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Abstract

According to many students, introductory physics is difficult. We are investigating what students believe makes physics difficult and what can be done to overcome these difficulties. Our investigation includes an initial free-response survey given to approximately 1400 students in an introductory physics course and a second survey, which was given to approximately 400 students in another semester, distilled from the responses to the first survey. Also faculty members and teaching assistants (TAs) for physics courses are asked to complete the second survey. Our findings show that the perceptions of the students and faculty members are different in terms of difficulties which students have in a physics course. The perceptions of students and TAs are mostly the same. Both students and faculty members agree that student-related factors, such as not studying more have the most influence on students' success in physics.
... El curso de biofísica se incluye en el primer año de los planes de estudio de varias facultades de Medicina y de Ciencias a nivel mundial, presentando un enfoque multidisciplinario (González y Ivanovich, 2005), orientado a un fuerte componente fisicomatemático o también desde un punto de vista biológico con fundamentos físicos (Young, 2020). De hecho, esta asignatura abarca conocimientos de matemáticas, física, química y biología; aplicado en humanos, incluyendo conceptos, procesos, mecanismos y hechos abstractos que podrían llegar a causar dificultades en el alumnado (Ornek et al., 2007;Etobro y Fabinu, 2017;O'Dwyer y Childs, 2017). ...
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Resumen: La biofísica es uno de los cursos básicos en ciencias biomédicas en el cual se han obser-vado dificultades en el aprendizaje. Aunque el concepto de percepción de dificultad podría ser sub-jetivo, su cuantificación radica en la transformación de la subjetividad de un individuo en una reali-dad objetiva. La finalidad de nuestro estudio fue desarrollar un instrumento que midiera la percep-ción de dificultad de aprendizaje para el curso de biofísica. Para analizar esta situación, se diseñó un instrumento de percepción de dificultad de aprendizaje del curso (IPDAB) compuesto por 9 reactivos, basado en una escala de Likert, con una puntuación de 1 hasta 5; combinadas en una única puntuación durante el proceso de evaluación de datos. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 155 estudiantes de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Panamá. La consistencia interna del instrumento se evalúo con una prueba de alfa de Cronbach y un análisis factorial exploratorio por el método de componentes principales con rotación oblicua Promax. Los estadísticos descriptivos indican que en promedio los estudiantes perciben con mayor dificultad el tema R2 (= 3.79), en el cual se analizan los conceptos de biopotenciales, neurotransmisores y sinapsis. La prueba de Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin mostró un valor de 0.682. El alfa de Cronbach para la confiabilidad fue de 0.719. IPDAB nos permite conocer los módulos que representan mayor percepción de dificultad. Por con-siguiente, contamos con un instrumento que exhibe propiedades psicométricas aceptables, válido, confiable, fácil de aplicar e interpretar, desarrollado en muestras de estudiantes universitarios pa-nameños. Palabras Clave: Dificultad de aprendizaje, Percepción, Confiabilidad, Análisis Factorial. Abstract: Biophysics is an introduction-level course in the field of Biomedical Sciences were learning difficulties have been observed. Because the perception of difficulty is subjective, its quantifica-tion depends on transforming an individual's subjective perception into an objective reality. Our study aimed at developing an instrument that could measure the perception of difficulty for the course of Biophysics. For this purpose, the course learning difficulty perception instrument (IPDAB) was designed, and it contained nine items based on a Likert scale scoring from 1 to 5. The sample consisted of 155 students from the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Panama. The instrument's internal consistency was performed with a Cronbach's alpha test and an exploratory factor analysis by the principal component's method with Promax oblique rotation. Descriptive
... Students at lower and upper secondary levels regard physics as difficult to learn, abstract and little attractive. As a result, physics at school continuously loses importance and acceptance although a lot of work has been done to modernize and develop the related physics courses (Fischer and Horstendahl 1997;Kalender et al. 2019;Ornek et al. 2008;Salta and Koulougliotis 2020). ...
Chapter
To identify necessary content for teacher education, we first have to model professional competences of teachers as their abilities for applying a body of knowledge and concepts of physics to create an optimal learning environment. In general, competence can be seen as a cluster of characteristics including knowledge, skills, beliefs and abilities, which enable and improve the performance of a job. Consequently, competences always refer to a context and a task or problem to solve. Professional competence of physics teachers includes many areas of physics knowledge but also social and educational knowledge and skills to apply successfully to their teaching in the classroom. In the case of teaching physics, teachers’ professional competence requires their content knowledge on an adequate level but also their abilities, motivation and volition to teach physics in their respective classes. Beliefs and values of teachers often have their sources in everyday life as well as in the related scientific communities at university. Therefore, teachers should know the actual scientifically acquired knowledge about attitudes and values in order to identify their own attitudes and values and to assess their impact on teaching and learning. In addition, self-regulation competencies are necessary for teachers to organize their own working and their learning processes for keeping the development of their own resources.
... Zudem wird das Unterrichtsfach Physik als unbeliebtes Fach bezeichnet (Merzyn, 2008;Fruböse, 2010;Muckenfuss, 2006). Auch internationale Studien (Williams et al., 2003, Angell et al., 2004, Ornek et al., 2008, Bennet & Hogarth, 2009) belegen seit Jahren die Unbeliebtheit des Schul-und Studienfaches Physik. Lediglich das Fach Chemie erreicht vergleichsweise ähnlich schlechte Ergebnisse; Mathematik schneidet in der Regel ein wenig besser ab (Merzyn, 2008 (Nentwig & Waddington, 2005). ...
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Structured Abstract Hintergrund: Physik wird von vielen Schüler*innen als besonders schwieriges Unterrichtsfach wahrgenommen. Häufig geht diese Einschätzung mit einer hohen Unbeliebtheit des Faches einher. Obwohl dieser Befund nicht neu ist, liegen erstaunlich wenige Forschungsergebnisse zu den Gründen der von Schüler*innen wahrgenommenen Schwie-rigkeiten vor. Ziel: Die in diesem Beitrag vorgestellten Studien untersuchten die Schüler*innenperspektive auf schwierigkeitserzeugende Merkmale im Physikunterricht. Stichprobe/Rahmen: Insgesamt liegen Daten von 220 Schüler*innen vor. Die Befragungen erfolgten an hessischen Realschulen und Gymnasien in den Jahrgängen neun bis elf. Design and Methoden: Zwei Studien arbeiteten mit quantitativen Fragebögen (paper-pencil), eine Studie untersuchte das Thema mithilfe einer qualitativen Fallstudie (Lautes Denken und leitfadengestützte Interviews). In allen Fällen handelt es sich um Schüler*innenbefragungen ohne vorherige Intervention. Ergebnisse: Es zeigt sich, dass von Schüler*innen insbesondere eine fehlende Alltagsrelevanz der Inhalte als Grund angesehen wird, weshalb der Physikunterricht als schwierig wahrgenommen wird. Zudem geben die Schüler*innen an, dass ein hohes Maß persönlicher Anstrengung nötig sei, um ein Verständnis zu entwickeln. Hinsichtlich fachspezifischer Merkmale sowie beim Lösen physikalischer Problemstellungen erweisen sich der Umgang mit fachsprachlichen Begriffen sowie das Modellieren - hier insbesondere die Konstruktion von Modellen - als schwierig für die Schüler*innen. Fazit: In der Gesamtschau der drei Studien deutet vieles darauf hin, dass unter anderem der Bedeutung von Modellen und den damit einhergehenden Schwierigkeiten eine (noch) grössere Aufmerksamkeit seitens der Fachdidaktik gewidmet werden sollte. Eine Fokussierung auf den Konstruktionsprozess von Modellen unter Berücksichtigung zugrunde liegender Idealisierungen könnte Schüler*innen dabei helfen, Verständnis darüber zu erhalten, warum die jeweils ver-wendeten Modelle genau die gewollten Eigenschaften besitzen. Am Ende des Beitrags werden Implikationen für den Physikunterricht sowie für weitergehende Forschungsfelder skizziert. Keywords: Schwierigkeitserzeugende Merkmale, Beliebtheit, Physikunterricht __________________________________________________________________________________________ Background: Many pupils perceive physics as a particularly difficult subject. This assessment is often associated with the high degree of unpopularity of physics. Although this finding is not new, there is surprisingly little research on the reasons for perceived difficulty for pupils in physics. Purpose: The studies presented in this paper examined the student's perspective on characteristics that create difficulties in physics lessons. Sample/Setting: The studies cover data from 220 pupils and include a survey carried out at Hessian secondary schools from grades nine to eleven. Design and Methods: Two studies worked with quantitative questionnaires (paper-pencil). One study examined the topic based on a qualitative case study (think-aloud; guided interviews). All studies include surveys of pupils without prior intervention. Results: According to the participants, a lack of everyday relevance of the content is one reason why physics lessons are perceived as difficult. Furthermore, pupils emphasized the high degree of personal effort that is necessary. Dealing with technical terms and modeling, particularly the construction of models, with regard to subject-specific characteristics and solving physical problems, proved difficult for the pupils. Conclusions: Overall the three studies show that the importance of models and the associated difficulties should be given (even) greater attention by science education research. Focusing on the construction process of models in consideration of the underlying idealizations, could help pupils understand why the models used in each case have the respective properties. At the end of the paper, implications for physics teaching and further research fields are outlined.
... Salah satu materi yang dianggap sulit oleh siswa adalah suhu dan kalor (Setyadi & Komalasari, 2012). Suhu dan kalor merupakan materi yang abstrak namun penerapannya dapat dilihat dalam kehidupan sehari-hari (Ornek, Robinson, Haugan, & Email, 2008). Siswa sulit membedakan antara suhu dan kalor, lalu adanya anggapan bahwa terdapat kalor dingin dan kalor panas. ...
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