Reinstatement of Gymnosporia (Celastraceae): implications for the Flora Malesiana region
2003. Reinstatement of Gymnosporia (Celastraceae): implications for the Flora Malesiana region. Telopea 10(1): 155–167. The reinstatement of the genus Gymnosporia, comprising all the spiny members previously included in the genus Maytenus, has implications for the Flora Malesiana region. An account is given of six species and two varieties in the region (Gymnosporia curtisii, G. diversifolia, G. inermis, G. littoralis, G. nitida, G. spinosa var. spinosa and var. parva). The new combination G. littoralis (Backer) Jordaan is made (based on Gymnosporia montana var. littoralis) and a neotype and lectotype designated for two other taxa. G. emarginata from India and Sri Lanka is also included since this name was previously misapplied to plants in the Flora Malesiana region. Maytenus rapakir is mentioned as probably belonging to Gymnosporia. Maytenus cupularis, which has a racemose inflorescence, is related to the Australian species of Maytenus s. lat. and is retained in Maytenus.
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ABSTRACT: The phylogeny of Celastraceae tribe Celastreae, which includes about 350 species of trees and shrubs in 15 genera, was inferred in a simultaneous analysis of morphological characters together with nuclear (ITS and 26S rDNA) and plastid (matK, trnL-F) genes. A strong correlation was found between the geography of the species sampled and their inferred relationships. Species of Maytenus and Gymnosporia from different regions were resolved as polyphyletic groups. Maytenus was resolved in three lineages (New World, African, and Austral-Pacific), while Gymnosporia was resolved in two lineages (New World and Old World). Putterlickia was resolved as nested within the Old World Gymnosporia. Catha edulis (qat, khat) was resolved as sister to the clade of Allocassine, Cassine, Lauridia, and Maurocenia. Gymnosporia cassinoides, which is reportedly chewed as a stimulant in the Canary Islands, was resolved as a derived member of Gymnosporia and is more closely related to Lydenburgia and Putterlickia than it is to Catha. Therefore, all eight of these genera are candidates for containing cathinone- and/or cathine-related alkaloids.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract—Maytenus s. l. (including Gymnosporia) is a morphologically diverse genus of about 300 species that is widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics of both the Old and New Worlds. Its delimitation has been extensively debated and despite the segregation of Gymnosporia, Maytenus s. s. remains a heterogeneous, polyphyletic group. To delimit natural segregate genera we increased taxon sampling and generated sequences from two nuclear gene regions (ITS and 26S rDNA) and two plastid loci (matK and trnL-F) to analyze together with morphological characters. Both Moya and Tricerma were found to be nested within the New World Maytenus and are recognized as synonyms of Maytenus s. s.. In contrast, the three New World species of Gymnosporia are recognized as a new genus that is closely related to Gyminda. Haydenia is erected for these three species: H. gentryi, H. haberiana, and H. urbaniana. One or more previously proposed or novel genera are required to accommodate the systematically difficult African Maytenus. Putterlickia, and most likely Gloveria, are nested within Gymnosporia and should be synonymized with that genus. New binomials are required for four Chinese and one Rapan species of Gymnosporia that have been previously treated only as Maytenus: Gymnosporia austroyunnanensis, G. confertiflora, G. dongfangensis, G. guangxiensis, and G. pertinax. Austral-Pacific Maytenus are transferred to Denhamia, requiring eight new binomials: Denhamia bilocularis, D. cunninghamii, D. cupularis, D. disperma, D. fasciculiflora, D. ferdinandii, D. fournieri, and D. silvestris. Existing intrageneric classifications of Gymnosporia and Maytenus s. s. were not supported in their entirety. Gymnosporia is inferred to have had an African origin followed by dispersals to Madagascar, southeast Asia and the Austral-Pacific.