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Understanding the Influence of Literacy on Consumer Memory: The Role of Pictorial Elements

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Abstract

This research examines the relationship between literacy and consumer memory. The effects of a variety of stimuli at exposure (i.e., brand names, brand signatures, and products in usage) on memory (i.e., recognition, stem-completion tasks) were examined for a range of literacy. In a series of experiments, we find that the use of pictorial representations of brands (i.e., brand signatures) results in superior brand memory for individuals with lower literacy levels when compared to those at higher literacy levels. This effect is shown to occur not due to pictorial elements per se, but due to pictorial elements with a 1-to-1 correspondence with reality, i.e., which match the form in which they were originally encoded in memory. Moreover, this effect does not persist with stimulus-rich pictures of brands in usage, pointing to boundary conditions with the use of pictorial information.

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... This could reflect subsistence consumers' unique circumstances, characterized by multiple internal and external constraints (Nakata and Weidner 2012;Prahalad 2004). Also, consistent with prior research (Viswanathan, Rosa, and Harris 2005;Viswanathan et al. 2009bViswanathan et al. , 2009cNakata and Weidner 2012), this research suggests that visual comprehensibility was an important determinant of adoption intention. This could reflect BOP consumers' constraints in relation to literacy and product comprehension. ...
... This could reflect BOP consumers' constraints in relation to literacy and product comprehension. Visual comprehensibility might enhance perceived behavioral control for consumers through the use of pictographic symbols and other graphics to make brands more easily recognizable, understandable and clearly distinguishable from one another (Viswanathan, Rosa, and Harris 2005;Viswanathan et al. 2009bViswanathan et al. , 2009c. Consumers in these marketplaces need to be reassured that they are able to operate the new banking service. ...
... Managers and policy makers also need to ensure visual comprehensibility of a pro-poor innovation through its design and packaging (e.g., colors, shapes, photos, physical package size) and restrain from textual descriptions that rely on abstract thinking. This ensures that numeracy and literacy constraints are able to be tackled given the tendency for concrete thinking and pictorial representations as also highlighted in other studies (Hasan, Lowe and Rahman 2017;Viswanathan, Rosa, and Harris 2005;Viswanathan et al. 2009bViswanathan et al. , 2009c. ...
Article
So called “pro-poor” innovations may improve consumer wellbeing in subsistence marketplaces. However, there is little research that integrates the area with the vast literature on innovation adoption. Using a questionnaire where respondents were asked to provide their evaluations about a mobile banking innovation, this research fills this gap by providing empirical evidence of the applicability of existing innovation adoption models in subsistence marketplaces. The study was conducted in Bangladesh among a geographically dispersed sample. The data collected allowed an empirical comparison of models in a subsistence context. The research reveals the most useful models in this context to be the Value Based Adoption Model and the Consumer Acceptance of Technology model. In light of these findings and further examination of the model comparison results the research also shows that consumers in subsistence marketplaces are not just motivated by functionality and economic needs. If organizations cannot enhance the hedonic attributes of a pro-poor innovation, and reduce the internal/external constraints related to adoption of that pro-poor innovation, then adoption intention by consumers will be lower.
... Recent studies have found that low-literate consumers in the United States tend to process information based on single informational signals such as pictures (Adkins & Ozanne, 2005;Jae & DelVecchio, 2004;Viswanathan, Rosa, & Harris, 2005). They have been shown to engage in pictographic thinking (Viswanathan et al., 2005), and to benefit from better memory for pictorial representations of brand information (Viswanathan, Hasktak, & Gau, 2009;Viswanathan, Torelli, Xia, & Gau, 2009). ...
... Recent studies comparing low-literate and relatively high-literate consumers have found that low-literate consumers display smaller working memory capacity (Jae, 2006;Viswanathan, Sridharan, Gau, & Ritchie, 2009;Viswanathan, Torelli, Xia, & Gau, 2009). Jae (2006) finds that low-literate consumers devoted more working memory at word-level reading and thus their limited working memory resulted in poor comprehension. ...
... By comparison, relatively high-literate consumers devoted less working memory at word-level reading, leaving more working memory for better comprehension. Viswanathan, Sridharan, Gau, and Ritchie (2009) ;Viswanathan, Torelli, Xia, and Gau (2009) also find that consumers with lower literacy levels displayed lower working memory. ...
Article
Previous research has found that low-literate consumers tend to rely heavily on pictures to process marketplace information. The current study investigates the conditions under which pictures in product-warning statements become detrimental or beneficial for information processing among consumers with varying levels of literacy. The findings suggest that, relative to consumers with higher literacy levels, consumers with lower literacy levels display lower comprehension levels and make more errors when they view incongruent pictures in product-warning statements. The results also show that, consumers with lower literacy levels benefit significantly more in comprehension and in reduction of errors relative to consumers with higher literacy levels, with congruent pictures without text. A concluding discussion addresses theoretical and practical implications as well as future research directions on low-literate, low-income consumer behavior and subsistence consumer behavior.
... This section briefly reviews the research methods employed to study low-literate adults, and compares experimental research with literate versus low-literate adults. Business research on low-literate consumers has been relatively limited, though a handful of articles have been published in journals such as Journal of Marketing, Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of Consumer Psychology, and Journal of Public Policy & Marketing (e.g., Adkins & Ozanne, 2005;Viswanathan et al., 2005;Viswanathan, Xia, Torelli, & Gau, 2009;Viswanathan, Hastak, & Gau, 2009). Understanding the research methods used to study low-literate consumers begins with these exemplars, and continues with a review of literature across other disciplines. ...
... In this section, the authors discuss insights from their experiences conducting experimental research with low-literate adults in the United States. This discussion encompasses separate and joint research projects spanning thirteen years, representing diverse experiences, and covering qualitative and quantitative methods in both low-literate, low-income settings in the United States (e.g., Jae, DelVecchio, & Cowles, 2008;Viswanathan, Hastak, & Gau, 2009;Viswanathan et al., 2005;Viswanathan, Hastak, & Gau, 2009;Viswanathan, Xia, Torelli, & Gau, 2009). This section will summarize key cognitive and affective differences between low-literate and literate participants, and discuss the resulting administrative considerations incorporated into their research based on these differences. ...
... This long-term perspective resulted in the authors' view of this research as a program, rather than a series of independent projects. This process has provided a basis for more recent current research, which has employed more experimental methods (e.g., Jae et al., 2008;Viswanathan, Hastak, & Gau, 2009;Viswanathan, Hastak, & Gau, 2009;Viswanathan, Xia, Torelli, & Gau, 2009). ...
Article
This paper examines the challenges involved in the design and administration of experiments with low-literate adults in business research, and derives implications for subsistence marketplaces. A brief review of the research methods used for studying low-literate adults in business, as well as other fields such as anthropology, sociology, behavioral economics, education, and health, suggests the lack of experimental approaches. Traditional experiments that employ literate adults are compared with those that employ low-literate adults. Using this review and authors' experiences spanning over a decade, the paper develops insights for using experimental methods to study subsistence marketplaces.
... The concept of information literacy was first introduced by Paul Zurkowski (1974) in the sense that an individual has a measure for the value of information as well as an ability to mold information to one's needs. Information literacy has been an important topic in various disciplines, such as consumer studies (Adkins & Ozanne, 2005;Gathergood, 2012;Gau, Jae, & Viswanathan, 2012;Viswanathan, Rosa, & Harris, 2004;Viswanathan, Torelli, Xia, & Gau, 2009), medical research (Hardie, Kyanko, Busch, Losasso, & Levin, 2011;Health, 2014;Jiang & Beaudoin, 2016;Meppelink, Van Weert, Haven, & Smit, 2015;Tennant et al., 2015), finance (Huston, 2010;Kozup & Hogarth, 2008;Servon & Kaestner, 2008), business (Mutch, 1997), information management (Horton, 2006), higher education (Corrall, 2008), and public administration (Barnard, Cloete, & Patel, 2003;Bélanger & Carter, 2006;Mutula & van Brakel, 2006;Ngulube, 2007). ...
... According to Çoklar, Yaman, and Yurdakul (2017), there is a high-level correlation between information literacy and information search competencies. Similarly, Viswanathan et al. (2009) found that consumers with higher literacy remembered and recalled brand information better and utilized the previously acquired information and knowledge more effectively for product choice. Furthermore, Gathergood (2012) demonstrated a positive relationship between financial literacy and financial management. ...
... Previous studies suggest the importance of information literacy for information processing in which human brains receive information and process it to identify situations and develop responses (Adkins & Ozanne, 2005;Swar et al., 2017;Viswanathan et al., 2009). When information supply exceeds one's information processing capacity, a person confronts problems in identifying relevant information and in understanding the association between details and the overall perspective (Eppler & Mengis, 2004). ...
Article
Information and communication technologies in use in government systems can bring about expected benefits only when citizens are willing and able to use such systems. Previous studies from various disciplines provided a fundamental understanding of human behavior with technology adoption that focused mainly on the technical and supply sides of this adoption. We argue that it is necessary to move away from an assumption that users form a homogeneous group under the phenomenon of the digital divide. Having conducted an online experiment, this study empirically examined the effects of personal factors, particularly the perceived information literacy, and the perceived information overload, on the user’s perceptions on the usefulness and trust in a government website. We find that the higher an individual perceives one’s information literacy, the more he or she trusts the website, and this is mediated by one’s perceived information overload (negatively) and perceived usefulness (positively). This research provides a more balanced understanding of the behavior of e-government adoption, supplemented with the details of citizen engagement factors, and specifies meaningful practical implications for successful e-government policies.
... This could reflect subsistence consumers' unique circumstances, characterized by multiple internal and external constraints (Nakata and Weidner 2012;Prahalad 2004). In addition, consistent with prior research (Nakata and Weidner 2012;Viswanathan, Rosa, and Harris 2005;, Viswanathan, Torelli, et al. 2009), this research suggests that visual comprehensibility was an important determinant of adoption intention. This could reflect BOP consumers' constraints related to literacy and product comprehension. ...
... This could reflect BOP consumers' constraints related to literacy and product comprehension. Visual comprehensibility might enhance perceived behavioral control for consumers through the use of pictographic symbols and other graphics to make brands more easily recognizable, understandable, and distinguishable from one another (Viswanathan, Rosa, and Harris 2005;, Viswanathan, Torelli, et al. 2009). Consumers in these marketplaces need to be reassured that they can operate the new banking service. ...
... Managers and policy makers also need to ensure visual comprehensibility of a pro-poor innovation through its design and packaging (e.g., colors, shapes, photos, physical package size) and restrain from textual descriptions that rely on abstract thinking. This ensures that numeracy and literacy constraints are able to be addressed given the tendency for concrete thinking and pictorial representations as also highlighted in other studies (Hasan, Lowe, and Rahman 2017;Viswanathan, Rosa, and Harris 2005;, Viswanathan, Torelli, et al. 2009). ...
Conference Paper
Understanding consumers at the so-called Bottom of the Pyramid (BOP) has attracted considerable research attention recently. In order to facilitate adoption of pro-poor innovations in the BOP, understanding the antecedents of innovation adoption is important. To understand the antecedents of innovation adoption, typically research has used a range of theoretical models, but these have typically been validated within western, developed contexts. This research contributes to the literature by empirically comparing seven highly cited consumer-based innovation adoption models in the context of a BOP market with a survey (n=311) conducted in Bangladesh. The findings of this research provide guidance to academics and managers on the key antecedents of innovation adoption within the BOP of a country. Therefore, this research contributes to our understanding of how to provide better quality products to the BOP market by providing one of the first empirical tests in the BOP context within the marketing literature. The findings have important private sector and public policy implications.
... This may impact the reproduction process. Low literacy, for example, is associated with a diminished working memory span, which in turn, can reduce performance on memory tasks (Viswanathan, Torelli, Xia, and Gau, 2009). Low-literate individuals tend to make decisions on pictorial information and think in concrete terms instead of symbolic or abstractive terms. ...
... For example, if forced to choose between the "quality" of a product (an abstract concept) and price (a concrete concept), they would choose price. If forced to make a trade-off between the price, size, or ingredients of a product, rather than comparing these concrete attributes, they will focus on only one (Viswanathan, Torelli, et al., 2009). This can also result in more short-term thinking as envisioning future possibilities requires a more abstractive contemplation (Viswanathan and Rosa, 2007). ...
... In line with Viswanathan, Torelli, et al. (2009) andViswanathan et al. (2018), the findings illustrate how those with low levels of literacy tend to think in concrete versus abstractive terms. Low-literate subsistence user-producers often reproduced social innovations based on what neighbors had told them, what they saw others doing, or how they had been taught, without understanding the deeper why. ...
Article
Full-text available
Social innovations and their diffusion are critical in bridging the multiplicity of deprivations experienced by those in subsistence contexts. Yet they often do not diffuse as expected. To better understand this prevalent problem, this article develops a theory of diffusion that explains the reproduction (duplication) of social innovations in subsistence contexts. The theory utilizes a bottom‐up perspective that considers what attributes of innovations and capacities of actors matter to reproduction, particularly for subsistence user‐producers. Adopting an inductive, case‐based approach, the authors draw on examples of social innovations in Sub‐Saharan Africa. Based on the authors' research and extant literature, this article builds a typology that captures different modes of reproduction. The typology delineates three archetypes of reproduced social innovations: mimetic, facilitated and complex, and notes how frugal innovations can emerge from these archetypes. These archetypes are based on the interactions of: i) a product's resource and knowledge complexities; and ii) the knowledge capabilities or resources of various actors, including subsistence user‐producers and bridging agents. The typology thus illuminates the conditions under which subsistence user‐producers might independently reproduce a social innovation (mimetic innovations), when they need assistance from bridging agents (facilitated innovations), and when the mix of resources and knowledge are beyond their capacity (complex innovations). Secondly, by exploring reproduction experiences of subsistence users, this article recognizes the implications of low literary, close social networks and physical limitations. By examining who controls the knowledge and resources imperative to reproduction, the authors go beyond a focus on the social benefits of innovations to consider how intellectual property and profits matter to different actors. This article pulls together these various insights and identifies key implications that social innovators and intermediaries should consider when working to reproduce social innovations in subsistence contexts and with subsistence user‐producers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... This could reflect subsistence consumers' unique circumstances, characterized by multiple internal and external constraints (Nakata and Weidner 2012;Prahalad 2004). Also, consistent with prior research (Viswanathan, Rosa, and Harris 2005;Viswanathan et al. 2009bViswanathan et al. , 2009cNakata and Weidner 2012), this research suggests that visual comprehensibility was an important determinant of adoption intention. This could reflect BOP consumers' constraints in relation to literacy and product comprehension. ...
... This could reflect BOP consumers' constraints in relation to literacy and product comprehension. Visual comprehensibility might enhance perceived behavioral control for consumers through the use of pictographic symbols and other graphics to make brands more easily recognizable, understandable and clearly distinguishable from one another (Viswanathan, Rosa, and Harris 2005;Viswanathan et al. 2009bViswanathan et al. , 2009c. Consumers in these marketplaces need to be reassured that they are able to operate the new banking service. ...
... Managers and policy makers also need to ensure visual comprehensibility of a pro-poor innovation through its design and packaging (e.g., colors, shapes, photos, physical package size) and restrain from textual descriptions that rely on abstract thinking. This ensures that numeracy and literacy constraints are able to be tackled given the tendency for concrete thinking and pictorial representations as also highlighted in other studies (Hasan, Lowe and Rahman 2017;Viswanathan, Rosa, and Harris 2005;Viswanathan et al. 2009bViswanathan et al. , 2009c. ...
... The applicability of RMT to low-literate consumers in the context of one-time exposure to a written ad suggests extending this research to consider this same fit in other contexts. For instance, low-literate consumers tend to depend heavily on pictures to make purchase decisions in the marketplace (Jae, DelVecchio, & Cowles, 2008;Viswanathan, Hastak, & Gau, 2009;Viswanathan, Torelli, Xia & Gau, 2009). The effect of pictorial cues that differ in difficulty to decipher, such as with metaphors (McQuarrie & Mick, 1999), could be further investigated in future research. ...
... That the results regarding ad comprehension, an ability-based outcome that should not be subject to a response bias (e.g., Greenleaf, 1992), mirror ad attitude results in Experiment 2 lends confidence in the interpretation of the attitude results. However, given that consumer researchers are just beginning to use conventional scale items to survey low-literate consumers (Viswanathan & Gau, 2005;Viswanathan, Hastak et al., 2009;Viswanathan, Torelli et al., 2009), research on the response styles of lowliterate individuals is needed. ...
Article
This research investigates whether low-literate consumers process written advertisements differently than high-literate consumers do. Consistent with resource-matching theory (RMT), the first experiment reveals that, unlike high-literate processors, when low-literate processors read ads of moderate complexity, involvement with the ad does not affect processing. The second experiment extends RMT's applicability to both low- and high-literate consumers by demonstrating that low-literate processors' reading outcomes mirror those of high-literate processors when ads are written to reflect their reading capability.
... Given that short videos cannot provide enough information, key elements (logo and text) are introduced into the video ads to compensate for the shortcoming. Previous research [35][36][37][38][39] found that logo elements and text elements played an important role in capturing users' attention. Pieters and Wedel [38] found that the text element captures attention in proportion to its size, and the brand element transfers attention to the other elements effectively. ...
... Pieters and Wedel [38] found that the text element captures attention in proportion to its size, and the brand element transfers attention to the other elements effectively. Viswanathan et al. [39] also found that a pictorial logo would help users remember and understand more of the ad contents. Li et al. [37] found that text in tourism photographs drew the most visual attention regardless of the text language. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research investigated the influence of advertisement (ad) duration and key elements (titles, logos, and texts) on advertising effectiveness in mobile feeds. We recruited 40 participants (27 men and 13 women) who are aged from 20 to 43 years (M = 29.33, SD = 6.67). The participants were assigned randomly to four groups to watch four different types of ads: 6-second ads with key elements, 15-second ads with key elements, 15-second ads without key elements, and 30-second ads without key elements. We measured advertising effectiveness from four aspects: users’ attention, emotion, memory, and attitudes. During the experiment, a researcher recorded participants’ electroencephalography and eye movements. After the experiment, participants were required to complete a questionnaire and were interviewed. Results showed that participants felt more positive when watching 6-second duration ads in mobile feeds than the 15-second and 30-second ads; however, their memory of the ads was worse. The participants paid more attention to the key elements rather than the content of the ads. This research elucidated the features of native video ads in mobile feeds and provided some useful suggestions for advertisers who design video ads.
... Memory differences within levels of low to moderate literacy associated with brand names have been found to be nullified when using familiar brand signatures (Viswanathan, Xia, et al. 2009). Dependence on the pictographic, or broadly the sensory, to bypass literacy requirements is a tendency in the cognitive realm. ...
... For me, he will give the best goods after weighing. I would say "I am buying it from you continuously; how can you give me this?" (Participant) Social and economic blur in these 1-to-1 interactional settings, providing the stepping stone to develop consumer skills without depending on formal literacy and numeracy (Viswanathan, Xia, et al. 2009). Unique to the subsistence marketplaces stream is unpacking generic notions of social capital, providing more specific avenues for future research. ...
... Information processing theory implies the possibility of cognitive overload because individuals have finite limits as to the amount and complexity of information they can process in a given time. This information overload is attributable to not only the quantity but also the quality of information (Currim, Mintz, & Siddarth, 2015;Iselin, 1993;Simpson & Prusak, 1995), as well as individual characteristics such as information processing capacity and patterns (Çoklar, Yaman, & Yurdakul, 2017;Cornish & Moraes, 2015;Gathergood, 2012;Hardie, Kyanko, Busch, Losasso, & Levin, 2011;Viswanathan, Torelli, Xia, & Gau, 2009). ...
... In addition to information attributes, individual characteristics such as people's capacity to acquire information, the strategies they employ during information acquisition, and their utilization of acquired information when forming judgments also affect information processing patterns (Childers et al., 1985). First, numerous studies have found that greater literacy is associated with more accurate information acquisition and processing performance (Çoklar et al., 2017;Cornish & Moraes, 2015;Gathergood, 2012;Hardie et al., 2011;Viswanathan et al., 2009). Other studies have identified information processing propensity as a relevant factor. ...
... On account of diverse factors, that may contain the market being managed by people with higher education levels, or the predominance of alphabetized people over national territory, it is possible to understand the thoughts of Adkins and Ozanne (2005) that the market (be it for products or services) tends to aim its developments to a portion of the population with higher education levels, even if it occurs unintentionally, given that information about products tend to be presented through writing, using few image related appeal or other non-textual forms (Viswanathan, Toreli, Xia & Gau, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims to understand the automated banking services consumption in automated teller machines (ATMs) by adults with low education levels. Data were collected in two bank agencies in one city in Brazil. Through content analysis and using the service dominant logic (SDL) as theoretical background, interviews and field observations were analyzed qualitatively. Results indicate a certain portfolio of services consumed in the bank, also indicating the way ATMs are used, usually in the presence of an intermediate, which implies loss of the purpose of a self-service technology. The paper concludes with implications for practice and further research.
... Amongst Chinese migrant workers, younger managers may be those with the imagination and creativity required to be lead users. Second, demand on internal resources may be lessened by using pictorial representations of brands (e.g., brand signatures; Viswanathan et al. 2009), enhancing perceived familiarity through the use of easily recognized symbols and phrases, facilitating perceptual fluency (e.g., high resolution and easy to read fonts; Alter and Oppenheimer 2009), and by describing product attributes as solutions to practical and current problems (Viswanathan et al. 2005). Overall, this research suggests that when targeting BoP consumers—specifically, Chinese migrant workers—marketing strategies should work towards minimizing the resources needed to adopt novel products and services and/or help BoP consumers use their limited resources most effectively. ...
Article
The present research conducted semi-structured interviews with over 1,000 Chinese migrant workers to identify factors influencing their adoption of urban consumer habits. Research on habit formation finds the process to be effortful and resource depleting. Likewise, we predicted that migrant workers with greater resources would be more likely to adopt urban consumer habits. Resources were categorized as either internal (biological and cognitive) or external (social and economic) to the consumer. Using a structural equation model, cognitive and economic resources were found to have positive direct effects on habit adoption, while biological and social resources were found to have positive indirect effects on habit adoption, through cognitive and economic resources, respectively.
... Individuals' traits may also have a role in their memory for brand information. For example, Viswanathan, Torelli, Xia, and Gau (2009) show that a person's level of literacy influences how well they perform on memory tasks such as recognition and stem completion tasks. Individuals with low levels of literacy perform worse because of their difficulty engaging in more abstract styles of thinking. ...
... Nevertheless, there is a significant emotional aspect involved in deciding whether or not to purchase a particular product [3]. In most cases, this emotional component is evoked by the visual and verbal elements that accompany the product [4,5]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The study of product visual attributes is usually performed through questionnaires which provide information about the conscious subjective opinions of the consumer. This work aims at complementing this method by combining Event-Related Potentials (ERP) and Eye-Tracking (ET) techniques using semantic priming to elicit user perception. Our study focuses on packaging design and follows the basic structure of classic ERP experiments where participants are presented an ordered sequence of frames (stimuli) in a computer screen for a certain period of time: attention frame, semantic priming frame (descriptive adjective), neutral background, target frame (product image), and a question regarding coherence between priming and target frames. The eye-tracking system works in combination with the ERP experiment. The results of our study reveal the connection between adjectives (semantic priming) and packaging design attributes (based on the analysis of the N400 ERP component), and the connection between adjectives and the specific visual elements that get more attention (based on the information provided by eye-tracking analysis software).
... The TLL uses a simple colorcoding scheme to inform consumers whether a food item is low (green color), medium (orange) or high (red) in fat, saturates, sugar and salt. The TLL uses graphic and symbolic elements in order to improve the understanding of nutrient information by low-literate consumers (Viswanathan, Torelli, Xia, & Gau, 2009) and to meet the consumers' time constraints. The labels do have some effect. ...
... There are six ways to create brand loyalty: competitor advantage, brand affiliation, credibility, accessibility, Connection ability, and repurchasing (Kotler & Pfoertsch, 2006). Consumers try to purchase their favorite brand even at a high price, whether competitive brands are available with the same attribute in the market at a low price (Viswanathan, Torelli, Xia, & Gau, 2009). For example, in the USA, people are loyal to Apple products, while in Finland, people are loyal customers of Nokia Phones, but the question arises why they are so. ...
Article
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Purpose: The current research aims to investigate the nexus among Hofstede’s national cultural dimensions and consumer brand loyalty in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. These cultural dimensions represent the independent fondness of one state of affairs over another that distinguishes the country’s culture (rather than individuals) from each other. Design/Methodology/Approach: Current research adopts a survey research method for data collection following the quantitative research strategy. Primary data through a self-administrated questionnaire was collected from individuals in southern Punjab, Pakistan’s major cities. Current research has targeted 1110 individuals for data collection, out of which 900 people responded positively to our instruments. Descriptive statistics, Spearman correlation, and multiple regressions techniques were used to analyze the impact of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions on brand loyalty. Findings: The current research findings are fascinating as spearman’s correlation shows that Cultural dimensions have a positive relationship but are negatively associated with consumer brand loyalty. Multiple regression analysis results also show that cultural dimensions do not significantly impact consumer brand loyalty. Implications/Originality/Value: In the Pakistani cultural context, brand loyalty does not take much influence from the cultural values, but there could be some other factors that may affect brand loyalty. Further researchers can explore the exciting reasons for the current research results. Future studies can also explore the other factors which may influence brand loyalty, especially in the culture of southern Punjab, Pakistan.
... A key characteristic of almost all FOP labels is that they use graphic and symbolic elements to convey their judgment. Pictorial elements on a package are recognized better than words, particularly by low-literate consumers (Viswanathan et al., 2009). This resembles earlier findings from research on health claims that showed that short claims combining text and graphics using colour are most effective (Geiger, 1998). ...
Article
Full-text available
Nutrition related diseases such as some cancers, heart diseases and obesity belong to the most challenging health concerns of our time. Communicating intuitive and simple nutrition information by means of front-of-pack nutrition profile signposting labelling is increasingly seen as an essential tool in efforts to combat unhealthy food choices and improve public health. Consequently, much attention in policy and research is given to nutrient profiling methods and the determination of optimal nutrition criteria. Although consumer research on nutrition signpost labelling is now gradually appearing in the literature, the value and meaning of these labelling systems for consumers have received less attention. In the current debate a concise overview is lacking of the consumer perspective including relevant psychological phenomena in relation to much debated controversies surrounding these labels and their further development, such as the most effective type of signposting labelling system and varying stakeholder interests. Therefore, this paper aims to critically review the literature in the consumer domain of front-of-pack nutrition labelling in order to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of this form of nutrition education from a consumer perspective.
... As such, aliterate consumers, like illiterate consumers, are likely to make suboptimal product choices (Jae & DelVecchio, 2004), misuse products, or buy the wrong products altogether . Aliterate consumers, similar to illiterate consumers, may also benefit from pictorial representations of market information due to their cognitive predilections (Viswanathan et al., 2005;Viswanathan, Torelli, Xia, & Gau, 2009). Thus, from a public policy standpoint, understanding consumer aliteracy is critical in the quest to fairly and efficiently inform consumers with varied reading behaviors. ...
... Specifically speaking of cognitive limitations of low-income consumers, consumer research has focused mainly on the impact of illiteracy and certain cognitive predispositions of these consumers on their behavior (Jae & Viswanathan, 2012;Viswanathan et al., 2005). Few articles did acknowledge the inherent cognitive disadvantages, such as smaller working memory capacity (Viswanathan et al., 2009a(Viswanathan et al., , 2009b and attention deficit (Shah et al., 2012) in the passing. However, to the best of our knowledge, prior research has not explored their impact on consumers, and therefore alluding to a salient gap in BoP literature. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although extant literature has studied consumers at the bottom of the pyramid (BoP) extensively, there seem to be some lacunae in terms of a deeper understanding of the cognitive peculiarities of low-income consumers owing to their resource-lean environments and childhood uncertainties. In this paper, we attempt to address this gap by focusing on poverty-induced idiosyncrasies in a set of vital cognitive processes called executive functions (EFs). Specifically, we exlore the possible impact of such anomalies in EFs on a BoP consumer’s information processing abilities, decision-making processes, and consumption behaviors, through a series of propositions and a conceptual framework. The focus is on two core EFs, inhibition and working memory, which tend to make BoP consumers susceptible to persuasive messages, while lacking sufficient self-control, goal-directed behavior, analogy-processing and comparative evaluation abilities. We then present several managerial, policy and research implications of the study.
... Integrating IALS level 3 functioning into consumption contexts, we define the low-literate consumer as an individual who has functional literacy skills at or below IALS level 3, yet, cannot transfer their rudimentary set of literacy skills into marketplaces adequately enough to allow for sufficient performance in typical consumption-related tasks, which include reading, writing, numerical calculations or oral communication. In comparison to the literate population, low-literate consumers exhibit inferior mental functioning (Castro-Caldas, 2004) and are restricted to concrete and pictorial ways of thinking to process information as opposed to the symbolic, abstract pathways which are acquired and developed through the learning of literacy (Smith, Wigboldus, & Dijksterhuis, 2008;Viswanathan, Torelli, Xia, & Gau, 2009). These predilections lay the foundation for how low-literates behave, interact and respond to marketplace opportunities (Viswanathan, Rosa, & Harris, 2005). ...
Article
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A perennial issue in transformative consumer research and public policy is the plight of low‐literate vulnerable consumers. Low‐literate consumers have been observed misinterpreting labels, misusing products and purchasing the wrong item, which leads to devastating outcomes as they continue to make poor decisions out of ignorance. Based on a thorough review of past studies on consumer literacy and vulnerability, we explore how stigma and attribution operate as underlying mechanisms for influencing how low‐literate consumers behave in the marketplace. This paper problematises blanket statements that all low‐literate consumers are vulnerable and addresses the possibility that universal policy actions may inadvertently create further marginalization for those it is meant to protect. Our paper contributes by introducing a new typology of low‐literate consumer vulnerability to challenge conventional understandings of who the vulnerable consumers are in relation to their literacy level and actual marketplace behaviour. From a policy standpoint, the insights gained from our review speak to the need for differentiating low‐literate consumers in terms of their status of vulnerability, which inform public policy initiatives and effective consumer education for their empowerment and protection.
... The TLL uses a simple colorcoding scheme to inform consumers whether a food item is low (green color), medium (orange) or high (red) in fat, saturates, sugar and salt. The TLL uses graphic and symbolic elements in order to improve the understanding of nutrient information by low-literate consumers (Viswanathan, Torelli, Xia, & Gau, 2009) and to meet the consumers' time constraints. The labels do have some effect. ...
Article
The color code of "Traffic Light Labels" (TLL) on food items indicates the amount (e.g., green = low) of fat, saturates, sugar and salt it contains. Consider two ways to select among food items (e.g., two cereal bars) based on their TLLs. You might choose between the two items or you might reject one of the two. Furthermore, differences between choose and reject might be driven more strongly by one factor (e.g., sugar) than by others. In Study 1 our participants made choose or reject decisions between food items with an all-orange TLL (all moderate) and a 2 red/2 green TLL (2 negative/2 positive). Both items had equal energy/caloric content. We found that, independent of the condition (Choose/Reject), participants went home more often with the 2 red/2 green item if sugar was green. This effect was stronger in the Choose than in the Reject condition. In Study 2, we additionally manipulated the energy content (low, high) of the items. In the case where both food items had a low energy content, similar results as in Study 1 were observed. If either or both items had high energy content, the choose/reject interaction with sugar disappeared. Only differences in energy content played a role in the reject condition. Overall, our results can be better explained by an "accentuation hypothesis" than by a "compatibility hypothesis". These findings could be used by choice architects to fight the current obesity crisis.
... Where the influence of the decision-maker's level of numeracy has been analyzed, the literature clearly shows that low numeracy generates negative consequences for the decision-making process, which can ultimately lead to suboptimal decisions (Lipkus & Peters, 2009). Some of the solutions proposed to address the issue of low numeracy among consumers have been concerned with representing probabilistic numerical information via user-friendly formats that aid comprehension and decision-making, such as by using visual materials or analogies (Garcia-Retamero & Cokely, 2013;Viswanathan, Torelli, Xia, & Gau, 2009, 2017. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study published to date has investigated how reducing the information load on the decision-maker-a step that is entirely in the hands of the seller-might minimize the negative effect of low numeracy. ...
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This study examines the relationship between income and subjective well-being among rural-to-urban migrant workers in China. Our analysis of a recent survey uncovered a U-shaped relationship between income and overall life satisfaction for migrant workers in Shanghai. Furthermore, the positive correlation is curvilinear, showing that increasing income yields diminishing returns. Drawing upon ethnographic literature concerning migrant workers, we suggest several possible explanations. For the poorest migrant workers, small increases in income are correlated with longer working hours and increased social comparison with their urban neighbors. After migrant workers’ income reaches a certain level, however, they are able to save money, giving them hope for future social mobility. Furthermore, migrant workers with disposable income can purchase status symbols, helping them to partially overcome their stigmatized status. The positive effect of income on life satisfaction eventually reaches a plateau, however, as even the wealthiest migrant workers find that they cannot surpass the limitations presented by their outsider identity and lack of an urban residence permit. Other findings include a negative relationship between income and income satisfaction and a positive relationship between education and income satisfaction. We conclude that the unique context surrounding Chinese migrant workers alters the typical effects of certain factors upon well-being and satisfaction.
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This editorial provides an introduction to the present issue of the Journal of Consumer Psychology. This is the last issue featuring articles accepted by the editorial team under the editorship of Durairaj Maheswaran. During the tenure of this editorial team (2005-2008), the team has published 12 Research Dialogues and around 70 articles. The research articles featured during this period covered a large array of topics that represented several research domains in social psychology and consumer behavior. The primary focus of most research that appeared was on demonstrating substantive phenomenon of theoretical interest such as metacognition, Implicit theories, and analytic versus holistic thinking. Also, several articles examined normatively ambiguous behavior such as buying embarrassing products or engaging in embarrassing behavior, and gratuitous sex appeals. In addition, emerging research that extends consumer behavior principles in to new contexts such as art also figured in the portfolio of published articles. The editorial team has worked with several doctoral students and their advisors to help them publish their work in the journal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Information processing is a series of activities by which stimuli are perceived, transformed into information, and stored (Best et al., 2003). The theory of information processing is becoming increasingly popular in today’s information rich environments. Surprisingly, in literature there is little research and discussion on the marketing implications of information processing. The present study tries to explore the various studies related to the importance of information processing. The study highlights the marketing implications of information processing on Indian consumer. The objective of this study is to help the marketing managers understand the Indian consumers processing of information. Knowing and analyzing the information processing styles of the target consumers based on the important variables studied in this research, will help marketers design and place their marketing programs most effectively. Based on the literature review the paper proposes few research propositions in understanding of marketing implications of information processing.
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We study the impact of marketplace literacy education on marketplace coping behaviors in the face of systemic shock due to demonetization, deriving important implications for consumer affairs from this radically distinct context. We study whether and how such education can have positive impact even in the face of such macro‐level disruption that disproportionately affects those with the least resources and renders them even more vulnerable. Marketplace literacy education encompasses awareness and knowledge about marketing as well as self‐confidence and awareness of rights as buyers and sellers. We examine the influence of marketplace literacy, in urban and rural areas on coping behaviors of low‐income women consumer‐entrepreneurs during demonetization in India, using a retrospective survey. We derive implications to mitigate the effect of future shocks on consumers and entrepreneurs at the vulnerable end of the income spectrum. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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The world today is divided into ‗have‘s and ‗have not‘s. Recently however, businesses have begun to focus on providing market solutions for the world‘s poor. There is now a significant movement in business practice and research toward ‗monetizing‘ these potential ‗markets,‘ as chronicled in the Base of the Pyramid literature (Prahalad, 2005). This article will present an alternative but complementary micro-level perspective of consumers, small business owners or entrepreneurs, and marketplace behaviors. This perspective aims to understand and enable the subsistence marketplaces (Viswanathan and Rosa, 2007) of the world to move toward becoming sustainable marketplaces – a critical goal for business and humanity. Following a brief discussion of the state of the art in business approaches to poverty alleviation, this article will present the rationale for the sustainable marketplaces perspective, outline research, educational, and social initiatives that have emerged from taking this perspective, and discuss implications for businesses that aim to take leadership in poverty alleviation.
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Small‐dollar credit lenders offer consumers quick access to cash in the form of products such as pawn loans. The consumers who tend to use these small‐dollar credit products are more likely to face financial burden and potential for default— particularly when loan‐to‐value ratios are high. However, the cognitive effects of financial burden can impair financial decision‐making. If financial literacy educators are to empower consumers, more consumer‐centric evidence is necessary to determine how small‐dollar credit consumers make decisions when purchasing loans. One critical decision consumers make is accepting how lenders value their assets in exchange for credit. Three lab studies assess how consumers facing financial burden value their own assets. We find that, due to cognitive constraints of financial burden, consumers can undervalue functional assets and overvalue symbolic assets. Importantly for financial literacy efforts, however, we show that framing a symbolic asset in terms of other‐benefit construal helps attenuate asset overvaluation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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This study examines the relationship between financial disclosures and investors' financial knowledge on investor decision making within the context of mutual fund advertising. Experimental results suggest that mutual fund ads with financial disclosures are more likely to generate higher levels of recall and positive thoughts regarding advertised information for the mutual fund, more favorable attitudes toward the mutual fund, and greater investment intention. Results also suggest that the impact of advertising disclosure on the outcomes of financial behavior (e.g., recall, cognitive response, attitude toward mutual fund, and investment intention) can be moderated by the level of an investor's financial knowledge. Investors with low financial knowledge were likely to systematically process advertising claims and generate more attribute-related thoughts regarding the advertised mutual fund when exposed to advertising disclosures while advertising disclosures had an insignificant effect on attribute-related thoughts among investors with high financial knowledge.
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Em número significativo no Brasil, analfabetos funcionais devem ser considerados como um público consumidor, ainda que suas deficiências de formação educacional possam contribuir para excluí-los de algumas práticas de consumo, limitar suas possibilidades de escolha ou dificultar o usufruto integral de produtos e serviços. Este estudo buscou analisar a compreensão dos elementos de comunicação de marketing por estes consumidores e suas realidades de consumo. Foram realizadas dezessete entrevistas em profundidade com consumidores analfabetos funcionais, sendo os dados submetidos a análise do conteúdo, com apoio do software Atlas.ti. Confirmando os achados da literatura internacional, nossos dados sugerem uma maior facilidade deste grupo em processar e interpretar mensagens cujos elementos são imagéticos e guardam correspondência de 1 para 1 com a realidade. Ademais, estes entrevistados preferem realizar compras em ambientes de varejo de autosserviço, comumente recorrem a pessoas de referência e tendem a evitar o comércio online quando não encontram assistência destas pessoas. Por fim, nossos dados permitiram colocar questões e provocar reflexões, levando a proposição de uma agenda para pesquisas sobre esses consumidores no Brasil.
Chapter
This chapter discusses the internal factors affecting consumer behavior, explains consumer ecosystem and behavior process converging consumer perceptions and attitudes. The factors associated with the consumer motivation, learning, and knowledge transfer have also been deliberated in this chapter. The chapter also explores key variables that drive cognitive thinking process of consumers in the context of beliefs and social influences toward decision-making and setting preferences. In addition, discussion on the process of consumer stimulus and response mapping for marketing organizations to understand the cognitive dynamics among consumers for developing competitive marketing strategies constitutes one of the interesting points of learning.
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Despite some extant research on innovation adoption in subsistence marketplace contexts, little is known about subsistence consumers and how they evaluate so-called pro-poor innovations. This research identified six existing, empirically tested, and well-cited innovation adoption models and collected data on them within a subsistence context. Extending existing research, data was collected across two separate and distinct pro-poor services targeted at the subsistence segment, and structural models were compared based on mediating relationships. This research contributes to the subsistence marketplace literature by providing guidance about how antecedents within these models affect subsistence consumers’ evaluations of pro-poor service innovations in this increasingly important context. The research provides novel practical and theoretical insights through the development of new, testable hypotheses in the area and explores the effect of service type and geographic area (urban versus rural).
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Purpose: What drives product adoption among bottom of the pyramid (BoP) consumers? The purpose of this paper is to identify several factors affecting Chinese migrant workers’ adoption of online banking. Chinese migrant workers are BoP consumers that have migrated from rural China to work in China’s expanding urban regions such as Shanghai. Design/methodology/approach: In collaboration with the Shanghai Survey Corps of the National Bureau of Statistics, the present research conducts structured interviews with more than 1,200 Chinese migrant workers. Findings: The results of a logit regression analysis suggest that Chinese migrant workers are more likely to adopt online banking when they have higher levels of economic, biological, and social resources. Practical implications: The results support habit adoption theory and provide managers with insight on how to increase BoP consumers’ adoption of financial services. Social implications: Greater adoption of financial services among BoP consumers, including Chinese migrant workers, can improve the well-being of these historically marginalized consumers. Originality/value: The present research provides initial evidence that habit adoption theory and resource availability helps to explain Chinese migrant workers’ adoption of online banking.
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A bottom-up approach grounded in micro-level understanding of the thinking, feeling, behavioral, and social aspects of living with low income and associated low literacy can lead to greater understanding and improvement of interactions in the health arena. This paper draws on what we have learned about marketplace interactions in subsistence economies to inform innovations in medical education, design and delivery of healthcare for lowincome patients, outreach education, and future micro-level research at the human-healthcare interface.
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This research examines how low-literate consumers use nutritional labels on packages and the ways such usage can be facilitated. Using research on nutritional labeling and on low-literate consumers as bases, the authors design an experiment to test specific hypotheses about the effects of graphic versus nongraphic formats on usage of nutrition information by consumers with different levels of literacy. The authors discuss implications of the findings for further research and for public policy.
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On each of a series of trials, subjects listened to four words presented by a female speaker and then imagined her rehearsing those words aloud for either 5 or 15 sec. Rehearsal was either primary (imagining the speaker repeat the words) or secondary (imagining the speaker associate the words). On a later test of auditory recognition memory, secondary-rehearsal items were recognized better than were primary-rehearsal items, and performance improved with rehearsal duration for both primary- and secondary-rehearsal items. By contrast, the positive effects of prior study for a later test of auditory perceptual identification did not depend on type or duration of rehearsal. These results are inconsistent with current two-process theories of recognition memory, but seem consistent with the distinction between data-driven and conceptually driven memory tests.
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We present a review of global matching models of recognition memory, describing their theoretical origins and fundamental assumptions, focusing on two defining properties: (1) recognition is based solely on familiarity due to a match of test items to memory at a global level, and (2) multiple cues are combined interactively. We evaluate the models against relevant data bearing on issues including the representation of associative information, differences in verbal and environmental context effects, list-length, list-strength, and global similarity effects, and ROC functions. Two main modifications to the models are discussed: one based on the representation of associative information, and the other based on the addition of recall-like retrieval mechanisms.
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Based on three explanations of imagery effects on memory, hypotheses regarding the conditions under which pictorial ads are or are not remembered better than verbal-only ads are generated and tested. The memorability of brand names semantically related to product class was tested in pictorial versus verbal-only form under various conditions. The results indicate that picture superiority occurs in both immediate and delayed recall tasks when processing is directed at appearance features. Verbal-only stimuli are recalled as well as pictures in immediate recall but become inferior once again in delayed recall, when processing is directed at the semantic content of the ads.
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In this comment to Trope, Liberman and Makslak's lead article, I refrain from any attempt to review or recapitulate the growing body of research in social psychology in general and in consumer science in particular that is explicitly devoted to construal level theory (CLT). Rather, granting the status of CLT as a leading contemporary theory, with rich implications and applications in consumer science, I concentrate on recent phenomena in judgment and decision making for which CLT provides an implicit account. Specifically, CLT affords an integrative framework for understanding a whole variety of preference reversals-a major challenge for students of consumer behavior.
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Understanding how consumers represent outcomes and weigh different decision criteria is critical to consumer behavior research. Construal-level theory articulates how psychological distance alters the mental representation of inputs and the effective weight given to "high-level" and "low-level" criteria. Trope, Liberman, and Wakslak (2007) provide a review of this literature. In this commentary, we illustrate the relevance of construal-level theory to issues in consumer psychology, particularly consumer decision making. We highlight specific questions that researchers could address by considering consumer behavior within the frame-work of changes in construal. We focus our discussion on how construal levels affect consid-eration sets and how shifts in weight from high-level to low-level features might lead to consumer regret and dissatisfaction. Construal level can help us understand follow-through on stated intentions for "really new" products and illuminate public-policy issues such as con-sumer saving for retirement and nonredemption of rebates. We identify open issues related to how construal levels for the same object evolve over time and whether resources differ in terms of how susceptible they are to psychological distance effects. Alba, Hutchinson, and Lynch (1991, p. 2) identified four fundamental questions researchers must answer in order to understand consumer decision making. 1. Which of the available brands or alternatives are con-sidered, and why? 2. What information is processed in evaluating each brand considered, and why? 3. How are these inputs combined to arrive at a final choice? 4. How do memories of prior decisions alter the answers to the first three questions? We organize our comments on Trope, Liberman, and Wak-slak (2007) around questions 1, 2, and 4. We aim to high-light connections between the points that Trope et al. make, drawing mainly from work in psychology, and issues that have concerned consumer psychologists.
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In this article, we report two experiments that provide further evidence concerning the differential nature of implicit and explicit memory. In Experiment 1, subjects first undertook a sentenceverification task. While carrying out this task, half of the subjects were also required to carry out a secondary processing task involving tone monitoring. Twenty-four hours later, the subjects’ memory for target items in the sentence-verification task was tested explicitly by means of a recognition task and implicitly by examining the extent to which the items primed fragment completion. Recognition performance was significantly impaired by the imposition of secondary processing demands during the original learning phase. In contrast, fragment completion was completely unaffected by this additional processing, even though substantial priming was observed. In Experiment 2, we examined whether priming in fragment completion is influenced by the nature of repetition during initial learning. Subjects studied a list of target items that were each repeated twice. Halfthe items were repeatedimmediately (lag 0) and halfwere repeated after six intervening items (lag 6). Memory for the itemswas assessed by recognition and by priming in fragment completion. Recognition was affected by lag, with lag 6 items being recognized better than lag 0 items. However, although significant priming was obtained, the extent of this priming was uninfluenced by lag. These data indicate two additional dimensions along which implicit and explicit memory differ and, furthermore, they support recent conceptualizations of processing differences underlying these two forms of memory.
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Mental imagery improves paired-associate (PA) learning relative to overt rehearsal. The effect might be due to increased reliability of stimulus encoding or to increased relational association produced by imagery. These hypotheses expect different outcomes when imagery and rote-rehearsal Ss are compared on memory tests of stimulus recognition and on recall of the response term conditional upon stimulus recognition. The Ss learned PAs using one of three methods—rote repetition, interactive imagery, or separation imagery. Associative recall was highest for interactive-imagery Ss and lower and equal for rote- and separation-imagery Ss. No differences in stimulus recognition appeared. Such evidence supports the relational-organizing interpretation of the PA effect of imagery in opposition to the stimulus-distinctiveness or reliable-encoding explanations.
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The research agenda for this article is to examine how individuals process information presented through virtual interaction with a product (object interactivity) and the impact that this has on their purchase intentions if they are looking for an aesthetic experience (browsers) or to find specific information (searchers). It is proposed that the congruency between users' goals and the delivery of product information will influence discursive processing and thus attitudes. However, what is most effective for creating favorable product attitudes is not necessarily most effective in raising purchase intentions. This is because imagery processing should play a more prominent role in affecting purchase intentions because, when estimating their own behavior, people likely run a mental simulation of themselves performing that behavior. It is predicted that object interactivity will evoke vivid mental images of product use regardless of the users' goals and thus increase intentions. The results of four experiments support these hypotheses. Copyright 2003 by the University of Chicago.
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It is generally accepted that repeated exposure to an advertisement can influence liking for an advertisement and for the brand names and product packages included in the advertisement. Although it has often been assumed that repeated exposure leads to a direct affective response, more recent evidence suggests that prior exposure leads to processing fluency at the time of judgment. It is a misattribution about the source of this processing fluency that results in preference for the stimulus. To date, the majority of research on the processing fluency/attribution hypothesis has focused on when people will make fluency-based attributions, while assuming the amount of the processing fluency is a direct function of exposure. In this article, we propose that stimulus characteristics and presentation factors will interact with repetition to determine the amount of processing fluency associated with a stimulus at various levels of exposure. Four studies are used to test whether two-factor theory or dual-process theory provides a better account of the source of the processing fluency. Implications for logo design are discussed. Copyright 2001 by the University of Chicago.
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Two experiments examined the effect of interacting with a virtual object (object interactivity) on true and false memories. Although object interactivity may improve memory of associations compared to static pictures and text, it may lead to the creation of vivid internally generated recollections that pose as real memories. Consequently, compared to information conveyed via static pictures and text, object interactivity may cause people to falsely recognize more nonpresented features. The results support these hypotheses and provide converging evidence that this false-recognition effect is due to using imagery during retrieval and is robust, emerging regardless of individuals' goals (to search or browse) or learning intent. (c) 2006 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc..
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Almost half of all consumers read below a sixth-grade level, yet we know little about how these consumers get their needs met in the marketplace. The goal of this qualitative study was to examine the intersection of literacy skills and consumption activities and identify the coping strategies that low literate consumers employ. Those informants who could challenge the stigma of low literacy and employ a range of coping skills were better able to get their needs met. Thus, consumer literacy is conceptualized as a social practice that includes reading and writing skills but also involves the ability to manage one's identity and leverage personal, situational, and social coping skills. (c) 2005 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc..
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A basic neuropsychological battery of visuospatial and memory abilities was administered to extreme educational groups (illiterates and professionals). Subjects were matched according to sex and age. The following visuospatial tasks were included: figure copy (cube, house, and Rey-Osterrieth complex figure), telling time, recognition of superimposed figures, recognition of a map, and drawing of the plan of the room. The following memory tasks were used: basic information, digit retention (forward and backward), memory curve, delayed verbal recall, sentence repetition, logical memory, delayed logical memory, immediate recall of the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure, immediate reproduction of a cube, visuospatial memory, and sequential memory. In visuospatial tasks all differences between the two groups were statistically significant. Five of the seven visuospatial tasks (all but telling time and recognition of superimposed figures) showed differences between age groups with a better performance found in the younger groups and four of the tasks (cube, house, Rey-Osterrith complex figure copying, and telling time) were significant between sexes with a better performance in men. In memory tasks, with the exception of the immediate memory of sentences, all tasks showed statistically significant differences between educational groups. Eight of the 13 memory tasks (digits forward and backward, delayed memory of words, immediate and delayed logical memory, Rey-Osterrieth immediate memory, cube immediate memory, and sequential memory) showed significant differences for age while 4 of the tasks (digits backward, memory curve, Rey-Osterrieth immediate memory, and cube immediate memory) were significant for sex. Results are analyzed with regard to current theories in cognitive psychology and anthropology. Emphasis is placed on the finding that cognitive skills usually examined by neuropsychological tests represent learned and highly trained abilities.
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There have been several notable recent trends in the area of learning and memory. Problems with the episodic/semantic distinction have become more apparent, and new efforts have been made (exemplar models, distributed-memory models) to represent general knowledge without assuming a separate semantic system. Less emphasis is being placed on stable, prestored prototypes and more emphasis on a flexible memory system that provides the basis for a multitude of categories or frames of reference, derived on the spot as tasks demand. There is increasing acceptance of the idea that mental models are constructed and stored in memory in addition to, rather than instead of, memorial representations that are more closely tied to perceptions. This gives rise to questions concerning the conditions that permit inferences to be drawn and mental models to be constructed, and to questions concerning the similarities and differences in the nature of the representations in memory of perceived and generated information and in their functions. There has also been a swing from interest in deliberate strategies to interest in automatic, unconscious (even mechanistic!) processes, reflecting an appreciation that certain situations (e.g. recognition, frequency judgements, savings in indirect tasks, aspects of skill acquisition, etc) seem not to depend much on the products of strategic, effortful or reflective processes. There is a lively interest in relations among memory measures and attempts to characterize memory representations and/or processes that could give rise to dissociations among measures. Whether the pattern of results reflects the operation of functional subsystems of memory and, if so, what the "modules" are is far from clear. This issue has been fueled by work with amnesics and has contributed to a revival of interaction between researchers studying learning and memory in humans and those studying learning and memory in animals. Thus, neuroscience rivals computer science as a source of interdisciplinary stimulation. Research on topics such as memory for spatial location, the relation between memory and affect, and autobiographical memory reminds us that general theories of memory based on studies of verbal materials alone are limited. Investigating how people remember complex natural events should provide us with a larger set of memory phenomena to explain and consequently insight into a wider range of memory principles or a deeper understanding of the ones we already accept (e.g. the role of repetition, encoding specificity), including their functional significance for human behavior.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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The distinction between speaking an oral language and speaking a written language is applied to different cultural groups in the United States and Africa. It is shown that these two patterns of language use systematically related to different educational methods and to different courses of cognitive development.
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Four verbal implicit memory tests, word identification, word stem completion, word fragment completion, and anagram solution, were directly compared in one experiment and were contrasted with free recall. On all implicit tests, priming was greatest from prior visual presentation of words, less (but significant) from auditory presentation, and least from pictorial presentations. Typefont did not affect priming. In free recall, pictures were recalled better than words. The four implicit tests all largely index perceptual (lexical) operations in recognizing words, or visual word form representations.
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In 3 experiments the author investigated the relationship between the online visual representation of natural scenes and long-term visual memory. In a change detection task, a target object either changed or remained the same from an initial image of a natural scene to a test image. Two types of changes were possible: rotation in depth, or replacement by another object from the same basic-level category. Change detection during online scene viewing was compared with change detection after delay of 1 trial (Experiments 2A and 2B) until the end of the study session (Experiment 1) or 24 hr (Experiment 3). There was little or no decline in change detection performance from online viewing to a delay of 1 trial or delay until the end of the session, and change detection remained well above chance after 24 hr. These results demonstrate that long-term memory for visual detail in a scene is robust.
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Implicit (versus explicit) memory is introduced to examine advertising effects on brand choice. Whereas explicit memory is demonstrated by the conscious recollection of an event, implicit memory is inferred by an improvement in some task performance as the result of having experienced the event. This research shows that memory-based choice benefits from advertising that enhances conceptually driven implicit memory, while stimulus-based choice benefits from advertising that enhances perceptually driven implicit memory. The results of three studies show that the two types of implicit memory and explicit memory are distinct constructs of memory, suggesting that implicit memory measures may be more useful indicators of advertising effectiveness than explicit memory measures. ii Imagine John and Betty driving to Niagara Falls. Along the road, they see billboards advertising restaurants and other tourist attractions in the area. Some of the billboards present a prominent display of the name of the attraction or the restaurant. Others show colorful product shots accompanied by slogans and happy faces of customers. Moments later, the two are in their hotel room deciding where they might go for dinner. John is trying to come up with names of
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A study of the decision making and coping of functionally illiterate consumers reveals cognitive predilections, decision heuristics and trade-offs, and coping behaviors that distinguish them from literate consumers. English-as-a-second-language and poor, literate consumers are used as comparison groups. The strong predilection for concrete reasoning and overreliance on pictographic information of functionally illiterate consumers suggest that companies should reconsider how they highlight the added benefits of new products or the differentiating aspects of existing product offerings across channels such as advertising, in-store displays, and positioning. Concrete reasoning also has strong implications for the execution and presentation of price promotions through coupons and in-store discounts, because many consumers are unable to process the information and thus avoid discounted products. Finally, the elaborate coping mechanisms identified and the loyalty that functionally illiterate consumers display toward companies that are sensitive to their literacy and numeracy deficiencies reveal a potential for loyalty programs aimed at this population that do not involve price discounts.
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This research examines the ability of consumers to predict the appeal of complete visual patterns from small sample fragments. In a task designed to mimic the dilemma of choosing wallpaper from small swatches, study participants are shown fragments taken from a large pattern design and are asked to predict how attractive they would find the complete image. Drawing on prior research on affective forecasting, predictions are hypothesized to be driven by an anchoring-and-adjustment process that skews forecasts toward the attractiveness of fragments when judged in isolation. Results from 3 laboratory studies support this basic hypothesis: Respondents consistently overestimate the degree to which their initial reactions to fragments predict their subsequent evaluations of wholes. The size of this projection bias is, in turn, conditioned by such moderators as prior familiarity with product fragment, cognitive load, and visualization abilities-effects that are consistent with an anchoring-and- adjustment explanation for the data.
Article
Examines functional literacy literature as it relates to the concept and its measurement. The concept is shown to be used in connection with measures which are assumed to yield information relating to functional reading skills, general cognitive competencies, and affective characteristics. Reviews measures of educational attainment, grade equivalency scores, and specifically designed tests of functional reading and competency; and specific shortcomings of such measures are presented. The lack of agreement as to what functional literacy is--and therefore the lack of agreement as to what should be measured--is shown to result in estimates of "illiteracy" ranging from 1 to 20 per cent. The authors propose that new measures be developed, that they exclude general literacy and functional competency, and that they be classified according to the practical information to be obtained and the decisions which are to be made from them. These might include determining listening, reading, writing, and calculating requirements of high school graduates; cognitive and affective information for use by potential employers; or abilities needed to obtain necessary information from various functional documents./// [French] Passe en revue les études ayant trait à ce domaine. On remarque que ce concepte est généralement associé à des mesures sensées procurer des indications sur la capacité fonctionnelle en lecture, sur la compétence générale cognitive et sur les caractéristiques affectives. Examine aussi les divers tests qui donnent une indication du niveau scolaire, spécifiquement ceux qui sont destinés à déterminer une équivalence entre le nombre de points acquis sur un test et le niveau scolaire de l'individu; s'intéresse aussi à d'autres tests sensés évaluer la capacité minime en lecture. Etudie les défauts particuliers à chacun de ces tests. Le fait que l'on n'est point d'accord sur ce qu'est la capacité minime en lecture et par conséquent sur ce que l'on devrait mesurer est attesté par des approximations de l'incapacité en lecture qui varient de l à 20 pour cent. Les auteurs proposent le développement de nouveaux tests qui ne s'occuperaient pas de l'aptitude minime générale en lecture. Ces tests seraient classifiés selon les renseignements à obtenir et d'après les décisions que l'on prendrait à partir de ceux-ci. Les catégories pourraient comprendre: le niveau requis en lecture à la fin des études secondaires, les renseignements cognitifs et affectifs qui pourraient être utiles aux employeurs potentiels, diagnostiques qui pourraient servir de base à des programmes d'instruction pour adultes, renseignements concernant la capacité d'une personne à accomplir certaines tâches de lecture ou à obtenir des indications de base à partir de divers documents./// [Spanish] Trata sobre los estudios realizados sobre el concepto y medida del alfabetismo funcional. Muestra que el concepto se usa en conjunto con pruebas destinadas a proveer información relacionada con las aptitudes mínimas de alfabetismo funcional, aptitudes cognocitivas generales y características afectivas. Estudia pruebas de aptitudes educacionales, aquellas que proveen resultados de equivalencia de calificaciones y pruebas diseñadas específicamente para medir aptitud y lectura funcionales, presentando además las deficiencias de cada una. Demuestra que la falta de consenso sobre el concepto de alfabetismo funcional y la falta de consenso sobre lo que debiera medirse, resultan en cifras estimadas de "analafabetismo" de entre 1 y 20%. Los autores proponen el desarrollo de nuevas pruebas que excluyan el alfabetismo general y las aptitudes funcionales, y que éstas dos sean clasificadas de acuerdo a la información práctica obtenida y a las decisiones que de ella se deriven. Tales clasificaciones podrían incluir requisitos de lecturas para graduados de la escuela secundaria, información cognocitiva y afectiva para el uso de posibles empleadores, información tipo diagnóstico para programas de educación básica de adultos, información sobre la habilidad de llevar a cabo una lectura específica o la habilidad necesaria para obtener información de varios documentos funcionales.
Article
This article has 3 purposes: 1) to analyze the concept of literacy for the purpose of identifying the parameters that must be specified in literacy definitions, 2) to identify measurement problems associated with specifying each of these parameters, and 3) to describe literacy assessment procedures currently available for dealing with these measurement problems. The principal focus of the paper is on the development of models for identifying performance criteria that can serve as the goal of instructional programs and of the research and development programs that lead to them. The 5 parameters discussed here are a) the classes of literacy behaviors, b) the level of performance that serves as the criterion of literate performance, c) the kinds of reading tasks on which the behaviors are tested, d) the proportion of the reading tasks that serves as the criterion of literacy on some corpus of reading tasks, and e) certain characteristics of the people tested, such as the levels of aptitude and perseverance represented within it./// [French] Cette etude a 3 buts; 1) analyser le concept de l'aptitude à la lecture afin de constater les paramètres qui doivent être spécifiées dans toute définition de cette aptitude; 2) diagnostiquer les problèmes de mesurage associés à la spécification de ces paramètres; et 3) décrire les procédés d'évaluation de l'aptitude à la lecture que l'on emploie de nos jours afin de résoudre ces problèmes de mesurage. Cette étude se concentre principalement sur la découverte de modèles qui meneraient à l'identification de critères de performance. Ces critères pourraient alors servir comme but ultime des programmes d'instruction de même que des programmes de recherches qui aboutiraient à l'établissement de ces programmes d'instruction. Les 5 paramètres discutées sont: a) les catégories de comportement dans l'aptitude à la lecture; b) le niveau de performance qui sert de critère à l'accomplissement de la lecture; c) les diverses tâches d'après lesquelles le comportement est mis à l'épreuve; d) la proportion de tâches acquises parmi un corpus de tâches qui pourrait servir comme critère de l'aptitude à la lecture; et e) certaines caractéristiques des individus mis à l'épreuve comme, par exemple, leur niveaux d'aptitude et de persévérance./// [Spanish] Este articulo tiene 3 propositos: 1) analizar el concepto de "capacidad de leer", con el propósito de identificar los parámetros que deben ser especificados en las definiciones de "capacidad de leer", 2) identificar los problemas de medición asociados a la especificación de cada uno de estos parámetros, y 3) describir los procedimientos para determinar la "capacidad de leer" actualmente disponibles para poder tratar estos problemas de medición. El principal enfoque del artículo es en el desarrollo de modelos para identificar los criterios de desempeño que pueden servir de objetivo en los programas de instrucción y en los programas de investigación y desarrollo que conducen a ellos. Los 5 parámetros tratados son a) las clases de comportamientos en la "capacidad de leer", b) el nivel de desempeño que sirve de criterio en el desempeño de la "capacidad de leer", c) los tipos de tareas de lectura mediante los cuales se prueban los comportamientos, d) la proporción de las tareas de lectura que sirve de criterio de la "capacidad de leer" en algunos cuerpos de tareas de lectura, y e) ciertas características de la gente examinada, tales como los niveles de aptitud y perseverancia representados en él.
Article
It is proposed that marketing exchanges are unbalanced in favor of marketers when one of the parties is a poor consumer, but in addition, marketers are presented with ethical conflicts in such exchanges. An exchange model that includes poor consumers is described. By strengthening ethical foundations of exchange, five implications for making the balance more equitable are discussed. One implication leads to the idea that small buying groups can increase the exchange power of poor consumers, thereby increasing the real and perceived equity as well as the level of commitment of all parties to a marketing exchange.
Article
A review of the literature on the function of pictures in prose learning indicates that visual illustrations are helpful to children's learning, but that visual imagery has inconsistent effects on prose learning, although it seems to have potential for assisting those with adequate word recognition but low comprehension. A conceptual framework has been hypothesized in order to reevaluate existing research and to permit a formal distinction among the several functions that prose-learning pictures likely serve. The functions hypothesized are decoration, remuneration, motivation, reiteration, representation, organization, interpretation, and transformation. Two of these functions, the representation function and the transformation function, have proved useful in differentiating between the magnitude and consistency of picture effects that can be anticipated from one prose-learning study to the next. The framework can prove helpful in identifying the kinds of variables that need to be controlled for when looking for pictures in prose effects, as well as the kind of research that still needs to be conducted to isolate the contributions of specific picture components. (MKM)
Article
Viewed from the perspective of psycholinguistics, words are fairly magical entities, representing the psychological level at which twenty-six meaningless letters coalesce into thousands of meaningful units. Many choose only to study word-recognition itself, modeling RT data gathered from lexical decision or naming tasks. Others choose to follow the linguistic pathways higher, studying how words are integrated into syntactic or semantic levels of discourse. In either circumstance, words are typically treated in a manner consistent with linguistic theory - as abstract, canonical units that may be recombined to create endless messages. Word recognition is appreciated for its stability across visual or auditory variations, and is theoretically likened to finding entries in a computer search or activating the proper node (or pattern) in a network.
Article
Like many important theories that were originally tested in one domain, construal level theory has broadened the notion of temporal distance to psychological distance and examined the wide ranging implications of this construct on evaluation and behavior. This commentary seeks to take a step back to admire the "forest" that has been created and suggest additional extensions and implications along the different stages of consumer decision making: goal pursuit, evaluation by way of consideration-set formation and receptivity, and finally choice influenced by context, comparability of options, and post-choice happiness and regret.
Article
The three key ad elements (brand, pictorial, and text) each have unique superiority effects on attention to adver-tisements, which are on par with many commonly held ideas in marketing practice. This is the main conclusion of an analysis of 1363 print advertisements tested with infrared eye-tracking methodology on more than 3600 con-sumers. The pictorial is superior in capturing attention, independent of its size. The text element best captures attention in direct proportion to its surface size. The brand element most effectively transfers attention to the other elements. Only increments in the text element's surface size produce a net gain in attention to the advertisement as a whole. The authors discuss how their findings can be used to render more effective decisions in advertising. Rik Pieters is Professor of Marketing, Marketing Department, Tilburg Uni-versity (e-mail: pieters@uvt.nl). Michel Wedel is Professor of Marketing, University of Michigan Business School (e-mail: wedel@bus.umich.edu). The authors thank Dominique Claessens and Chris Huijnen of Verify Inter-national for the eye-tracking data.
Article
This paper begins by considering problems that have plagued investigations of automatic or unconscious influences of perception and memory. A process dissociation procedure that provides an escape from those problems is introduced. The process dissociation procedure separates the contributions of different types of processes to performance of a task, rather than equating processes with tasks. Using that procedure, I provide new evidence in favor of a two-factor theory of recognition memory; one factor relies on automatic processes and the other relies on intentional processes. Recollection (an intentional use of memory) is hampered when attention is divided, rather than full, at the time of test. In contrast, the use of familiarity as a basis for recognition memory judgments (an automatic use of memory) is shown to be invariant across full versus divided attention, manipulated at test. Process dissociation procedures provide a general framework for separating automatic from intentional forms of processing in a variety of domains; including perception, memory, and thought.
Book
This work presents a systematic analysis of the psychological phenomena associated with the concept of mental representations - also referred to as cognitive or internal representations. A major restatement of a theory the author of this book first developed in his 1971 book (Imagery and Verbal Processes), this book covers phenomena from the earlier period that remain relevant today but emphasizes cognitive problems and paradigms that have since emerged more fully. It proposes that performance in memory and other cognitive tasks is mediated not only by linguistic processes but also by a distinct nonverbal imagery model of thought as well. It discusses the philosophy of science associated with the dual coding approach, emphasizing the advantages of empiricism in the study of cognitive phenomena and shows that the fundamentals of the theory have stood up well to empirical challenges over the years.
Article
Construal level theory (CLT) is an account of how psychological distance influences individuals' thoughts and behavior. CLT assumes that people mentally construe objects that are psychologically near in terms of low-level, detailed, and contextualized features, whereas at a distance they construe the same objects or events in terms of high-level, abstract, and stable characteristics. Research has shown that different dimensions of psychological distance (time, space, social distance, and hypotheticality) affect mental construal and that these construals, in turn, guide prediction, evaluation, and behavior. The present paper reviews this research and its implications for consumer psychology.
Article
The increased priority placed on branding by marketers in recent years offers an opportunity for consumer researchers to provide valuable insights and guidance. In particular, in highly competitive marketplaces, marketers often must link their brands to other entities, for example, people, places, things, or other brands, as a means to improve their brand equity. Understanding this leveraging process requires understanding consumer brand knowledge and how it changes from such associations. In this essay, I identify some promising and productive current research on this topic, and I suggest some important issues for future research. I conclude that adopting broader, more holistic perspectives that synthesize the multidimensionality of brand knowledge is critical to advance branding theory and practice, both in general and with brand leveraging in particular. Copyright 2003 by the University of Chicago.
Article
This research addresses the question of how perceptual cues affect preschoolers' learning of brand names. It is found that when visual cues are provided in addition to brand names that are prior-associated in children's memory structures, children better remember the brand names. Although two cues (a picture and a color) improve memory over the imposition of a single cue, extensive visual cues may overtax young children's processing abilities. The study contributes to our understanding of how visual cues increase the effectiveness of nonverbal communication. Copyright 1996 by the University of Chicago.
Article
This article investigates homelessness among adult women, an important and growing subpopulation among the homeless. To examine their situation within a consumer-behavior context, an ethnographic case study of a shelter for homeless women run by an order of Roman Catholic sisters was performed. The study focused on how these women became homeless, the effects of early life experiences on their homelessness, available emotional and financial support, possessions that were lost, maintained, or became available during their homeless period(s), their perspectives on their lives at the shelter and its ability to act as a "home," and their fantasies about home life. Public policy implications and contributions of these findings to the developing literature in consumer behavior regarding the meaning of possessions are discussed. Copyright 1991 by the University of Chicago.
Article
Reports experiments designed to explore the relationship between the more aware autobiographical form of memory that is measured by a recognition memory test and the less aware form of memory that is expressed in perceptual learning. Ss were 247 undergraduates. Variables such as the level of processing of words during study influenced recognition memory, but not subsequent perceptual recognition. In contrast, variables such as the number and the spacing of repetitions produced parallel effects on perceptual recognition and recognition memory. It is suggested that there are 2 bases for recognition memory. If an item is readily perceived so that it seems to "jump out" from the page, the S is likely to judge that it has been seen in the experimental situation. The 2nd basis for recognition memory involves elaboration of a word's study context and depends on such factors as level of processing during study--factors not important for perceptual recognition of isolated words. Effects of study on perceptual recognition appear to be totally due to memory for physical or graphemic information. Results are also relevant to theories of perceptual learning. Effects of study on perceptual recognition partly depend on the same variables as do effects on more standard memory tests. (59 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Fluent reprocessing of perceptual aspects of recently experienced stimuli is thought to support repetition priming effects on implicit perceptual memory tests. Although behavioral and neuropsychological dissociations demonstrate that separable mnemonic processes and neural substrates mediate implicit and explicit test performance, dual-process theories of memory posit that explicit recognition memory judgments may be based on familiarity derived from the same perceptual fluency that yields perceptual priming. Here we consider the relationship between familiarity-based recognition memory and implicit perceptual memory. A select review of the literature demonstrates that the fluency supporting implicit perceptual memory is functionally and anatomically distinct from that supporting recognition memory. In contrast to perceptual fluency, recognition familiarity is more sensitive to conceptual than to perceptual processing, and does not depend on modality-specific sensory cortices. Alternative possible relationships between familiarity in explicit memory and fluency in implicit memory are discussed.
The consequences of literacy
  • Scribner S.
  • Cole M.
  • Scribner S.
  • Cole M.
Effects of elaboration of processing at encoding and retrieval: Trace distinctiveness and recovery of initial context
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The disadvantaged consumer
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M. Viswanathan et al. / Journal of Consumer Psychology xx (2009) xxx–xxx