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The Social Capital Assessment Tool

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... Stewart-Weeks and Richardson (1998) measure network density with several questions, including "are there people you know and have contact with that you meet in more than one situation" and "can you think of any relationships or links you have made with people that have gone beyond the initial reason you got to know them?" Another study by Krishna and Shrader (1999) asks "overall, are the same people members of different groups or is there little overlap in membership?" ...
... Several studies have developed survey items to define a respondent's level of network heterogeneity. Krishna and Shrader (1999) include numerous questions that ask whether the networks people belong to are mostly of the same extended family, religion, gender, political viewpoint or party, occupation, age group, and level of education. Onyx and Bullen (2000) attempt to gauge network heterogeneity by asking the question "if a stranger, someone different, moves into your street, would they be accepted by the neighbors (Onyx and Bullen 2000, p. 114)?" ...
... Putnam (1993) asks several questions about network relations, including "who has influence and over what?" and "how do parties operate here?" Krishna and Shrader (1999) also ask a few network relations questions, including "when there is a decision to be made in the group, how does this usually come about?" Answers to the Krishna and Shrader (1999) question were whether "the leader decides and informs the other group members," "the leader asks group members what they think and then decides," "the group members hold a discussion and decide together," or "other; don't know; not applicable." ...
Thesis
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This study argues that value types defined by Shalom Schwartz should relate to social capital and political sophistication in particular ways. Individual value types that emphasize “other-orientation” should positively relate to social capital characteristics that increase information flows which in turn will relate to increased political sophistication. On the other hand, it is expected that individual value types that emphasize “self-orientation” will positively relate to social capital characteristics that decrease information flows which in turn would correlate to decreased political sophistication. Using post-materialism as a theoretical basis and a survey that measures political knowledge and ideology, value orientation, social network characteristics, and demographics (PVSN), this study attempts to quantify and explain this relationship and develop a preliminary regression model that may be able to predict much of the variance in political sophistication. This study finds that particular social capital characteristics correlate with higher political sophistication and those specific characteristics are in general related to other-oriented, self-transcendence values such as universalism and benevolence. Alternatively, as expected, the study finds that social capital characteristics that correlate with lower political sophistication tend to be associated with values that are self-oriented or self-enhancing. Finally, the study shows that building a regression model that predicts a good deal of the variance in political sophistication using demographics, political interest, and social capital characteristics is indeed feasible.
... The original survey tool was adapted into interviews and focused group protocols to collect data for the qualitative section. The social capital instruments follow the design guidelines and consideration as given by Krishna and Shrader (2002). The authors lay out the guidelines to tap into social capital by incorporating its multiple dimensions as well as paying attention to the cultural and other contextual variables. ...
... The authors lay out the guidelines to tap into social capital by incorporating its multiple dimensions as well as paying attention to the cultural and other contextual variables. However, in this study there is a digression from the Krishna and Shrader's (2002) guidelines since the instruments will also attempt to tap into the factors that link social capital and education, therefore by design will weight the education component considerably. ...
... The same procedure as above was followed. (Krishna & Shrader, 2002). For example, how do the residents define a community, what assets demarcate a community etc. Community maps of the villages and the hamlets to provide the contextual setting and also highlight the physical placement of different social classes and castes in the villages (Krishna & Shrader, 2002). ...
... Stewart-Weeks and Richardson (1998) measure network density with several questions, including "are there people you know and have contact with that you meet in more than one situation" and "can you think of any relationships or links you have made with people that have gone beyond the initial reason you got to know them?" Another study by Krishna and Shrader (1999) asks "overall, are the same people members of different groups or is there little overlap in membership?" ...
... Several studies have developed survey items to define a respondent's level of network heterogeneity. Krishna and Shrader (1999) include numerous questions that ask whether the networks people belong to are mostly of the same extended family, religion, gender, political viewpoint or party, occupation, age group, and level of education. Onyx and Bullen (2000) attempt to gauge network heterogeneity by asking the question "if a stranger, someone different, moves into your street, would they be accepted by the neighbors (Onyx and Bullen 2000, p. 114)?" ...
... Putnam (1993) asks several questions about network relations, including "who has influence and over what?" and "how do parties operate here?" Krishna and Shrader (1999) also ask a few network relations questions, including "when there is a decision to be made in the group, how does this usually come about?" Answers to the Krishna and Shrader (1999) question were whether "the leader decides and informs the other group members," "the leader asks group members what they think and then decides," "the group members hold a discussion and decide together," or "other; don't know; not applicable." ...
Conference Paper
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This paper investigates the possible relationship between the degree people believe in particular universal values, social capital, and political sophistication.
... He notes that formal rules include political (and judicial) and economic rules, property rights and contracts. According to Krishna and Shrader (1999) ...
... The survey design also was based on three reliable and valid instruments previously used in other research: (a) an integrated questionnaire for measuring social capital (Grootaert et. al. 2004), (b) the social capital assessment tool (Krishna and Shrader 1999) and ( information was left to the end of the interview because some questions might be sensitive to respondents and consequently influence responses (Schmidt et at. 1999, Fink A. 2003. ...
... Findings in this research are consistent with Krishna and Shrader (1999) who argue that the lack of both bonding and bridging social capital can become an institutional constraint to participating in collective action because it is directly correlated with: (a) ...
Article
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This research uses an interdisciplinarian neo-institutional approach to examine formal and informal institutional factors that influence dairy farmers' ideas about participation in collective action in the "Altos Sur" region in Jalisco, Mexico. Data collected from face-to-face interviews of a sample of 100 dairy farmers was used to measure and analyze formal and informal factors that influence these dairy farmers' decisions about collective action; whether or not to join other dairy farmers to produce milk in a collective way. This research tests hypotheses not only on dairy farmers' perceptions of formal institutions such as the state, the market and the economic organization, but also on their perceptions of informal institutions such as bonding and bridging social capital which might have influenced them to participate in collective action. Results of this research indicate that these dairy farmers' motivations to go into entrepreneurial collective action were influenced by both formal and informal institutional perceptions. Perceptions of formal institutions that affected willingness to engage in collective action include views about government responsibilities and duties in the milk industry; perceptions of the functionality of an economic organization, and perceptions of market functionality. The surveys also show that farmers' perceptions of bonding social capital had a more significant influence than bridging social capital on whether or not they were encouraged to participate in collective action. These findings are discussed in relation to the larger issue of whether collective entrepreneurial action can mediate market failure that is exacerbated by globalization.
... Il capitale sociale viene solitamente suddiviso in due livelli in riferimento al campo di indagine considerato: macro e micro. Il livel-lo macro si sofferma sul contesto istituzionale in cui si trovano a operare gli enti governativi, i quali instaurano relazioni formali e strutturali (Krishna, shrader, 1999). Il livello micro prende in considerazione, invece, le organizzazioni di tipo orizzontale e le varie relazioni che possono crearsi tra i membri della comunità permettendo di favorirne lo sviluppo. ...
... Il capitale sociale strutturale comprende varie forme di organizzazione sociale ed è costituito da elementi quali ruoli, regole e procedure così come da una varietà di network. Questo genere di capitale si sviluppa attraverso organizzazioni orizzontali e reti relazionali che cooperano sulla base di decisioni collettive (Krishna, shrader, 1999). ...
Article
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In the participatory forest management the knowledge of the socio-economic and historical-cultural features of an area assumes the same level of importance of the ecological and forestry data. The stakeholders’ involvement in the first steps of the participatory forest planning and management needs a preliminary analysis of the socio-economic context in order to choice the best level of involvement of the stakeholders. The paper focuses on the definition of a set of indicators useful to measure the social capital, human capital and cultural capital in order to support the decision makers in the analysis of socioeconomic and cultural context and in the management process. The proposed indicators were tested in a case study characterized by a long tradition in forest management and a deep link between local community and forest resources (Non valley in Trentino-Alto Adige region).
... This means that Zapotitlán had the least memberships to social institutions per household. Lack of strong social institutions among resource users can hinder collective action (Krishna and Shrader, 1999), as well as their ability to negotiate access rights or other benefits such as subsidies, loans or government programs. (Coleman, 2000). ...
... Social capital allows people to access resources inside a social network, this social capital can be produced through personal relationships and informal social interactions such as a family and friends (Bourdieu, 2001). Formal social capital Social capital can be built through forma channels like social institutions with clear decision making processes, collective action and accountable leaders (Krishna and Shrader, 1999), these institutions ease the action of their members (Coleman, 2000). ...
Article
Coastal fishing communities rely on goods and services provided by marine ecosystems to satisfy their social and economic needs; however, continued exploitation of these ecosystems has degraded and threatened them making it imperative to implement conservation and management strategies. Management strategy impacts on local communities lifestyle is a function of dependence on the resource targeted by these strategies. The sustainable livelihoods approach can be used to measure resource dependence. Using this approach we designed an index to explore marine resource dependence of communities linked to the Los Tuxtlas reef system located in the south of the state of Veracruz. Thirty-eight surveys were applied across three communities. Our results suggest the communities we surveyed are moderately dependent on marine resources. Of the variables we measured, allotment ownership, subsidies, formal social capital, work independence, economic burden and fishing labor relevance contributed the most to marine resource dependence; while informal social capital helped reduce it. Understanding how resource dependence is formed in rural communities is fundamental to develop management and conservation strategies that achieve resource conservation goals and meet community needs.
... Reflecting the diversity of perspectives on social capital, a variety of sets of indicators have been put forward for its measurement [31][32][33][34][35]. They have in common that they capture information on a group's or network's personal relations (knowledge of personal information), its structure and functioning (e.g. ...
... The interview guide ( Table 2) covered different dimensions of social capital. For structural aspects of the network (#1 of interview guide), we drew on the classification developed by Krishna & Shrader for the World Bank [35]. Aspects of climate and trust (#2) and of social identity (#3) were detailed according to indicators proposed by Foxton & Jones for the British Office for National Statistics [33] and by Falk & Harrison, who focused specifically on interactive learning processes within groups [32]. ...
Article
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Background: As inter-hospital alliances have become increasingly popular in the healthcare sector, it is important to understand the challenges and benefits that the interaction between representatives of different hospitals entail. A prominent example of inter-hospital alliances are certified 'trauma networks', which consist of 5-30 trauma departments in a given region. Trauma networks are designed to improve trauma care by providing a coordinated response to injury, and have developed across the USA and multiple European countries since the 1960s. Their members need to interact regularly, e.g. develop joint protocols for patient transfer, or discuss patient safety. Social capital is a concept focusing on the development and benefits of relations and interactions within a network. The aim of our study was to explore how social capital is generated and used in a regional German trauma network. Methods: In this qualitative study, we performed semi-standardized face-to-face interviews with 23 senior trauma surgeons (2013-14). They were the official representatives of 23 out of 26 member hospitals of the Trauma Network Eastern Bavaria. The interviews covered the structure and functioning of the network, climate and reciprocity within the network, the development of social identity, and different resources and benefits derived from the network (e.g. facilitation of interactions, advocacy, work satisfaction). Transcripts were coded using thematic content analysis. Results: According to the interviews, the studied trauma network became a group of surgeons with substantial bonding social capital. The surgeons perceived that the network's culture of interaction was flat, and they identified with the network due to a climate of mutual respect. They felt that the inclusive leadership helped establish a norm of reciprocity. Among the interviewed surgeons, the gain of technical information was seen as less important than the exchange of information on political aspects. The perceived resources derived from this social capital were smoother interactions, a higher medical credibility, and joint advocacy securing certain privileges. Conclusion: Apart from addressing quality of care, a trauma network may, by way of strengthening social capital among its members, serve as a valuable resource for the participating surgeons. Some member hospitals could exploit the social capital for strategic benefits.
... Therefore, the diaspora family business owners take advantage of a broad span of network influences (Elo and Dana, 2019;Santamaria-Alvarez and S liwa, 2016), to the extent that all actors within the network have relationships with one another (Coleman, 1988). By placing the diaspora family business owner in the center of the creation of diaspora network configurations, relational dimensions of family social capital (Salvato and Melin, 2008) become apparent, which are interweaved with the cognitive dimension of family social capital (Chou, 2006;Grootaert et al., 2004;Krishna and Shrader, 1999;Uphoff, 2000). This is because the resources attainable through the structural dimension are a product of social relationships, which involve interrelations between relational and cognitive family social capital, such as trust, mutual confidence (Riddle et al., 2008), norms, obligations, expectations, reputation, identity, identification (Orr, 1990), shared language, values, attitudes and beliefs (Nahapiet and Ghoshal, 1998). ...
... Consequently, family across borders social capital is important in supporting diaspora family businesses to establish linkages as part of their post migration experience (Epstein and Heizler, 2016, p. 15). This study has identified that the diaspora family business owner, in an attempt to become entrepreneurially prepared, absorbs resources from cognitive (Chou, 2006;Grootaert et al., 2004;Krishna and Shrader, 1999;Uphoff, 2000), relational (Salvato and Melin, 2008) and structural (Granovetter, 1992) dimensions of family social capital in the diaspora by creating a solid knowledge base, which becomes the grounds for diaspora entrepreneurial preparedness. These findings build on previous work on the dependence of diaspora entrepreneurs on social ties with the family across borders (Elo and Dana, 2019;) and on family support in diaspora entrepreneurial efforts Habti and Elo, 2018). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to study the way in which family ties influence the entrepreneurial preparedness of the diaspora family business owner. Design/methodology/approach In-depth interviews were carried out with 15 Cypriot family business owners hosted in various countries. The paper draws on social capital theory and uses an abductive analytical approach. Findings The findings of this paper illustrate that family ties coming from the family across borders play a significant role for diaspora family business owners’ entrepreneurial preparedness. Hidden values deriving from the interpersonal relationships within the family across borders drive the diaspora family business owners to learn upon self-reflection and become entrepreneurially prepared, led by both urgency and esteem. Practical implications This study provides practical implications for the entrepreneurial preparedness of diaspora family business owners and those who wish to become family business owners in a diaspora context. Originality/value This study contributes theoretically through the conceptualization of “family across borders social capital” and “diaspora entrepreneurial preparedness”. It also contributes empirically to the fields of diaspora family business, entrepreneurial learning and diaspora entrepreneurship through new knowledge regarding the role of family across borders social capital in the entrepreneurial preparedness of the diaspora family business owner.
... Partisipasi publik (Krishna & Shrader, 1999) 10 Perilaku 1. Mendapat bantuan tetangga lingkungan yang sama 2. Mendapat bantuan tetangga lingkungan yang berbeda 3. Membantu tetangga lingkungan yang sama 4. Membantu tetangga lingkungan yang berbeda 5. Minat bekerjasama (Roitman, 2010); (Salcedo & Torres, 2002); (Stone, 2001); (Onyx & Bullen, 2000). 11 Harapan 1. Alasan membantu warga lingkungan yang sama 2. Alasan membantu warga lingkungan yang berbeda (Stone, 2001) D Integrasi Sosial 12 Pemisahan sosial/spasial 1. Perbedaan yang membagi masyarakat 2. Preferensi keragaman tetangga (Salcedo & Torres, 2002); (Krishna & Shrader, 1999). ...
... Partisipasi publik (Krishna & Shrader, 1999) 10 Perilaku 1. Mendapat bantuan tetangga lingkungan yang sama 2. Mendapat bantuan tetangga lingkungan yang berbeda 3. Membantu tetangga lingkungan yang sama 4. Membantu tetangga lingkungan yang berbeda 5. Minat bekerjasama (Roitman, 2010); (Salcedo & Torres, 2002); (Stone, 2001); (Onyx & Bullen, 2000). 11 Harapan 1. Alasan membantu warga lingkungan yang sama 2. Alasan membantu warga lingkungan yang berbeda (Stone, 2001) D Integrasi Sosial 12 Pemisahan sosial/spasial 1. Perbedaan yang membagi masyarakat 2. Preferensi keragaman tetangga (Salcedo & Torres, 2002); (Krishna & Shrader, 1999). 13 Aksesibilitas terhadap fasilitas 1.Aksesibilitas terhadap Taman di lingkungan ungated community 2.Aksesibilitas terhadap Taman di lingkungan gated community 3. Aksesibilitas terhadap sarana olahraga gated community 4. Aksesibilitas terhadap sarana olahraga ungated community 5. Aksesibilitas terhadap sarana peribadatan ungated community 6. Aksesibilitas terhadap sarana perdagangan ungated community 7. Aksesibilitas terhadap sarana perdagangan gated community (Roitman, 2010); (Salcedo & Torres, 2002). ...
Article
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Dibutuhkan suatu pemahaman utuh terhadap isu-isu sosial yang muncul sebagai dampak dari adanya gated community. Konsep yang dapat mengakomodasi isu sosial tersebut adalah keberlanjutan sosial. Keberlanjutan sosial penting dikaji karena dapat menggambarkan secara utuh isu-isu sosial gated community. Keberlanjutan sosial dalam penelitian ini merepresentasikan kondisi dimensi sosial yang berkelanjutan. Kondisi yang dimaksud merujuk pada kondisi tidak adanya permasalahan sosial akibat keberadaan gated community, terutama segregasi dan ketimpangan. Kondisi ini dapat dicapai dengan adanya modal dan integrasi sosial yang dapat mencegah terjadinya permasalahan sosial tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui karakteristik dan keberlanjutan sosial gated community the Taman Dayu di Kecamatan Prigen, Kabupaten Pasuruan. Keberlanjutan sosial gated community the Taman Dayu dinilai penting dikaji karena sebagai gated community terbesar di Kabupaten Pasuruan memiliki kemungkinan menghasilkan dampak yang lebih besar. Keberlanjutan sosial ditijau dari dua indikator, ayitu modal sosial (jaringan sosial, kepercayaan dan resiprositas) serta integrasi sosial (sudut pandang terhadap pemisahan sosial maupun spasial serta aksesibilitas terhadap fasilitas) yang datanya diperoleh melalui survei primer menggunakan kuisioner. Keduanya dinilai menggunakan metode indeks komposit untuk mendapatkan nilai indeks keberlanjutan sosial. Temuan yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa keberlanjutan sosial gated community the Taman Dayu termasuk sedang. Hasil penelitian ini diharapkan dapat menjadi bahan masukan kebijakan pengembangan wilayah yang terintegrasi dengan pembangunan perumahan untuk mewujudkan pembangunan yang berkelanjutan.
... Both comprehensive and short tools (e.g., World Social Capital Assessment Tool) are available to measure social capital, few of these have been validated in lower-middle income countries (Grootaert, Narayan, Jones, & Woolcock, 2003;Harpham, Grant, & Rodriguez, 2004;Krishna & Shrader, 1999). Given the importance of social capital in contributing to physical and mental health, having a culturally-appropriate and validated tool for the Indian context is crucial. ...
Article
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Social capital has been shown to influence physical and mental health. For accurate measurement of social capital for research and practice, a culturally-appropriate and validated social capital scale is needed for Indian population. This study assessed the dimensionality (nature and number of dimensions) and reliability of a social capital scale adapted from the Global Social Capital Survey (GSCS) questionnaire. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 1563 people recruited using cluster sampling of representative households in Chandigarh, India. The eight dimensions of the original GSCS were: group characteristics; generalized norms; togetherness; everyday sociability; neighborhood connections; trust and volunteerism. Internal consistency (reliability) of the scale was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses (EFA and CFA) were conducted on two randomly divided subsamples using IBM SPSS. Participants’ mean age was 40.1 (SD = 15.6); about half were women (49.3%), and 41% had a college degree. Majority of the participants (83.8%) were living in an urban area. EFA extracted seven dimensions that explained 59.9% of the total variance. In CFA, we tested the six-factor model (retaining all original dimensions except volunteerism) with one second-order factor. The final 22-item Social Capital Scale (SCS) had high reliability and acceptable construct validity. The adapted GSCS questionnaire has adequate psychometric properties and can be used to measure the effectiveness of health promotion interventions on improving social capital. For further refinement, this scale needs to be tested among subgroups that are diverse, for example, in terms of age and socioeconomic status.
... To obtain the dependent variable for the current study, the SCAT was used to measure the amount of social capital perceived to exist on each campus through student respondents (Krishna & Shrader, 1999). The SCAT was adapted from its original form which had previously been used to establish social capital in communities around such issues as economics (Narayan, 1999) and culture (Latham, 1998). ...
... Social capital has been classified using both a network perspective and a social structure perspective (Claridge, 2013). From the network perspective, social capital is classified into three main forms: bonding social capital, bridging social capital, and linking social capital (Portes, 1998;Poortinga, 2012); and from the social structure perspective, three distinct forms have been identified: structural social capital, cognitive social capital and relational social capital (Krishna and Shrader, 1999;World Bank, 1999;Liao and Welsch, 2003;Claridge, 2013). These forms of social capital confer three key benefits-information, influence and control, and social solidarity (Sandefur and Laumann, 1998). ...
... In this paper, we sought to determine the abovementioned relationship through the research question: ''In what ways do FGC engineering students gain awareness of, access to, and actively pursue social capital and recognize alters and resources as influencing their decisions to enter undergraduate engineering studies?' ' We adopt a pragmatist epistemology [29] and use narrative analysis of qualitative data combined from two types of data collection: the open-ended portion of a name generator instrument, and customized interviews based on those names. We agree with Krishna and Shrader [30] who stated, ''It is especially important to integrate complementary data collection techniques when trying to analyze a complex concept such as social capital.'' Polkinghorne [31] describes the function of narrative analysis as answering ''how and why a particular outcome came about'' and uses the example of how an individual has made a career choice as one such outcome. ...
Article
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First generation college students can increase both the number and diversity of students in engineering. We use Lin's Network Theory of Social Capital, which describes relationships as being embedded with resources used to achieve a goal, as a framework for understanding undergraduate students' decisions to enroll in engineering studies. While much of the discourse on social capital in higher education focuses on inequalities and deficits experienced by first generation college students, our work helps to transition the discussion by highlighting the positive influence of education personnel as well as teachers and mentors associated with institutionalized programs. We use narrative analysis and two types of explicitly integrated complementary qualitative data to expand on Lin's theory. This paper presents an exemplar narrative describing what Lin calls the "invisible hand of social capital;" that is, when particularly resource-rich networks do not necessitate an individual knowingly mobilizing resources because information and resources are received in routine exchanges. Our findings support the need for continued proactive outreach, educational, and support systems that can serve as research-rich networks for first generation college students.
... We assume that the interventions will create and sustain relationships of trust and support, and this in turn will result in improvements in health. Measurement instruments will be adapted from the World Bank's Social Capital Assessment Tools developed to assess social capital in the developing nations [20], to be contextually relevant and culturally sensitive. It will be designed to assess both structural and cognitive social capital, and easily understandable to both interviewers and informants. ...
Article
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Background: Despite considerable progress in reduction of both under-five and maternal mortality in recent decades, Bangladesh is still one of the low and middle income countries with high burden of maternal and neonatal mortality. The primary objective of the current study is to measure the impact of a comprehensive package of interventions on maternal and neonatal mortality. In addition, changes in coverage, quality and utilization of maternal and newborn health (MNH) services, social capital, and cost effectiveness of the interventions will be measured. Methods: A community-based, cluster randomized controlled trial design will be adopted and implemented in 30 unions of three sub-districts of Chandpur district of Bangladesh. Every union, the lowest administrative unit of the local government with population of around 20,000-30,000, will be considered a cluster. Based on the baseline estimates, 15 clusters will be paired for random assignment as intervention and comparison clusters. The primary outcome measure is neonatal mortality, and secondary outcomes are coverage of key interventions like ANC, PNC, facility and skilled provider delivery. Baseline, midterm and endline household survey will be conducted to assess the key coverage of interventions. Health facility assessment surveys will be conducted periodically to assess facility readiness and utilization of MNH services in the participating health facilities. Discussion: The current study is expected to provide essential strong evidences on the impact of a comprehensive package of interventions to the Bangladesh government, and other developmental partners. The study results may help in prioritizing, planning, and scaling-up of Safe Motherhood Promotional interventions in other geographical areas of Bangladesh as well as to inform other developing countries of similar settings. Trial registration: NCT03032276 .
... Strong social networks or social capital as it is also known can increase both response and recovery before during and after flood events (Carpenter et al., 2012; Morrow, 2008). Individuals living in the rural wards of the study area are likely to have lived in the area for an extensive period of time, during which they have greater community interaction and stronger personal bonds (Krishna and Shrader, 1999). Fast growing urban wards however are more likely to contain isolated households with limited networks to draw upon during flood events (Morrow, 1999) which is reflected in the low social resilience scores in the periurban wards. ...
... voting and trust in social institutions) characterizes connections between individuals across authority gradients [20]. Each of these types of social capital has a structural and a cognitive dimension [21,22]. At the individual level, structural social capital refers to behaviour and implies participation in social networks, associations and other forms of civic engagement [19]. ...
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Background Social capital may theoretically explain health inequalities between social groups, but empirical evidence is lacking. Some studies indicate that social capital may be particularly important for immigrant health. Nearly 16% of Sweden’s population are foreign-born immigrants and research has shown them to be susceptible to psychological distress, though significant variation has been found between groups. In this study, we investigate the following hypotheses: 1) if non-refugees have better mental health than Swedish-born, and refugees experience worse mental health than Swedish-born; 2) if mental health status converges with that of Swedish-born with longer duration of residence; and 3) if social capital mediates the effect of immigrant status on psychological distress for different immigrant groups as compared to Swedish-born. Methods This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort and includes 50,498 randomly-selected individuals from Stockholm County in 2002, 2006, and 2010. Mental health was measured as psychological distress, using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Social capital was measured using indicators of bonding, bridging, and linking social capital. Both cognitive and structural aspects were measured for the latter two indicators. Mediation was tested using logistic regression and the Sobel test. ResultsThe results show that refugees generally had greater odds of psychological distress than non-refugees compared to their respective Swedish-born counterparts. Among immigrant men, both refugees and non-refugees had significantly greater odds of psychological distress than Swedish-born men. Only refugee women in Sweden 10 years or more had significantly greater odds of psychological distress compared to Swedish-born women. The mediation analysis demonstrated that indicators of social capital mediated the association for all immigrant men (except non-refugees in Sweden 3-9 years) and for refugee women in Sweden 10 years or more. While bonding social capital showed the greatest mediatory role among the three social capital types, adding them together had the strongest explanatory effect. Conclusions Social capital explains differences in mental health for some immigrant groups, highlighting its role as a potentially important post-migration factor. Increased investment from policy-makers regarding how social capital can be promoted among new arrivals may be important for preventing psychological distress.
... Three patterns of interplay appear to be dominant in these mechanisms: help between actors living in close proximity (family or neighbours), likely to be small material needs to maintain wellbeing; help relying on blood affinity, involving higher proportions of available assets, with a high imperative not to refuse, based on reciprocity or cooperation and acting as an investment in inter-generational survival; help collectively constructed through local associations, pre-dominantly material, rule-based and designed to provide insurance or movement for members (Wilkinson-Maposa 2005). Women and men often tend to belong to different, at times complementary, support networks (Krishna 1999). In Indian slums, social ties tend to be stronger amongst women as they often help each other in times of family emergency or emotional need, also sharing a sense of gender discrimination which enhances solidarity (Thomas 2002). ...
Article
Poverty persists around the world and is exacerbated by growing inequality especially within countries. The majority of the poor are ‘trapped’ in specific rural and urban localities in countries now classified as middle-income where domestic policy and resources are not sufficiently focused on poverty and where international aid is not significant. The majority of those who manage to move out of poverty report that they achieve this through their own initiative, adapting to changing circumstances. Poverty must be treated as principally domestic and local, with the poor as the principal actors in its reduction.
... It is a multifaceted concept that can be loosely defined as the resources available from the community [32]. Two dimensions of social capital were distinguished: structural social capital, which refers to the presence of community linkage, and cognitive social capital, which refers to the appreciation of this linkage in terms of trust, mutual help and reciprocity [33,34]. Structural social capital was measured by the reported number of persons (friends or family) who could provide help to the participant if needed. ...
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Background: In resource-limited contexts, available data indicate that people with disability are disproportionally affected by the HIV epidemic. While disability resulting from chronic HIV infection has received some attention, few epidemiologic studies have examined the vulnerability of people with disability to HIV acquisition. The aims of the study were as follows: to estimate and compare HIV prevalence among people with and without disability living in Bujumbura, Burundi; to examine how the interaction among disability, gender and socioeconomic environment shapes vulnerability to HIV; and to identify potential pathways to higher HIV risk. Methods: In this cross-sectional population-based study, 623 persons with disability (302 with disability onset ≤10 years ["early disability"]) and 609 persons without disability matched for age, sex and location were randomly selected to be tested for HIV and to participate in an interview about their life history, their social environment and their knowledge of sexual health. Findings: A total of 68% of men and 75% of women with disability were affected by multidimensional poverty compared to 54% and 46% of their peers without disability (p<0.0001). Higher HIV prevalence was observed among women with disability (12.1% [8.2-16]) than among those without (3.8% [1.7-6], ORa 3.8, p<0.0001), while it was similar among men with disability and those without (p = 0·8). Women with disability were also at higher risk of sexual violence than were those without (ORa 2.7, p<0.0001). The vulnerability of women with early disability to HIV was higher among those who were socially isolated (HIV prevalence in this group: 19% [12-27]). In addition, education level and sexual violence mediated 53% of the association between early disability and HIV (p = 0.001). Interpretation: This study highlights how the intersection of disability, gender and social environment shapes vulnerability to HIV. It also shows that the vulnerability to HIV of women who grew up with a disability is mediated by sexual violence. Funding: This research was funded by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (Grant W08.560.005) and the Initiative HIV-TB-Malaria (new name of the organisation).
... Third, studies need to utilize more precise measures of personal social capital. Comprehensive efforts to include measures of cognitive and structural social capital in health surveys (e.g., Krishna and Shrader, 1999;Harpham, 2008) have been an important start. However, ego-centric network instruments, such as the Name Generator (Moore et al., 2009;Song and Chang, 2012), Position Generator (Carpiano and Hystad, 2011), and Resource Generator (van der Gaag and Weber, 2008), offer great utility for creating measures of social capital that a person can access via different tiesdand thus can enable greater understanding of how networks may facilitate or undermine one's health. ...
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... The goal of this case study is to shows the type of relationship (bonding, bridging and linking) developed between local actors which lead to determine the social capital. Source: Adapted to Krishna, 1999 ...
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The Gunung Padang Site (GPS) is located in Karyamukti Village, Campaka subdistrict, Cianjur District, and is believed by locals to be a legacy of Prabu/King Siliwangi. The location is recognized by the tourism industry as a tourist destination but there has been limited research on its tourism development, particularly in respect of the community’s social capital (which could play an important role in the success of its tourism and ecotourism). This research was designed to provide data on social capital in the community around GPS, and employed interviews based on a modified ‘Social Capital Assessment Tools’ questionnaire. The findings indicate that the community of Karyamukti Village has positive social capital that could be exploited for the ecotourism development of GPS. Community members trust the GPS management (with the exception of the Kompepar). They also trust their informal leader. There are small number of people who still practice customary law, which could be beneficial as a tourist attraction. The community tends to be open towards visitors and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). In terms of networking, the people are involved in various social networks, and have started to develop links with other stakeholders. They have taken proactive action in relation to experience sharing, participation in social organizations, and protection of the environment. However, there was also a negative side to their social capital: they still retain some jealousy of each other with regard to job opportunities. This could pose a threat to the success of any tourism development in that there would likely be unfair competition by individuals or subgroups, which in turn could affect tourism operations in the location.
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The study examines international migrations as a network theory object. The research field spreads through the question: What is the analytical potential of network theories in migration? What are the theoretical concepts, key for migrations proceses and research? The main thesis of this study is limited to the statement that today network theories are the most appropriate analytical approach to migration with epistemological potential to improve integration through social capital. Network theories allow us to see migration not only through individual decisions of migrating but as a general result-product of interpersonal, interactions, embedded in the economic and political environment; reveals the essence of contemporary migration as a "self-sustaining"; balanced micro and meso level analysis-there is room for a whole range of subjects: family, friends, employers. Reaching also through macro level: remittances, information flow and migration policies. Migrations are placed on a continuum that can be analyzed through the social capital of the participants in the migration networks. An attempt was made to present the possibilities for the integration process of social immigrant capital.The analysis is supported by data from: an empirical study on the
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The present work adopts the socioeconomics scope for studying one of the social determinants of economic development. Concretely, it analyses the recent evolution of the Social Capital endowment in the Galician economy. As starting point, we set the boundaries of the concept of Social Capital and their main indicators for extracting the main conclusions of the results of the three waves of the World Values Survey. Secondly, an analysis of the micro determinants of the generalized confidence is developed. We observe a process of decapitalisation in both systems of indicators: trust and asociationism.
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This article will explore possible answers to the troubling questions addressing the failure of diplomatic intervention in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, we will draw on lessons learned from another kind of international intervention, the peace support operation. Although diplomatic interventions are not peace support operations, both are members of the same spectrum of international intervention, and some lessons from the latter may prove relevant to the former. The article will begin with a short review of recent developments in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, addressing the main factors that brought about a change in Israel’s conflict management strategy. After a short, critical overview of the nature and rationale of conventional peacekeeping, we will continue with a description and analysis of the characteristics of the Israeli- Palestinian conflict zone, addressing its uniqueness as a bi-level arena and explaining the conceptual difficulty of peacekeeping operations in this context. We will then present the characteristics of international intervention in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict as well as a typology that explains their failure. We then review a series of lessons learned from the peacebuilding aspects of the American experience in Iraq (stabilization and reconstruction efforts), drawing out the most relevant ones for the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. We conclude by offering possible recommendations for the reexamination of a number of conceptual foundations of peacekeeping operations, with the aim of developing a more relevant conceptual framework for the Israeli-Palestinian conflict zone.
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Community-driven recovery and development (CDRD) approaches for early recovery interventions promise improvements in social cohesion and better buy-in from the community. This semi-experimental impact assessment found that the CDRD locations had a statistically significant higher chance of reporting: improved access to public services (13%), improved inclusiveness and Responsiveness of sub district Governments (8%); and Improved Economic prospects (11%) when contrasted against similar locations with no direct CDRD intervention. The study did not find statistically significant differences in the improvement of Trust within nor across communities. Additionally, the analysis did not show statistically significant difference in the reported improvement level of dialogue, perception of safety, nor trust in the district level government. Over all the assessments shows a positive picture for the CDRD intervention with clear improvements in the economic prospects and service access, but a more modest effect in the social cohesion vector. With effects limited to the sub-district government level (not district level), and no discernable effect on the community trust nor dialogue levels.
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To date, research on social capital in Indigenous contexts has been scarce. In this quantitative study, our objectives were to (1): Describe bonding social capital within four distinct First Nations communities in Canada, and (2) Explore the associations between bonding social capital and self-rated health in these communities. With community permission, cross-sectional data were drawn from the Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Minds study. Four reserve-based First Nations communities were included in the analysis, totaling 591 participants. Descriptive statistics were computed to examine levels of social capital among communities and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify social capital predictors of good self-rated health. Age, sex, education level, and community were controlled for in all models. Across the four communities in this study, areas of common social capital included frequent socialization among friends and large and interconnected family networks. Positive self-rated health was associated with civic engagement at federal or provincial levels (OR=1.65, p
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BEŞERİ SERMAYE, SOSYAL SERMAYE VE ÖZ YETERLİLİĞİN RESTORAN PERFORMANSINA ETKİSİ Aksoy, Merve Tez Yöneticisi: Doç. Dr. Mustafa Cevdet Altunel Bu çalışmanın amacı beşeri sermaye, sosyal sermaye ve öz yeterliliğin restoran performansına etkisini incelemektir. Bu amaçla, çalışmada ele alınan değişkenler arasındaki ilişkiyi açıklayan bir model önerisi sunulmuş ve bu ilişki yapısal eşitlik modellemesi kullanılarak test edilmiştir. Araştırmada kolayda örnekleme yöntemi tercih edilmiştir. Veriler Manisa ilinde bulunan 356 yiyecek-içecek işletmesinin 115’i ile irtibata geçilerek toplanmıştır. Anket yöntemi ile elde edilen verilerin analizi IBM SPSS AMOS 22.0 yazılımı ve Smart PLS3 paket programından yararlanılarak yapılmıştır. Araştırmanın bulguları beşeri sermayenin girişimci öz yeterliliği ve restoran performansı üzerinde istatistiksel açıdan anlamlı ve pozitif bir etkisinin olduğunu göstermektedir. Bunun yanı sıra sosyal sermayenin girişimci öz yeterliliği ve restoran performansı üzerinde istatistiksel açıdan anlamlı ve pozitif bir etkisinin olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Ancak öz yeterliliğin restoran performansı üzerinde herhangi bir etkisinin olmadığı görülmüştür. Elde edilen bulgular mevcut literatür ile karşılaştırılarak incelenmiş olup akademik ve uygulamaya yönelik önerilerde bulunulmuştur. Anahtar Kelimeler: Beşeri Sermaye, Sosyal Sermaye, Öz Yeterlilik, Restoran Performansı.
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Post-flood recovery is one of the biggest challenges to both residents and authorities in developing countries. Rapid recovery is meaningful because delays increase social costs and deepen and prolong economic and social pain. By blending quantitative and qualitative approaches, this study investigated the post-flood recovery speed in association with household characteristics and social connections and identified the contribution of these actors in different recovery sub-phases. Four flood-prone villages in Quang Dien district, Thua Thien Hue Province, central Vietnam, were selected for this case study. The multiple linear regression model (OLS) determining the post-flood recovery speed first indicated the ineffectiveness of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, including age, educational qualifications, number of laborers, non-farm jobs, and income level. Social connection, meanwhile, appeared as a crucial factor accelerating households' rehabilitation. Accordingly, connections with relatives and informal groups were more valuable than those with friends, neighbors, and formal groups. The subdivision of the recovery process further reveals the variation in the role of connections in different recovery sub-phases. The key role of relatives and neighbors was highlighted through their striking support in almost all categories, both in the immediate post-flood and in the short-term phase. Though fairly modest in the early stage, support from friends, formal groups, informal groups, and local government, tended to increase in the short-term (especially for informal groups and local governments). The long-term recovery phase witnessed significant contributions from local government through financial and career-related support. Besides stressing the vital role of social connection in accelerating post-flood recovery, these findings pointed out their dynamics in the recovery sub-phases that should be integrated into the post-flood rehabilitation policy.
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Participatory sport events can generate substantial social benefits for the participants. A key benefit derived from participatory sport events is the development of social capital. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument that measures social capital among active sport event participants. Using three different samples of running event participants, the proposed Sport Event Participation Social Capital Scale (SEPSCS) was tested, purified, and validated. The final scale consisted of three dimensions: trust (three items), reciprocity (three items), and network (three items). Results from factor, correlation and regression analyses supported the convergent and nomological validity of SEPSCS. Overall, SEPSCS provided researchers a psychometrically sound tool to better understand the social impacts of participatory sport events.
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Objectives: Global aging is an increasingly serious problem. The health problems faced by the elderly, such as depression and obesity, require serious consideration. Education, depression and obesity are inextricably linked; for the elderly, education is constant, and the factors which can mediate the relationship between education, depression and obesity are still being discussed by scholars. The mediating effect of social capital is rarely studied. The objective of this study was to assess the mediating role of cognitive social capital and structural social capital, as well as the effect of education on depression and obesity among the elderly using China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) data. Methods: In total, 4919 respondents were included in the final analysis. Education was measured by years of schooling. Trust and participation were used as measures of cognitive social capital and structural social capital. Depression symptoms and BMI were used as outcomes. Structural equation models were developed to examine the direct and indirect effect of social capital and education on health outcomes. Results: Education was negatively correlated with depression symptom (r = -0.15, p < 0.001), while education was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.08, p < 0.001). Older adults with a higher education level have higher cognitive social capital (r = 0.11, p < 0.001) and structural social capital (r = 0.20, p < 0.001). Social capital plays a mediatory role. Older adults with higher social capital have a lower risk of depression (cognitive: r = -0.23, p < 0.001; structural: r = -0.03, p < 0.01) but a higher risk of obesity (cognitive: r = 0.06, p < 0.01; structural: r = 0.03, p < 0.01). For depression, the mediating function of cognitive social capital (a1b1= -0.025) is stronger than that of structural social capital (a2b2 = -0.006). While, for obesity, the effects of both cognitive and structural social capital are the same (a1c1 = a2c2 = 0.005). Conclusions: Social capital as a mediator through the effect of education on depression and obesity among the elderly in China. Meanwhile, using the positive effects of social capital to avoid negative effects should also be seriously considered.
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O presente traballo sitúase no ámbito da socioeconomía para abordar un dos determinantes do desenvolvemento económico, analizando en concreto a evolución recente da dotación de capital social en Galicia. Partindo dunha delimitación básica do concepto de capital social, extráense as principais conclusións dos resultados das tres ondadas da Enquisa Mundial de Valores realizadas en Galicia. Xunto a iso, estímase unha función dos determinantes micro da confianza xeneralizada. En conxunto, obsérvase un proceso de descapitalización en todos os indicadores, tanto en termos de confianza como de asociacionismo.
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Social capital (SC) is an umbrella concept combining attributes of multiple latent factors that are not directly observable, making it difficult to measure and express as a single variable. Despite its multidimensional nature, the bulk of empirical studies continue to construct and use unidimensional indicators of SC, generating notable disparities in results derived from the use of these alternative measures. This study employed exploratory factor analysis to search for and construct composite measures capturing the multidimensional facets of structural and cognitive social capital (SC) in a rural communal setting in Africa. Our factor analysis revealed eleven factors describing a diversity of SC components, with clear evidence of multiple features of cognitive SC at the household level. On the other hand, evidence of presence of structural SC was limited, which is a general finding of household level analysis of determinants of SC. Not adequately accounting for elements of informal social networks, is an important weakness of our study, and we accordingly strongly recommend that SC research in developing countries should include, as indicators of structural SC, measures of informal social networks.
Article
Fishing is a dangerous and financially risky way to make a living, but it attracts many participants that prefer it to higher paying and safer jobs. Based on a survey of over 1400 U.S. West Coast fishing vessel owners we use factor analysis and structural equation modeling to quantify distinct latent variables representing job satisfaction related to non-monetary versus monetary aspects of fishing and measures of identity and social capital associated with being a fisher. We show that these latent variables have distinct effects on (stated) fishery participation behavior and that higher non-monetary job satisfaction, social capital, and identity, are associated with a willingness to forgo higher income to be a fisher. Understanding how these factors affect and are affected by participation in fisheries could be important to increase benefits from fisheries and to ensure sustainability of management regimes that rely on indirect controls on effort to limit catch.
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The discussion of the issue addressed in this monograph is an attempt to explore how the development of state-of the art information and communications technologies (ICT) impacts on the condition of the disabled persons in Poland. Finally, we arrive at the diagnosis of scale and manner in which the Internet is used by the disabled community and explore the effects that the development of information society has on their status in society, particularly in terms of opportunities afforded to them in the field of education, professional development and their rights as citizens and members of the society. Results summarised in the monograph are a part of an extensive research project “From comprehensive diagnosis of the disabled persons’ status and position in Poland towards a new model of social policy towards disabilities” carried out from 2012 to 2014. One of the size project modules “Disability and the disabled in modern mass media” explores how the disabled persons function in the area of modern Internet technologies and involves a penetrating analysis of the Internet as the space generating information resources and social capital of the disabled, as well as various forms of their activities and support schemes. The studies have focused on identifying new opportunities and methods of participation in the life of the society as well as economic, political and civic activities undertaken by the disabled persons via information and communications technologies. All these issues are addressed in the monograph, organised in chapters. The first chapter examines the levels of social exclusion as perceived by the disabled, and the possible causes. The second chapter probes the links between the social capital and health, analysing how social relationships influence people’s mental wellbeing, and that is one of the factors determining their life quality. The next chapter focuses on the non-profit and voluntary sector organisations in objective terms, whereby the disabled persons are treated as social actors actively participating in the work of non-government organisations. The fourth chapter explores a most specific aspect of the virtual space- its social aspect understood as a variety of functions available in the Internet which are performed by interacting with other users. Chapter five explores how disabilities and disabled persons are perceived by others in our times in Poland. The next chapter summarises the models of NGOs operations for the benefit of the disabled community. The final chapter aims to demonstrate the importance attached to novel information technologies by the disabled persons actively engaged in creating the network contents.
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A lack or low level of social capital is associated with negative outcomes for communities impacted by poverty. However, less is known about how different types of social capital operate on the ground in poverty‐impacted urban neighborhoods. This article explores the ways in which bonding, bridging, and linking capital manifest among residents of two poverty‐impacted neighborhoods in New York City. Findings of the study reveal that urban neighborhood characteristics, more than individual‐level factors, compromise the ability to develop and utilize the leveraging role of bridging and linking capital. Lack of safety resulted in limited trust, and involvement in community life limit bonding capital. Opportunities for bridging are restricted by the socioeconomically homogenous and spatially segregated nature of the communities. Linking capital is undermined by the lack of resources in the neighborhoods. These structural barriers prevent communities from breaking the cycle of poverty and should be explicitly targeted when developing interventions focused on building social capital.
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The objective of this study is to follow the composite theory approach to analyze the effect of social capital on self-rated mental health in rural and urban China. Our nationally representative sample includes 10,968 respondents from 130 county-level communities. Two-level random-coefficient linear regressions, which model individual and community variations in subjective mental health, were estimated by taking the hierarchical structure of the dataset into account. We found that a significant proportion of the total variations in self-rated mental health were explained at the community level. We also found an association between low contextual civic trust and poor self-rated mental health after adjusting for individual social capital and individual socioeconomic-demographic variables. The study also revealed that: (1) in rural areas a positive relationship between civic and political trust and mental health existed both at the individual and the community level, respectively; and (2) in urban areas, only political trust at the individual level contributed to better mental health. In addition, the individual and community level political participation exhibited a positive impact on mental health measures in both rural and urban China. The individual level civic participation was positively associated to the outcome variable. However, the community-level civic participation seemed to negatively impact mental health in urban area. Our findings emphasize the importance of both individual and community-level healthcare interventions in China. Finally, this study also found that human capital covariates remained important predictors of self-rated mental health status even after controlling social capital both at individual and community levels. This study suggested that the composite thesis could provide a more convincing narrative than other theories in explaining the effects of both human and social capital on health.
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El objetivo de este capítulo es profundizar en la idea de la diversificación laboral del campo y la intensificación de las relaciones entre el campo y la ciudad. Estos dos fenómenos se encuentran asociados a un proceso de cambio social profundo de las áreas rurales, el cual es visible, sobre todo, desde la década de los ochenta y noventa del siglo pasado. Estos cambios en el espacio, la sociedad, la economía y la política y planeación rural cuestionaron los paradigmas con los cuales se había explicado lo rural, y han dado lugar a nuevos enfoques y conceptualizaciones. Se parte de la tesis de la reestructuración rural, planteada por Terry Marsden y Jonathan Murdoch (1994), la cual profundiza, entre otras cosas, en el fenómeno de la desagrarización de lo rural.
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Social capital in specific local contexts presents both positive and negative sides, determining divergent effects in rural development strategies. This calls for an evaluation method which can highlight how social capital contributes to rural revival or isolation of European territories. This chapter sets out the framework of the method used in our study for quantifying and qualifying the endowment of social capital in Local Actions Groups (LAGs) of the EU LEADER initiative. In particular, the chapter describes the scope of analysis, distinguishes the types of relations sustained and promoted by LAGs, and finally it details the different forms, dimensions and sub-dimensions of social capital and rural governance. It thus contributes to delineating an operative framework for the evaluation of social capital which can be adopted more broadly in rural development.
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Social capital provides an overview of a community's togetherness, unity, and mutual trust in achieving common goals towards sustainable development. Community forest management requires a certain level of social capital for sustainable forest management. This study aims to identify and analyze key factors influencing the community's social capital in forest management. The key factors influencing the level of social capital in a community include internal factors such as individual characteristics and knowledge of community forest management, and external factors such as extension activities, the role of the forest farmer group, and access to information. Using the theoretical framework of social capital and multiple linear regression models, we found that social capital was significantly influenced by both internal and external factors, indicating a need to improve these factors. To increase the value of social capital for maintaining the sustainability of community forest management, the results of this Indonesian case suggest that individual characteristics, procedural knowledge of community forest management, and the role of forest farmer groups need to be considered for forest management based on the social capital of forest communities.
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International students often experience difficulties acclimating to campus climates in the United States. While identifying oneself as a fan of college sports has been shown to assist domestic students in their social adjustment to college environments, little is known about the relationship between international students’ college sports team identification and their social adjustment. As such, the purpose of this study is to determine the effect of team identification on international students’ sense of community and social capital and the conceptual relationship between the sense of community and social capital. Analysis of the hypothesized model with a sample of international students (n = 487) revealed that international students’ team identification develops their sense of community and social capital. Implications focused on how the international student office and athletic departments can utilize intercollegiate sport to support international students and assist this population in adapting to campus life in the United States.
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This chapter integrates three different streams of theory, beginning with the theoretical concepts of social-ecological resilience, complexity and social emergence, and a focus on coastal communities. This lays the basis for a comprehensive review of social capital theory, including the identification of research gaps and potentials. Furthermore, this chapter discusses small islands, how they can be understood as special systems, and how ‘place matters’ in geographical research. The chapter concludes by uniting the three streams of theory and directing them toward the Isles of Scilly. As a result, specific research questions arise which are in turn posed to the island communities themselves.
Article
Contemporary research suggests that there is a stratification of adjustment levels for collegiate students. Past scholars have found that ethnic minority students at predominantly White institutions have lower adjustment scores than White students. Further, ethnic minority student-athletes have lower levels of adjustment when on the campus at large, but interestingly they have shown higher levels of adjustment when in the team setting. These circumstances prompted the question: What impact does team social capital have on ethnic minority student-athletes’ adjustment variables? Over 1000 student-athletes were surveyed. Results of the study showed that team social capital is a mediator between race and adjustment. Thus, practical implications are such that athletic teams should consider extending the team concept to the campus environment as much as possible to increase the adjustment of their ethnic minority student-athletes and potentially mitigate some of the negative consequences of the lack of adjustment.
Article
This theoretical research analyzes the measurement of social capital in adult education and community development projects that seek to strengthen democratic processes and develop local leadership. It analyzes two different methodologies—in depth interviews and Web-based questionnaires—used to measure social capital.
Article
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While the possible decline in the level of social capital in the United States has received considerable attention by scholars such as Putnam and Fukuyama, less attention has been paid to the local activities of citizens that help define a nation's stock of social capital. Scholars have paid even less attention to how institutional arrangements affect levels of social capital. We argue that giving parents greater choice over the public schools their children attend creates incentives for parents as "citizen/consumers" to engage in activities that build social capital. Our empirical analysis employs a quasi-experimental approach comparing parental behavior in two pairs of demographically similar school districts that vary on the degree of parental choice over the schools their children attend. Our data show that, controlling for many other factors, parents who choose when given the opportunity are higher on all the indicators of social capital analyzed. Fukuyama has argued that it is easier for governments to decrease social capital than to increase it. We argue, however, that the design of government institutions can create incentives for individuals to engage in activities that increase social capital.
Article
Full-text available
The debate over social capital and civil society has focused largely on broad-brush assessments of participation in America and on what various measures of involvement in social and political life indicate about Americans. This study moves beyond general interpretations of societal trends to a detailed analysis of minorities in city politics. Drawing on data gathered from a study of participation in large American cities, the authors break participation down by neighborhood and ask what kinds of political organizations are most effective in mobilizing minorities in city politics. This study compares the participation of Whites, Blacks and Hispanics in neighborhood associations, citywide issue organizations, crime watch groups and social service/self-help organizations. The data are further analyzed on the basis of the socioeconomic and racial makeup of neighborhoods. The neighborhood associations stand out as the most successful of the four types of organization for mobilizing African Americans and bringing them into the political process.
Article
Full-text available
This article sets the stage for the discussion of social capital, civil society, and contemporary democracy by attempting to clarify terms and set out the most promising avenues for discussion and debate. The authors argue that current usage of key terms in the debate suffers from three faults: First, the notion of ''social capital'' is generally undertheorized and oversimplified. Second, popular usage and some scholarly accounts tend to suppress the conflictive character of civil society, seeking in society itself and in its inner workings the resolution of conflicts that politics and the political system in other understandings are charged with settling or suppressing. Third, these (mis)understandings conjoin in the suppression of the economic dimension of contemporary social conflict. This introductory article takes up the first two of these points, in an effort to lay out the theoretical and empirical questions that the subsequent articles address.
Article
Full-text available
The debate over social capital and civil society has focused largely on broad-brush assess ments of participation in America and on what various measures of involvement in social and political life indicate aboutAmericans. This study moves beyond general interpretations of societal trends to a detailed analysis of minorities in city politics. Drawing on data gathered from a study of participation in large American cities, the authors break partici pation down by neighborhood and ask what kinds of political organizations are most effective in mobilizing minorities in city politics. This study compares the participation of Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics in neighborhood associations, citywide issue organizations, crime watch groups, and social service/self-help organizations. The data are further analyzed on the basis of the socioeconomic and racial makeup of neighborhoods. The neighborhood associations stand out as the most successful of the four types of organizations for mobilizing African Americans and bringing them into the political process.
Article
Full-text available
Since 1991 radical changes have taken place in the policy and institutional environment of agriculture in Zambia. This study examines the impact such changes have had on farmers. It highlights farmers'perceptions and priorities regarding constraints on production and quality of agricultural services by drawing on the findings of quantitative survey data, participatory surveys, and beneficiary assessments. The paper outlines the coping strategies that farmers have adopted, including changes in farming practices (such as reverting to subsistence crops and traditional cropping systems), more reliance on non-farm sources of income, and modified patterns of exchange and consumption. The book concludes with recommendations for improving the quality and equity of services received by small farmers from the public and private sectors.
Book
Independently gathered statistics show that violence has escalated steadily since Jamaican independence in 1962. Because of the importance of violence as a contributory factor to urban poverty, this study of urban poverty and violence was undertaken during the preparation phase of the Jamaican Social Investment Fund (JSIF) to contribute to project design. The JSIF was an outgrowth of Jamaica's recently approved National Poverty Eradication Program, which emphasized community-based interventions undertaken in partnership with NGOs, the private sector, and communities themselves, with the primary goal of contributing to poverty reduction and helping create an environment for sustainable national development. To incorporate the rarely heard voices of the urban poor in the JSIF project design, the study used a Participatory Urban Appraisal methodology with fieldwork in five communities that are broadly representative of Jamaica's poor urban areas. The specific objective was to elicit and identify perceptions of four different aspects of violence: its causes; the interrelationship of violence and poverty; the impact of violence on employment, the economic and social infrastructure, and local social institutions; and the perceived means by which government, communities, households, and individuals could work to reduce violence.
Chapter
Introduction: The Problem of EmbeddednessOver-and Undersocialized Conceptions of Human Action in Sociology and EconomicsEmbeddedness, Trust, and Malfeasance in Economic LifeThe Problem of Markets and Hierarchies
Article
Social capital is the web of cooperative relationships between citizens that facilitates resolution of collection action problems (Coleman 1990; Putnam 1993). Although normally conceived as a property of communities, the reciprocal relationship between community involvement and trust in others is a demonstration of social capital in individual behavior and attitudes. Variation in social capital can be explained by citizens' psychological involvement with their communities, cognitive abilities, economic resources, and general life satisfaction. This variation affects citizens' confidence in national institutions, beyond specific controls for measures of actual performance. We analyze the pooled General Social Surveys from 1972 to 1994 in a latent variables framework incorporating aggregate contextual data. Civic engagement and interpersonal trust are in a tight reciprocal relationship, where the connection is stronger from participation to interpersonal trust, rather than the reverse.
Article
This article discusses how quantitative and qualitative methods can be combined in a single evaluation study to better understand the phenomenon in question. Three perspectives on combining methods are reviewed: the purist approach where the two methods are seen as mutually exclusive, the situationalist approach that views them as separate but equal, and the pragmatist approach that suggests integration is possible. From the pragmatist position it is argued that either method can be used at the analysis stage to corroborate (provide convergence in findings), elaborate (provide richness and detail), or initiate (offer new interpretations) findings from the other method. Specific examples of how results from each method can inform the other are offered.
Article
In 1995 the Government of Tanzania, the University of Dar es Salaam, and the World Bank conducted a Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPA) involving more than 6 000 people in 87 villages across Tanzania. Specific areas on which data were gathered included such indicators as how the poor view poverty, perceptions of inflation and other trends over time, the effects of liberalization on the rural poor, access to and use of formal and informal credit and savings institutions, the role of social capital in household welfare, and the relationship between poverty and the natural environment. The PPA employed methods and tools designed to facilitate 'listening to the poor'. Three basic types of data collection methods were used: participatory tools (such as community mapping, group discussions, and Venn diagrams); key informant interviews; and household survey instruments. Different sampling techniques were employed for the various data collection methods used. The issue of gender was of central importance to the PPA, and significant differences between the perspectives and actions of men and women were documented. Particular attention was paid to the priorities and coping strategies of female-headed and male-headed households. Among the PPA's findings: the importance of agricultural inputs, simple technology, and the inability of the poor to take advantage of markets. The PPA also revealed the inflation in prices in rural areas, the widespread need for rural credit, and people's desire to save. Further, the study found that while many face hardship as a result of cutbacks in government subsidies due to liberalization policies, few advocate returning to subsidies and other practices of the past. Rather, they seek expanded opportunities to improve their livelihoods (through access to transportation to move their goods to market, for instance). Perhaps the most striking finding of the PPA was the contribution of village-level social capital to household incomes. A one standard deviation increase in social capital at the village-level was found to increase household expenditures per person by at least 20 to 30%. By comparison, a standard deviation in schooling of nearly three years per person increased income by less than 5%. The logistics of mounting a PPA are by no means simple, but one can be organized more quickly and produce results faster than a traditional survey based on questionnaires. For this reason, the PPA technique may be very useful for interim monitoring of poverty between major surveys. In the case of Tanzania the aggregate results of the two approaches were very similar. At the same time, the PPA generated more subtle and more detailed findings in a number of areas, and its policy conclusions are therefore more discriminating, and in some cases different, for example on quesitons of social capital, gender, seaonality, and access to water.
Article
Much of the latest debate about the relationship between social capital and civil society has focused on the importance of voluntary associations as settings for the production of social capital. This article develops an analytical framework that incorporates organizational diversity and the multidimensionality of social capital. The author then applies this framework to an ethnographic account of membership in two choral groups. Even in these ostensibly similar groups, the relationships and processes out of which networks, norms, and collective facilities are produced vary, being strongly influenced by organizational characteristics.
Article
Examines the role that institutions, defined as the humanly devised constraints that shape human interaction, play in economic performance and how those institutions change and how a model of dynamic institutions explains the differential performance of economies through time. Institutions are separate from organizations, which are assemblages of people directed to strategically operating within institutional constraints. Institutions affect the economy by influencing, together with technology, transaction and production costs. They do this by reducing uncertainty in human interaction, albeit not always efficiently. Entrepreneurs accomplish incremental changes in institutions by perceiving opportunities to do better through altering the institutional framework of political and economic organizations. Importantly, the ability to perceive these opportunities depends on both the completeness of information and the mental constructs used to process that information. Thus, institutions and entrepreneurs stand in a symbiotic relationship where each gives feedback to the other. Neoclassical economics suggests that inefficient institutions ought to be rapidly replaced. This symbiotic relationship helps explain why this theoretical consequence is often not observed: while this relationship allows growth, it also allows inefficient institutions to persist. The author identifies changes in relative prices and prevailing ideas as the source of institutional alterations. Transaction costs, however, may keep relative price changes from being fully exploited. Transaction costs are influenced by institutions and institutional development is accordingly path-dependent. (CAR)
Article
As a result of the dramatic events of recent years, social scientists have devoted increasing attention to explaining what causes democratization as well as what makes democracies vibrant and successful over the long term. Yet, whereas a generation ago most scholars tackling these issues stressed economic, political, or institutional factors, today societal and cultural variables are in vogue. This article argues that examining societal and cultural variables in isolation from their broader context leaves fundamental questions unanswered and misinterprets some of the most important dynamics of political development. To know whether civil society activity will have positive or negative consequences for democratic development, we need to marry an analysis of societal and cultural factors to the study of political institutions.
Article
This article sets the stage for the discussion of social capital, civil society, and contemporary democracy by attempting to clarify terms and set out the most promising avenues for discussion and debate. The authors argue that current usage of key terms in the debate suffers from three faults: First, the notion of "social capital" is generally undertheorized and oversimplified. Second, popular usage and some scholarly accounts tend to suppress the conflictive character of civil society, seeking in society itself and in its inner workings the resolution of conflicts that politics and the political system in other understandings are charged with settling or suppressing. Third, these (mis)understandmgs conjoin in the suppression of the economic dimension of contemporary social conflict. This introductory article takes up the first two of these points, in an effort to lay out the theoretical and empirical questions that the subsequent articles address.
Article
Many sociologists incorrectly believe that larger groups are less likely to support collective action than smaller ones. The effect of group size, in fact, depends on costs. If the costs of collective goods rise with the number who share in them, larger groups act less frequently than smaller ones. If the costs vary little with group size, larger groups should exhibit more collective action than smaller ones because larger groups have more resources and are more likely to have a critical mass of highly interested and resourceful actors. The positive effects of group size increase with group heterogeneity and nonrandom social ties. Paradoxically, when groups are heterogeneous, fewer contributors may be needed to provide a good to larger groups, making collective action less complex and less expensive.
Article
Practically everywhere one looks these days the concept of "civil society" is in vogue. Neo-Tocquevillean scholars argue that civil society plays a role in driving political, social, and even economic outcomes. This new conventional wisdom, however, is flawed. It is simply not true that democratic government is always strengthened, not weakened, when it faces a vigorous civil society. This essay shows how a robust civil society helped scuttle the twentieth century's most critical democratic experiment, Weimar Germany. An important implication of this analysis is that under certain circumstances associationism and the prospects for democratic stability can actually be inversely related. To know when civil society activity will take on oppositional or even antidemocratic tendencies, one needs to ground one's analyses in concrete examinations of political reality. Political scientists should remember that Tocqueville considered Americans' political associations to be as important as their nonpolitical ones, and they should therefore examine more closely the connections between the two under various conditions.
Article
Social capital is in danger of going the way of political culture—a potentially powerful concept that is given many different meanings by many different people for many different purposes. This article starts by picking out three different aspects or dimensions of the concept—norms (especially trust), networks, and consequences. It then considers three models of social capital and the forms of trust and democracy associated with them. Finally it discusses the role of voluntary associations as a foundation for social capital, arguing that their importance may be overstated in the classical Tocquevillean model of the 19th century, and that, in any case, modern democracy may be increasingly based on different forms of trust and association.
Article
This review evaluates the most recent studies of social capital in political science and argues that they have strayed considerably from the original treatment of social capital, which casts it as endogenous. Recent treatments have recast social capital as a feature of political culture and thereby treat values as exogenous. These two approaches emanate from incompatible premises and have fundamentally different implications. Thus, efforts to combine the two approaches are rendered unproductive by inevitable inconsistencies of internal logic. Moreover, empirical tests of the exogenous social capital approach are deficient: They are selective in their use of data and employ ad hoc procedures at crucial junctures. We therefore urge a return to the treatment of social capital as endogenous.
Article
It pays for poor households to participate actively in local associations. At low incomes, the returns to social capital are higher than returns to human capital. At higher incomes, the reverse is true. Grootaert empirically estimates how social capital affects household welfare and poverty in Indonesia. His focus: household memberships in local associations, an aspect of social capital especially relevant to daily household decisions that affect welfare and consumption. The data suggest that households with higher social capital spend more per capita. They also have more assets, more savings, and better access to credit. To estimate how social capital contributes to household welfare, Grootaert uses a reduced-form model of household welfare, which controls for relevant household and location characteristics. He measures social capital along six dimensions: density of memberships, internal heterogeneity of associations (by age, gender, education, religion, and so on), meeting attendance, active participation in decision-making, payment of dues, and community orientation. The strongest effects come from: - Number of memberships. Each additional membership (an average 20 percent increase) raises per capita household spending 1.5 percent. - Internal heterogeneity. An increase of 20 percent in the heterogeneity index correlates with 3.3 percent more spending. - Active participation in decision-making. An increase of 20 percent in the participation index correlates with 3.2 percent more spending. Grootaert also estimates structural equations and uses instrumental variable estimation and historical data to address the possible endogeneity of the social capital variable and to demonstrate that the causality runs from social capital to household welfare. This paper - a product of the Social Development Department - is part of a larger effort in the department to assess empirically the role of local institutions in the delivery of services and poverty alleviation.
Article
Examines the role that institutions, defined as the humanly devised constraints that shape human interaction, play in economic performance and how those institutions change and how a model of dynamic institutions explains the differential performance of economies through time. Institutions are separate from organizations, which are assemblages of people directed to strategically operating within institutional constraints. Institutions affect the economy by influencing, together with technology, transaction and production costs. They do this by reducing uncertainty in human interaction, albeit not always efficiently. Entrepreneurs accomplish incremental changes in institutions by perceiving opportunities to do better through altering the institutional framework of political and economic organizations. Importantly, the ability to perceive these opportunities depends on both the completeness of information and the mental constructs used to process that information. Thus, institutions and entrepreneurs stand in a symbiotic relationship where each gives feedback to the other. Neoclassical economics suggests that inefficient institutions ought to be rapidly replaced. This symbiotic relationship helps explain why this theoretical consequence is often not observed: while this relationship allows growth, it also allows inefficient institutions to persist. The author identifies changes in relative prices and prevailing ideas as the source of institutional alterations. Transaction costs, however, may keep relative price changes from being fully exploited. Transaction costs are influenced by institutions and institutional development is accordingly path-dependent. (CAR)
Article
Despite the growing acknowledgement that complex social phenomena can be usefully understood through multiple methods of inquiry, there are few sound examples of mixed-methods research. This paper offers concrete examples from recent policy research in the United States about how qualitative and quantitative methods can be combined to better address complex research questions. Using a conceptual framework developed in 1985 and recently elaborated, we describe how, in both the design and analysis phases of research, combing methods can enhance the research purposes ofcorroborating, elaborating, developing, andinitiating understandings of social phenomena.
Chapter
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Article
Despite many approaches of neoclassical and endogenous growth theory, economists still face problems in explaining the reasons for income differences between countries. Institutional economics and the deep determinants of growth literature try to depart from pure economic facts to examine economic development. Therefore, this article analyzes the impact of institutions, geography, and integration on per capita income. Concerning theoretical reasoning, emphasis is on the emergence of institutions and their effect on economic growth. However, institutions can appear in different shapes since political, legal, and economic restrictions are not the only constraints on human behaviour. Norms and values also limit possible actions. Therefore, a differentiation between formal and informal institutions is made. Informal institutions are defined as beliefs, attitudes, moral, conventions, and codes of conduct. Property rights are assumed to be the basic formal institutional feature for economic success. Despite their direct impact on growth through individual utility maximization, property rights also make a statement concerning the political and legal environment of a country. Regarding the regression analysis, different religious affiliations are used as instrumental variables for formal and informal institutions. The regression results affirm a crucial role of informal and formal institutions concerning economic development. However, a high proportion of Protestant citizens encourage informal institutions that support economic growth, while a high Muslim proportion of the population is negatively correlated with growth-supporting formal institutions. --
Article
The conventional wisdom is that postwar economic growth has been unpredictable. In the 1960s few observers accurately forecast which countries would grow quickly. In this paper we show that indexes of social development constructed in the early 1960s have considerable predictive power. These results indicate the importance of "social capability" for economic growth. We emphasize that social arrangements matter for reasons beyond those discussed in recent work on trust and social capital. However,we are also able to show that one of the indexes may be a useful proxy for social capital in developing countries. © 2000 the President and Fellows of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Article
This paper presents evidence that “social capital” matters for measurable economic performance, using indicators of trust and civic norms from the World Values Surveys for a sample of 29 market economies. Memberships in formal groups—Putnam's measure of social capital—is not associated with trust or with improved economic performance. We find trust and civic norms are stronger in nations with higher and more equal incomes, with institutions that restrain predatory actions of chief executives, and with better-educated and ethnically homogeneous populations.
The Strange Disappearance of Civic America The American Prospect, Winter, 34-48. rSocial Capital Assessment Tool 21 Putnam, R. 1993. “The Prosperous Community – Social Capital and Public Life
  • Putnam
  • Robert
Putnam, Robert D. 1996. “The Strange Disappearance of Civic America.” The American Prospect, Winter, 34-48. rSocial Capital Assessment Tool 21 Putnam, R. 1993. “The Prosperous Community – Social Capital and Public Life.” American Prospect (13)
Are All Associations Alike? forthcoming in Beyond Tocqueville: Civil Society and Social Capital in Comparative Perspective
  • Stolle
  • T Dietlind
  • Rochon
Stolle, Dietlind and T. Rochon. 1998. Are All Associations Alike? forthcoming in Edwards and Foley (eds.), Beyond Tocqueville: Civil Society and Social Capital in Comparative Perspective. Thematic Issue of the American Behavioral Scientist
Numbers and words revisited: Being ‘shamelessly eclecticNeighborhoods and Violent Crime: A Multilevel Study of Collective Efficacy
  • G B Rossman
  • B L Wilson
  • Robert J Sampson
  • S W Raudenbush
  • F Earls
Rossman G. B. and Wilson B.L. 1991. “Numbers and words revisited: Being ‘shamelessly eclectic.’” Evaluation Review, Sampson, Robert J., S.W. Raudenbush and F. Earls. 1997. “Neighborhoods and Violent Crime: A Multilevel Study of Collective Efficacy.” Science, 277, August 15, 918-924
Social Capital and Politics rSocial Capital Assessment Tool20 Knack, Stephen and Philip KeeferDoes Social Capital Have an Economic Payoff? A Cross-Country Investigation
  • Robert W Jackman
  • A Ross
  • Miller
Jackman, Robert W. and Ross A. Miller. 1998. Social Capital and Politics. Annual Review of Political Science, 1, 47-73. rSocial Capital Assessment Tool20 Knack, Stephen and Philip Keefer. 1997. “Does Social Capital Have an Economic Payoff? A Cross-Country Investigation.” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 52 (4), 1251- 1287
Watts and ShraderThe genogram. A new tool for documenting patterns of decisionmaking, conflict and vulnerability within households
  • Uphoff
Uphoff, 1996. Watts and Shrader 1998, December. “The genogram. A new tool for documenting patterns of decisionmaking, conflict and vulnerability within households.” Health Policy and Planning. 13(4): 459-464.
Mapping and Measuring Social Capital: A Conceptual and Empirical Study of Collective Action for Conserving and Developing Watersheds in Rajasthan, India. Forthcoming as a publication of the Social Development Department
  • Anirudh Krishna
  • Norman Uphoff
Krishna, Anirudh and Norman Uphoff. 1999. Mapping and Measuring Social Capital: A Conceptual and Empirical Study of Collective Action for Conserving and Developing Watersheds in Rajasthan, India. Forthcoming as a publication of the Social Development Department, The World Bank.
Are All Associations Alike? forthcoming in Beyond Tocqueville: Civil Society and Social Capital in Comparative Perspective. Thematic Issue of the
  • Dietlind Stolle
  • T Rochon
Stolle, Dietlind and T. Rochon. 1998. Are All Associations Alike? forthcoming in Edwards and Foley (eds.), Beyond Tocqueville: Civil Society and Social Capital in Comparative Perspective. Thematic Issue of the American Behavioral Scientist.
Making Associations Work: Group Characteristics, Membership and Generalized Trust. Paper presented at the 1998 meeting of the American Political Science Association
  • Dietlind Stolle
Stolle, Dietlind. 1998. Making Associations Work: Group Characteristics, Membership and Generalized Trust. Paper presented at the 1998 meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, September 3-6.
Social Capital and Poverty in India Working Paper, Institute of Development Studies
  • Matthew Morris
Morris, Matthew. 1998. " Social Capital and Poverty in India. " Working Paper, Institute of Development Studies, Sussex.
Building social capital and reaching out to excluded groups: The challenge of partnerships Paper presented at CELAM meeting on The Struggle Against Poverty Towards the Turn of the Millenium
  • K Bain
  • N Hicks
Bain, K. and Hicks, N. 1998. " Building social capital and reaching out to excluded groups: The challenge of partnerships. " Paper presented at CELAM meeting on The Struggle Against Poverty Towards the Turn of the Millenium, Washington D.C.
Social Capital in Britain Paper prepared for Bertelsmann Stiflung Workshop on Social Capital
  • Peter Hall
Hall, Peter. 1997. " Social Capital in Britain. " Paper prepared for Bertelsmann Stiflung Workshop on Social Capital, Berlin, June 1997.
Community Organization, Values and Social Capital in Panama
  • M V J Pena
  • H Lindo-Fuentes
Pena, M.V.J. and Lindo-Fuentes, H. 1998. Community Organization, Values and Social Capital in Panama. Central America Country Management Unit Economic Notes No. 9, The World Bank, Washington, D.C.