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The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion

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This article defines the construct of self-compassion and describes the development of the Self-Compassion Scale. Self-compassion entails being kind and understanding toward oneself in instances of pain or failure rather than being harshly self-critical; perceiving one's experiences as part of the larger human experience rather than seeing them as isolating; and holding painful thoughts and feelings in mindful awareness rather than over-identifying with them. Evidence for the validity and reliability of the scale is presented in a series of studies. Results indicate that self-compassion is significantly correlated with positive mental health outcomes such as less depression and anxiety and greater life satisfaction. Evidence is also provided for the discriminant validity of the scale, including with regard to self-esteem measures. Recent years have seen an increasing dialogue between Eastern philosophical thought—Buddhism in particular—and Western psychology (Epstein, 1995; Molino, 1998; Rubin, 1996; Watson, Batchelor, & Claxton, 1999), leading to new ways of understanding and engendering mental well-being (e.g., Kabat-Zinn's mindfulness-based stress-reduction programs; Kabat-Zinn & Chapman-Waldrop, 1988; Kabat-Zinn, Massion, Kristeller, & Peterson, 1992). Because Buddhist psychology is largely focused on analyzing and understanding the nature of the self, many of its ideas have proved especially useful for researchers interested in self processes (e.g., Gallagher & Shear, 1999). One important Buddhist concept that is little known in Western psy-chological circles, but that is relevant to those interested in self-concepts and self-attitudes, is the construct of self-compassion (Bennett-Goleman, 2001; Brown, 1999; Hahn, 1997; Kornfield, 1993; Salzberg, 1997). Previous work by the author (Neff, 2003) has attempted to define self-compassion and consider its relationship to other aspects of psychological functioning. The current article describes the development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion, and also presents research that examines the link between self-compassion, psychological health, and other constructs such as self-esteem. Holte for their invaluable help in developing and pilot testing the self-compassion items, collecting the study data, and providing insightful ideas and comments on the topics addressed in this article.

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... Therefore, to help adolescent students better adapt to stressful situations and improve their level of well-being, it is necessary to investigate the influencing factors that significantly contribute to self-compassion in adolescent students. Neff (2003a) considered self-compassion, which refers to being kind and caring toward oneself without being self-critical or isolating oneself in the face of failures or perceived inadequacy, to be a positive emotional regulation strategy. Recent scholars proposed that decreased self-compassion could result from an increase in some negative emotions (Atkinson et al., 2017;Bluth et al., 2017). ...
... Although researchers have not explored this topic, existing research indicated that school burnout could predict changes in the levels of self-esteem (Vinni-Laakso, 2017), which is a moderately related construct to self-compassion (Breines et al., 2014). Furthermore, self-compassion is an active, approach-oriented strategy of emotion regulation (Neff, 2003a), and individuals with greater levels of emotional exhaustion may be less likely to choose a coping strategy that matches the situational demands and to monitor its effectiveness (Bakker & de Vries, 2021). In line with the above literature, some studies indeed indicated that individuals who were higher in emotional exhaustion might use avoidance coping strategies more frequently (Leiter, 1991;Martínez et al., 2020), which over time can decrease individual self-compassion levels (Ștefan, 2019). ...
... Contrary to hypothesis 2, common humanity was stable from T1 to T3. Common humanity emphasizes individuals' connectedness to others, as well as the degree to which individuals recognize that everyone will experience suffering (Neff, 2003a). Chinese students study and interact with their peers at school, which may help them recognize that the negative feelings resulting from academic pressure are common experiences for all students. ...
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Objectives We examined the developmental trajectories of emotional exhaustion and sub-components of self-compassion (i.e., self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness), as well as the longitudinal relationships between emotional exhaustion and three components of self-compassion. Methods A total of 427 Chinese adolescent students reported their emotional exhaustion and self-compassion at about 2-month intervals from the beginning to the end of the spring semester which is a complete learning cycle. A latent growth curve analytical approach was used in our study. Results The results of univariate latent growth curve models suggested that the mean level of emotional exhaustion increased over time, while the mean levels of self-kindness and mindfulness decreased through time. Additionally, parallel process models indicated that the initial levels of emotional exhaustion predicted the initial levels of self-kindness and mindfulness. Changes in emotional exhaustion predicted changes in self-kindness and mindfulness. Finally, initial levels of emotional exhaustion predicted changes in self-kindness, which suggests that high emotional exhaustion may be an antecedent to decreasing self-kindness. An additional analysis showed that gender did not moderate the above relationship patterns, indicating that the effects of emotional exhaustion on the sub-components of self-compassion were consistent across gender. Conclusions This study enriches the understanding of the longitudinal relationships between emotional exhaustion and sub-components of self-compassion in adolescent students. In addition, it provides promising information for future educational interventions, in that practitioners can promote self-compassion by alleviating emotional exhaustion in adolescent students.
... As with self-regulation, self-compassion is a coping strategy that can be taught to individuals (Kelly & Carter, 2015) and is defined as a positive attitude of connecting to oneself in a kind and caring manner (Neff, 2003). Self-compassion consists of three components: self-kindness, mindfulness, and a sense of common humanity (Neff, 2003). ...
... As with self-regulation, self-compassion is a coping strategy that can be taught to individuals (Kelly & Carter, 2015) and is defined as a positive attitude of connecting to oneself in a kind and caring manner (Neff, 2003). Self-compassion consists of three components: self-kindness, mindfulness, and a sense of common humanity (Neff, 2003). ...
... In terms of coping with adversity, self-compassion is positively associated with positive affect (i.e., feelings/emotions) and negatively related to negative affect (Leary et al., 2007;Neff et al., 2007), higher life satisfaction (r = .45;Neff, 2003), and QoL (r 2 = . 100-.190;Van Dam et al., 2011). The practice of self-compassion enables people to be kind and caring to themselves during difficult times (i.e., using self-compassion/self-regulation strategies; Neff et al., 2005) by increasing personal initiative and responsibility (Leary et al., 2007;Neff et al., 2006). Higher self-c ...
Article
Part 1 involved pilot testing two programs for people with celiac disease (self-regulation, SR; or SR plus self-compassion, SR+SC). Results from focus groups revealed participants wanted more and tailored content, and new content bi-weekly versus weekly. In Part 2, we assessed the feasibility of delivering the programs online and the effects of the programs on behavioural and psychological outcomes. All participants reported significant improvements on adherence to a gluten-free diet, quality of life, self-regulatory efficacy (SRE) and concurrent SRE. The SR+SC group reported significant improvements in self-compassion and medium effect size reductions in anxiety and depression. Findings from this study can be used to inform guidelines for strategies to help people to effectively manage and cope with celiac disease.
... The Self-Compassion Scale consists of 26 items scored on a 5-point Likert scale, divided into six subscales: Self-Kindness, Self-Judgment, Common Humanity, Isolation, Mindfulness, and Overidentification (Neff, 2003). Internal consistency ranged from Cronbach's alpha of 0.75 to 0.81 (Neff, 2003) in the original article, and from 0.71 to 0.85 (Petrocchi et al., 2014) in the Italian validation study. ...
... The Self-Compassion Scale consists of 26 items scored on a 5-point Likert scale, divided into six subscales: Self-Kindness, Self-Judgment, Common Humanity, Isolation, Mindfulness, and Overidentification (Neff, 2003). Internal consistency ranged from Cronbach's alpha of 0.75 to 0.81 (Neff, 2003) in the original article, and from 0.71 to 0.85 (Petrocchi et al., 2014) in the Italian validation study. Overall test-retest reliability was r = 0.93 during a 3-week interval (Neff, 2003). ...
... Internal consistency ranged from Cronbach's alpha of 0.75 to 0.81 (Neff, 2003) in the original article, and from 0.71 to 0.85 (Petrocchi et al., 2014) in the Italian validation study. Overall test-retest reliability was r = 0.93 during a 3-week interval (Neff, 2003). ...
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Objectives People bereaved by suicide represent a vulnerable population, but postvention still lacks evidence-based resources to support them. Mindfulness and self-compassion–based interventions have proven effective in countering depression, PTSD symptoms, and traumatic bereavement, and may also be beneficial in suicide postvention. To assess the effectiveness of Panta Rhei, a short, intensive, mindful self-compassion-based intervention for people bereaved by suicide, we evaluated baseline and follow-up levels of psychological distress, mindfulness, and self-compassion in participants and a control group. Methods The intervention was a non-randomized trial conducted with 147 people bereaved by suicide of whom 97 participated in a short 16-h intensive experiential intervention. Each of them completed the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), and Profiles of Mood States (POMS) 4–6 days prior to and after the intervention. Results Psychological distress significantly decreased in all areas evaluated by POMS. Participants also showed a significant increase in the FFMQ subscales Observe, Describe, Non-judge, and Non-react, in the SCS Self-Kindness subscale, and in overall Self-Compassion as inferred from significant group*time interaction effects. Sociodemographic, grief-related variables, SCS, and FFMQ at baseline did not correlate with changes in participants’ psychological distress. Conclusions Despite being limited by the lack of randomization for ethical reasons and the high prevalence of highly educated females in the control and intervention groups, this study illustrates the effectiveness of a short, intensive, mindful self-compassion-based intervention for a self-selected group of people bereaved by suicide.
... Experiencing and holding one's painful experience in mindful awareness refers to observing and describing one's emotions and experiences in a non-judgemental and accepting manner, focusing one's attention on the present moment (Neff, 2003a, b). Utilizing self-compassion has been associated with less negative affect, greater life satisfaction, higher emotional intelligence, psychological health, and well-being (Leary et al., 2007;Neff, 2003aNeff, , 2011. ...
... As such, we expect that self-compassion will lead to lower self-blame levels when compared to unconditional self-acceptance. As mentioned above, self-compassion is expected to lead to higher levels of empathy due to its' shared humanity component (Neff, 2003a;Welp & Brown, 2013). Although unconditional self-acceptance implies seeing the self as human and fallible (Dryden, 2013;Ellis, 2005), it does not necessarily imply the acceptance of the others. ...
... The analysis reflects that the two groups did not evolve differently from one moment of assessment to another, given the fact that the level of unconditional self-acceptance increased in both groups. These results could be explained by Neff's (2003a) suggestion, that self-compassion provides the means to help the individual reach a level of tolerance towards their own limitations and shortcomings. Taking these results into account, it is possible that self-compassion and unconditional self-acceptance intent to reach the same purpose, using different components. ...
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Self-compassion implies kindness towards oneself, a feeling of shared humanity and mindfulness. On the other hand, unconditional self-acceptance means that the self has inherent value due to its existence, therefore it should be accepted unconditionally. While there is research on each of these concepts separately, the literature is scarce when it comes to differences between the two. This study aims to investigate the effect of a self-compassion training and an unconditional self-acceptance training on self-blame levels, empathy levels, guilt- and shame-proneness levels, and performance on a task. Participants of all ages were recruited and randomized into two groups. Daily, for a week, each group had to apply a self-compassion exercise, or an unconditional self-acceptance exercise. Out of the original sample, 157 participants completed the study. A mixed ANOVA was employed for analysis. Self-compassion and unconditional self-acceptance increased in both groups. No significant differences were found between the two groups on self-blame and empathy levels. Shame-proneness levels lowered in both groups. After the training, participants in the self-compassion group presented significantly lower levels of guilt-proneness than participants in the unconditional self-acceptance group. Performance did not differ between the two groups. Although self-compassion and unconditional self-acceptance seem like different concepts, it is possible that the two lead to similar outcomes, using different means.
... Mindfulness contributes to the regulation of emotions and a greater mindful state is associated with fewer symptoms of anxiety, depression and binge eating disorder among others (22)(23)(24)(25)(26). Self-compassion has been described as the non-judgmental acceptance of one's own suffering, whilst also directing kindness towards one-self (27,28). Lower scores of self-compassion are consistently associated with mental health symptoms such as anxiety, depression, narcissism, self-criticism, and avoidance (28)(29)(30)(31)(32). Preliminary evidences suggest that emotion regulation may be a mechanism of change in the relationship between self-compassion and mental health (32)(33)(34). ...
... Mindfulness contributes to the regulation of emotions and a greater mindful state is associated with fewer symptoms of anxiety, depression and binge eating disorder among others (22)(23)(24)(25)(26). Self-compassion has been described as the non-judgmental acceptance of one's own suffering, whilst also directing kindness towards one-self (27,28). Lower scores of self-compassion are consistently associated with mental health symptoms such as anxiety, depression, narcissism, self-criticism, and avoidance (28)(29)(30)(31)(32). Preliminary evidences suggest that emotion regulation may be a mechanism of change in the relationship between self-compassion and mental health (32)(33)(34). ...
... The self-compassion scale was designed to measure self-compassion in three components: self-judgment versus self-kindness, sense of isolation versus common humanity, hyper-identification versus mindfulness (28). Respondents should score how they usually behave in difficult times on a scale of 26 with 5-point items. ...
Article
Introduction: Individuals diagnosed with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) search for pleasurable foods to avoid their negative emotional experiences. An ineffective regulation of negative emotions may be a risk factor for emotional eating, leading to suffering, dysfunctional behaviors and weight gain. The aim of this study is to understand the relationship between emotional dysregulation and emotional eating, investigating potential mediators as the intensity of the worry, avoidance of internal experiences, mindfulness and self-compassion in female anxious patients. Methods: Participants from a randomized clinical trial diagnosed with GAD answered the instruments at baseline: Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R21), Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), Action and Acceptance Questionnaire (AAQ), Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), and Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) in this cross-sectional study. We estimated Pearson correlation coefficients and performed mediation analyses. Results: We evaluated 51 individuals and 34 female participants completed all the questionnaires. Our data showed that emotional eating was positively correlated with emotional dysregulation (r=0.593; p<0.001), worry trait (r=0.402; p=0.018), and avoidance of internal experiences (r=0.565; p<0.001), whereas it was negatively correlated with self-compassion (r=-0.590; p<0.001) and mindful state (r=-0.383; p=0.026). Moreover, we demonstrated that self-compassion mediates the relationship between emotional dysregulation and emotional eating (ab product estimate = 0.043, 95% CI [0.003 to 0.084]). Conclusion: : Our findings could add to the literature by identifying psychological factors that could mediate the association between emotional dysregulation and emotional eating, allowing more effective eating behavior intervention targets in patients with GAD.
... In particular, individuals who engage in compassionate social relationships are likely to have higher levels of self-acceptance, self-kindness, and self-warmth . Self-compassion is a self-caring attitude when confronting adversity or perceived inadequacy (Neff, 2003). From a social psychological perspective (Neff, 2003), self-compassion comprises three elements: self-kindness (versus self-judgment), common humanity (versus isolation), and mindfulness (versus over-identification). ...
... Self-compassion is a self-caring attitude when confronting adversity or perceived inadequacy (Neff, 2003). From a social psychological perspective (Neff, 2003), self-compassion comprises three elements: self-kindness (versus self-judgment), common humanity (versus isolation), and mindfulness (versus over-identification). In particular, selfkindness entails the tendency to be warm and accepting, instead of harsh and critical, toward the self when encountering hardship. ...
... The participants' self-compassion was measured using the 12-item Self-Compassion Scale (Neff, 2003;Raes et al., 2011). This scale was developed based on a social psychological perspective of self-compassion (Neff, 2003;Raes et al., 2011). ...
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Objectives Research shows that compassion from others and from the self may enable university students to face, overcome, and bounce back from adversity and generate a greater sense of thriving and meaning in life. However, the underlying processes are largely unknown. The present study aimed to examine the associations of compassion with psychological distress, flourishing, and meaning in life among university students and explore the mechanisms underlying these associations. Methods A total of 536 Hong Kong university students completed questionnaires measuring their experiences of compassion from others, self-compassion, resilience, psychological distress, flourishing, and meaning in life. Results Serial mediation analyses showed that compassion from others was associated positively with self-compassion, which was, in turn, linked to greater resilience and consequently lower levels of psychological distress and higher levels of flourishing and meaning in life. Conclusions Our findings reveal the associations of compassion from others and self-compassion with the well-being and life meaning of university students. The findings highlight the importance of being open and receptive to love and kindness from others. The findings also point to the importance of developing a caring attitude toward oneself.
... Self-compassion is a key factor in mental health improvement (e.g., happiness, psychological well-being, and satisfaction with life) (Barnard & Curry, 2011). Furthermore, self-compassion that is related to beneficial mental health (Neff, 2004), can prevent individuals from pathological symptoms (e.g., anxiety, stress and depression) (Pauley & McPherson, 2010;Sun et al., 2016), and can work towards personal perfection with shortcomings (Neff, 2003a(Neff, , 2003b(Neff, , 2009. ...
... Self-compassion enhances the key facets of empathy when it comes to distinct features of being motivated by love, the altruistic role of the responders, supererogatory acts of kindness (Neff, 2003b;Sedighimornani et al., 2019;Sinclair et al., 2017). Previous studies found a significant inverse relationship between self-compassion and stress, anxiety (de Souza et al., 2020;Luo et al., 2019;MacBeth & Gumley, 2012). ...
... For example, self-compassion entails treating oneself with kindness, recognizing one's shared humanity, and being mindful when considering negative aspects of oneself (Barry et al., 2015). However, narcissism is clearly in opposition to concern for others and acknowledging shared experiences (Neff, 2003b). These studies indicated that narcissism and its dimensions can have a broad and negative impact on mental health. ...
... Neff defined it as comprising three main components: self-kindness, humanity, and mindfulness. By measuring each of these, researchers can measure and explain self-compassion (Neff & Faso, 2015;Neff, 2003a). Generally speaking, an individual with selfcompassion takes an open stance to his or her own negative aspects and experiences. ...
... A protective factor that is receiving increasing attention in the literature is self-compassion, due to its association with constructive psychological outcomes, reduced risk for psychopathology (e.g., Inwood & Ferrari, 2018), and reduced physiological responses to stress (Finlay-Jones et al., 2015). Self-compassion is considered a healthy way of relating to oneself that is positively related to positive mental health and negatively related to poor mental health (Gilbert & Procter, 2006;Neff, 2003a), and it plays an important role in mitigating stress outcomes (Arch et al., 2014;Wilson et al., 2018). ...
... Those with self-compassion are reported to be more optimistic and happier. Consequently, they cope better and have more positive affect (Neff, 2003a;Neff et al., 2007. They also show reduced physiological responses to stress, and specific stress outcomes may be mitigated (Arch et al., 2014;Finlay-Jones et al., 2015;Wilson et al., 2018). ...
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Parents of children with emotional and behavioral problems often experience emotional regulation difficulties and decreased well-being. The study examined two models (mediating and moderating) explaining associations between difficulties in emotion regulation, self-compassion, and subjective well-being among parents of children with emotional and behavioral problems. The sample comprised 662 parents of children attending the child and adolescent psychiatric center of a public hospital. Measurements included: Personal Wellbeing Index, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and Self-Compassion Scale. A regression-based path analysis directly tested the proposed moderation model using model 1 in PROCESS. Path analysis using AMOS examined the mediation model. Results supported the moderation model wherein self-compassion moderated the association between difficulties in emotion regulation and well-being. The interaction between difficulties in emotion regulation and self-compassion was significant in predicting subjective well-being. Increased difficulties in emotion regulation were associated with decreased subjective well-being, and increased self-compassion was associated with increased subjective well-being. Parents with high difficulties in emotion regulation and low self-compassion had the worst subjective well-being. The mediation model, wherein difficulties in emotion regulation mediated the association between self-compassion and subjective well-being. was not supported. The results support the subjective well-being homeostasis theory, suggesting self-compassion is a protective factor. Cultivating self-compassion may foster parents’ ability to respond to emotional distress and improve well-being.
... Self-compassion presented by Neff (2003) is a relatively new concept which has its root in Buddhism. Defined as compassion for oneself in personal inadequacies or difficult life circumstances, self-compassion is considered as a healthy and an adaptive way of relating to the self (Neff & McGehee, 2010). ...
... Defined as compassion for oneself in personal inadequacies or difficult life circumstances, self-compassion is considered as a healthy and an adaptive way of relating to the self (Neff & McGehee, 2010). The construct comprises three main components: self-kindness versus self-judgment, common humanity versus isolation, mindfulness versus over-identification (Neff, 2003). Self-compassionate people embrace personal failures or life difficulties with care, warmth and kindness rather than with harsh self-judgment or self-criticism (Neff, 2003). ...
... The construct comprises three main components: self-kindness versus self-judgment, common humanity versus isolation, mindfulness versus over-identification (Neff, 2003). Self-compassionate people embrace personal failures or life difficulties with care, warmth and kindness rather than with harsh self-judgment or self-criticism (Neff, 2003). They understand that no one is perfect and the imperfection, mistakes, failures as well as difficulties are shared human experiences and thus put themselves in the context of humanity rather than in isolation or feel separated from others when things go wrong (Neff et al., 2007a). ...
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Research shows that maladaptive perfectionism as a personality trait can result in a number of mental health problems and lowered life satisfaction levels. Since self-compassion has been demonstrated in numerous studies as an important emotional regulation resource and as an essential mental health protective factor, it is hypothesized that self-compassion may play a mediating role in the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and life satisfaction among medical students and we tried to explore this mediation by using a bi-factor model. In this cross-sectional study, 1653 Chinese undergraduate medical students (aged 17–26 years) completed questionnaires including the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS) maladaptive perfectionism subscales, the 26-item Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) and demographic information. Mediation analysis showed that self-compassion as a general factor together with its two specific factors of self-kindness and mindfulness played a full mediating role in the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and life satisfaction among medical students. This study has important implications for medical education as it adds to the literature on further understanding of the mechanism underlying the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and life satisfaction in medical students.
... In brief, psychological wellbeing can be characterized as "an umbrella term for the different valuations people make regarding their lives, the events happening to them, their bodies and minds, and the circumstances in which they live" (Diener, 2006: 400). In the literature, self-compassion is seen as one of the predictors of psychological well-being (Neff, 2003b;Neff et al., 2007). ...
... Low self-compassion has a negative impact on mental health (Gutiérrez-Hernández et al., 2021). Self-compassion, which is a protective factor for mental health, is positively associated with psychological well-being indicators such as happiness, hope, resilience, and life satisfaction (Neff, 2003b;Neff et al., 2007;Neff & McGehee, 2010;Sun et al., 2016), and negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and fear of COVİD-19 (Lau et al., 2020;MacBeth & Gumley, 2012;Neff, 2003b). Therefore, self-compassion is hypothesized to have a direct effect on resilience, fear of psychological distress,. ...
... Low self-compassion has a negative impact on mental health (Gutiérrez-Hernández et al., 2021). Self-compassion, which is a protective factor for mental health, is positively associated with psychological well-being indicators such as happiness, hope, resilience, and life satisfaction (Neff, 2003b;Neff et al., 2007;Neff & McGehee, 2010;Sun et al., 2016), and negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and fear of COVİD-19 (Lau et al., 2020;MacBeth & Gumley, 2012;Neff, 2003b). Therefore, self-compassion is hypothesized to have a direct effect on resilience, fear of psychological distress,. ...
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During the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to examine the variables that may affect the psychological distress and psychological well-being of individuals. This study aims to investigate the mediating effects of psychological resilience, fear of COVID-19, and psychological distress on the relationship between self-compassion and psychological well-being among Turkish adults. The participants of this study were chosen through the convenience sampling method. Participants consist of 617 Turkish adults, 461 (74.7%) females and 156 (25.3%) males. The participants’ ages vary between 18 and 24 (Mage = 30.44, SD = 11.45). The relations between variables were examined by bootstrapping procedure. The results showed that self-compassion, resilience, fear of COVID-19, psychological distress, and psychological well-being are significantly inter-correlated. Self-compassion significantly predicts psychological well-being through the mediating factors of resilience, fear of COVID-19, and psychological distress. It was also found that psychological distress is a mediating factor for the relationship between fear of COVID-19, resilience, and psychological well-being. The indirect effects of self-compassion on psychological well-being through mediating variables were found to be significant. Based on the findings, it can be said that self-compassion decreases individuals’ psychological distress and increases their well-being by increasing their resilience. Consequently, psychoeducational programs designed to increase self-compassion and resilience can be vital to support individuals’ mental health. In light of the literature, the results, implications, and limitations were discussed.
... There is a possibility that one of the abovementioned factors or even a combination of several factors, common to both self-compassion and sleep quality, might fully or partially account for their relationship. For example, both the lack of self-compassion and insomnia are often associated with maladaptive perfectionism, especially concern over mistakes ( Mosewich et al., 2013;Neff, 2003;Ong et al., 2019), which could then explain why lower self-compassion is related to worse sleep quality. To test this possibility, we need to determine whether the association between self-compassion and sleep would remain significant when the abovementioned factors of insomnia are controlled for. ...
... Further, there is much to be learned about the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between self-compassion and sleep quality, if such an association exists. Past research has suggested that self-compassion is negatively correlated with both anxiety and maladaptive perfectionism (Neff, 2003; and may improve sleep quality via reduced rumination (Butz & Stahlberg, 2018) and perceived stress (Hu et al., 2018). As such, it is plausible that-in the face of stress and adversity (including sleeplessness)-people with higher levels of self-compassion are less absorbed with self-critical thoughts, and hence-would experience less sleep-related anxiety and sleep-interfering cognitive arousal that perpetuate the cycle of stress and insomnia. ...
... The 26-item Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003) was used to assess six sub-components of selfcompassion: self-kindness, self-judgment, common humanity, isolation, mindfulness, and over-identification. The SCS score is the average of the six subscales scores and ranges from 1 to 5, with higher scores indicating higher levels of self-compassion. ...
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The study examined the relationship between self-compassion and sleep quality. We also investigated whether the relationship was mediated by brooding, perceived stress, sleep hygiene, and anxiety about sleep and whether self-compassion was associated with anxiety, depression, and mental well-being indirectly through sleep quality. A sample of 468 adults completed measures of demographics, health, sleep quality, self-compassion, predisposing (arousability, brooding, perfectionism, interpersonal problems), precipitating (perceived stress, presence of life-changing events) and perpetuating (sleep hygiene, anxiety about sleep) factors of insomnia, depression, anxiety and mental well-being. The results of the hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that low self-compassion was significantly associated with poorer sleep quality when controlling for socio-demographic variables, health-related factors and predisposing factors of insomnia. The association, however, became non-significant when precipitating and perpetuating factors of insomnia were added to the model. Structural equation modelling showed that the relationship between self-compassion and sleep quality was mediated by anxiety about sleep and through sequential mediations involving anxiety about sleep and then sleep hygiene; or anxiety about sleep, perceived stress and then sleep hygiene; or perceived stress and then sleep hygiene. Poor sleep in turn was associated with anxiety and depression, which had a negative effect on mental well-being. This study provided cross-sectional evidence that low self-compassion is a potential risk factor for poor sleep quality, and consequently, poor mental well-being. These findings provide insights into possible mechanisms underlying the relationship between self-compassion and sleep quality that could inform etiological models of insomnia.
... Self-compassion is compassion turned inward when confronting negative life experiences (Neff, 2003a). Neff (2003b) operationally defined and measured it using the Self-Compassion Scale, with six antagonistic components: (1) self-kindness versus self-judgment; (2) common humanity versus isolation; (3) mindfulness versus overidentification. The first dimension describes extending kindness and compassion, instead of harsh criticism, towards oneself during adversities; the second dimension describes recognizing suffering as a common experience shared by all human beings, rather than feeling isolated in difficult times; the third dimension describes holding painful experiences in a balanced perspective and recognizing their transitory nature, rather than over-identifying them as enduring truths. ...
... Results of the literature search were further screened according to the following inclusion and exclusion criteria: articles were kept if they (a) were journal articles or a thesis/ dissertation; (b) used the English language; (c) measured self-compassion (or its sub-components), using scales developed according to Neff's (2003b) six-component conceptualization; (d) measured depressive symptoms; (e) reported the correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) between self-compassion, the whole construct or its sub-components, with depression; and (f) used participant samples that were not mixed by different national/regional groups. The literature screen was completed by the first author. ...
... The self-compassion and depression scales used in each study are summarized in Supplementary Table 1. For further meta-regression analysis, we coded the use of the standard 26-item Self-Compassion scale (Neff, 2003b) as 0 and the use of other self-compassion scales as 1. We did not code different depression scales due to their high variety. ...
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Objectives This three-level meta-analysis aimed at examining the correlation between self-compassion and depression using culturally diverse samples. We also analyzed self-compassion into its sub-components and checked the cross-cultural consistency of the findings.Methods We reviewed 271 articles that measured self-compassion according to Neff’s conceptualization. A three-level meta-analytical framework, which partitioned between-study heterogeneity into within- and between-country levels, was used for all analyses. Meta-regression analyses were used to examine the moderating role of culture, according to the revised Minkov-Hofstede model.ResultsOur findings indicated that self-compassion was negatively correlated with depression with a large effect size (r = − 0.53). This effect size was closer to the correlation between the negative components of self-compassion and depression, while less close to that of the positive components of self-compassion. The distribution of between-study heterogeneity shared a similar pattern, with positive components of self-compassion showing higher variances across societies. There was evidence showing that the relationships between self-kindness and self-judgment with depression varied across societies varying in flexibility and individualism.Conclusions The effect size and cross-cultural consistency of the correlation between self-compassion and depression vary across different sub-components of self-compassion. Future cross-cultural analyses of self-compassion should pay more attention to this divergence.
... A native-speaking associate retranslated this version, which led to further adaptation and eventually to the final version. Self-compassion was assessed by the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) (Neff, 2003) adapted for children and adolescents (Stolow et al., 2016). The original version of the SCS (Neff, 2003) consists of 26 items with six subscales (selfkindness, self-judgment, common humanity, isolation, mindfulness, over-identification). Stolow et al. (2016) validated a version of the SCS for children and adolescents in which the language was made more suitable for younger persons (e.g., "not good enough" instead of "flaws and inadequacies"). ...
... Self-compassion was assessed by the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) (Neff, 2003) adapted for children and adolescents (Stolow et al., 2016). The original version of the SCS (Neff, 2003) consists of 26 items with six subscales (selfkindness, self-judgment, common humanity, isolation, mindfulness, over-identification). Stolow et al. (2016) validated a version of the SCS for children and adolescents in which the language was made more suitable for younger persons (e.g., "not good enough" instead of "flaws and inadequacies"). They identified one "positive" factor (SCS-POS) containing 12 items of the subscales self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness, and one "negative" factor (SCS-NEG) with 13 items of the subscales self-judgment, isolation, and overidentification from the original SCS by Neff (2003). ...
... The original version of the SCS (Neff, 2003) consists of 26 items with six subscales (selfkindness, self-judgment, common humanity, isolation, mindfulness, over-identification). Stolow et al. (2016) validated a version of the SCS for children and adolescents in which the language was made more suitable for younger persons (e.g., "not good enough" instead of "flaws and inadequacies"). They identified one "positive" factor (SCS-POS) containing 12 items of the subscales self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness, and one "negative" factor (SCS-NEG) with 13 items of the subscales self-judgment, isolation, and overidentification from the original SCS by Neff (2003). Items are rated on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (almost never) to 5 (almost always). ...
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Objectives Based on the current literature, mindfulness seems to have positive effects on mental and physical health not only in adults but also in children and adolescents. Research should further investigate these findings and needs properly validated measures. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to validate a German version of the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM). Methods A sample of 248 children and adolescents (10–19 years, M = 14.85, SD = 2.55, 58.87% females) filled in the CAMM, measures of self-compassion, internalizing (depression and anxiety) and externalizing (destructiveness and boundary violations) symptoms, and quality of life. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to test the original factor structure. Also, internal consistency, convergent validity, and possible gender and age group differences were examined. Results Results did not support the original one-factor structure of the CAMM with ten items but indicated a one-factor structure with seven items for the German version of the CAMM. Internal consistency was good with Cronbach’s α = .83 and McDonald’s ω = .85. Convergent validity of the seven-item scale was indicated by moderate correlations in expected directions with self-compassion, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and quality of life. Conclusions The German seven-item version of the CAMM seems to be a promising tool to measure mindfulness in German-speaking children and adolescents.
... A growing body of evidence suggests that self-compassion is associated with better mental health and psychosocial well-being (e.g., Zessin et al., 2015). While there are multiple definitions and measures of self-compassion (Mascaro et al., 2020), for the purposes of this systematic review, selfcompassion is defined as a way of responding to the self in times of suffering, characterized by self-kindness versus self-judgment, common humanity versus isolation, and mindfulness versus over-identification or avoidance (detailed descriptions of each component can be found in Neff, 2003). Meta-analyses have found that greater self-compassion was associated with greater overall and psychological well-being (Zessin et al., 2015) and lower mental health symptoms such as stress, anxiety, and depression (MacBeth & Gumley, 2012;Marsh et al., 2018). ...
... We included studies that met the following criteria: studies published in English, original peer-reviewed articles published in an academic journal, published in or after 2003 (the publication of the first standardized measure of self-compassion; Neff, 2003) quantitative studies (self-or other-report), observational studies (cross-sectional or longitudinal), experimental or randomized controlled trials, individuals aged 18 + years, subjective and/or objective measures of physical health as reported outcomes, and analyses of the total self-compassion score (either state or trait; Neff, 2003). ...
... We included studies that met the following criteria: studies published in English, original peer-reviewed articles published in an academic journal, published in or after 2003 (the publication of the first standardized measure of self-compassion; Neff, 2003) quantitative studies (self-or other-report), observational studies (cross-sectional or longitudinal), experimental or randomized controlled trials, individuals aged 18 + years, subjective and/or objective measures of physical health as reported outcomes, and analyses of the total self-compassion score (either state or trait; Neff, 2003). ...
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Objectives Growing research indicates that self-compassion is associated with key physical health outcomes in non-clinical adult populations. This systematic review was designed to characterize the mediators linking self-compassion to physical health outcomes, evaluate study quality and theoretical evidence, compare findings to the mental health literature, and provide directions for future research. Methods We searched Embase , Medline , APA PsycInfo , Scopus , AMED , and Web of Science for relevant articles (including the inclusion of formal statistical mediation tests) from 2003 to February 2022. Study quality was assessed with Downs and Black Checklist for Measuring Quality and Mediation Quality Checklist tools. Results We screened 6439 articles for title and abstracts, assessed 101 full texts for eligibility, and included 20 relevant articles. A range of mediators were categorized as testing psychological or behavioral factors. Perceived stress ( n = 5), emotion regulation ( n = 5), negative affect ( n = 3), and coping strategies ( n = 3) were the most frequently assessed mediators. In general, self-compassion had a significant indirect effect on physical health via negative affect and perceived stress (in the absence of overlapping affective mediators). Findings for emotion regulation and coping strategies were mixed. Conclusions The mediational evidence linking self-compassion to physical health via psychological and behavioral factors remains underdeveloped and focused on the measures of affect and emotion regulation. Future studies need to broaden the scope of mediators to include other self-regulatory factors indicated by theory (e.g., motivational and physiological indices) and implement designs other than cross-sectional/correlational. Protocol Registration PROSPERO CRD42021241915.
... The Table 1 Means, standard deviations, and significance tests for the sample characteristics at baseline of the different groups Note. Trait self-compassion has been assessed via the SCS (Neff, 2003a(Neff, , 2003b. The possible range of this scale is 0-30, with higher scores indicating higher trait levels of self-compassion. ...
... To assess change processes in MBCT (Feldman & Kuyken, 2011), trait levels of self-compassion (Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) (Neff, 2003a)), self-criticism (Forms of Self-Criticising/Attacking & Self-Reassuring Scale (FSCRS) (Gilbert et al., 2004)) and depressive symptom scores (Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II) (Beck et al., 1996)) were administered pre-and post-treatment. To assess the effectiveness of the self-compassion manipulation on participants' state self-compassion and self-criticism, a series of visual analogue scales (VAS, ranging from 0 to 100) was used throughout the experimental sessions. ...
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Objectives In order to address an important gap in understanding mechanisms of depressive relapse, we complemented self-report with psychophysiological measures to a specifically developed brief self-compassion exercise, to examine if mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) reduces dispositional negative self-bias in individuals with recurrent depression. Methods Individuals’ responses (self-report, heart rate, heart rate variability and skin conductance) during a previously validated brief self-compassion exercise were assessed in a repeated-measures experimental design at two timepoints 2.5–3 months apart in a convenience sample of remitted depressed attendees of an outpatient clinic for mood disorders. The first group received eight sessions of MBCT ( n = 25) in between the two measurements whereas the second group was an untreated control group ( n = 25). Results When the MBCT group engaged in the self-compassion exercise after MBCT, they showed reduced physiological arousal and increased heart rate variability whereas no changes were observed in the untreated control group. Whereas self-reported state self-compassion after the exercise increased in both groups at both timepoints, only in the MBCT group were the overall levels of state and dispositional self-compassion increased significantly. Conclusion MBCT appears to effectively reduce negative self-bias and facilitates psychophysiological benefits associated with a more positive self-view. Physiological responses to our self-compassion exercise could be useful markers of treatment-related changes and further mechanism research on depressive relapse prevention.
... The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003) was used to assess the level of participants' self-compassion. Similar to the original version, the French version is composed of six different subscales: self-kindness (e.g., "I'm tolerant of my own flaws and inadequacies"); common humanity (e.g., "I try to see my failings as part of the human condition"); mindfulness (e.g., "When I'm feeling down I try to approach my feelings with curiosity and openness"); self-judgment (e.g., "When times are really difficult, I tend to be tough on myself"); isolation (e.g., "When I'm feeling down I tend to feel like most other people are probably happier than I am"); overidentification (e.g., "When something upsets me I get carried away with my feelings"). ...
... This finding can be linked to the practice of general skills in the acceptance of oneself and others. As Neff (2003) stated, being mindful helps individuals experience and accept various emotions instead of avoiding or repressing them, thus improving self-compassionate attitudes. The increase in positive self-compassion might be part of a virtuous circle among different variables, such as positive thoughts and emotions, allowing participants to engage in an upward spiral toward greater psychological well-being. ...
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Objectives The benefits of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for stress, depression, and anxiety have been shown in various studies. However, only a few studies have investigated the effects of MBI on positive psychological functioning, and even fewer studies have simultaneously studied positively and negatively valenced variables. Nevertheless, the evaluation of both seems indispensable for understanding mindfulness and its effects on psychological health. Therefore, this randomized controlled trial compared the effects of a home-based, 6-week MBI on positive and negative aspects of three psychological variables. Methods Eighty-seven participants were randomly assigned to an MBI group (n = 40) or a wait-list control group (n = 47). All participants were evaluated in terms of their positive/negative automatic thoughts, self-compassion levels, and use of cognitive emotion regulation strategies before and after the 6-week period. General linear models were used to compare outcomes on positive and negative scales through likelihood ratio tests. Results The MBI group benefited significantly from the intervention. Larger effects of the MBI on positive automatic thoughts (X²(1) = 9.75, p = .001), positive self-compassion (X²(1) = 5.63, p = .02), and “more adaptive” cognitive emotion regulation strategies (X²(1) = 8.99, p = .003) than on their negative counterparts were observed. The effects were moderated by participants’ initial scores for these variables. Conclusions The evaluation of MBI outcomes should consistently include positive and negative aspects of psychological health. In addition, the benefits of MBIs depend on participants’ initial scores for the evaluated variables. Therefore, individual differences before the intervention must be considered in evaluations.
... One promising factor that may help victims to cope with bullying and its negative consequences and foster emotional well-being is self-compassion, understood as the ability to hold one's feelings of suffering with a sense of warmth, connection and concern (Neff, 2003). Self-compassion entails six components, three of them understood as compassionate attitude towards oneself (self-kindness, common humanity and mindfulness) and three that represent an uncompassionate attitude towards oneself (self-judgement, isolation and overidentification). ...
... Internal consistency for the scale has been found to be good on the original scale (Neff, 2003), in a sample with American adolescents (Neff & McGehee, 2010), and with Spanish samples (García-Campayo et al., 2014;Játiva & Cerezo, 2014). Internal consistency for the scale in the present study (measured by Cronbach's alpha) was 0.84. ...
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The objectives of the present study were, first, to analyze the impact of direct and relational bullying on emotional well-being, and second to study if self-compassion could foster emotional well-being among those who suffer bullying. A sample composed of 433 adolescents ( M age = 13.28; SD = .72) answered two measures of direct and relational bullying based on the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire, the Self-Compassion Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The results showed that being a victim of either relational or direct bullying was associated with lower scores in positive affect and negative affect, while direct bullying was only associated with negative affect. Self-compassion was a strong predictor of emotional well-being, and self-compassion was a partial mediator between being a victim of bullying (either relational or direct) and negative affect. This research adds evidence that self-compassion may be an important component in prevention and intervention programs with victims of bullying.
... Self-compassion involves viewing oneself with kindness and in a non-judgmental manner in the face of suffering. It also involves the recognition that one's personal suffering and inadequacy is a common human experience (Neff, 2003). Research indicates that self-compassionate people experience higher levels of psychological well-being, life satisfaction, and better mental health outcomes including lower levels of depression, self-evaluative anxiety, rumination, and negative affect (Leary et al., 2007;Neff, 2003Neff, , 2009. ...
... It also involves the recognition that one's personal suffering and inadequacy is a common human experience (Neff, 2003). Research indicates that self-compassionate people experience higher levels of psychological well-being, life satisfaction, and better mental health outcomes including lower levels of depression, self-evaluative anxiety, rumination, and negative affect (Leary et al., 2007;Neff, 2003Neff, , 2009. Furthermore, emerging research identified self-compassion as an important promoting factor for seeking psychological help. ...
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While self-compassion and mental help-seeking are two important aspects emphasized in mental health literature and counseling practice, very little research has focused on how these two are associated particularly among counseling professionals–individuals providing mental health support to others but whose mental health are often overlooked. This cross-sectional study investigated a moderated mediation model examining the role of age and attitudes in the positive influence of self-compassion on mental help-seeking intention. Using a paper-and-pencil survey, data were collected from a total of 158 Filipino counseling professionals. Results revealed that mental help-seeking attitudes significantly and partially mediated the positive association between self-compassion and mental help-seeking intention. Additionally, age significantly moderated the positive relationship between self-compassion and mental help-seeking attitudes. The significant positive influence of self-compassion on mental help-seeking attitudes was strong among older participants, weak among middle-age, and diminished among younger participants. The findings provided insights on the importance of a self-compassion-based approach to counselor training. The implications of preserving counselors’ mental health in counseling practice were discussed
... Mindfulness is a process in which a person purposefully pays attention to what is occurring at the moment. Compassion in simple terms means kindness and sympathy of individuals with themselves (Neff, 2003). Self-compassion includes three aspects: common humanity, mindfulness, and self-kindness. ...
... In fact, we are not alone in our shortcomings and it is shared by all living humans. Mindfulness also means paying attention to painful thoughts and feelings at the moment and considering them as thoughts and feelings that cannot be suppressed (Neff, 2003). The MSC program is designed for general public. ...
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Child maltreatment has long-term destructive effects on a person’s psychological health. Therefore, it seems necessary to take interventions to reduce psychological symptoms and regulate the emotion of these people. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC) program on reducing psychopathological symptoms, shame, and self-criticism in young adults with a history of childhood maltreatment. The research plan was a semi-experimental design with a control group. Forty-four eligible young adults in Isfahan (Iran) enrolled in an MSC course. The participants consisted of 19 males (43%) and 25 females (57%) from 18 to 25 years old. They were randomly assigned to the experimental (N = 24) and control (N = 23) groups. The experimental group participated in eight 2-h sessions of the MSC program. The results indicated that the experimental group showed a significant decrease in anxiety (p < .001), depression (p < .01), internal shame (p < .05), self-criticism (p < .000), and a significant increase in self-compassion (p < .01) compared to the control group in both post-test and follow-up. Also, a significant reduction was observed in external shame (p < .001) and stress (p < .01) in the experimental group immediately after the end of the intervention but there were no long-term effects at the two-month follow-up (P > .05). Based on the findings, it can be concluded that MCS can improve depression, anxiety, self-criticism, internal shame, and self-compassion in young adults with childhood maltreatment. Further studies with longer follow-up periods and larger sample groups with different demographics need to be conducted to confirm these findings.
... The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003) is a selfreport scale assessing the tendency to be kind towards oneself. The SCS consists of the following subscales: selfkindness, self-judgment, common humanity, isolation, mindfulness, and over-identification. ...
... Items on the scale include "I try to be loving towards myself when I'm feeling emotional pain" and "I try to see my failings as part of the human condition." The measure demonstrated good test-retest reliability and excellent internal consistency (α = 0.92) in a sample of undergraduate students (Neff, 2003). In this study, the scale demonstrated excellent internal consistency and true reliability (at TI: α = 0.93; McDonald's ω = 0.92). ...
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Objectives Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers (HCWs) may be at greater risk of suffering from psychological distress compared to the general population. This study aimed to investigate the effects of mindfulness practice as delivered using Headspace on psychological and cognitive outcomes among HCWs in Singapore. Methods A total of 80 HCWs were recruited and randomly assigned to engage in either 3 weeks (10 min/day) of mindfulness practice using Headspace or an active control condition (Lumosity; involving playing cognitive games). Participants were administered several self-report measures and two working memory (digit span) tasks at pre- and post-intervention, and one-month follow-up. Results There were no significant between-condition changes on any outcome variables from pre- to post-intervention. From pre-intervention to 1-month follow-up, there were significantly greater improvements among Headspace participants on fear of COVID-19 (p = .005), compassion satisfaction (p = .007), trait mindfulness (p = .002), self-compassion (p = .005), sleep quality (p = .002), and the forward digit span task (p < .001). Several outcomes were mediated by increases in trait mindfulness or self-compassion. Conclusions Use of Headspace may lead to downstream benefits in reducing distress and improving psychological health outcomes among HCWs. The findings have implications for improving psychological support resources for HCWs amidst a pandemic. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT04936893).
... Self compassion merupakan sikap terbuka, memberi kebaikan dan pengertian kepada diri dalam menghadapi kekurangan dan kesulitan yang terjadi pada diri dan menyadari bahwa penderitaan dapat terjadi pada setiap orang (Neff, 2003a). Self compassion sangat bermanfaat karena individu yang menyayangi diri sendiri terbukti memiliki hasil kesehatan 1 Universitas Negeri Jakarta, miraoktaviani_1106617035@mhs.unj.ac.id 2 Universitas Negeri Jakarta, wening@unj.ac.id mental yang lebih baik daripada mereka yang kurang menyayangi diri sendiri, seperti insiden kecemasan dan depresi yang lebih rendah, karena pengalaman rasa sakit dan kegagalan tidak diperkuat dan diabadikan melalui kritik diri yang keras, perasaan terisolasi, atau identifikasi berlebihan dengan pikiran dan emosi (Neff, 2003b). Pada proses enghadapi perkuliahan di tingkat akhir khususnya dalam menyelesaikan skripsi, mahasiswa dapat mengalami berbagai kendala baik dari faktor internal maupun faktor eksternal. ...
... Menurut Neff (2003b) manfaat dari self compassion yaitu ketahanan emosional, mengembangkan harga diri dan menumbuhkan motivasi dan perkembangan diri METODOLOGI Penelitian ini menggunakan penelitian kuantitatif dengan metode korelasi. Penelitian korelasi disebut juga association research yaitu keterkaitan hubungan diantara dua atau lebih variabel yang dipelajari tanpa mencoba memengaruhi variabel-variabel tersebut (Yusuf, 2014). ...
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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara self compassion dengan resiliensi pada mahasiswa tingkat akhir. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode korelasi dengan pendekatan kuantitatif. Subjek dalam penelitian ini berjumlah 310 mahasiswa tingkat akhir Fakultas Ilmu Pendidikan Universitas Negeri Jakarta. Pengambilan sampel menggunakan Teknik accidental sampling. Alat pengumpul data berupa instrumen Skala Welas Diri (SWD) dan Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) Short version-10 item yang diadaptasi oleh peneliti. Hasil uji validitas menunjukkan semua butir pernyataan valid. Uji reliabilitas untuk variabel self compassion sebesar 0,962 dan untuk resiliensi 0,801 berada pada kategori sangat tinggi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan positif antara self compassion dengan resiliensi pada mahasiswa tingkat akhir dengan koefisien korelasi 0,498 dan siginifikansi 0,000 (p<0,05).
... Self-compassion involves self-kindness and self-understanding rather than violent self-criticism. By preventing his own distressful thoughts and emotions through conscious awareness, the individual perceives his own unique suffering as part of a great human experience [16]. Self-compassion does not require self-evaluation or comparison with others; in fact, despite the failure and inadequate understanding of oneself, it is a kind of clear communication path [17]. ...
... Thus, when external living conditions are difficult, those with self-compassion relieve themselves and seek calmness rather than endure or control those conditions [17]. Psychological research evidences suggest that self-compassion has a significant negative relationship with depression and anxiety, and a significant positive relationship with flexibility [16,19]. In addition, self-compassion has a positive and significant relationship with the quality of communication with others; selfishness is a negative and poor prediction of the quality of communication [20]. ...
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Resumen El objetivo del presente estudio de investigación fue investigar la relación entre empatía, autocompasión y altruismo en madres de niños con Trastorno del Espectro Autista y discapacidad intelectual. Método: se seleccionaron 161 participantes por muestreo de conveniencia. Se implementaron los inventarios de autocompasión, empatía y altruismo de formato abreviado. Resultados: El coeficiente de correlación de Pearson y el análisis de regresión múltiple revelaron que existe una relación directa entre empatía, autocompasión y altruismo. Conclusión: la empatía es una capacidad compleja que permite a las personas comprender los estados emocionales de los demás y da como resultado un comportamiento compasivo. La empatía requiere capacidades cognitivas, emocionales, conductuales y morales para comprender y responder al sufrimiento de los demás. La compasión es una respuesta adecuada a la percepción del sufrimiento de los demás. Además, la compasión no puede existir sin empatía; son parte del mismo continuo de respuesta y percepción el cual permite a los seres humanos pasar de la observación a la acción. Parece que el cuidado materno, junto con la esperanza de que un niño con discapacidad intelectual viva de forma independiente, proporciona las bases necesarias para la empatía, la autocompasión y el altruismo. Abstract The objective of the current research study was to investigate the relationship between empathy and self-compassion and altruism in mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and intellectual and developmental disabilities. Method: by convenience sampling, 161 participants were selected. The short form self-compassion, empathy and altruism inventories were implemented. Results: The Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis revealed that there was a direct relationship between empath, self-compassion and altruism. Conclusion: Empathy is a complex capability which enables individuals to understand the emotional states of others, and results in compassionate behaviour. Empathy requires cognitive, emotional, behavioural, and moral capacities to understand and respond to others' suffering. Compassion is a proper response to the perception of others' suffering. In addition, compassion cannot exist without empathy; they are part of the same perception and response continuum which moves human beings from observation to action. It seems that maternal care, together with the hope that a child with intellectual and developmental disabilities lives independently, provides the necessary grounds for empathy, self-compassion and altruism.
... Self-compassion involves being touched and open to one's own suffering in a non-judgmental way (rather than avoiding or disconnecting from it), a desire to alleviate one's suffering and to heal oneself with kindness, and seeing one's experience as part of the larger human experience (Neff, 2003a). According to Neff (2003b), selfcompassion relates to three key dimensions: (1) being kind and supportive to oneself, rather than harsh and self-judgmental, (2) recognizing that such difficulties constitute a normal part of humans' life (common humanity), rather than feeling isolated from other people as a result of one's imperfection, and (3) keeping the personal suffering in rational/mindful awareness, rather than becoming fully over-identified and absorbed by one's problems. Most existing research focused on the overall construct of selfcompassion, hereby combining these six aspects (Muris & Otgaar, 2020;Neff, 2003b). ...
... According to Neff (2003b), selfcompassion relates to three key dimensions: (1) being kind and supportive to oneself, rather than harsh and self-judgmental, (2) recognizing that such difficulties constitute a normal part of humans' life (common humanity), rather than feeling isolated from other people as a result of one's imperfection, and (3) keeping the personal suffering in rational/mindful awareness, rather than becoming fully over-identified and absorbed by one's problems. Most existing research focused on the overall construct of selfcompassion, hereby combining these six aspects (Muris & Otgaar, 2020;Neff, 2003b). Other researchers have elaborated on the conceptualization of self-compassion, and related self-compassion to recognizing suffering and understanding the universality of human suffering, feeling for the person suffering, tolerating uncomfortable feelings, and acting or a motivation to act to alleviate suffering (Strauss et al., 2016). ...
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Objectives More self-compassion has been related to a better psychological functioning in cancer patients, but little is known about the course of self-compassion over time in the trajectory of illness and cancer treatment. This longitudinal study aimed to examine subgroups of cancer patients with differential trajectories of self-compassion and associations of these trajectories with the course of psychological symptoms. Methods A total of 153 cancer patients participated in this longitudinal study. Self-reported questionnaires were used to measure self-compassion (i.e., overall self-compassion and, separately, positive self-compassion, and negative self-compassion), and depressive and anxiety symptoms. These assessments were taken directly after cancer diagnosis (T1), and at the start (T2) and the end (T3) of medical treatment. Latent class growth modelling and repeated measures ANOVA were applied to examine the research questions. Results We identified three trajectories of overall self-compassion (“stable low” 82.2%, “late increase” 11.8%, and “late decrease” 6.0%), four trajectories of positive self-compassion (“late decline” 57.2%, “early decline” 22.4%, “large increase” 15.1%, and “large decline” 5.3%), and four trajectories of negative self-compassion (“late decline” 42.1%, “stable negative self-compassion” 40.8%, “large fluctuation” 9.9%, and “large increase” 7.2%). Only the negative self-compassion trajectories were significantly related to the course of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Conclusions Our findings suggest that subgroups of cancer patients exist that show distinct trajectories of self-compassion over time. We identified a small group of patients at a higher risk of losing self-compassion throughout the cancer trajectory and experiencing psychological symptoms.
... According to Neff (2003a), self-compassion has three bipolar components: (1) being kind to and understanding oneself rather than being harsh and judgmental (self-kindness vs. self-judgment), (2) seeing one's suffering as a part of the shared human experience rather than as an isolated one (common humanity vs. isolation), and (3) taking a balanced perspective of one's suffering rather than being entirely obsessed with one's own emotions (mindfulness vs. over-identification). Self-compassion is typically measured as a general construct by all of the items of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003b). Recently, some researchers have suggested that it may be more meaningful to separate the general self-compassion construct into positive and negative components (Brenner et al., 2017;Montero-Marín et al., 2016;Muris & Petrocchi, 2017). ...
... Self-warmth and self-coldness were assessed using the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) (Neff, 2003b), which is a 26-item scale that consists of six subscales including self-kindness (5 items), self-judgment (5 items), common humanity (4 items), isolation (4 items), mindfulness (4 items), and overidentification (4 items). Items were rated on a 5-point scale ranging from 1 (almost never) to 5 (almost always). ...
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Objectives Attachment style, as a stable personal trait, may influence posttraumatic growth (PTG) in patients with maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Therefore, further exploration of the mediating factors that can intervene between these two variables to improve mental health is of great clinical significance. The current study aimed to examine the parallel mediating roles of self-warmth and self-coldness between attachment style and PTG among MHD patients. Methods A total of 301 MHD patients were required to complete self-reported measures of attachment style, self-warmth, self-coldness, and PTG. Structural equation modeling (SEM) using Amos (version 23.0) was conducted to test the mediating effect. Results The results showed that neither attachment anxiety (β = − 0.118, 95%CI [− 0.385, 0.143]) nor attachment avoidance (β = − 0.121, 95%CI [− 0.307, 0.072]) had a significant direct effect on PTG. However, attachment anxiety had a significant indirect effect on PTG through self-warmth (β = − 0.105, 95%CI [− 0.206, − 0.011]). In contrast, the indirect effect of attachment avoidance on PTG was not significant through either self-warmth (β = − 0.075, 95%CI [− 0.175, 0.026]) or self-coldness (β = − 0.005, 95%CI [− 0.049, 0.010]). Conclusions The significant indirect effect of attachment anxiety on PTG occurred through self-warmth rather than self-coldness, which further demonstrated the necessity of distinguishing between the positive and negative components of self-compassion. More research is needed in the future to explore the different mediating mechanisms of self-warmth and self-coldness and their different roles in leading to psychological outcomes.
... Finally, eligible studies assessed SC using a validated scale. As the first validated measure of SC was developed in 2003 (Neff, 2003b), articles published prior to 2003 were excluded. ...
... One study did not report the gender or sex of their participants (Rafiee et al., 2019). The majority of studies used Neff's (2003b) 26-item SC scale (n = 16), twelve studies used the SC short-form scale (Raes et al., 2011), seven studies used adapted versions of the SC scale (e.g., Dutch version, 24-item Iranian version, diabetes-specific scale), and two intervention studies did not measure SC. ...
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Objectives Health behavior engagement reduces adverse events associated with chronic disease. Self-regulating health behaviors is challenging; individuals are further at a disadvantage due to the experience of unpleasant affective states after chronic disease diagnosis. Self-compassion (SC)—an orientation to care for oneself during challenging times—may reduce the experience of difficult affective states and facilitate health behavior self-regulation. This study’s aim was to systematically explore SC’s relationship with affective states, health behavior engagement, and self-regulation among individuals living with a chronic disease. Methods We conducted a scoping review from six databases. Eligible studies included adults diagnosed with cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), or respiratory disease; utilized a SC intervention, prospective or cross-sectional design; were written in English; investigated affective states, health behaviors, and/or self-regulation; and used a validated SC scale. Results Thirty-seven articles (N = 7,141 participants) were included in the review. SC was positively associated with health behavior engagement and adaptive cognitive emotional regulation in all included chronic diseases (except respiratory disease). SC was negatively associated with unpleasant affective states in the context of all included chronic diseases. Preliminary results indicate SC interventions may lead to decreases in unpleasant affective states among individuals diagnosed with cancer, diabetes, and CVD. No research has examined SC and behavior self-regulation. Conclusions This review highlights the potential psychological and physical benefits of SC for individuals diagnosed with a chronic disease. More research is needed to understand the role of SC among individuals diagnosed with a chronic disease.
... Therefore, we assume that being a distinct construct, religious sectarian would not relate to self-compassion, which may establish evidence for the discriminant validity of the measure of religious sectarian intolerance. The scale used for measuring self-compassion was originally developed by Neff (2003) and we used its Urdu translated version (Imtiaz, 2012). This scale had 26 items with six subscales including Self-kindness (items no. 5, 12, 19, 23, and 26), 8,11,16,and 21), Common humanity (items no. 3, 7, 10, and 15), Isolation (items no.4, ...
... The score range was 26-130. Previous studies have shown that SCS has excellent internal consistency (α = 0.92; Neff, 2003). The present study used the Urdu version of SCS (α = 0.71; Imtiaz, 2012). ...
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Religious sectarian intolerance occurs when members of different religious sects within a faith are unable to tolerate the religious beliefs and practices of each resulting in bigotry and prejudice toward each other. The present research sought to develop a psychometrically sound measure of religious sectarian intolerance for Muslim adults. The research comprised two studies. Study I involved the development of an initial item pool for the Religious Sectarian Intolerance Scale (RSIS). The initial pool of items was based on thematic analysis from focus group discussions. This item pool was reviewed by a committee of experts resulting in a 39-item initial draft of the RSIS, which was administered to a purposive sample of Pakistani Muslim adults (N = 270). The exploratory factor analysis revealed a four-factor structure for the RSIS (with loadings ranging from 0.56 to 0.94) that explained 62% of the variance. The factors include dogmatic loyalty (9 items), social intolerance (13 items), renunciation of other religious Sects. (8 items), and propagation of one's Sect. (9 items). All factors were moderately related to each other with acceptable Cronbach's alpha (.78 to .92). Study II replicated the factorial structure of RSIS through confirmatory factor analysis on an independent sample of Muslim adults (N = 274). The convergent validity of the RSIS was demonstrated by a positive relationship with dogmatism. Overall, the findings indicated that the RSIS is a psychometrically sound measure that provides a standard operationalization for religious sectarian intolerance in Muslim cultures and it needs to be studied further in Muslim populations across the globe.
... Self-compassion involves self-kindness and self-understanding rather than violent self-criticism. By preventing his own distressful thoughts and emotions through conscious awareness, the individual perceives his own unique suffering as part of a great human experience [16]. Self-compassion does not require self-evaluation or comparison with others; in fact, despite the failure and inadequate understanding of oneself, it is a kind of clear communication path [17]. ...
... Thus, when external living conditions are difficult, those with self-compassion relieve themselves and seek calmness rather than endure or control those conditions [17]. Psychological research evidences suggest that self-compassion has a significant negative relationship with depression and anxiety, and a significant positive relationship with flexibility [16,19]. In addition, self-compassion has a positive and significant relationship with the quality of communication with others; selfishness is a negative and poor prediction of the quality of communication [20]. ...
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The objective of the current research study was to investigate the relationship between empathy and self-compassion and altruism in mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and intellectual and developmental disabilities. Method: by convenience sampling, 161 participants were selected. The short form self-compassion, empathy and altruism inventories were implemented. Results: The Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis revealed that there was a direct relationship between empath, self-compassion and altruism. Conclusion: Empathy is a complex capability which enables individuals to understand the emotional states of others, and results in compassionate behaviour. Empathy requires cognitive, emotional, behavioural, and moral capacities to understand and respond to others' suffering. Compassion is a proper response to the perception of others’ suffering. In addition, compassion cannot exist without empathy; they are part of the same perception and response continuum which moves human beings from observation to action. It seems that maternal care, together with the hope that a child with intellectual and developmental disabilities lives independently, provides the necessary grounds for empathy, self-compassion and altruism.
... From an evolutionary-neuroscientific approach, selfcompassion is characterised as a motivation and willingness that increases 'a sensitivity to suffering in self and others with a commitment to try to alleviate and prevent it' (Gilbert & Choden, 2013, p. 94). Neff (2003b) referred to the selfcompassion as a non-judgemental and open attitude to one's own suffering and failures, which involves kindness and acceptance of one's conflicts as a part of the common human experience. In other words, self-compassion is a balanced state of mind characterised by three main components, each of which involves a positive and a negative pole: self-kindness versus self-judgement, a sense of common humanity versus isolation and mindfulness versus over-identification (Neff, 2003a(Neff, , b, 2016b. ...
... Specifically, we compared the overall ED symptom score from this study with Villaroel et al.'s (2008) study, in which 798 university women participated. The mean self-compassion score from this sample was compared with the mean self-compassion score from Neff's (2003b) research, in which 225 university women were included. Results from the one-sample z test showed that the mean of the overall ED symptom score in this study was significantly higher (z-statistic = 3.9; p < 0.001; Cohen d = 0.16) compared to the sample in the study of Villarroel et al. (2011). ...
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Objectives Self-compassion, defined as the ability to be accepting and loving towards oneself, has been identified as a potential protective factor against the development of body dissatisfaction and eating disorders (ED). In contrast, compulsive exercise is a core feature in the development and progression of EDs and is often employed as a maladaptive coping strategy for negative emotions and body image concerns. However, the relationships between self-compassion and compulsive exercise attitudes and behaviours are as yet unexplored. Methods A total of 539 Spanish female university students (Mage = 20.03, SD = 2.22) completed measures of compulsive exercise, frequency of compensatory exercise, self-compassion, eating disorder symptoms, and anxiety and depression. Results Hierarchical multiple regressions showed that lower levels of self-compassion significantly predicted some compulsive exercise elements (namely, weight control exercise and lack of exercise enjoyment) after controlling for ED symptoms, anxiety, depression and age. However, frequency of compensatory exercise was unrelated to self-compassion elements. Findings from the mediation models suggest an indirect effect of self-compassion on the association between compulsive exercise and ED symptoms. Conclusions The findings suggest a significant link between low self-compassion and greater harmful exercise attitudes and behaviours towards exercise. Further research is needed to clarify whether self-compassion may be a core feature in the development and maintenance of harmful attitudes and behaviours towards exercise.
... While different definitions of self-compassion exist in the current literature (see review by Gilbert, 2017;Khoury, 2019;Strauss et al., 2016), selfcompassion is broadly considered to be theoretically adjacent to mindfulness (Khoury, 2019). A common operationalization based on the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003b) involves three interconnected dimensions: holding painful thoughts in mindful awareness, showing kindness towards oneself in the face of distress, and understanding difficulties as part of a larger human experience (Neff, 2003a). Alternative conceptualizations of self-compassion include Gu et al., (2020) five-dimensional model (recognizing suffering; understanding the universality of suffering; feeling for the person suffering; tolerating uncomfortable feelings; and motivation to act/alleviate suffering), and Gilbert's dual component framework combining sensitivity to one's own suffering (compassionate engagement) with a commitment to alleviate and prevent it (or compassionate action; Gilbert & Mascaro, 2017;. ...
... It is noteworthy to mention that although no inclusion or exclusion criteria were set regarding which selfcompassion measures studies used, all included studies assessing self-compassion used the SCS (Neff, 2003b), which operationalizes self-compassion as comprising three negative (self-judgment, isolation, overidentification) and three positive (self-kindness, common humanity, mindfulness) subscales. Recent studies suggest that the negative self-compassion subscales may overlap with constructs assessing psychological difficulties, maladaptive coping, and psychopathology-these associations may inflate the relationship between self-compassion and these constructs (MacBeth & Gumley, 2012;Muris et al., 2018). ...
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Objectives While extant research indicates an inverse association between self-compassion and mindfulness with non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs), estimates of magnitude remain unknown. The present systematic review and meta-analysis aim to quantify the relationship between self-compassion and mindfulness with engagement in NSSI and STBs. Methods Literature searches in four electronic databases (PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Scopus, ProQuest Dissertations, and Theses Global) were conducted. Effect sizes were estimated using pooled correlation coefficients and a random effects model. Meta-regressions with mixed-effect models were used to determine the moderators of the associations. Results Sixty-eight independent samples from 62 different articles (N = 53,797) met inclusion criteria. Analyses yielded a medium negative correlation between self-compassion and mindfulness with both NSSI and STBs. Among mindfulness facets, the nonjudging, acting with awareness, and describing facets demonstrated the largest significant correlations with both STBs and NSSI. The self-coldness dimension (vs self-warmth dimension) of self-compassion demonstrated the largest correlation to STBs. There was a stronger negative correlation between self-compassion and mindfulness with engagement in NSSI and STBs in adolescent samples (than in clinical and college student samples) and with STBs’ recency (reported within the past 12 months vs lifetime). Associations between NSSI and STBs with self-compassion and mindfulness were greater in lower-quality studies and studies with younger or male samples, although effect sizes remained modest. Conclusions Findings suggest that self-compassion and mindfulness may buffer against NSSI and STBs. Future study regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of self-compassion and mindfulness-based interventions among NSSI and STB populations is warranted. Meta-analysis registration PROSPERO CRD42020167823.
... The SCS-SF has demonstrated strong psychometric properties. 37,38 Cronbach's alpha in the current sample was 0.86. ...
Article
Objective: The current study explored the role of self-compassion on the relationship between perceived stress and resilience among college students experiencing different levels of anxiety symptomatology. Participants: Three hundred and forty-five undergraduate students (Mage= 19.66; 74.8% female) were recruited from a public university in the northeastern United States. Methods: Participants completed self-report measures assessing perceived stress, self-compassion, anxiety symptomatology, and resilience. Results: Self-compassion was found to indirectly affect the association between perceived stress and resilience at both low (b = -0.06, 95% CI [-0.08, -0.04]) and high levels (b = -0.03, 95% CI [-0.05, -0.01]) of anxiety symptomatology. The index of moderated mediation was significant (b = 0.005, 95% CI [0.001, 0.01]). Conclusions: Results of the present study suggest that interventions to enhance resilience should incorporate strategies aimed at managing stress and anxiety and increasing self-compassion.
... An individual psychological resource (Neff & Germer, 2013) that has been associated with better maternal mental health and parenting, during the postpartum period, is self-compassion (e.g., Fernandes et al., 2021c). In general, self-compassion can be characterized by an attitude of kindness toward one's suffering and the desire to relieve it (Neff, 2003(Neff, , 2009Neff, & Vonk, 2009), and more specifically it involves three interactive bipolar components: ...
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Self-compassion is an important psychological skill that may facilitate the adoption of a mindful way of parenting, especially during the COVID‐19 pandemic. However, the association between these constructs may be explained by several variables, such as maternal psychopathological symptoms, with a well-established interference in parenting. This study aimed to compare mothers who experienced and mothers who did not experience a negative emotional impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on self-compassion, mindful parenting, postpartum depressive symptoms (PPDS) and postpartum anxious symptoms (PPAS). We also explored whether mothers’ self-compassion was associated with mindful parenting and whether this relationship may be mediated by PPDS and PPAS. A sample of 977 Portuguese mothers of infants aged between zero and six months completed an online survey between December 2020 and January 2021, a period of major pandemic-related restrictions. The survey included several self-report questionnaires that assessed sociodemographic, clinical, and COVID-19 information, self-compassion, mindful parenting, PPDS and PPAS. Mothers who reported having felt that the pandemic had a negative emotional impact during their postpartum period (79.5%) presented lower levels of self-compassion and mindful parenting, and higher levels of PPDS and PPAS. Regarding the mediation model, higher levels of self-compassion were related to higher levels of mindful parenting, and this association was mediated by lower levels of PPAS. These results highlight the relevance of mothers’ self-compassion for helping them feel less anxious and to adopt a mindful way of parenting in the postpartum period, particularly during the pandemic. Compassion-based interventions may be particularly important in reducing PPAS and promoting mindful parenting and should be available to postpartum mothers, especially during, but also beyond the pandemic.
... The 12-item instrument is comprised of three key dimensions: self-kindness, common-humanity, and mindfulness. A growing body of research links self-compassion with emotional resilience, greater psychological health, optimism, and lower indices of depression and anxiety (Neff, 2003). Cronbach's α = .86. ...
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Person-centered studies have grown in the mindfulness literature recently. Previous research has suggested four profiles of mindfulness, each with differential mental health and emotional outcomes. The present study supports the existence of these four profiles of mindfulness based on the five facets of mindfulness (observing, nonjudging, acting with awareness, nonreactivity, and describing). We provide further insight into differences in levels of psychopathology, positive psychology indicators, and spirituality among these profiles. Using model-selection criteria (e.g., BIC, AIC, entropy) in a latent profile analysis (LPA), we identified four clusters of individuals based on their scores on the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) among 1499 US participants. We then compared profiles across measures of positive psychology, psychopathology, and spirituality. Overall, we found support for the four profiles of mindfulness in the U.S. sample, replicating and extending findings from prior studies. In addition, the four profiles showed differential levels of previous experience with mindfulness, mind–body and meditative practice, and in positive psychology and spirituality measures. Specifically, the high-mindfulness profile appeared as the healthiest and most adjusted of the four profiles; the judgmental observing and nonjudgmental aware profile showed higher levels of anxiety, depression, and the lowest levels of well-being. By contrast, the average mindfulness displayed intermediate levels of adjustment, spirituality, and well-being. Spiritual and positive psychology outcomes among the nonjudgmentally aware and judgmental observing appeared mixed. In sum, mindfulness profiles are differentially associated with psychopathology, positive psychology, and spirituality.
... Future investigations may benefit by expanding on the current study to include an exploration of self-criticism and shame, as previous research has found strong positive correlations of self-criticism with fears of happiness and compassion, as well as with anxiety, stress and depression (Gilbert et al., 2012). Similarly, a recent study by Lyvers, Randhawa, and Thorberg (2020b) utilizing Neff's (2003) Self Compassion Scale (SCS) found that in a regression model, alexithymia and self-judgment -one of six SCS subscales -were the only significant predictors of negative moods (depression, anxiety, stress) in a nonclinical sample. Applying such an approach may shed further light on how negative emotions directed towards the self may be linked to fear of positive emotions as well as to negative moods among those with high levels of alexithymia. ...
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Alexithymia, a personality trait characterized by difficulties identifying and describing feelings and an externally oriented thinking style, is associated with negative moods such as depression and anxiety. The present study examined fears of positive moods (happiness and compassion) as potential mediators of this relationship. A nonclinical online sample of 206 male and female young adults completed validated measures of alexithymia, fear of happiness, fear of compassion, and negative moods (depression, anxiety, stress). Alexithymia was positively correlated with fear of happiness, fear of compassion, and negative moods. A hierarchical regression model with alexithymia and fears of positive emotions as predictors, controlling for demographic variables and socially desirable responding, explained 64% of variance in negative moods. Mediation modelling that controlled for demographic variables and socially desirable responding indicated that fears of happiness and compassion were partial mediators of the association of alexithymia with negative moods, with the indirect effects predominating over the direct effect. Results are discussed in terms of previous research and theory as well as potential clinical implications for addressing the reported relationships of alexithymia, fears of positive emotions, and negative moods.
... This is a positive aspect of the helping professions and one of the elements that attract those who choose to work in nursing (Jakimowicz et al. 2018), for example, similarly to what often happens with police officers, who decide to perform their role for the benefit of society that they help and represent daily, providing them with a sense of satisfaction for what they do. CS is associated with positive affection, satisfaction with one's life, and self-esteem (Kohan and Mazmanian 2003) and emerges as a source of internal strength for employees, promoting physical and mental health (Neff 2003) and serving as a protective factor, especially in slowing work stress that, sooner or later, may progress to burnout (Hooper et al. 2010;Grant et al. 2019;Wagaman et al. 2015). In addition, and despite this factor implying that professionals are more open and involved with the suffering of those they help (Lago and Codo 2013;Stamm 2010), CS is associated with professional commitment and engagement. ...
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Burnout should be seen as an important phenomenon influencing the services provided by police forces, due to its high exposure to stressful events. The study sought to examine the impact of burnout on performance and turnover intention of Portuguese police forces, as well as to analyze the moderating effect of compassion satisfaction (CS) on this relationship. Data were collected in 2021 from 1.682 Portuguese police officers, using individual surveys. The results showed that (1) burnout is negatively related to performance; (2) burnout is positively related to turnover intention; (3) CS, although it has a positive effect on performance, does not assume a moderating role, as expected, in the relationship between burnout and performance; (4) CS assumes a moderating role in the relationship between burnout and turnover intention. That is, when a person who still suffers from burnout feels CS, it decreases the intention to leave the organization. The implications and the bearings of this study are discussed and presented regarding the theoretical, empirical and practical perspectives in order to better support both the comprehension of burnout in police officers and offer the best practical recommendations.
... The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS-Short Form) (Neff, 2003) assesses self-compassion as a specific strategy to deal with emotional self-regulation. It is a 12-item questionnaire organized into six domains: self-kindness, self-judgment, common humanity, isolation, mindfulness, and over-identification. ...
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Severe restrictive measures were implemented globally to limit the spread of the Covid-19 pandemic leading to significant lifestyle changes and impacting on both the physical and the mental health of citizens. Caught by the fear of getting sick, some individuals have adopted behaviors which favored the development of exercise addiction (EA). Our aim was to evaluate physical activity habits and the risk of EA in the general Italian population during phase 1 of the lockdown. The role of appearance anxiety (AA), self-compassion, and use of performance and image enhancing drugs (PIEDs) as predictors of EA development were investigated. A comparison between physically active subjects with the inactive ones was also included. Between April and May 2020, an online survey was conducted across Italy. Nine hundred thirty-six answers were collected. The rate of EA in the physically active sample (782 subjects) was 4.1%. The physically active group showed higher SCS scores and a greater use of PIEDs. Of the physically active participants, 84.2% reported variations in their fitness routine. Perceived benefit of exercising resulted significantly higher in those with EA. Subjects with EA reported stronger motivation in engaging in physical activity as for “physical wellness,” “psychological well-being,” and “sexual attractiveness and confidence in relationship.” A higher level of AA, a lower level of self-compassion, and a higher perceived benefit of exercising during lockdown were all significant predictors for the presence of EA. Our findings suggest that the fear of getting sick from Covid-19, combined with radical changes in the lifestyles induced by the lockdown and individual personological characteristics, can favor the development of EA and related phenomena in the general population.
... There may be particular value in interventions aimed at reducing self-blame tendencies given the strong links between selfblame coping, self-punishment, and NSSI [8,40]. Compassion-oriented therapies -which maintain a focus on non-judgement and self-kindness [41,52] -may have promise in both reducing NSSI risk, and risk conferred through self-blame coping tendencies. Indeed, selfcompassion has been implicated as an independent protective factor for NSSI in a number of studies [14,24]. ...
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Background Prior work suggests that an unstable identity is an important developmental factor impacting risk for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), partly because it can foster lowered self-esteem and self-blame coping styles. Theoretical models suggest that how one regards the self, including experiences of and reactions to one's body (e.g., body regard), impact how factors such as identity instability and coping styles influence NSSI behavior. This study tested whether body regard moderated the mediational effect of self-blame coping on the relationship between poor self-concept clarity and past-year NSSI. Methods A sample of 1906 university students had complete data from an anonymous online questionnaires measuring self-concept clarity, self-blame coping, and past-year NSSI behaviors. Results Past-year NSSI was reported by 23.5% of the sample. Moderated mediational regression analyses using the PROCESS macro for SPSS were run. Body regard significantly moderated the effects of self-blame coping and poor self-concept clarity on NSSI such that neither risk factor was associated with NSSI when body regard was high. Poor self-concept clarity also retained a significant, although weakened, direct relationship with NSSI in the full model. Conclusions Positive body regard is protective and appears to mitigate the strength of the relationships between poor self-concept clarity and self-blame coping on past year NSSI. When body regard is low or average, poor self-concept clarity is associated with increased NSSI, partly through the effect of self-blame coping. Treatments that address body- and self-perceptions related to self-concept may enhance the effectiveness of interventions used to reduce NSSI behavior.
... Fourth, although the study was based on the UFM model, the UFM scale was not available when this study was conducted, and therefore, two forms of mechanistic mindfulness from the UFM model (describing thoughts and feelings, observing sensations) were not assessed in the current study. Extending this point, although reasonably comprehensive, the BI-UFM model has yet to incorporate constructs like self-compassion (Neff, 2003; see Monteiro, 2017) and non-attachment (Sahdra et al., 2010) which have growing literatures supporting their salience in the broader context of mindfulness. Future work could therefore seek to incorporate a broader range of mindfulness constructs within the BI-UFM framework. ...
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Objectives The Unified Flexibility and Mindfulness (UFM) model is a process-oriented multistage mechanistic model operationalizing the interplay between forms of mechanistic mindfulness and informed mindfulness, thereby representing holistic mindfulness as a set of interrelated processes and clarifying their links to well-being. Recent cross-sectional, correlational findings from a US sample supported the UFM model. The current study used data across 4 countries to link everyday aspects of Buddhism to components within the UFM model, thereby (1) extending work on the UFM model cross-culturally, (2) empirically tracing various aspects of mindfulness back to their origins, and (3) extending Buddhist psychology to embrace a broad operationalization of mindfulness within the Buddhism-Informed UFM (BI-UFM) model. Methods A sample of 2091 online respondents (68% female, M = 32yo) drawn from 5 cultural groups (668 white Americans, 319 Asian Americans, 332 Chinese, 400 Japanese, 362 Taiwanese) completed the Three Teachings of East Asia (TTEA) inventory, the Multidimensional Psychological Flexibility Inventory (MPFI; a UFM measure), and measures of distress and well-being. Results Confirmatory SEM analyses suggested that across random sample halves, culture groups, and Buddhists vs. non-Buddhists, key aspects of Buddhism (e.g., impermanence, meditation practice) were stably and consistently linked to greater mindful present moment awareness and decentering, which were in turn linked to value-driven behavior and well-being. Aspects of punishing karmic view were linked to higher distraction/inattention and defensively reacting to difficult experiences, which were in turn linked to aimless haphazard behavior and distress. Exploratory network analyses yielded comparable findings, highlighting the central nature of meditation practice and informed, value-driven behavior. The results more broadly supported the BI-UFM process model in which forms of mechanistic mindfulness were linked to greater informed mindfulness (e.g., decentering and value-driven behavior), highlighting possible paths toward cultivating holistic mindfulness, thereby promoting well-being. Conclusions The current results support the BI-UFM model as a conceptual framework for understanding how Buddhist thought might shape the lives of individuals across the globe.
... Self-Compassion Scale (Neff, 2003b), in the Italian validation by Voci et al. (2019). It consists of 26 items, 13 of which assess self-compassion (example item 'When I'm going through a very hard time, I give myself the caring and tenderness I need'), and 13 selfderogation (example item 'I'm disapproving and judgmental about my own flaws and inadequacies') to be rated on a 5-point-Likert scale ranging from 1 = almost never to 5 = almost always. ...
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Increasing well-being is a prominent worldwide goal that can be achieved primarily through social support and environmental factors. However, in times of social distancing or isolation, it is important to also rely on self-managed activities. This study aimed to (a) test the effectiveness of a seven-week well-being intervention, in increasing need satisfaction, self-compassion, emotion regulation, and grateful disposition by curbing need frustration, self-derogation, and emotional suppression, and (b) examine the maintenance and long-term effects of the practices based on recall, elaboration, and writing. One hundred and twenty university students weekly recalled and elaborated for seven consecutive weeks on three recent episodes of gratitude, self-affirmation, goal setting, or meaningful things, according to the group to which they were assigned. Before the intervention, immediately after and one month later, they filled in questionnaires to assess need satisfaction/frustration, self-compassion/derogation, emotion regulation and grateful disposition. The results confirmed an increase in well-being and a decrease in ill-being for all groups (Cohen d for the significant differences ranging from 0.18 to 0.53). The effects were maintained one month later and even increased for self-compassion, self-derogation, need frustration, and emotional reappraisal. A follow-up assessment revealed that a third of the participants continued with the well-being practices. Implications and suggestions for future well-being interventions are discussed.
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Introduction Despite well-established evidence on the relationship between social support and posttraumatic growth (PTG), there remains a paucity of evidence regarding the mechanism that underlie this relationship. Objective This study examined the relationship between social support and PTG, while exploring self-compassion as an intermediatory factor in this association. Method A cross-sectional study with 447 college students was conducted in Trabzon, Turkey. The data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Results Results indicated that perceived social support and self-compassion were associated with PTG. Furthermore, a significant indirect effect between social support and PTG via self-compassion emerged. Conclusion Based on the study findings, tailored intervention programs targeting self-compassion and perceived social support in trauma-exposed young adults may be useful for promoting posttraumatic growth.
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Objectives While the positive effects of trait self-compassion on affective well-being are widely known, within-person effects of state self-compassion and underlying mechanisms between state self-compassion and affective well-being have rarely been investigated. The current study aimed at examining whether perceived stress and healthier coping responses are mediators in the relation between momentary self-compassion and affective well-being. Methods A total of 213 participants completed measures of momentary self-compassion, momentary perceived stress, and engagement and disengagement coping responses, as well as affective well-being (i.e., presence of positive and absence of negative affect) via their smartphones. The ambulatory assessment design included three measurements per day (morning, afternoon, evening) for 7 days. Results Multilevel modeling revealed that within-persons, momentary levels of self-compassion were related to momentary levels of stress, coping responses, and affective well-being components. 1–1-1 multilevel mediation analyses were conducted and demonstrated that, at the within-person level, momentary self-compassion was related to more positive and less negative affect via perceived stress and facilitating healthy coping responses. The within-person relations of the original 1–1-1 multilevel mediation could partially be replicated in an alternative model with momentary self-compassion one occasion prior and positive affect. However, the link between self-compassion one occasion prior and negative affect was only mediated by perceived stress. Conclusions This work helps to understand the processes underlying the adaptive effects of momentary self-compassion on momentary affective well-being on a given occasion. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
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Objectives Kindness and compassion are prosocial constructs aimed at benefiting others, with the former focused on happiness and the latter on suffering. Despite these distinctly different motivations, kindness and compassion are often used interchangeably. If compassion and kindness are different processes, they should respond differently to the same facilitators and inhibitors, with a key moderator being likeability. Methods We used a cross-sectional survey design to examine whether a target that differed in terms of likeability (liked versus disliked) influenced willingness to engage in kind acts compared to compassionate acts, and the emotional patterns experienced. We recruited 150 participants (83 men, 66 women, 1 other; M age = 27.85, SD = 10.21) using an online survey platform. Results Participants reported less willingness to engage in acts of kindness compared to acts of compassion regardless of target likeability. However, this reduction in willingness was markedly greater for disliked targets. Compassionate acts towards liked targets were associated with significantly higher levels of negative emotions (e.g., irritation, sadness, anger, anxiety, and disgust) when compared to kind acts. Conversely, compassionate acts towards disliked targets elicited less feelings of irritation and anger compared to kind acts. Conclusions These findings indicate that kindness and compassion result from separable motivational systems, differing in both the emotions elicited and the willingness to act. Reluctance in helping disliked others is reduced when the action is aimed at reducing suffering.
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Although the organizational and professional variables that have an impact on the psychological adjustment of mental health professionals are well known, there is limited evidence of the individual factors playing a role in the development of secondary traumatic stress. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effects of personal trauma history, self-compassion, and emotional intelligence on secondary traumatic stress symptoms among mental health professionals. A cross-sectional study with 155 mental health professionals who work with traumatized clients was conducted in Turkey. The data collected by Life Events Checklist for DSM-5 (LEC-5), Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short Form (TEIQue-SF), Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale (STSS) were analyzed using hierarchical regression. The study results showed that personal trauma history predicted a higher risk of experiencing secondary traumatic stress. Emotional intelligence and self-compassion were negative predictors of stress symptoms. According to the findings of the current study, self-compassion and emotional intelligence play a protective role in the development of secondary traumatic stress.
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In the context of both research and clinical applications, Buddhist sources have inspired the theoretical and practical aspects of self-compassion as a construct and target of mental training. However, the Indo-Tibetan Buddhist traditions that most strongly emphasize the importance of compassion articulate it in ways that are incompatible with contemporary notions of self-compassion. This article examines these incompatibilities in terms of Indo-Tibetan Buddhist theory and practice. In theoretical terms, the articulation of compassion as centered on others (and not self) is explained in terms of its overall motivational purpose in Indo-Tibetan Buddhism. And in terms of Buddhist practices for cultivating compassion, incompatibilities in relation to motivation and phenomenological structure are examined. The possibility that self-compassion could be aligned with Buddhist notions of renunciation is next considered. The problems that arise in that attempted alignment motivate a concluding discussion about the ways that Buddhist insights about compassion suggest potentially useful ways of reconsidering contemporary conceptualizations and practices of self-compassion as a “skilful means” to address obstacles to cultivating a sincere motivation to strive for one’s own well-being.
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Research in translation psychology has shed light on some of the cognitive processes that underlie the translators’ work, such as their personality traits or emotions. However, little has been written about the psychological processes that translation students experience during their training, particularly those concerning how, when and to what extent they perceive themselves as translators. This research examines how translation students develop their translator identity, encompassing their translation- related beliefs, self-perceptions and professional self-projections. Concretely, it examines the factors that are involved in its development: 1) the evolution of translation students' beliefs regarding translation, 2) the confidence they have in translation abilities or translator self-efficacy beliefs, 3) their commitment to becoming translators, and 4) the dynamics governing their student and translator identities. To do this, twelve participants from two Chilean undergraduate translator programmes engaged in five semi-structured interview rounds during the final two years of their studies. A total of fifty-four interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and examined using the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), which aims to describe the psychological processes underlying individual experiences. The translation-related beliefs that emerged in the participants’ narratives capture the conceptual development of translators’ declarative and procedural knowledge of translation, and professional skills and attributes. Their translator self-efficacy beliefs develop mostly by means of successful controlled practice and grades but, as they advance in their programmes, they actively seek ‘real’ instances of practice to continue strengthening their confidence. The fluctuations in their commitment to their translator identity are described in four translator identity statuses, which change from participant to participant. Lastly, their student and translator identities progressively separate as they complete their programme. These findings constitute an original contribution to the field of translation psychology by incorporating identity theory into translator studies to account for the students’ personal stories as individuals. Moreover, the use of IPA to explore the experiences throughout their education from their first-person perspective gives the students a protagonist voice. These affordances provide additional research approaches by which translator education can be approached, examined and enriched.
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Using a longitudinal research approach, we assessed 1865 college students twice with a six-month interval to reveal the underlying mechanism of perfectionism in depressive symptoms. After controlling for gender, age, and family income, significant direct effects of positive and negative perfectionism on depressive symptoms were verified. At the same time, self-compassion and impostor syndrome acted as mediators of this relationship. Specifically, positive perfectionism acted as a protective factor on depressive symptoms through the chain structure of two self-compassion dimensions and impostor syndrome. Negative perfectionism was a risk factor for depressive symptoms through the chain structure of negative self-compassion and impostor syndrome. The results above indicated the contrasting effects of the two dimensions of perfectionism and self-compassion on depressive symptoms.
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Background In addition to many deaths due to the Coronavirus pandemic, many psychological issues and problems are affecting people's health. Including the constant anxiety and fear of infecting themselves and their families, COVID-19 has led to excessive spending of time in cyberspace and the Internet. Methods In this study, the role of fear and anxiety of COVID-19 in predicting Internet addiction among 1,008 students was investigated. The mediating role of the two components of self-compassion and cognitive emotion regulation has also been measured. Data collection was done online due to the outbreak of the disease and a modeling method was used to analyze the data. Results The results shows that anxiety and fear of COVID-19 has a positive and significant relationship with both Internet addiction ( r = 0.32) and maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies ( r = 0.17), and it has a negative relationship with self-compassion ( r = −0.25). Conclusions The findings suggest that self-compassion can play a protective role against internet addiction at the time of COVID-19 pandemic while maladaptive strategies for emotion regulation can be risk factors for anxiety and fear of the virus.
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A meta-analysis examined the relation between self-esteem and ingroup bias. The project focused on effects of ingroup bias strategy and measurement of self-esteem. Results indicated that high-self-esteem individuals exhibited more ingroup bias than did low-self-esteem individuals. Bias strategy and self-esteem measurement moderated this relation. When using “direct” ingroup bias strategies, high-self-esteem individuals showed more bias than did low-self-esteem individuals. When using “indirect” strategies, groups exhibited comparable amounts of bias. Results were comparable for collective and personal self-esteem measures. Examination of specific collective measures indicated that self-esteem defined by the Collective Self-Esteem Scale (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992) did not predict differences in ingroup bias, whereas group identification measures did predict differences in ingroup bias. Results are interpreted as indicating that both high and low-self-esteem individuals exhibit ingroup bias; however, expression of ingroup bias by individuals with low self-esteem is constrained by situational factors. Furthermore, individual-level factors such as personal self-esteem may be useful in predicting collective enhancement.
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Being No One The Self-Model Theory of Subjectivity. by Thomas Metzinger. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2003. 713 pp. $55, £35.95. ISBN 0-262-13417-9. In this thorough discussion of the problem of the self, Metzinger draws on contemporary neuroscience to develop a new philosophical approach to consciousness.
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Four studies demonstrate the psychometric adequacy and validity of scales designed to assess coping through emotional approach. In separate undergraduate samples, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of dispositional (Study 1) and situational (Study 3) coping item sets yielded 2 distinct emotional approach coping factors: emotional processing (i.e., active attempts to acknowledge and understand emotions) and emotional expression. The 2 scales yielded high internal consistency and test-retest reliability, as well as convergent and discriminant validity. A study (Study 2) of young adults and their parents established the scales' interjudge reliabilities. Longitudinal (Study 3) and experimental (Study 4) research supported the predictive validity of the emotional approach coping scales with regard to adjustment to stressful encounters. Findings highlight the utility of functionalist theories of emotion as applied to coping theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Reviews the literature on sex differences in empathy (defined as vicarious affective responding to the emotional state of another) and related capacities (affective role taking and decoding of nonverbal cues). The literature is discussed according to method used to assess empathy and affective role taking. Where appropriate, meta-analyses were also computed. In general, sex differences in empathy were found to be a function of the methods used to assess empathy. There was a large sex difference favoring women when the measure of empathy was self-report scales; moderate differences (favoring females) were found for reflexive crying and self-report measures in laboratory situations; and no sex differences were evident when the measure of empathy was either physiological or unobtrusive observations of nonverbal reactions to another's emotional state. Moreover, few sex differences were found for children's affective role taking and decoding abilities. (156 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Describes the development of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and data exploring the reliability and construct validity of the subscales are provided. 809 college students (aged 17-43 yrs) participated. The results support the existence of 3 subscales with adequate internal consistencies and promising relationships with other relevant measures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The study developed 2 measures of belongingness based on H. Kohut's (1984) self psychology theory. The Social Connectedness Scale and the Social Assurance Scale were constructed with a split-sample procedure on 626 college students. Internal reliability estimates for the 2 scales were .91 and .82, respectively. Test-retest correlations revealed good test stability over a 2-week period ( rs = .96 and .84, respectively). Cross-validation for the 2 measures was achieved with confirmatory factor analysis with an incremental fit index greater than .90. Scale functions are described and results are discussed in light of current research and theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two studies tested the hypothesis that women are more likely than men to focus on themselves and their mood when in a depressed mood, and that this leads them to experience longer periods of depressed mood. In both studies subjects were predominantly Caucasian college students. In our first study, a laboratory study, females chose to engage in an emotion-related task significantly more often than did males, even when this lead them to focus on an existing sad mood. In the second study, a prospective naturalistic study, females were more likely than males to evince an emotion-focused ruminative style of coping with their moods. A ruminative response style at Time 1 was a significant predictor of depression scores at Time 2, even after initial levels of depressed mood were taken into account. Furthermore, once rumination levels were controlled for, gender was no longer a potent predictor of depression outcome. The implications of these response styles for treatment are discussed.
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It was hypothesized that women are more vulnerable to depressive symptoms than men because they are more likely to experience chronic negative circumstances (or strain), to have a low sense of mastery, and to engage in ruminative coping. The hypotheses were tested in a 2-wave study of approximately 1,100 community-based adults who were 25 to 75 years old. Chronic strain, low mastery, and rumination were each more common in women than in men and mediated the gender difference in depressive symptoms. Rumination amplified the effects of mastery and, to some extent, chronic strain on depressive symptoms. In addition, chronic strain and rumination had reciprocal effects on each other over time, and low mastery also contributed to more rumination. Finally, depressive symptoms contributed to more rumination and less mastery over time.
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An ACT Approach Chapter 1. What is Acceptance and Commitment Therapy? Steven C. Hayes, Kirk D. Strosahl, Kara Bunting, Michael Twohig, and Kelly G. Wilson Chapter 2. An ACT Primer: Core Therapy Processes, Intervention Strategies, and Therapist Competencies. Kirk D. Strosahl, Steven C. Hayes, Kelly G. Wilson and Elizabeth V. Gifford Chapter 3. ACT Case Formulation. Steven C. Hayes, Kirk D. Strosahl, Jayson Luoma, Alethea A. Smith, and Kelly G. Wilson ACT with Behavior Problems Chapter 4. ACT with Affective Disorders. Robert D. Zettle Chapter 5. ACT with Anxiety Disorders. Susan M. Orsillo, Lizabeth Roemer, Jennifer Block-Lerner, Chad LeJeune, and James D. Herbert Chapter 6. ACT with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Alethea A. Smith and Victoria M. Follette Chapter 7. ACT for Substance Abuse and Dependence. Kelly G. Wilson and Michelle R. Byrd Chapter 8. ACT with the Seriously Mentally Ill. Patricia Bach Chapter 9. ACT with the Multi-Problem Patient. Kirk D. Strosahl ACT with Special Populations, Settings, and Methods Chapter 10. ACT with Children, Adolescents, and their Parents. Amy R. Murrell, Lisa W. Coyne, & Kelly G. Wilson Chapter 11. ACT for Stress. Frank Bond. Chapter 12. ACT in Medical Settings. Patricia Robinson, Jennifer Gregg, JoAnne Dahl, & Tobias Lundgren Chapter 13. ACT with Chronic Pain Patients. Patricia Robinson, Rikard K. Wicksell, Gunnar L. Olsson Chapter 14. ACT in Group Format. Robyn D. Walser and Jacqueline Pistorello
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This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
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This text discusses how Eastern spirituality can enhance Western psychology. As patients and therapists find themselves reaching for new solutions to their problems, the traditional disctinctions between matters of the mind and matters of the spirit are increasingly being questioned. This book is written by a traditionally trained psychotherapist who has immersed himself in the Buddhist tradition. Drawing on his own experiences as patient, meditator and therapist, the author argues that the contemplative traditions of the East help patients go beyond merely recognizing their problems to healing them, and that such an approach is not at odds with the psychodynamic method. The book begins by focusing on the Buddhist perspective. Dispelling misconceptions common even among those already practising meditative techniques, this section presents the Buddha's psychological teachings in the language of Western psychodynamics. It then goes on to explain the meditative practices of bare attention, concentration, mindfulness, and analytical inquiry, and shows how they speak to issues at the forefront of psychological concern. Finally, the book uses Freud's treatise of psychotherapy - "Remembering, repeating and working-through" - as a template to show how the Buddha's teaching can complement, inform and energize the practice of psychotherapy.
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The SWLS consists of 5-items that require a ratingon a 7-point Likert scale. Administration is rarely morethan a minute or 2 and can be completed by interview(including phone) or paper and pencil response. The in-strumentshouldnotbecompletedbyaproxyansweringfortheperson.Itemsofthe SWLSaresummedtocreatea total score that can range from 5 to 35.The SWLS is in the public domain. Permission isnot needed to use it. Further information regardingthe use and interpretation of the SWLS can be foundat the author’s Web site http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/∼ediener/SWLS.html. The Web site alsoincludes links to translations of the scale into 27languages.
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Emotional intelligence is a type of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one's own and others' emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one's thinking and actions (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). We discuss (a) whether intelligence is an appropriate metaphor for the construct, and (b) the abilities and mechanisms that may underlie emotional intelligence. © 1993.
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There is growing interest in positive aspects of the stress process, including positive outcomes of stress and antecedents that dispose individuals to appraise stressful situations more as a challenge than as a threat. Less attention has been given to the adaptational significance of positive emotions during stress or to the coping processes that sustain positive emotions. We review evidence for the occurrence of positive emotions under conditions of stress, discuss the functional role that positive emotions play under such conditions, and present three types of coping that are associated with positive emotion during chronic stress. These findings point to new research questions about the role of positive emotions during stress and the nature of the coping processes that generate these positive emotions.
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Four measures of self-determination (SD) were correlated with two measures of trait creativity. In Study 1, subjects high on the Creative Personality Scale (Gough, 1979) and the Problem-Solving/Creativity scale (Marsh & O'Neill, 1984) were found to strive for self-determined reasons, to strive toward greater SD, and to evidence higher SD in measures of both motivational orientation and self-concept. Study 2 replicated most of these findings and also showed that creative subjects perceived their parents to be more autonomy supportive. Results are interpreted in terms of a general disposition to be self-determining that may help attune creative people to deeper cognitive resources and capacities within themselves.
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A practical difficulty with the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (SDS) is its length. Preferring a shorter measure of social desirability, researchers have devised a number of short forms of the SDS. The present study used confirmatory factor analysis to establish the adequacy of these subscales in measuring social desirability. Results showed that (a) of the six short forms of SDS considered two models (XI and X2) provide the best measures of social desirability, (b) improved measures of all of the models can be constructed, and (c) improved measures of the dimensions, denial and attribution, thought to measure the latent construct of social approval can also be constructed.
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This article defines and examines the construct of self-compassion. Self-compassion entails three main components: (a) self-kindness—being kind and understanding toward oneself in instances of pain or failure rather than being harshly self-critical, (b) common humanity—perceiving one's experiences as part of the larger human experience rather than seeing them as separating and isolating, and (c) mindfulness—holding painful thoughts and feelings in balanced awareness rather than over-identifying with them. Self-compassion is an emotionally positive self-attitude that should protect against the negative consequences of self-judgment, isolation, and rumination (such as depression). Because of its non-evaluative and interconnected nature, it should also counter the tendencies towards narcissism, self-centeredness, and downward social comparison that have been associated with attempts to maintain self-esteem. The relation of self-compassion to other psychological constructs is examined, its links to psychological functioning are explored, and potential group differences in self-compassion are discussed.
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Social Forces 79.3 (2001) 1203-1204 The Myth of Self-Esteem: Finding Happiness and Solving Problems in America. By John P. Hewitt. St. Martin's Press, 1998. 153 pp. Cloth, $29.95. The question occurs the moment you spot the title of John P. Hewitt's slim think piece. Are we in for yet another assault on self-esteem? It seems, as he his fond of reminding us, that American's are obsessed like no others with self-esteem. But his goal is not necessarily to debunk and redirect. He aims instead to "unravel the assumptions that are built into the contemporary usage and understanding of the idea of self-esteem and build a more complete picture of this phenomenon and the importance we attribute to it." He pursues his goal by first asking us to suspend our "belief in self-esteem as an established scientific fact." This is necessary because Americans resist considering "the possibility that it may not be as universal a quest as we imagine" and because "the reader should step back from this commonplace word and regard self-esteem not as a phenomenon that can be studied scientifically but as something people, including social scientists, believe." To be sure, Hewitt is not necessarily arguing that self-esteem is itself a fiction (although the casual reader could draw this conclusion). Rather, it has taken on or been saddled with a cadre of pundits, charlatans, self-help gurus, scholars, policymakers, and fuzzyheaded and occasionally irresponsible do-gooders (especially in education) ready, one way or another, to cash-in or otherwise capitalize on its singular popularity in American society. According to Hewitt, self-esteem's proprietors are its advocates, critics, and debunkers alike; while its main nonacademic consumers are a rather gullible and sometimes venal public simultaneously duped and duplicitous (but also sometimes earnest) in their belief in the myth of self-esteem. The proprietors form two broad camps: those who worship in the House of Self-Esteem and proclaim its palliative or curative powers ("conceptual entrepreneurs") and those impelled to kick the door in and save everyone inside from the mollycoddlers of homo Americanus. Unfortunately this opinionated, flawed, though sometimes insightful book does little to clarify or advance our understanding of self-esteem as a cultural phenomenon or a scientific fact. The principle reason is an unresolved tension in the book's form and structure exacerbated by attempting to do too much in too few pages with too little attention to useful detail. His cultural exegesis is undermined by a witting or unwitting penchant for critiquing self-esteem's correctness, a goal he and the reader were presumably not to pursue here. Also, while he starts with a solid and clever thesis (belief in self-esteem is worth studying) and he ends with an intriguing though underdeveloped notion of self-esteem as interpreted mood, he offers limited original evidence to meaningfully support either. He often leaps to broad generalizations that are, most often, inadequately explored or documented with the extant literature or data. He asserts, for example, that there is broad agreement among "educationists" that self-esteem is an entitlement "which need not be earned or justified" while feeling good about oneself is "as important a goal of teaching as any other educational outcome." These ideas have led people (especially subscribers to the educational theory of self-esteem) to believe that it is "acceptable and desirable to be preoccupied with oneself, praise oneself, dissociate self-esteem from behavior or group membership, and regard acceptance by self and others as a basic human need." Several misplaced asides and allegations give the book the ring of an extemporaneous undergraduate lecture constructed, for dramatic emphasis, from other myths or unsubstantiated opinions. For example, in a passage on individualism and American westward expansion we read that people were encouraged "to believe that when you could see the smoke from your neighbor's chimney, it was time to move on." Elsewhere he alleges that the myth of self-esteem contributes to inequality by focusing attention on individual effort and initiative thus distracting attention from the social order. One...
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Two independent types of experiences of depression have been identified among normals—dependency and self-criticism. Using the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire, this study investigates their utility in differentiating depression in patients. 197 patients (mean age 34 yrs) and 262 normal controls (mean age 26.7 yrs) also completed the MMPI, Beck Depression Inventory, and Self Rating Depression Scale. There were consistent differences among patients as a function of whether their experiences of depression focused primarily on issues of dependency and/or self-criticism or an absence of these issues. The subjective experiences around which an individual's depression focuses seem to provide a valid basis for differentiating among types of depression. Judges using case records were able to differentiate patients who were high on dependency or self-criticism, on both, or on neither of these dimensions. The distinction between these 2 different foci of depression may provide valuable differentiations for clinical research, and have important implications for the therapeutic process with different types of depressed patients. (55 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examines the classroom learning environment in relation to achievement goal theory of motivation. Classroom structures are described in terms of how they make different types of achievement goals salient and as a consequence elicit qualitatively different patterns of motivation. Task, evaluation and recognition, and authority dimensions of classrooms are presented as examples of structures that can influence children's orientation toward different achievement goals. Central to the thesis of this article is a perspective that argues for an identification of classroom structures that can contribute to a mastery orientation, a systematic analysis of these structures, and a determination of how these structures relate to each other. The ways in which interventions must address the independency among these structures are discussed in terms of how they influence student motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)