervention (DANCIN) using Latin Ballroom (Danzón) in care homes has previously been shown to enhance well-being for both residents with dementia and staff. The aim of this study was to understand the effect of this approach on the mood and behavior of individual people living with mild to moderate dementia. Method: A multiple-baseline single-case study across two care homes and one nursing home with 3–6 weeks baseline, 12-weeks DANCIN (30 minutes/twice-weekly sessions), and 12-weeks follow-up was conducted. Seventeen items from the Dementia Mood Assessment Scale (DMAS) outcome measure were adapted with input from senior staff to match participants’ behavior and mood symptoms. Daily monitoring diaries were collected from trained staff on reporting individualized items for ten residents. Data were analyzed, using a non-parametric statistical method known as Percentage of All Non-Overlapping Data (PAND) which provides Phi effect size (ES). Medication use, falls, and life events were registered. Results: Seven residents participated throughout DANCIN whilst three became observers owing to health deterioration. One participant showed adverse effects in three DMAS items. Nine participants, dancers and observers, showed a small to medium magnitude of change (PAND) in 21 DMAS items, indicating a decrease in the frequency of behavior and mood indices which were regarded as problematic; eight items showed no change. Conclusion: Despite methodological challenges, the DANCIN model has the potential to facilitate and sustain behavior change and improve mood (e.g. decrease irritability, increase self-esteem) of the residents living with dementia. The study was conducted in two care homes and one nursing home, strengthening the interventions’ validity. Findings suggest DANCIN is appropriate for a larger controlled feasibility study.
... Several branches of psychomotor therapy have developed at the same time in several countries by several different personalities. It is an educational as well as a therapeutic approach 2010). ...
... Psychomotor Therapy is one of the supports provided by Portuguese institutions, as a complementary support to pharmacological interventions (Probst, Knapen, Poot, & Vancampfort, 2010) to promote independent functioning (Jardim & Santos, 2016;Valente, Santos & Morato, 2012). An accurate identification and evidence-based insight about such changes related to ageing of persons with ID are crucial, since they may be contributing to adequate timely detection, supports provision (Bigby, 2004;Doody, Markey & Doody, 2011) and for improvements in person's quality of life. ...
... Furthermore, the current study applies Psychomotor Therapy, which is widely practiced in other countries such as the Netherlands to improve the health of older people [40], and a core approach for improving residential Dementia care [Objective 5, Measure No. 17 of the French 'Plan Alzheimer's' (2008-2012)]. Psychomotor Therapy involves three dimensions: i) Motor (balance, fast/slow interpersonal coordination, hand-grip, gesture and facial expression); ii) Emotional-Affective (expressing feelings, verbal and non-verbal communication); and iii) Cognitive (attention and planning movement in space; reflecting on personal performance), with the aim of using movement activities and paying attention to bodily experiences [40][41][42]. The approach is usually complemented by hand by hand touch, relaxation and breathing techniques [43]. ...
... Furthermore, the current study applies Psychomotor Therapy, which is widely practiced in other countries such as the Netherlands to improve the health of older people [40], and a core approach for improving residential Dementia care [Objective 5, Measure No. 17 of the French 'Plan Alzheimer's' (2008)(2009)(2010)(2011)(2012)]. Psychomotor Therapy involves three dimensions: i) Motor (balance, fast/slow interpersonal coordination, hand-grip, gesture and facial expression); ii) Emotional-Affective (expressing feelings, verbal and non-verbal communication); and iii) Cognitive (attention and planning movement in space; reflecting on personal performance), with the aim of using movement activities and paying attention to bodily experiences [40][41][42]. The approach is usually complemented by hand by hand touch, relaxation and breathing techniques [43]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: In a context of rapid population ageing and increase in chronic illnesses including dementia in Mexico, there is a need to develop long-term care strategies in order to improve the quality of life, people affected by dementia and the people that care for them. In 2015, the prevalence of dementia in Mexico was 6.1% and it is estimated to reach to over 1.5 million by the year 2030, posing a great challenge to formal and informal caregivers. In 2014, Mexico developed a Dementia Strategy National Plan (Plan de Acción Alzheimer y otras demencias) and the objectives eight and nine of it aims to train the care work force on non-pharmacological and health professionals in care homes, and improve the appropriate antipsychotic prescription to treat challenging behavior respectively. Previous UK-based studies have been successful in training staff and health professionals by optimizing the prescription of antipsychotic medication and by implementing psychosocial interventions to treat behavioral and psychological symptoms associated to dementia.
... It uses forms of movement-oriented and body-oriented techniques combined with verbal reflection on self-experiences to teach patients to recognize and understand patterns in physical sensations, feelings, and behavior. 9 PMT sessions were given once a week for 90 minutes, 10 sessions in total. The RCT demonstrated a significant effect of both active treatments on catastrophizing, self-efficacy, BA, depression, quality of life, and disability. ...
Article
Background: The results of a recently performed RCT (1) showed that the effect of a multidisciplinary treatment of chronic pain patients on body awareness, catastrophizing and depression was improved by adding psychomotor therapy (PMT), an intervention targeting body awareness (BA). No significant effects were found on quality of life and disability. The present follow-up study aims to explore the relationship between improvements in BA and multidisciplinary chronic pain rehabilitation treatment outcome across treatment conditions and the possible mediating effect of BA between treatment conditions. Furthermore, the hypothesis that patients with low BA benefit more from PMT was investigated. Methods: 94 patients with chronic pain participated in a RCT comparing multidisciplinary treatment as usual (TAU) with TAU plus PMT. Outcome variables were health-related quality of life, disability and depression. Self-efficacy and catastrophizing were the process variables of treatment and the potential mediating factors in the relationship between BA and the outcome variables. The data were analysed by linear mixed model analysis. Results: Improvements in BA were related to improvements in all outcome variables across treatment conditions. The relationships were partly mediated by self-efficacy and/or catastrophizing. In the regression model with depression as the outcome variable the regression coefficient of treatment (i.e. PMT vs. TAU) decreased with 34% and became non-significant when BA was added as a potential mediator. Patients with low body awareness seemed to benefit more from PMT than patients with high body awareness, especially on depression, body awareness and catastrophizing. Conclusions: BA might be an important target of treatment to improve the multidisciplinary treatment outcome in chronic pain patients. Furthermore, PMT is an intervention that appears to provide its benefits through improving BA and may be especially beneficial for patients with low BA.
... These movements contrast with tango or foxtrot, which involve stylized walking with strong lifted marked steps between beats (Flores y Escalante, 2006). Psychomotor Therapy approach involves three dimensions: (i) motor (balance, fast/slow interpersonal coordination, hand-grip, gesture, and facial expression); (ii) emotional-affective (feeling expression, verbal, and non-verbal communication); and (iii) cognitive (attention and planning movement in space), with the aim of using movement activities and paying attention to bodily experiences (Wallon, 1932;Dröes, 1997;Calmels, 2003;Probst et al., 2010). The approach is usually complemented by hand by hand touch, relaxation, and breathing techniques (Camacho and Paolillo, 2004). ...
... One example could be psychomotor therapy which uses sports to address body experiences and the interaction in a social environment. This could help to improve the self-confidence of transgender youth and may contribute to the prevention of the development of psychiatric problems (Probst, Knapen, Poot, & Vancampfort, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Transgender children and adolescents show high rates of co-occurring psychopathology, which might be related to low self-confidence. Earlier research showed that compared to the norm population, transgender clinic–referred children have lower self-perception on two domains: physical appearance and global self-worth. This study aimed to compare self-perception in a sample of transgender clinic–referred children and adolescents with their standardization samples and to examine differences between these two groups. To measure self-esteem, the Self-Perception Profile for Children was administered to 305 referred children (162 assigned males at birth (AMABs) and 143 assigned females at birth (AFABs), mean age = 9.05 (SD, 1.47), range = 5.9–13.00 years), and the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents was administered to 369 referred adolescents (118 AMABs and 251 AFABs, mean age = 15.27 (SD, 1.80), range = 10.73–18.03 years). To measure the severity of gender dysphoria, the parents of the children completed the Gender Identity Questionnaire and the adolescents completed the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale. Referred children and adolescents had a significantly lower self-concept compared to the normative population, whereby referred adolescents felt less competent compared to referred children. Compared to their peers, childhood referred AFABs perceived themselves even better on scholastic and athletic competence and social acceptance. With regard to gender differences, referred AFABs generally showed a better self-perception compared to referred AMABs. The lower self-perception of transgender clinic–referred children and adolescents compared to same age peers deserves clinical attention and interventions aimed at, for example, improving social and physical self-worth.
... Furthermore, the current study applies Psychomotor Therapy, which is widely practiced in other countries such as the Netherlands to improve the health of older people [40], and a core approach for improving residential Dementia care [Objective 5, Measure No. 17 of the French 'Plan Alzheimer's' (2008)(2009)(2010)(2011)(2012)]. Psychomotor Therapy involves three dimensions: i) Motor (balance, fast/slow interpersonal coordination, hand-grip, gesture and facial expression); ii) Emotional-Affective (expressing feelings, verbal and non-verbal communication); and iii) Cognitive (attention and planning movement in space; reflecting on personal performance), with the aim of using movement activities and paying attention to bodily experiences [40][41][42]. The approach is usually complemented by hand by hand touch, relaxation and breathing techniques [43]. ...
... Ze verschillen van (psychosomatische) fysiotherapie, doordat ze expliciet gericht zijn op de psychische problematiek van de cliënt (zie o.a. Probst, Knapen, Poot & Vancamfort, 2010;Probst & Bosscher, 2001;Emck & Bosscher, 2004;Röhricht, 2009). Bij bewegingsinterventies worden bewegings-en lichaamservaringen beïnvloed, met als assumptie dat daardoor psychische processen in gang worden gezet of bevorderd, die gunstig geacht worden voor de psychosociale ontwikkeling of geestelijke gezondheid van de cliënt. ...
Article
Full-text available
In de psychologische behandeling van mensen met een chronisch somatische aandoening kan het van belang zijn gebruik te maken van fysieke bewegingsinterventies. In dit artikel wordt beschreven hoe deze aangeboden kunnen worden door een psycholoog/psychotherapeut. Eerst worden twee typen interventie uiteengezet: ‘action-oriented’ (betreffende lichaamsconditie) en ‘experience-oriented’ (betreffende zelf- en lichaamsbeeld). Vervolgens worden aspecten van diagnostiek en bewegingsanamnese, alsmede mogelijkheden voor interventies beschreven. Interventies worden getypeerd aan de hand van drie dimensies: mate van structuur, fysieke nabijheid en fysieke inspanning. Vier interventieopties worden uitgewerkt (beïnvloeding van respectievelijk spanningsregulatie, stemming, lichaamsbeleving, en emoties en gedrag) en geïllustreerd aan de hand van een casus.
... Jedná se o podporu aktivního života i během stáří. 15 ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The article deals with results of longitudinal research study. The objective of this research was to find out the effect of psychomotor therapy using the elements of ergo therapy (with support for cognitive rehabilitation) on the social adaptability of persons with Alzheimer's disease of the type in social service facilities with respect to the cooperation of proband´s family members. Material and Methods: A research survey was conducted on 42 probands, with 100% representation of women aged 65-69 years. Another relevant sign was the length of stay, which was at least 2 years from boarding. This assembled research sample was divided according to another criterion by deliberate selection, ie 20 probes with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease of the type (late arrival according to ICD-10; F00.01) that were regularly visited by family members. The second group was also relevant with relevant characters, but without regular family members. The intervention itself using psychomotor therapy and the elements of ergo therapy lasted 6 months, 3 times a week for 35 to 50 minutes. The input and output data were provided using a standardized Functional Independence Measure (FIM) test. Comparison of the data obtained between the input and output testing was done by a Tuckey HCD assay at a significance level α = 0.05. Results: Results of research (at the level of significance α = 0.05) show that both groups achieved overall improvement in the test area, compared with input testing. However, the group in which the regular visit of family members was also included in the intervention showed better results than a group where family members were not part of the intervention. __________________________________ Cíl: Obsahem článku jsou výsledky longitudinálního výzkumného šetření. Cílem výzkumného šetření bylo zjistit, jaký vliv má psychomotorická terapie za využití prvků ergoterapie (s podporou kognitivní rehabilitace) na sociální adaptabilitu osob s Alzheimerovou nemocí lehkého typu v zařízeních poskytující sociální služby s ohledem na spolupráci rodinných příslušníků daných probandů. Soubor a metodika: Výzkumné šetření bylo realizováno u 42 probandů, při 100% zastoupení žen ve věkovém rozmezí 65-69 let. Dalším relevantním znakem byla délka pobytu, která činila minimálně 2 roky od nástupu do zařízení. Takto sestavený výzkumný vzorek byl rozdělen dle dalšího kritéria záměrným výběrem, tedy 20 probandů s diagnózou Alzheimerova nemoc lehkého typu (pozdní nástup dle MKN-10; F00.01), u kterých docházelo k pravidelným návštěvám rodinných příslušníků. Druhá skupina byla taktéž s odpovídajícím relevantními znaky, avšak bez pravidelné účasti rodinných příslušníků. Samotná intervence za využití psychomotorické terapie a prvků ergoterapie trvala 6 měsíců, a to 3x týdně po dobu 35 až 50 minut. Vstupní a výstupní data jsme zajistili za využití standardizovaného testu, zaměřeného na hodnocení funkční nezávislosti (FIM test – Functional Independence Measure). Komparace získaných dat mezi vstupním a výstupním testováním byla provedena Tuckey HCD testem na hladině významnosti α = 0,05. Výsledky: Dosažené výsledky (na hladině významnosti α = 0,05) prokazují, že obě skupiny dosahovali celkového zlepšení v testované oblasti, oproti testování vstupnímu. Avšak skupina, u které se do intervence řadila také pravidelná návštěva rodinných příslušníků, dosahovala prokazatelně lepších výsledků, než skupina, kde rodinný příslušníci nebyli součástí intervence.
... Psychomotor therapists addressed maintaining factors like body-avoidance and comparison-making by in-session exercises (e.g. body-exposure) and related homework assignments (see also [38]). Several therapistcombinations were formed as the treatment was provided over a substantial period of time. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Current guidelines recommend cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) as the treatment of choice for binge eating disorder (BED). Although CBT is quite effective, a substantial number of patients do not reach abstinence from binge eating. To tackle this problem, various theoretical conceptualizations and treatment models have been proposed. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), focusing on emotion regulation, is one such model. Preliminary evidence comparing DBT adapted for BED (DBT-BED) to CBT is promising but the available data do not favor one treatment over the other. The aim of this study is to evaluate outcome of DBT-BED, compared to a more intensive eating disorders-focused form of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT+), in individuals with BED who are overweight and engage in emotional eating. Methods: Seventy-four obese patients with BED who reported above average levels of emotional eating were quasi-randomly allocated to one of two manualized 20-session group treatments: DBT-BED (n = 41) or CBT+ (n = 33). Intention-to-treat outcome was examined at post-treatment and at 6-month follow-up using general or generalized linear models with multiple imputation. Results: Overall, greater improvements were observed in CBT+. Differences in number of objective binge eating episodes at end of treatment, and eating disorder psychopathology (EDE-Q Global score) and self-esteem (EDI-3 Low Self-Esteem) at follow-up reached statistical significance with medium effect sizes (Cohen's d between .46 and .59). Of the patients in the DBT group, 69.9% reached clinically significant change at end of the treatment vs 65.0% at follow-up. Although higher, this was not significantly different from the patients in the CBT+ group (52.9% vs 45.8%). Conclusions: The results of this study show that CBT+ produces better outcomes than the less intensive DBT-BED on several measures. Yet, regardless of the dose-difference, the data suggest that DBT-BED and CBT+ lead to comparable levels of clinically meaningful change in global eating disorder psychopathology. Future recommendations include the need for dose-matched comparisons in a sufficiently powered randomized controlled trial, and the need to determine mediators and moderators of treatment outcome. Trial registration: Nederlands Trial Register: NL3982 (NTR4154). Date of registration: 2013 August 28, retrospectively registered.
... Anxiety Therapies There are several therapies for people with anxiety. Psychomotor therapy is a body-oriented therapy that uses body awareness exercises and physical activities to raise awareness for cognitive, emotional, and physical patterns [12]. Deep pressure therapy is a method that uses an intense touch of, for example, a heavy blanket stimulates the release of the hormones endorphin, serotonin, and dopamine, which cause a happy feeling and decrease heart rate and blood pressure [8]. ...
... Also, it is important to emphasize that, currently, aerobic exercise can be used even in monotherapy for mild depression (26). Physiotherapy may improve the symptoms of mental disorders through various approaches: a. improving the overall physical health; b. psychophysiological approach enhancing physical competences related to the body; and c. approach related to psychotherapy, using the body as a gateway to improve the affective and social functioning of the individual (12,59). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Physiotherapy improves the quality of life in people with mental disorders through the optimization of their physical and mental health. This study aimed to determine the knowledge of physiotherapists about the provision of Physiotherapy services to people with mental disorders, about the role of Physiotherapy in the treatment of physical illnesses of mentally ill persons and in the treatment of the mental disorder itself. Methodology: A descriptive, observational, cross-sectional, and prospective study was conducted. 187 physiotherapists practicing in Paraguay, of both sexes, were surveyed. The data collection instrument was a Spanish version of the survey used by Andrew et al., which was adapted. Results: 46.52% of physiotherapists stated that Physiotherapy is useful to manage the physical symptoms of people with mental disorders. 55.61% reported that they needed more information and/or training on managing physical conditions affecting these people. 75.94% declared that they were aware that Physiotherapy can be used as treatment for some mental disorders, mainly as an adjuvant treatment to both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy (54.55%). Participants scored anxiety disorders (23.88%), major depression disorder (21.99%) and Alzheimer's disease (21.48%) as those conditions that could most benefit from a physiotherapeutic intervention. Also, 21.93% of the respondents reported the need of more information on how to interact and communicate with people with mental disorders. Conclusion: There are gaps in the knowledge of physiotherapists in Paraguay about the provision of Physiotherapy to people with mental disorders.
... Terapi psikomotorik (PMT) dikembangkan untuk orang-orang dengan masalah kesehatan mental dan berfokus pada ekspresi dalam perilaku, gerakan, bahasa tubuh dan postur berbasis pengalaman tubuh, bertujuan auntuk menghilangkan dan/ atau mengurangi masalah dengan menggunakan metode yang berorientasi pada tubuh dan gerakan (Houben., 2014). Tujuan dari psychomotor therapy itu sendiri menurut Probst et al., (2010) yakni PMT dapat digunakan sebagai pengobatan komplementer untuk individu dengan masalah psikologis atau perilaku, dimana rangkaian teknik berorientasi pada tubuh, seperti relaksasi progresif dan pernapasan dalam. ...
Article
Full-text available
Penelitian ini menguji pengaruh dari aktivitas program psychomotor therapy (PMT) untuk mengurangi kondisi masalah dalam aspek perilaku, emosi, dan sosial pada anak dengan gangguan spektrum autisme usia dini. Salah satu upaya penangannya yaitu membuat anak banyak bermain dan bergerak lebih efisien melalui intervensi program psychomotor therapy. Hal tersebut menjadi alasan untuk digunakannya psychomotor therapy dimana aktivitas yang dilakukan menitikberatkan pada tubuh dan pikiran anak. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kombinasi (mixed methods) dengan pendekatan sequential exploratory. Metode tersebut dipilih karena peneliti harus mengolah data deksripsi yang menghasilkan penjelasan mengenai kondisi objektif subjek dan pengembangan program psychomotor therapy melalui data kualitatif serta memperoleh data untuk menguji dampak suatu treatment (atau suatu intervensi) melalui data kuantitatif. Hasil dari penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat penurunan frekuensi pada masalah perilaku repetitif dan perilaku emosional anak, serta terdapat penurunan latensi pada masalah sosial anak.
... PI is grounded under a conceptual framework that considers "the mutual influence of cognition, emotion and movement and their influence on the development of individual's competency within a psychosocial context" (European Forum of Psychomotricity, 2012, p. 2). In this study, psychomotor intervention practices (PIP) are defined as a set of educational and therapeutic approaches that addresses body movement expression of the individual related with the social, emotional, and cognitive functioning when provided by a psychomotor therapist (Emck, 2014;Probst et al., 2010). Psychomotor therapist is a professional working within healthcare, social, and educational settings recognized in different countries of Europe and Central and South America. ...
Article
Full-text available
Motor difficulties are present in 50–73% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and are associated with social difficulties. This review aims to synthesize the literature regarding psychomotor therapist use of psychomotor intervention for 3- to 6-year preschool children with ASD. A systematic search of electronic of six databases and other electronic journals was conducted without time limitation. Out of 1351 studies, 14 meet the inclusion criteria. Studies were summarized in terms of participant characteristics, study design, outcomes measures, intervention characteristics, target skills, and outcomes. Outcomes in psychomotor and social development and peer interaction and verbal communication domains were identified. This review adds insights for future research and revealed critical considerations of psychomotor interventions with children with ASD.
... A psychomotor intervention is a therapy that uses the body and movement as intervention mediators to optimize cognitive, motor, and relational competences of psychomotor functioning, through a holistic view [14], and has been shown to prevent the sensorimotor and neurocognitive declines associated with aging [15]. Regarding the whole-body vibration (WBV) intervention, a recent systematic review and meta-analysis suggested that WBV may prevent fractures by reducing falls and improving determinants of falling, particularly physical function-related risk factors [16]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Falls in older adults are considered a major public health problem. Declines in cognitive and physical functions, as measured by parameters including reaction time, mobility, and dual-task performance, have been reported to be important risk factors for falls. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two multimodal programs on reaction time, mobility, and dual-task performance in community-dwelling older adults at risk of falling. Methods In this randomized controlled trial, fifty-one participants (75.4 ± 5.6 years) were allocated into two experimental groups (EGs) (with sessions 3 times per week for 24 weeks), and a control group: EG1 was enrolled in a psychomotor intervention program, EG2 was enrolled in a combined exercise program (psychomotor intervention program + whole-body vibration program), and the control group maintained their usual daily activities. The participants were assessed at baseline, after the intervention, and after a 12-week no-intervention follow-up period. Results The comparisons revealed significant improvements in mobility and dual-task performance after the intervention in EG1, while there were improvements in reaction time, mobility, and dual-task performance in EG2 ( p ≤ 0.05). The size of the interventions’ clinical effect was medium in EG1 and ranged from medium to large in EG2. The comparisons also showed a reduction in the fall rate in both EGs (EG1: -44.2%; EG2: − 63.0%, p ≤ 0.05) from baseline to post-intervention. The interventions’ effects on reaction time, mobility, and dual-task performance were no longer evident after the 12-week no-intervention follow-up period. Conclusions The results suggest that multimodal psychomotor programs were well tolerated by community-dwelling older adults and were effective for fall prevention, as well as for the prevention of cognitive and physical functional decline, particularly if the programs are combined with whole-body vibration exercise. The discontinuation of these programs could lead to the fast reversal of the positive outcomes achieved. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03446352. Date of registration: February 07, 2018.
... The MSSS has its origin in psychomotor therapy (PMT), a body and movement-oriented therapy that is well integrated in mental health care in the Netherlands and Belgium [17]. PMT integrates body experiences and cognitive-emotional functioning in approaching aggression regulation in psychiatric patients. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study presents first test results of a new performance-based, psychomotor method to measure anger expression and control, based on voice expression and physical force production in directional movement of arms and legs, called the Method of Stamp Strike Shout (MSSS). Recorded are the standardized impact of stamping on a force plate, hitting a punching bag, and the amplitude of shouting in a microphone at various force levels. The premise is, that these body behaviours stand for the ‘urge to act or shout’ that belongs to anger-related emotions. The MSSS is meant to be applied in addition to potentially biased self-report questionnaires and has been designed for diagnostic as well as therapeutic purposes in clinical practice. First, this paper focusses on the instrumentation, internal structure and reliability of the MSSS. An explorative study in a student sample (n = 104) shows correlation patterns between increasing and decreasing levels of force production within each subtest (Stamp, Strike and Shout) and between the three subtests. We found excellent internal consistency of the three subtests and high test-retest reliability. The parameters of increasing and decreasing force levels form the slopes of what we call a force pyramid. To adjust for the clustering within persons, aggregated outcomes were calculated: sum scores per subtest as an indication of total force produced, two linear contrast scores to indicate the rate of increase / decrease, and two quadratic contrast scores as measures of the curvature of the slopes. On all subtests, all aggregated scores showed differences between men and women, also when controlled for weight. To test the validity of the MSSS, the second part of the paper examines the relationship between force parameters and anger coping style, measured by the Self-Expression and Control Scale (SECS). The results suggest that the Shout subtest was the most sensitive indicator for anger coping style, showing negative correlations with Anger In, for women as well as men. For women, higher amplitude was also associated with higher Anger Out and lower amplitude with higher Anger Control. The Stamp subtest showed weak positive correlations with the Anger In subscales, whereas no correlations were found on the Strike subtest. Further, a more robust comparison was made between two groups of participants who reported to have an internalizing versus an externalizing anger coping style. Results indicated that internalizing women as well as men used less force than externalizing participants on all three subtests, especially on the Shout subtest. This was confirmed by lower mean sum scores on the Shout subtest for internalizing women compared with externalizing women. No differences in linear contrast scores were shown between internalizing and externalizing participants. The quadratic contrast scores suggested differences of the curvation of the slopes between women with more or less anger control when stamping, and men with more or less anger control when striking. As this is an explorative study, findings should be interpreted with caution.
Article
Background: Because of methodological flaws and a lack of theoretical foundation of body awareness (BA) in previous effect studies of interventions directed to stimulate BA, it is impossible to attribute treatment effects to this specific component of a multidisciplinary treatment. Therefore, this study evaluated short-term and long-term effects of a multidisciplinary pain rehabilitation program with and without psychomotor therapy (PMT), which focused on BA (measured by the scale of body connection) as a primary target of intervention. Methods: Ninety-four patients clustered in 20 treatment groups were cluster randomized, using a biased-coin design, to multidisciplinary treatment as usual with or without PMT. Outcome variables were health-related quality of life, disability, and depression. BA, catastrophizing, and self-efficacy were measured as potential process variables. Assessments were performed at baseline, directly after treatment, and at 3, 6, and 12 month follow-ups. The data were analyzed by linear mixed-model analysis according to the intention-to-treat principle. Results: Data of all 94 patients were used for analyses. After treatment, significant differences favoring PMT were found between conditions on depression (regression coefficient [RC]=-5.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], -8.81 to -1.21), BA (RC=0.23; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.42) and catastrophizing (RC=-4.76; 95% CI, -8.03 to -1.48). These differences were no longer significant for depression at the 3-month follow-up and for catastrophizing at the 6-month follow-up. Conclusions: No clinical meaningful differences were found between treatment conditions in the primary outcome measures health-related quality of life and disability. However, this is the first long-term RCT that has shown that PMT improves BA in patients with chronic pain and shows good effect size and a significant decrease for catastrophizing.
Article
Objective: To evaluate whether the results of a quasi-randomized study, comparing dialectical behavior therapy for binge-eating disorder (DBT-BED) and an intensive, outpatient cognitive behavior therapy (CBT+) in individuals with BED, would be replicated in a nonrandomized study with patients who more closely resemble everyday clinical practice. Method: Patients with (subthreshold) BED (N = 175) started one of two group treatments: DBT-BED (n = 42) or CBT+ (n = 133), at a community eating disorder service. Measures of eating disorder pathology, emotion regulation, and general psychopathology were examined at end of treatment (EOT) and at 6-month follow-up using generalized linear models with multiple imputation. Results: Both treatments lead to substantial decreases on primary and secondary measures. Statistically significant, medium-size differences between groups were limited to global eating disorder psychopathology (d = -.62; 95% CI = .231, .949) at EOT and depressive symptoms at follow-up (d = -.45; 95% CI = .149, 6.965), favoring CBT+. Dropout of treatment included 15.0% from CBT+ and 19.0% from DBT-BED (difference nonsignificant). Discussion: Decreases in global eating disorder psychopathology were achieved faster with CBT+. Overall, improvements in DBT-BED were comparable to those observed in CBT+. Findings of the original trial, favoring CBT+ on the number of OBE episodes, emotional dysregulation and self-esteem at EOT, and on eating disorder psychopathology and self-esteem at follow-up, were not replicated. With similar rates of treatment dropout and about half of the therapy time used in CBT+, DBT-BED can be considered a relevant treatment for BED in everyday clinical practice. Public significance: In this effectiveness study, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) resulted in clinically relevant improvements in individuals with binge eating disorder. Changes were broadly comparable to those of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), the current treatment of choice. Although CBT resulted in decreases in eating disorder psychopathology faster, there was a trend toward relapse in CBT at 6-month follow-up. Therefore, the less costly DBT-program can be considered a relevant treatment in clinical practice.
Article
Aim: Physical activity has the potential to improve the health of patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP), yet many patients with FEP remain inactive. Exploring the theoretical basis of the motivational processes linked to the adoption and maintenance of physical activity behaviours in FEP patients can assist with the design and delivery of physical activity interventions. Within the self-determination theory and the transtheoretical model (stages of change) frameworks, we investigated motives for physical activity adoption and maintenance in FEP. Methods: Overall 56 FEP patients (20♀) (24 ± 4 years) completed the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire 2 to assess exercise motives, and the Patient-Centred Assessment and Counselling for Exercise to determine stage of change. Gender and setting differences in motives for physical activity were compared with unpaired t-tests. The relationship between motives for physical activity and stage of change was investigated using anova with post-hoc Scheffe tests. Results: No significant differences were found according to gender and setting. Multivariate analyses found significantly higher levels of amotivation and lower levels of autonomous motivation in the earlier stages of change. Conclusions: Our results suggest that in FEP patients, autonomous regulations may play an important role in the adoption and maintenance of physical activity behaviours. The study provides a platform for future research to investigate the importance of autonomous motivation within physical activity interventions for this population.
Article
Objective: The objective is to evaluate a body and movement-oriented intervention on aggression regulation, specifically aimed towards reducing anger internalization in patients with an eating disorder. Method: Patients were randomized to treatment-as-usual (TAU) plus the intervention (n = 38) or to TAU only (n = 32). The intervention was delivered by a psychomotor therapist. TAU consisted of multidisciplinary day treatment (3-5 days per week during 3-9 months). Anger coping (Self-Expression and Control Scale) and eating pathology (Eating Disorder Examination-Self-report Questionnaire) were measured at baseline and follow-up. Differences between pre-intervention and post-intervention scores were tested by using repeated measures ANOVA. Results: The intervention group showed a significantly larger decrease of anger internalization than the control group (η(2) = 0.16, p = 0.001). Both groups showed a significant reduction in eating pathology, but differences between groups were not significant. Discussion: A body and movement-oriented therapy seems a viable add-on for treating anger internalization in patients with an eating disorder. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Book
Full-text available
La Fisioterapia en Salud Mental es una especialidad reconocida de la Fisioterapia. Ofrece una rica variedad de herramientas de observación y evaluación, así como una serie de intervenciones basadas en la evidencia, enfocadas al mejoramiento de la salud física y mental de los pacientes. La Fisioterapia en Salud Mental trabaja sobre el movimiento, la función, y el ejercicio físico en dispositivos terapéuticos individuales y grupales. Adicionalmente, conecta las necesidades físicas y mentales de los seres humanos. Es conocido que la Fisioterapia tiene el potencial de mejorar la calidad de vida de las personas con trastornos mentales. Esto se logra a través de la optimización de la salud física del paciente y del alivio de su discapacidad psicosocial. Existe evidencia de que las mejoras en la función corporal (incluidos, por ejemplo, el balance muscular y la flexibilidad) están asociadas a un sentimiento de mayor seguridad y a un aumento de la autoestima en los pacientes. Además, un mejoramiento en la postura puede beneficiar la autoimagen corporal y elevar el estado de ánimo, así como también disminuir el dolor en distintos sitios corporales (por ejemplo, cuello y espalda). Finalmente, existe también sólida evidencia de que un régimen adecuado de ejercicios físicos mejora efectivamente el bienestar de personas con trastornos mentales, tales como depresión y ansiedad. Esta guía, aunque breve, ofrece unas primeras reflexiones generales sobre salud mental, sobre el ámbito de trabajo de la Fisioterapia en Salud Mental, así como sobre intervenciones específicas para los trastornos mentales más frecuentes. La Fisioterapia en Salud Mental puede, definitivamente, ofrecer un valor añadido beneficioso al tratamiento de personas con trastornos mentales. [Full Spanish-text available on request via jtorales@med.una.py] | [Texto completo en español disponible a través de jtorales@med.una.py]
Article
Full-text available
Vostrý M, Fischer S, Žukov I, Veteška J Lanková B. The efficiency of combined therapy at people with Parkinson’s disease Objective: The content of the article is the results of a longitudinal research survey. The aim of the research was to determine the effect of psychomotor therapy using elements of occupational therapy (with the support of cognitive rehabilitation and robotically assisted therapy) on the social adaptability of people suffering from Parkinson’s disease in social services with regard to length of diagnosis and length of stay. Material and methods: The research survey was conducted in 39 (100%) probands, with the representation of 26 (66.7% share) men in the age range 64- 71 years and 13 (33.3% share) women in the age range 67-70 flight. Another relevant feature was the length of stay of selected probands, which was at least 1 year from the start of the facility. The research group selected in this way was divided according to another criterion by deliberate selection, ie 39 probands diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease (according to ICD-10; G20 in category G20-G26: extrapyramidal and movement disorders), for whom rehabilitation care (especially occupational therapy) was regularly indicated. The intervention itself lasted intensively 3 months (12 weeks), 4 times a week for about 45 minutes per proband. We provided input and output data using a standardized test focused on the evaluation of functional independence (FIM test – Functional Independence Measure). Comparison of the obtained data between input and output testing was performed by Tuckey HSD test at the significance level α = 0.05. Results: The achieved results (at the level of significance α = 0.05) show that the monitored group of probands achieved better results compared to the testing period and the initial testing. An integral part of the effectiveness of the chosen therapy is also the use of the drug L-DOPA, which was properly administered to all probands.
Book
Full-text available
Cílem výzkumného šetření je poskytnout ucelené informace sociálním pracovníkům/ergoterapeutům v přímé péči o možnostech aplikace psychomotorické terapie u klientů se schizofrenií. Rozšířit nabídku sociálně aktivizačních činností pro klienty užívající intermediární formu péče. Práce je rozdělána do dvou stěžejních částí. Jádrem první části je pohled na problematiku onemocnění schizofrenií. Seznamuje s možnostmi sociální práce, poukazuje na význam rehabilitace a aktivizace klientů se závažnou duševní nemocí. Zaměřuje se na všestranný popis onemocnění. Seznamuje s metodami sociální práce u psychiatrických klientů. Popisuje sociální služby a jejich význam v psychosociální rehabilitaci. V další části seznamuji s psychomotorickou terapií jako vhodnou součástí sociálně aktivizačních činností. Hlavní část obsahuje výzkum realizovaný v letech 2009 – 2010 v zařízení poskytující komunitní služby klientům se schizofrenií. Jako vhodnou metodou sběru dat u populace schizofrenních jedinců byl zvolen dotazník. Důvodem byla efektivnost této metody, časová, ekonomická nenáročnost a možnost statistického vyhodnocení. Zaměřili jsme se na měření afektivních (emočních) stavů, jakožto ukazatele psychického stavu jedince. Pro hodnocení vlivu psychomotorické terapie jsme vybrali dotazník Profile of Mood States (POMS). Dotazník je používán k profilování afektivních (emočních) stavů a nálad, zejména v souvislosti s monitoringem efektu krátkodobých terapií. V dotazníku POMS je v profilu obsaženo 6 faktorů: tenze, deprese, hněv, únava, vitalita a zmatenost. Pro tyto jednotlivé faktory byly stanoveny hypotézy H1-H6. Z výsledků realizovaného výzkumu můžeme usuzovat na prokázaný vliv psychomotorické terapie na aktuální afektivní (emoční) stav klientů se schizofrenním onemocněním. Výsledky prokazují, že tento vliv má konstantní podobu, prokázáno provedeným Wilcoxonovým neparametrickým párovým testem. U faktorů tenze, deprese, hněv a únava je tato změna statisticky významná, vyjádřeno pokles hodnoty, a to v průměru o 4 až 5 (H1, H2, H3, H5 - potvrzena). Taktéž u faktoru zmatenosti dochází k poklesu hodnoty o 3 (H6 - potvrzena). Nárůst hodnoty u faktoru vitality je v průměru o 0,95 (H4 - nepotvrzena) u tohoto faktoru se nepodařilo prokázat statisticky významný rozdíl mezi hodnotou zjištěnou před a po terapii. Přínos psychomotorické terapie spatřujeme jednak z prokázaných výsledků realizovaného výzkumu. Dále i z poznatků z vedení dokumentace, kde je statisticky prokázáno, že pohybová terapie se stala pravidelně navštěvovaným programem, který klienti slovně pozitivně hodnotili. __________________ The goal of this work is to provide comprehensive information to direct care social workers/occupational therapists on the options for application of psychomotor therapy in regard to clients with schizophrenia and to expand the offer of social activation activities for clients receiving an intermediary form of care. This work is divided into two key parts. The core of the first part discusses the issue of schizophrenia. It acquaints the reader with the options of social work and points out the importance of rehabilitation and activation of clients with a serious mental disorder. It focuses on a general description of the disorder. It acquaints the reader with social work methods used in relation to psychiatric clients and describes social services and their importance to psychosocial rehabilitation. The next section acquaints the reader with psychomotor therapy as an appropriate component of social activation activities. The main section contains research realised during 2009 and 2010 at facilities providing community services to clients with schizophrenia. The questionnaire method was chosen as a suitable method for collection of data from the population of schizophrenic individuals, because this method was effective, it was not time consuming or economically demanding and it provided the option of statistical evaluation. We focused on measuring affective emotional states as an indicator of the individual’s mental state. We chose the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire to evaluate the effect of psychomotor therapy. The questionnaire is used to profile emotional states and moods, particularly in relation monitoring the effect of short-term therapies. The POMS questionnaire profile contains 6 factors: tension, depression, anger, fatigue, vitality and confusion. Hypotheses H1 – H6 were determined for these individual factors. We can infer the proven effect of psychomotor therapy on the current emotional state of clients with schizophrenia from the research results. The results prove that this effect is constant, as proven by the performed Wilcoxon non-parametric pair test. This change is statistically significant with regard to the factors of tension, depression, anger and fatigue and expressed by a fall in values, on average by 4 to 5 (H1, H2, H3, H5 - confirmed). A similar fall, by a value of 3, occurs in confusion (H6 – confirmed). The vitality factor rises by an average of 0.95 (H4 – not confirmed) and a statistically significant difference between values established before and after therapy could not be proven. We perceive the benefits of psychomotor therapy in the proven results of realised research and also in the findings based on keeping documentation, in which it is statistically proven that motor therapy has become a regularly visited program, which clients verbally rated positively.
Article
Full-text available
An overview is given of therapeutic interventions aimed at improving body experience in anorexia nervosa patients through the use of body-oriented therapies. General aspects such as direct versus indirect approach, individual versus group therapy, inpatient versus outpatient treatment, the multidimensional therapeutic model, and characteristics of the therapists themselves will be discussed. Then follows a description of goals: reconstructing a realistic self-concept, curbing hyperactivity, developing social skills, learning how to enjoy the body. Attention is paid to particular therapeutic techniques such as relaxation training, breathing exercises, roleplaying, physical activities, dancing, sensory awareness, and self-perception, all of which are used in body-oriented therapies.
Article
Full-text available
A 10-week, inhospital holistic health program for male schizophrenic patients was compared with an equally intense social skills training program. The holistic program included training in the stress reduction techniques of exercise and meditation as well as education in stress management. Patients were also encouraged to explore the growth potential of their psychotic experiences and to develop positive beliefs about the outcome of their illness. Both groups showed similar significant decreases in psychopathology from admission to discharge, but the use of medication and a token economy milieu by all patients confounds the interpretability of this finding. After the holistic patients were discharged into the community, there was no maintenance of any of the holistic techniques. The 2-year relapse rate did not differ significantly between the two treatments. Findings from various studies associating schizophrenic relapse with stressful life events and familial tension make further experimentation with stress reduction techniques for the treatment of schizophrenia worthwhile.
Article
Full-text available
Though the disturbed body image is an essential phenomenon of anorexia nervosa, hardly any specific attempts are described to alter the way these patients experience their bodies. The authors present a body-oriented treatment method aimed at curbing hyperactivity, rebuilding a realistic self-concept, learning to enjoy one's own body, and developing social skills. The therapy is a mixture of different techniques among which video-confrontation appears to be an important element.
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive models of interpersonal problem solving have been proposed for, but infrequently tested on, samples of schizophrenia subjects. This study undertook to examine the relationships between the receiving, processing, and sending skills that comprise one model of interpersonal problem solving with information processing and social cue perception. Twenty-six patients with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder completed measures of interpersonal problem solving, social cue perception, visual vigilance, verbal memory, conceptual flexibility, and psychiatric symptoms. Significant and robust relationships were found between sensitivity to social cues and receiving, processing, and sending skills. Only recognition and recall memory, of the various other information-processing measures, were found to be related to any of the three problem-solving skills. Associations between problem solving and cognitive deficits did not seem to be attributable to psychiatric symptoms. Implications of these findings for understanding and remediating the problem-solving deficits of schizophrenia patients are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
An exploratory study was conducted of the strategies that schizophrenia patients and their relatives employ to cope with negative symptoms. Coping strategies and their perceived efficacy were elicited in semistructured interviews conducted separately with patients and relatives. Coping responses were coded according to the following dimensions: behavioral-cognitive, social-nonsocial, and problem focused-emotion focused. Overall, the number of coping strategies was related to perceived coping efficacy for both patients and relatives, regardless of the type of strategy. Perceived coping efficacy tended to be highest for apathy; intermediate for alogia, anhedonia, and inattention; and lowest for blunting. Relatives with more knowledge about schizophrenia used more coping strategies and reported higher levels of coping efficacy. Patient rejection by relatives and distress (either patient or relative) tended to not be related to coping strategies. The findings suggest that patients and relatives use a wide variety of strategies to cope with negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Future clinical work and research need to evaluate whether families may benefit from psychoeducational approaches to teaching them how to better manage negative symptoms.
Article
Full-text available
The validity of subtypes based on antisocial personality disorder (APD) or childhood conduct disorder without adult APD (CD only) in patients with schizophrenia (or schizoaffective disorder) and a substance use disorder (abuse or dependence) was examined. APD patients scored lower on personality measures related to socialization and higher on antisocial behavior, psychopathy, and aggression. APD patients also reported higher rates of aggression and legal problems. APD, and to a lesser extent CD only, was associated with more severe psychiatric symptoms, an earlier age of onset of substance abuse, more severe symptoms of substance abuse, and a stronger family history of substance abuse and psychiatric hospitalization. The findings suggest that schizophrenia patients with APD represent a high-risk subgroup vulnerable to more severe substance abuse, psychiatric impairment, aggression, and legal problems.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to estimate and compare the effects of antipsychotics-both the newer ones and the conventional ones-on body weight. Method: A comprehensive literature search identified 81 English- and non-English-language articles that included data on weight change in antipsychotic-treated patients. For each agent, a meta-analysis and random effects metaregression estimated the weight change after 10 weeks of treatment at a standard dose. A comprehensive narrative review was also conducted on all articles that did not yield quantitative information but did yield important qualitative information. Placebo was associated with a mean weight reduction of 0.74 kg. Among conventional agents, mean weight change ranged from a reduction of 0.39 kg with molindone to an increase of 3.19 kg with thioridazine. Among newer antipsychotic agents, mean increases were as follows: clozapine, 4.45 kg; olanzapine, 4.15 kg; sertindole, 2.92 kg; risperidone, 2.10 kg; and ziprasidone, 0.04 kg. Insufficient data were available to evaluate quetiapine at 10 weeks. Both conventional and newer antipsychotics are associated with weight gain. Among the newer agents, clozapine appears to have the greatest potential to induce weight gain, and ziprasidone the least. The differences among newer agents may affect compliance with medication and health risk.
Article
Full-text available
Exercise has been suggested as an effective adjunctive treatment for a range of mental health conditions. In this study, we explored the perceptions of exercise held by course directors of doctoral training programmes in clinical psychology in England. Given the exploratory nature of the study, we used a qualitative design incorporating semi-structured interviews. Although most participants held favourable attitudes regarding exercise, this was related more to exercise being seen as a positive lifestyle activity that is worth encouraging, rather than exercise being recommended as an adjunctive treatment for mental health problems. Inductive analysis identified four themes that underpinned such a response: inconsistent positions on the evidential criteria used to evaluate the role of exercise, which masked themes regarding the perceived 'simplicity' of exercise interventions, a practical adherence to a mind-body dichotomy, and the incompatibility of exercise with traditional models of understanding and treating clinical conditions. The barriers we have highlighted will continue to hinder the consideration of exercise as a common therapeutic adjunct at present. Although further research is required to examine the relationship between exercise and mental health, consideration must also be given to how such research should be disseminated to mental health professionals.
Article
Full-text available
To compare the changes in cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness, and the changes in physical self-concept after participation in one of two psychomotor therapy programmes in a sample group of psychiatric patients. To study the relationship between the changes in physical fitness and the changes in physical self-concept. Randomized controlled parallel-group trial with repeated measures. Three treatment units of a university psychiatric hospital in Belgium. One hundred and ninety-nine patients with severe symptoms of depression and/or anxiety, and/or personality disorders. A general programme of psychomotor therapy, consisting of different forms of physical exercises and relaxation training, and a personalized psychomotor fitness programme, consisting of aerobic and resistance training. These programmes were followed three times a week for a period of 16 weeks. The maximum dynamic strength, the strength endurance, physical work capacity at 60% and 80% of the estimated maximal heart rate reserve, and the physical self-concept by means of the Dutch version of the Physical Self-Perception Profile. After eight weeks, both groups exhibited an improvement in muscular fitness (both p-values < 0.0001), but only the psychomotor fitness group had improved in cardiorespiratory fitness (p < 0.01). After 16 weeks, the patients in the general programme of psychomotor therapy had not increased in cardiorespiratory fitness. At the end of the 16-week programmes, both groups showed a more positive physical self-concept (p from 0.01 to < 0.0001). However, these improvements were not related to the progress in physical fitness. The main difference in the effectiveness of the two programmes was the increase in cardiorespiratory fitness in the psychomotor fitness group. The gains in fitness did not play an essential role in the enhancement of physical self-concept.
Article
Full-text available
To investigate the changes in physical fitness after participation in 1 of 2 psychomotor therapy programs in a sample group of non-psychotic psychiatric patients. Experimental design: randomized controlled parallel group trial with follow-up measures after 8 weeks and after 16 weeks. Setting: 3 treatment units of a university psychiatric hospital in Belgium. Patients: 141 (51 males, 90 females) patients with severe depressive and/or anxious symptoms, and/or personality disorders. Interventions: patients followed a personalized psychomotor fitness program (PF), consisting of aerobic and resistance training, or a general program of psychomotor therapy (GPMT), consisting of different forms of physical exercises and relaxation training. Measures: the maximum dynamic strength, the strength endurance and physical work capacity at 60% and 80% of the estimated maximal heart rate reserve. After 8 weeks it was observed that the PF group enhanced in all parameters of cardio-respiratory as well as muscular fitness; the GPMT group had improved in 7 out of the 9 muscular fitness measurements. At the end of the 16 weeks, both groups had shown an improvement in all of the muscular fitness parameters, but only the PF group had increased in cardio-respiratory fitness. In order to improve both muscular and cardio-respiratory fitness in these patients, a balanced personalized training program, which includes aerobic and resistance training, is necessary during a period of at least 8 weeks. The less specific GPMT, when followed for a period of 16 weeks, is sufficient for improving muscular fitness and for maintaining cardio-respiratory fitness.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to analyze the physical activity, dietary, drinking, and smoking habits of schizophrenia patients (SP). Data from 194 schizophrenia outpatients collected using sections of the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey were compared with data from the German general population (GP). In addition to univariate data analyses, a multivariate regression analysis was performed. Schizophrenia patients have a supper snack more frequently, consume instant meals and calorie-reduced food more frequently, and eat healthy groceries more rarely. Though they drink less alcohol, a greater proportion currently smokes, smoking on average 4 cigarettes more per day. On workdays they spend less time with strenuous activities, and in leisure time a greater proportion is involved in no sports. Regression analysis revealed that schizophrenia by itself or in interaction with demographic variables influences physical activity as well as alcohol, nicotine, and healthy grocery consumption. Health habits were particularly disadvantageously affected by schizophrenia in connection with unemployment. Schizophrenia patients are an appropriate target group for public health interventions. They need information about a healthy diet and motivation to prepare their own meals, to quit smoking, and to exercise.
Article
Full-text available
Despite evidence that individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders experience significant and persistent symptoms of anxiety, there are few reports of the use of empirically supported treatments for anxiety in this population. This article describes how we have tried to adapt mindfulness interventions to help individuals with schizophrenia who experience significant anxiety symptoms. Although mindfulness has been widely used to help individuals without psychosis, to our knowledge, this is the first study adapting it to help those with schizophrenia manage worry and stress. We provide an overview of the intervention and use an individual example to describe how our treatment development group responded. We also explore directions for future research of mindfulness interventions for schizophrenia.
Article
Full-text available
Violent, nonmentalizing individuals who act out aggression do not usually respond to verbal therapeutic approaches alone. We suggest the movement in physically oriented therapies, such as yoga and martial arts, combined with psychodynamic psychotherapy are critical in reaching these individuals. We also suggest embodiment as a direct link to the kinesthetic core of easily disturbed attachment experiences. This process embodying the mind requires a safe, containing context found in the therapist. Clinical vignettes show how this might be done in both individual and social contexts. These vignettes also show a way to think about such a combination of techniques and theories.
Article
In this paper the construction of the new observation scales for objectives in psychomotor therapy is discussed. In the first phase some 213 therapeutic goals found in the scientific literature are reduced to nine objective clusters by cluster analysis: emotional relations, self-confidence, activity, relaxation, movement control, focusing attention on the situation, movement expressivity, verbal communication, and social regulation ability. In the second phase these objectives are made operational as observation categories, and for each item a 7-point scale is constructed with positive as well as negative gradations (e.g., the patient is extremely active vs. passive). Two versions of the scale were developed. The results of the reliability studies of these two variants are satisfactory.
Article
There is widespread support for a positive and lasting relationship between participation in regular exercise and various indices of mental health, and several consensus documents and reviews (e.g. Biddle et al , 2000; Craft & Landers, 1998) have been published in this field. The evidence for psychological benefits, although impressive for mentally healthy individuals, is even stronger for psychiatric populations (Martinsen & Stephens, 1994). For example, a number of studies have demonstrated a positive relationship between exercise and mental health in people with alcohol misuse problems (Donaghy et al , 1991), people with schizophrenia (Chamove, 1986; Faulkner & Sparkes, 1999) and those with clinical depression (Mutrie, 1988; Martinsen, 1993; 1994; Martinsen et al , 1989 a, b ).
Article
Objectives: To identify and evaluate the recent evidence of physical activity (PA) with or without diet counselling on cardiometabolic parameters in people who have schizophrenia. Methods: Keyword searches were used to identify articles since 2003 up to August 2009 from PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, PEDro, DARE, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses and PsycINFO. There were no limitations in terms of study design and sample size. Data were extracted from each included study using key items that included participants, study design, intervention modalities, and outcome measures. Results: Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Physical activity with or without diet counselling results in modest weight loss, reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and decreases in fasting plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin. Identifying an optimal dose or intervention strategy for PA is not yet possible. Compliance to PA seems to be an important predictor of the PA response. Discussion: There is evidence that PA with or without diet counselling is feasible and effective in reducing weight and improving obesity-related cardiometabolic risk profile in people with schizophrenia. More research focussing on the effectiveness of different PA interventions in prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome in people with schizophrenia is highly needed.
Article
There is increasing interest in the contribution of exercise in both the promotion of mental well-being and the treatment and prevention of mental illness and disorders. Within this context, self-esteem has been regarded as an important element of well-being and a construct that might be open to change through exercise. This paper discusses recent advances in the theory and measurement of self-esteem including the concepts of multidimensionality, hierarchical structuring and the specific role of the physical self with a view to a) informing critique of the existing literature and b) suggesting future research challenges. The results of a recent comprehensive review of 37 randomised and 42 non-randomised controlled studies investigating the effects of exercise on self-esteem and physical self-perceptions are summarized. This is followed by suggestions for advancing research in the field and practical pointers for those already involved in the promotion of exercise for mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Previous reviews of the exercise and mental health literature have predominantly examined non-clinical populations and clinical populations with anxiety and/or depressive disorders. There is growing, albeit limited, evidence that exercise can also be an effective adjunctive treatment for other clinical disorders such as alcohol abuse, somatoform disorders and psychosis. This review examines the literature that has investigated the use of exercise as an adjunct treatment for schizophrenia. While methodological concerns are evident in the literature, attention is drawn to the difficulties of assessing traditional exercise interventions with such a population and the need for greater acceptance of methodological diversity. The existing research indicates that exercise is a useful adjunct for some of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia in addition to depression and anxiety. Additionally, the use of exercise as a coping strategy for positive symptoms, such as auditory hallucinations, has been suggested. Mechanisms underpinning such benefits, the exercise 'dosage' and issues of adherence are discussed.
Article
The present article presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of per- sonal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and how long it will be sustained in the face of ob- stacles and aversive experiences. Persistence in activities that are subjectively threatening but in fact relatively safe produces, through experiences of mastery, further enhancement of self-efficacy and corresponding reductions in defensive behavior. In the proposed model, expectations of personal efficacy are derived from four principal sources of information: performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. The more de- pendable the experiential sources, the greater are the changes in perceived self- efficacy. A number of factors are identified as influencing the cognitive processing of efficacy information arising from enactive, vicarious, exhortative, and emotive sources. The differential power of diverse therapeutic procedures is analyzed in terms of the postulated cognitive mechanism of operation. Findings are reported from microanalyses of enactive, vicarious, and emotive modes of treatment that support the hypothesized relationship between perceived self-efficacy and be- havioral changes. Possible directions for further research are discussed.
Article
A relationship between starvation and hyperactivity has been observed in animal models, in experiments with human subjects, and in dieting disorder patients. Since the earliest descriptions of anorexia nervosa, excessive physical activity has figured prominently as a symptom of the illness, yet little attention has been directed towards this phenomenon. The aims of this paper are to review the published literature, to report our experience of the role of physical overactivity in the clinical presentation of dieting disorders, to discuss its implications for treatment, and to propose a supervised exercise program by which overactivity may be addressed specifically in the treatment of these patients.
Article
Highly effective neuroleptic drugs have been available for the past 40 years, but 50% of schizophrenic patients, under normal treatment conditions, relapse within 1 year after their latest episode, frequently spending 15-20% of their time in psychiatric institutions. The term relapse usually refers to a deterioration or recurrence of positive rather than negative features, and relapses appear to impair the course of the disease. Impairment is often longer than expected for those patients who discontinue antipsychotic medication and then relapse to their prediscontinuation clinical state of function. Drug therapy is an important defense against relapse. Marked differences in relapse rate between patients receiving placebo and neuroleptic drugs have been observed (approximately 69% after 1 year for the placebo group versus 26% for the neuroleptic group). First-year relapse rates can be reduced from 75% to 15% with prophylactic treatment with neuroleptics. Follow-up studies suggest that noncompliance with medication, pharmacological factors, psychosocial factors and alcohol and drug abuse contribute to setting off new psychotic episodes. The most important of these is noncompliance with medication. The overwhelming majority of schizophrenic patients who suffered a clinical exacerbation and required hospitalization (73%) did not comply with the treatment prescribed. The effect of new antipsychotic agents should be examined in patients who relapse despite maintenance treatment with conventional neuroleptics. We have found that the rate of current drug abuse among patients with schizophrenic relapse (44%) was significantly higher than that in schizophrenic patients who regularly attended outpatient clinics. Also, the rate of alcohol and substance abuse is higher in males (79%) than in females (21%). Psychiatric units should integrate addiction treatments with psychotic-relapse management.
Article
Since body dissatisfaction is an essential part of anorexia/bulimia nervosa, we wanted to assess the patients' body experience before and after intensive treatment. Body experience was studied in 290 eating disorder patients, admitted to a specialised unit, after six months and again after one year using the Body Attitude Test (BAT), the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), and the Eating Disorder Evaluation Scale (EDES). The clearly negative body experience of eating disorder patients evolved in a positive way after therapy and this improvement lasted for up to one year after admission. EDI scores and Body Mass Index at the time of admission appeared to be the strongest predictors of the total BAT score at follow-up. Although body dissatisfaction can be quite persistent in eating disorders, intensive treatment can substantially improve the patients' body experience.
Article
To determine whether a graded exercise program used in the treatment of anorexia nervosa improves quality of life and does not decrease the rate of gain of body fat. A randomized controlled trial with outcome measures: change in percent body fat, body mass index (BMI), and Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36-item Quality of Life questionnaire. Fifteen females and one male meeting the DSM-IV criteria for the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa were randomized. There was no difference in change in BMI or percent body fat at 3 months. Quality of life outcomes improved from baseline in the experimental group compared with the control group. However, this difference was not statistically significant. Incorporation of a graded exercise program may increase compliance with treatment, but it did not reduce the short-term rate of gain of body fat or BMI. Longer studies with more subjects are necessary to determine the usefulness of a graded exercise program in anorexia nervosa.
Article
This surgeon general's report is the first ever issued on mental health. Two messages are conveyed in the report: Mental health is fundamental to health, and mental disorders are real health conditions. The surgeon general's report summarizes the Office's detailed review of more than 3,000 research articles, plus 1st-person accounts from individuals who have been afflicted with mental disorders. Two main findings emerged from the research: (a) The efficacy of mental health treatments is well documented, and (b) a range of treatments exists for most mental disorders. On the basis of these findings, the Office of the Surgeon General recommends that people seek help if they have a mental health problem or think they have symptoms of a mental disorder. Themes covered in the report include adopting a public health perspective, accepting that mental disorders are disabling, and seeing mental health and mental illness as points on a continuum. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Aerobic exercise seems to be effective in improving general mood and symptoms of depression and anxiety in healthy individuals and psychiatric patients. This effect is not limited to aerobic forms of exercise. There are almost no contraindications for psychiatric patients to participate in exercise programmes, provided they are free from cardiovascular and acute infectious diseases. However, very little is known about the effects of exercise in psychiatric disease other than those in depression and anxiety disorders. A few reports indicate the need for controlled investigations in psychotic and personality disorders. Unfortunately, no general concept for a therapeutic application of physical activity has been developed so far. Reliance on submaximal measures is highly recommended for fitness assessment. Monitoring of exercise intensity during training sessions is most easily done by measuring the heart rate using portable devices (whereas controlling the exact workload may be preferable for scientific purposes). Appropriate pre- and post-training testing is emphasised to enable adequate determinations of fitness gains and to eventually allow positive feedback to be given to patients in clinical settings.
Article
With the availability of the so-called novel antipsychotic agents, extrapyramidal symptoms are becoming decreasingly problematic for patients with schizophrenia, and simultaneously, a new symptom is emerging as a preeminent concern. This side effect is weight gain and its metabolic concomitants. This article reviews what is currently known about antipsychotic-induced weight gain, describes the magnitude of the problem, briefly touches on mechanisms of action, and addresses the correlation of interindividual variations in magnitude of weight gain. In addition, we address questions about the effects of weight gain on compliance and whether or not there is a correlation between weight gain and therapeutic efficacy. Finally, we address medical consequences of weight gain and review the literature supporting various treatment options for antipsychotic-induced weight gain. As will be seen, this is an area of research in its infancy, and much work remains to be done.
Article
Vulnerability-stress models suggest that training in specific stress management techniques should yield benefits to those suffering from schizophrenia and related disorders. In this paper, we describe an evaluation of the impact of adding a stress management program to other medical and psychosocial interventions for such patients. Outcomes were compared for 121 patients randomly assigned to receive either a 12-week stress management program with follow-up sessions or participation in a social activities group. The two treatment conditions did not differ in levels of symptoms, perceived stress or life skills immediately after completion of treatment or at 1-year follow-up. Patients who received the stress management program did have fewer hospital admissions in the year following treatment. This effect of stress management was most apparent for those who showed high levels of attendance for treatment sessions. It was concluded that training in stress management may provide patients with skills for coping with acute stressors and reduce the likelihood of subsequent acute exacerbation of symptoms with need for hospitalization.
Article
Anorexia nervosa (AN) has a complex pathogenesis resulting sometimes during childhood and adolescence in potential severe complications. Abnormal exercise capacity, which may result from long-term malnourishment and restriction of physical activities for many months, has been observed in the majority of such patients, ever after weight regain. It is widely believed that physical activities may improve exercise capacity and the emotional disorder. However, controversy exists about promoting or withholding exercise [4]. Previous studies reported that excessive exercise may play a role as a causal factor of AN and might be associated with a poor evolution [2, 3]. The use of exercise training as a treat