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Cognitive Principles of Multimedia Learning: The Role of Modality and Contiguity

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Abstract

Students viewed a computer animation depicting the process of lightning. In Experiment 1, they concurrently viewed on-screen text presented near the animation or far from the animation, or concurrently listened to a narration. In Experiment 2, they concurrently viewed on-screen text or listened to a narration, viewed on-screen text following or preceding the animation, or listened to a narration following or preceding the animation. Learning was measured by retention, transfer, and matching tests. Experiment 1 revealed a spatial-contiguity effect in which students learned better when visual and verbal materials were physically close. Both experiments revealed a modality effect in which students learned better when verbal input was presented auditorily as speech rather than visually as text. The results support 2 cognitive principles of multimedia learning. Technological advances have made possible the combina-tion and coordination of verbal presentation modes (such as narration and on-screen text) with nonverbal presentation modes (such as graphics, video, animations, and environmen-tal sounds) in just one device (the computer). These ad-vances include multimedia environments, where students can be introduced to causal models of complex systems by the use of computer-generated animations (Park & Hopkins, 1993). However, despite its power to facilitate learning, multimedia has been developed on the basis of its technologi-cal capacity, and rarely is it used according to research-based principles (Kozma, 1991; Mayer, in press; Moore, Burton, & Myers, 1996). Instructional design of multimedia is still mostly based on the intuitive beliefs of designers rather than on empirical evidence (Park & Hannafin, 1994). The purpose of the present study is to contribute to multi-media learning theory by clarifying and testing two cogni-tive principles: the contiguity principle and the modality principle.
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... Empirical studies that compared the input modalities in the modality and redundancy principles utilized diverse multimedia lessons. For example, the multimedia lessons taught the formation of lightning (Mayer & Moreno, 1998;Moreno & Mayer, 1999), the mechanisms of an electric motor , biological facts (Harskamp et al., 2007), electricity units (Kutbay, & Akpinar, 2020), C++Computer Programming (Cheah, & Leong, 2019), stem cells (Tarchi et al., 2021), and a mix topics concerning ecology, astronomy, geography, and chemistry (Zheng et al., 2022). Mayer et al. (2014) utilized a multimedia lesson about the formation of a soda fountain and found that captioning did not lead to superior learning outcomes for ESL students. ...
... According to the modality principle (Moreno & Mayer, 1999), the input mode of graphics+audio facilitates learning better than that of graphics+text. The simultaneous input of graphics and text gives rise to competition for cognitive resources in the visual channel, and results in an overload of this channel (Moreno & Mayer, 1999). ...
... According to the modality principle (Moreno & Mayer, 1999), the input mode of graphics+audio facilitates learning better than that of graphics+text. The simultaneous input of graphics and text gives rise to competition for cognitive resources in the visual channel, and results in an overload of this channel (Moreno & Mayer, 1999). ...
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The modality and redundancy principles are two fundamental principles used to inform the design of multimedia instruction. They are based on a variety of experimental studies that utilized different types of multimedia lessons to compare input modes of graphics+audio, graphics+text, and graphics+audio+text with each other. However, a lack of control of multimedia lessons in previous studies creates a threat to validity because a single case scenario without following certain principles is not sufficient to represent a construct. Therefore, this study addressed this inherent validity threat and reinvestigated the applicability of the modality and redundancy principles when students learned during a controlled multimedia lesson. In this study the multimedia lesson was developed to follow a series of multimedia learning principles. These principles ensured that the lesson was representative of different types of multimedia lessons. Additionally, they ensured that the multimedia lesson was conducive to learning, since those that were not helpful would not be utilized for instruction in the first place. Eighty-six students in a research university in the US took a prior knowledge survey. They were then randomly assigned to the three input mode conditions and watched the multimedia lesson about the formation of lightning. Subsequent retention and transfer tests revealed that there were no statistically significant differences among the three input mode conditions. Therefore, both the redundancy and modality effects disappeared. This study provided an updated understanding of the applicability of the two important principles for multimedia instruction. Limitations and implications were discussed.
... The developed application follows the Modality Principle (MP) of multimedia learning which supports that the presentation of words through narration in addition to on-screen visuals results in higher retention rates (Moreno & Mayer, 1999) (Enjoyment). An extensive literature supports that the amalgamation of auditory and visual text modalities helps in increasing the capacity of working memory (Penney, 1989). ...
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The teaching of Mathematics – in particular, Geometry, through conventional methods has been a challenging task for tutors. Augmented Reality (AR) based applications available in commercial space, have not followed any structured pedagogical approach in the designing process, and also do not ensure that the learning time of students is spent prolifically. In this paper, we explore the use of AR in mathematics for geometry education, to aid visualization of multidimensional objects and long-term retention of concepts by the learners. For designing an appropriate AR application it is necessary to identify some principles which support better memory retention of the students. The application has been specifically designed on the basis of identified principles affecting memory retention. We further explain the development of an AR-based Geometry Learning Assistant (AR-GLA), using a structural approach to pedagogical-design for teaching 3-dimensional geometry to higher school students through improved visualization and enhance their memory retention for related concepts. A sample of 54 K-12 students and 2 teachers with expertise in mathematics were part of the experiment. The students were divided into two different groups; one of the groups was taught with AR-based content whereas the other group was given Interactive Simulation (IS) based learning. The results illustrated that AR-based learning provides better retention of memory as compared to IS-based learning were tested over a period of two months.
... Leach et al., 2004;Richardson, 2011). Meanwhile, a small number of studies have stressed the importance of creating e-lectures (Feifer & Tazbaz, 1997;Dewhurst & Williams, 1998;Evans & Edwards, 1999;Moreno & Mayer, 1999;Holt et al., 2001;Williams et al., 2001;Maki & Maki, 2002;Evans et al., 2004;Stephenson et al., 2008;Griffin et al., 2009;Visioli et al., 2009;Sendra-Portero et al., 2013;Adebari et al., 2016;University Utrecht, 2017). FML is considered a conceptual gap in this thesis. ...
Thesis
Mobile technologies have changed many ways in which entire societies look at and use information. Rapid developments in the field have radically altered how we communicate, collaborate and interact via these technologies and this has had a deep impact on the educational sector, which is expanding almost daily as technologies become increasingly integrated and available to learners and teachers of all ages. Mobile learning (ML) has been increasingly employed both in student learning and in teacher training and flipped learning (FL) has been recognised as an innovative and effective instructional approach that has recently gained prominence. In this era, learning as well as training environments have become more diverse, from traditional classroom environments to the latest online video conferencing applications. Each environment has its advantages and disadvantages, however, and this research examines the potential benefits of delivering mobile learning in a flipped (learner-centred) format. The integration of mobile learning with flipped learning is known as flipped mobile learning (FML) and is an attempt to overcome the disadvantages of each learning method on its own. By combining the advantages of each in a university teachers’ continuing professional development programme (CPD), this research aims to better understand the perceived and actual effects of the FML approach. The study investigates whether FML improves the electronic lecture (e-lecture) skills of university teachers in a leading university in Saudi Arabia, with a view to increasing the use of e-lectures in higher education (HE) institutions in this country. Additionally, this research explores university teachers’ opinions of the concerns, challenges, and affordances of the FML approach to determine whether FML is viable for teaching large numbers of students. It is proposed that FML could make this possible at low cost, thus addressing teacher shortages as well as allowing women to transcend current gender segregation restrictions in Saudi Arabian education. The underpinning theoretical framework for this thesis was based on the concept of Technology, Pedagogy, and Content Knowledge (TPACK), expressed through three groups for FL, ML, and FML. A pragmatic research paradigm and a mixed research approach were employed with a quasi-experimental and multiple interventions approach. Participants were Saudi female university teachers in a range of different academic positions and disciplines. They were each assigned to one of three groups; the first group trained in an FL environment, the second were trained using ML, and the third via FML. This research used multiple methods in order to achieve the aims. Data analysis compared the perceived outcomes of FL, ML, and FML CPD on university teachers’ e-lecture skills through questionnaires before and after the experiment. An evaluation product card was used by the researcher before and after CPD to identify the actual outcomes of FL, ML, and FML CPD on the university teachers’ e-lecture skills. This was followed by semi-structured interviews to record rich data about the university teachers' opinion of FML. Overall, the findings indicate that, first, by looking at the perceived and actual skills of creating e-lectures in general, the findings show there are improvements from pre- to post-measures in favour of the group trained via FML but these differences were not significant. Second, with regard to the three main perceived and actual skills of creating e-lectures, the findings show that there are statistically significant differences in favour of the group trained via FML. Third, with regard to each perceived and actual sub-skill of creating e-lectures, there are statistically significant differences in some sub-skills in favour of the group trained via FML; however, the remaining sub-skills showed statistically significant differences in favour of the groups trained via FL and ML. The qualitative analysis illustrates the teachers’ opinions about FML, which were positive. Data on the benefits and difficulties of applying FML were gathered. The findings presented in this dissertation contribute to our current knowledge of FML and its potential to deliver low cost, effective teacher training which can be implemented easily and with readily available devices. The study also contributes to our knowledge of university lecturer training and, since teacher training is associated with student quality, effective training via FML could lead to obtaining a higher quality for student learning within higher education institutions. The findings could aid in making recommendations to policymakers in higher education in KSA and may contribute new data to the growing body of research on the effects of ML and FL on individual performance.
... -learning). So E-Learning is a learning system that provides educational programs at any time and place by using advanced telecommunication and technologies like artificial intelligence and cloud computing to provide an interactive learning environment to achieve learning goals (Moreno & Mayer 1999;Mayer & Mayer, 2005). ...
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This study aimed to know the effect of E-Learning with all its components on students' performance at Business Colleges-Jordanian Universities during at COVID-19 crisis. To achieve study goals, a questionnaire was distributed to the students at Jordanian Universities, (870) valid questionnaires were recovered. The study found that: The level of E-Learning and its components at Jordanian Universities were at middle rates, students' performance also comes at a moderate level. E-Learning and its components (Technological facilities readiness, Electronic applications readiness, Databases & E-resources readiness, People readiness, E-Learning management system readiness, Evaluation system readiness, teaching methods diversity, Educational curricula and electronic content readiness) have a significant effect on students' performance at Jordanian Universities at significance (α ≤ 0.05). Whereas sub components of (E-Learning organizational environment readiness and legislations and regulations readiness) have no effect separately on students' performance. The study recommended Jordanian Universities to improve E-Learning in all its components in the Universities, reinforce using E-Learning in education, and exploit the benefits of E-Learning to improve students' performance because it is the main alternative to face emerging crises like Coronavirus.
... Mayer. R.E Mayer is particularly known for his work on cognitive principles of multimedia learning (Moreno & Mayer, 1999) and cognitive aspects of problem solving (Mayer, 1998). J. Sweller is the second most cited author in JCAL. ...
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This study examined the effects of watching gestures and lip movement on second language (English) listening comprehension. The participants were 30 high and 22 low proficient learners of English. There were six listening tasks combining two variables: modality and difficulty. The modality consisted of three types of assessments: Body (the upper half of body was visible), Face (close up view), and Audio. The difficulty consisted of two levels: Easy and Hard. Learners watched Body, Face, or listened to Audio, and worked on six comprehension questions twice for each task. Moreover, the participants were asked about their modality of preference. The notable results were (1) the modality of listening had no influence on their listening performance, (2) for the high proficiency group, the score difference between the easy and the hard texts was larger at the second attempt than at the first attempt, (3) the participants generally preferred to watch the whole body, followed by watching the face, and then listening only, (4) the high proficiency group showed more variations of preference than the low proficiency group, and (5) the participants’ modality preference had no influence on their listening performance.
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