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In this report, past research is reviewed, which suggests that the personality traits of psychoticism and aggressiveness likely moderate the negative effects of violent video games (VVGs). The Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality is then used as a taxonomy to integrate these findings and examine why these traits are important moderator variables. Analyses suggest that these traits likely moderate the effects of VVGs because they contain the FFM traits neuroticism (+), agreeableness (-), and conscientiousness (-). A spherical model of personality, derived from these three FFM traits, is presented as a method of predicting aggression and hostility after playing VVGs; archival data confirms the predictions derived from this spherical model. Findings from the current research demonstrate the utility of a three-trait spherical model to examine the moderating effects of VVGs and suggest that only some individuals are adversely affected by VVGs and that those who are affected have preexisting dispositions, which make them susceptible to such violent media.
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Vulnerability to Violent Video Games: A Review and Integration of
Personality Research
Patrick M. Markey
Villanova University
Charlotte N. Markey
Rutgers University
In this report, past research is reviewed, which suggests that the personality traits of psychoticism and
aggressiveness likely moderate the negative effects of violent video games (VVGs). The Five-Factor
Model (FFM) of personality is then used as a taxonomy to integrate these findings and examine why these
traits are important moderator variables. Analyses suggest that these traits likely moderate the effects of
VVGs because they contain the FFM traits neuroticism (), agreeableness (), and conscientiousness
(). A spherical model of personality, derived from these three FFM traits, is presented as a method of
predicting aggression and hostility after playing VVGs; archival data confirms the predictions derived
from this spherical model. Findings from the current research demonstrate the utility of a three-trait
spherical model to examine the moderating effects of VVGs and suggest that only some individuals are
adversely affected by VVGs and that those who are affected have preexisting dispositions, which make
them susceptible to such violent media.
Keywords: video games, violence, personality, five factor model
Although violent video games (VVGs) have been a cause of
concern among activists and laypersons for decades (for a brief
review see Ferguson et al., 2008), the Columbine High School
shootings in 1999 exacerbated this concern to almost epidemic
levels. From this point forward, almost every school shooting was
afforded at least a fleeting association with VVGs (Anderson,
2004; Thompson, 2000). Of course, given that 45.7 million Amer-
ican homes have a least one video game console (Nielson Media
Research, 2007), it is clear that most children who play these
games do not go on to behave in violent or murderous ways. In
fact, although many youths who have engaged in violent school
rampages were video game players (Anderson, 2004), most also
possessed maladaptive personality traits and characteristics.
School violence attributed to violent media has involved shooters
who were described by themselves and others as extremely angry,
mean, depressed, psychotic, unruly, anxious, aggressive, and hate-
ful before the shootings occurred (cf. Cornell, 2006; Cullen, 2009;
Gibbs & Roche, 1999; Sandler & Alpert, 2000). Although care
should be taken when considering these anecdotal observations
(Ferguson, 2007a) these descriptions suggest that certain types of
individuals may be more adversely affected by VVGs than other
individuals. Thus, the direct link from VVGs to school violence
that has been highlighted in the media may obscure a large portion
of the equation: personality traits.
Over a decade of correlational and experimental research sug-
gests that VVGs are linked to various negative behaviors and
cognitions such as aggression, hostility, and aggressive thoughts
(e.g., Anderson et al., 2004; Bushman & Anderson, 2002; Gentile,
Lynch, Linder, & Walsh, 2004; Sheese & Graziano, 2005; for a
critique of this research see Ferguson, 2010; Olson, 2004). Al-
though much of previous research is consistent with the notion that
VVGs increase aggression, a considerable number of studies have
failed to find compelling links between VVGs and aggression (e.g.,
Ferguson et al., 2008; Weigman & van Schie, 1998; Williams &
Skoric, 2005). Possible explanations for these inconsistent findings
have ranged from poor research design and invalid measurements
to publication biases (Ferguson, 2007a, 2007b). It is also possible
that these findings have been less than consistent because the main
effect of VVGs these researchers were examining was moderated
by personality. That is, because of various preexisting dispositions,
not all participants in these studies were likely affected by VVGs
in a similar manner. Although there are numerous personality traits
which might moderate the effects of VVGs, past research exam-
ining VVGs and other forms of media violence suggest that
psychoticism and trait aggression are key characteristics to con-
sider.
Psychoticism
Individuals who score high on psychoticism tend to be cold,
lacking in sympathy, unfriendly, untrustworthy, odd, unemotional,
unhelpful, antisocial, and paranoid. Although psychoticism was
proposed as a vulnerability, given certain environmental expo-
sures, to becoming psychotic (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1976), research
has since established that this dimension is more accurately con-
ceptualized as akin to antisocial personality (Claridge, 2006). Past
research suggests that this trait likely moderates the negative
effects of VVGs. Markey and Sherer (2009) found that participants
with elevated levels of psychoticism tended to experience higher
levels of hostility and had more aggressive cognitions after expo-
sure to VVGs than did individuals with lower levels of psychoti-
cism or individual exposed to non-VVGs. Research examining
psychoticism in the context of other forms of violent media has
also produced similar results. After viewing violent films, men
with elevated levels of psychoticism were much more likely to
Patrick M. Markey, Psychology Department, Villanova University;
Charlotte N. Markey, Psychology Department, Rutgers University.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Patrick M.
Markey, Department of Psychology, Villanova University, 800 Lancaster
Avenue, Villanova, PA 19085. E-mail: patrick.markey@villanova.edu
Review of General Psychology © 2010 American Psychological Association
2010, Vol. 14, No. 2, 82–91 1089-2680/10/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/a0019000
82
accept violence as a means of conflict resolution than other indi-
viduals (Zillman & Weaver, 1996). Men with high levels of
psychoticism also tend to express greater levels of rape proclivity
after repeated exposure to violent and nonviolent pornography
(Barnes, Malamuth, & Check, 1984). Consistent with these stud-
ies, Lynn, Hampson, and Agahi (1989) present data that are
consistent with a genotype-environment correlation and interaction
model implying that viewing TV violence only has an affect on
aggression in genetically predisposed individuals with high levels
of psychoticism.
In an effort to determine why individuals with high levels of
psychoticism are more adversely affected by VVGs, Ravaja and
colleagues (2008) examined phasic psychophysiological re-
sponses, indexing emotional valence and arousal, after playing
VVGs and non-VVGs. These researchers found that after “killing”
or “wounding” opponents in a VVG both zygomatic and orbicu-
laris oculi electromyography activity was less pronounced among
individuals with high levels of psychoticism. Such findings
strongly suggest that these individuals experience less anxiety
when killing or wounding a virtual opponent than other individuals
who do not have high levels of psychoticsim or who are playing
non-VVGs. Consistent with this notion, previous studies have
found that individuals with elevated levels of psychoticism are
often not disturbed by media violence. Individuals with high levels
of psychoticism tend to prefer violent films and even find them
more comical and enjoyable than individuals with low levels of
psychoticism (Bruggemann & Barry, 2002). Participants with high
levels of psychoticism also tend to perceive violence on TV as less
violent and frightening than persons who do not possess this
characteristic (Gunter, 1983).
Trait Aggressiveness
Aggressive individuals are often conceptualized as angry, hav-
ing the propensity to engage in verbal and physical aggression, and
hostile in their cognitive patterns (Anderson & Bushman, 2001;
Buss & Perry, 1992). It has been speculated that aggressive indi-
viduals are more likely to make hostile attributions, thereby in-
creasing their anger and the likelihood of aggressive behavior
(Tiedens, 2001). Consistent with this notion, Giumetti and Markey
(2007) found that participants who were angry were more likely to
make hostile attributions to the actions of others after playing
VVGs than participants who were not angry or those who had
played non-VVGs. When aggression has been experimentally
primed before playing VVGs, it has been found that participants
tend to use more violent actions during game play and report more
hostility than participants who are not primed for aggression
(Panee & Ballard, 2002). Individuals high on trait aggressiveness
are also more hostile after playing VVGs versus non-VVGs, fur-
ther suggesting that VVGs have distinct effects on people depend-
ing on their aggressiveness (Arriaga et al., 2006). Cross-situational
research also suggests that aggressive individuals who play VVGs
are more likely to express delinquent and aggressive behaviors
than individuals who do not play VVGs (Anderson & Dill, 2000).
The above findings concerning the moderating role of aggres-
siveness on VVGs are consistent with research examining other
forms of violent media. In an observational study, Josephson
(1987) found that aggressive children who were exposed to violent
TV expressed more aggressive behavior after provocation than
children who were exposed to nonviolent TV. Similarly, aggres-
sive cartoons shown in a nursery school have been found to
increase aggressive behavior more in children who are ranked high
in trait aggressiveness than children ranked low on this trait
(Friedrich & Stein, 1973). In a laboratory setting, aggressive
individuals were also more likely to feel angry and express hostile
behaviors after watching violent videotapes than individuals who
are low in aggressiveness or those who watched nonviolent vid-
eotapes (Bushman, 1995).
Taken together, previous research suggests that the traits that
have been found to moderate the effects of violent TV and movies
are the same traits that likely moderate the effects of VVGs:
psychoticism and trait aggression. The importance of these two
traits is not particularly surprising given the conceptual overlap
between these constructs. It would seem reasonable to assume that
an individual with high levels of psychoticism—who is cold,
lacking in sympathy and unfriendly (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1976)—
would also be somewhat aggressive and angry. Consistent with
this notion, past research has found that these two traits are
moderately correlated (r.43) with each other (McCroskey,
Heisel, & Richmond, 2001). This modest correlation suggests that
there is likely some overlap between these traits, but that they are
also characterized by qualities which make them distinct from each
other.
The Five-Factor Model: A Taxonomy for Assimilating
Past Research
Although the Five-Factor Model (FFM) is arguably the most
popular model of personality traits, researchers examining VVGs
have not yet examined the importance of its five personality
dimensions: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience,
agreeableness, and conscientiousness. In this model, neuroticism is
characterized by individuals’ susceptibility to worry, anxiety, an-
ger, and general emotional instability. Extraversion encompasses
traits such as sociability, dominance, and talkativeness. Openness
to experience is characterized by curiosity, imaginativeness, and
originality. Agreeableness encompasses traits including friendli-
ness, warmth, and cooperativeness. Conscientiousness includes
qualities such as carefulness, self-discipline, and reliability. The
dimensions of the FFM have proven robust across cultures
(Church & Katigbak, 1989; Kallasmaa, Allik, Realo, & McCrae,
2000), sex (Costa & McCrae, 1992a), age (Markey, Markey,
Ericksen, & Tinsley, 2002), methods (McCrae, Costa, & Busch,
1986), and item pools (Costa & McCrae, 1988; Goldberg, 1990).
As noted by Goldberg (1993), the FFM not only provides a list
of broad individual difference variables, but is also a structured
taxonomy. Because the traits of the FFM are conceptualized as
orthogonal, together these five dimensions cover a broad expanse
of personality and can summarize almost any personality con-
struct. In this manner, the FFM is a useful coordinate system for
categorizing various personality constructs within its five dimen-
sions (Ozer & Reise, 1994). By categorizing seemingly differing
traits under a few common dimensional labels, the FFM can be
used to assimilate past research (Funder, 2007). For example,
organizational research studies have related a multitude of various
personality traits (e.g., responsibility, consistency, work ethics,
dependability, etc.; see O’Bannon, Goldinger, & Appleby, 1989)
to the outcome of job performance. Ones and colleagues (1993)
83SPECIAL ISSUE: VULNERABILITY TO VIOLENT VIDEO GAMES
has demonstrated that most of these traits can be construed as the
FFM trait of conscientiousness. This insight allowed for these
previous studies, using different trait names, to be integrated—
thereby providing a better understanding of job performance. Sim-
ilarly, by relating the FFM to the traits of psychoticism and
aggression, the similarities and dissimilarities between these traits
can be clarified, making it easier to assimilate past VVG research.
Research suggests that psychoticism is related to low agreeable-
ness and low conscientiousness (Costa & McCrae, 1995; Costa,
McCrae, & Dye, 1991; Goldberg & Rosolack, 1994; McCrae &
Costa, 1985). In other words, individuals who have high levels of
psychoticism tend to be both low in agreeableness and conscien-
tiousness. These relations make sense given that individuals high
in psychoticism would have similar characteristics as those low in
agreeableness (e.g., little concern for others, indifferent to others
feelings, cold, etc.) and low in conscientiousness (e.g., break rules,
don’t keep promises, act without thinking, etc.). Research also
suggests that the trait of aggression is related to high neuroticism
and low agreeableness (Sharpe & Desai, 2001). Again, such rela-
tions make intuitive sense given that individuals high in trait
aggression would possess similar characteristics as those high in
neuroticism (e.g., easily upset, angry, depressed, emotional, etc.)
and low in agreeableness.
Because both psychoticism (low agreeableness and low consci-
entiousness) and trait aggressiveness (high neuroticism and low
agreeableness) tend to moderate the negative effects of VVGs, it is
likely that the FFM trait agreeableness would also moderate this
effect (i.e., individuals who are low on agreeableness would be
adversely affected by VVGs). However, past findings are a little
less clear as to the importance of the FFM traits neuroticism and
conscientiousness. It is possible that neuroticism and conscien-
tiousness do not moderate the effects of VVGs and that previous
findings regarding psychoticism and trait aggressiveness occurred
because these traits both contain elements of agreeableness. It is
also possible that the previous findings regarding psychoticism and
trait aggressiveness occurred because neuroticism, agreeableness,
and conscientiousness are all important elements of personality to
consider in this context. In other words, when high neuroticism,
low agreeableness, and low conscientiousness coexist within indi-
viduals this might render them especially vulnerable to the nega-
tive effects of VVGs. This notion implies that when these three
traits are merged in an additive manner, the resulting combination
would be far more powerful than any individual FFM trait.
A Spherical Model of Personality: When Traits Merge
Within the Individual
A multidimensional approach to personality simultaneously ex-
amines various traits and provides insight into how traits coexist
within an individual (Trapnell & Wiggins, 1990). While the FFM
traits of neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness may be
orthogonal to each other when assessed across individuals they are
not isolated entities within individuals. This understanding has
been an underlying (although sometimes forgotten) theme in the
study of personality since Allport (1937) defined personality
as “. . . the dynamic organization within the individual of those
psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to
his environment” (p. 48; emphasis added). For example, a person
who is high on neuroticism and low on agreeableness will likely
exhibit different characteristics (e.g., temperamental, easily an-
gered, etc.) than a person who is high on neuroticism and high on
agreeableness (e.g., timid, reluctant to express anger, etc.).
Costa and McCrae (1992b) created a circumplex model to
illustrate the eight characteristics that are created by combining
together the traits of neuroticism and agreeableness (see
Figure 1a). As can be seen in this model, neuroticism and agree-
ableness are represented as orthogonal dimensions in a two-
dimensional space. This circumplex structure provides a useful
visual display of the ways in which neuroticism and agreeableness
may be manifested within different individuals. Such circumplex
models have been used extensively to examine how two traits
merge together (cf., Ansell & Pincus, 2004; Pincus & Ansell,
2003). For example, Figure 1a indicates that the characteristic of
timid (i.e., people who often feel victimized but rarely express
anger [Costa & McCrae, 1992b]) is a combination of high neurot-
icism and high agreeableness; however, temperamental (i.e., peo-
ple who are easily angered and typically express their anger
directly [Costa & McCrae, 1992b]) is a combination of high
neuroticism and low agreeableness.
As previously mentioned, it is possible that the trait of consci-
entiousness also moderates the negative effects of VVGs. By
adding conscientiousness to the traits of neuroticism and agree-
ableness, two additional circumplex models can be created. Fig-
ure 1 displays the two circumplex models created by Costa and
McCrae (1992b) by combining together agreeableness and consci-
entiousness (Figure 1b) and neuroticism and conscientiousness
(Figure 1c). By applying the three circumplex models to the
Figure 1. The three cirucmplex models that comprise the sphere. (a) Neuroticism and Agreeableness Circum-
plex. (b) Agreeableness and Conscientiousness Circumplex. (c) Neuroticism and Conscietiousness Circumplex.
84 MARKEY AND MARKEY
previous discussion regarding the moderating role of neuroticism,
agreeableness, and conscientiousness, it is possible to hypothesize
which individuals are most and least affected by VVGs. As seen in
Figure 1, a person who is temperamental (i.e., people who are
easily angered and typically express their anger directly [Costa &
McCrae, 1992b]), undercontrolled (i.e., people who lack self-
control and are often at the mercy of their own impulses [Costa &
McCrae, 1992b]), and undistinguished (i.e., people who are pri-
marily concerned with their own pleasure than with the well-being
of others [Costa & McCrae, 1992b]) are most likely affected by
VVGs. In contrast, individuals who are easy-going (i.e., people
who are slow to anger and typically do not express anger [Costa &
McCrae, 1992b]), directed (i.e., people who have clear goals and
work toward accomplishing goals [Costa & McCrae, 1992b]), and
effective altruists (i.e., people who are self-disciplined and work
toward the well-being of others [Costa & McCrae, 1992b]) are
least likely to be adversely affected by VVGs.
Although the three circumplex models presented in Figure 1
visually demonstrate the importance of considering how two di-
mensions of personality combine together, they would provide an
incomplete picture of who is most affected by VVGs if the three
FFM dimensions of neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscien-
tiousness are important. By merging these three FFM dimensions
into a single, spherical model we gain insight into how these
dimensions combine together and also who is most vulnerable to
the adverse effects of VVGs. The resulting spherical model, which
was created by combining together the primary dimensions of
neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, is presented in
Figure 2. Spherical models of personality are not new and have
proven useful tools for understanding the unique combinations of
different personality traits (e.g., Markey & Markey, 2006; Tracey,
2002). Although no spherical model has utilized the primary
dimensions of neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness,
the geometric formulas and statistics utilized in past models can be
used to better understand the three FFM traits, which appear to be
relevant to VVG research.
The spherical structure displayed in Figure 2 implies that per-
sonality characteristics or “types” vary along a spherical contin-
uum and can be oriented by the primary dimensions of neuroti-
cism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. The characteristic
names displayed in Figure 2 are the same names of the character-
istics presented in the three earlier circumplex models (see Figure
1). The different characteristics on the sphere are also presented in
Table 1, along with their theoretical weights on each dimension.
These weights represent hypothetical correlations between each
characteristic and the dimensions of neuroticism, agreeableness,
and conscientiousness (Markey & Markey, 2006).
Each of the characteristics presented in Table 1 and Figure 2 can
be cartographically located on the sphere by their longitude and
latitude coordinates. Using the neuroticism and agreeableness as
the defining location of longitude, a characteristic’s location can
range from 0
o
to 359.9
o
. As seen in Figures 1a and 3 characteristics
creating the longitudinal plane are ordered counterclockwise start-
ing at 0
o
(high agreeableness). To calculate its longitudinal angle,
a characteristic’s neuroticism and agreeableness weights can be
applied to the formula (Markey & Markey, 2006; Wiggins, 1995):
arctangent (NWeight/AWeight)
Where:
is the longitudinal angle of a characteristic
N
Weight
is the characteristic’s weighted relation to Neuroti-
cism
High Conscientiousness (C+)
Low Conscientiousness (C-)
High Agreeableness (A+)
Low Neuroticism (N-)
Easy-Going (N-A+)
Temperamental (N+ A-)
Over-controlled (N+ C+)
Relaxed (N-C-) Under-controlled (N+ C-)
Directed (N-C+) Effective Altruists (A+C+)
Undistinguished (A- C-)
Well-Intentioned (A+ C-)
Self-Promoters (A- C+)
N-A+C-
N+A-C+
Front Back
N-A+C+
High Conscientiousness (C+)
Low Conscientiousness (C-)
High Neuroticism (N+)
Low Agreeableness (A-)
N
+A-C-
Figure 2. The spherical model created by the primary dimensions of neuroticism, agreeableness, and consci-
entiousness.
85SPECIAL ISSUE: VULNERABILITY TO VIOLENT VIDEO GAMES
A
Weight
is the characteristic’s weighted relation to Agreeable-
ness
For example, the characteristic represented by high neuroticism,
high agreeableness, and low conscientiousness would have a lon-
gitude location of 45
o
(45 arctangent [.577/.577]). In a similar
manner, a characteristic’s latitude location can be calculated along
the dimension of conscientiousness (see Figure 3; Markey &
Markey, 2006):
arctangent (CWeight/[(NWeight
2AWeight
2)1/2])
Where:
is the latitudinal angle of a characteristic
C
Weight
is the characteristic’s weighted relation to conscien-
tiousness
N
Weight
is the characteristic’s weighted relation to neuroti-
cism
W
Weight
is the characteristic’s weighted relation to agreeable-
ness
Therefore a latitudinal angle can range between 90
o
(high
conscientiousness) and 90
o
(low conscientiousness), with 0
o
indicting no relationship to conscientiousness. The characteris-
tic represented by high neuroticism, high agreeableness, and
low conscientiousness would have a latitude location of 35
o
(35 arctangent [.577/{.577
2
.577
2
}
1/2
]). Table 1 also
displays the theoretical longitude and latitude location of each
characteristic.
Because past research suggests that neuroticism, agreeable-
ness, and conscientiousness might moderate the negative effects
of VVGs, it is possible to use the spherical model to predict the
“type” of person who would be most adversely affected by
VVGs. Specifically, a person who was high on neuroticism, low
on agreeableness and low on conscientiousness would be lo-
cated at ⌳⫽135 and ⌽⫽⫺35 on the sphere. As seen in
Figure 2, this location also falls directly between the three
locations on the circumplex models presented in Figure 1 pre-
dicting who would be most affected by VVGs (temperamental,
undistinguished, and undercontrolled). It would also be ex-
pected that the more distal a person falls from this location the
less he or she would be adversely affected by VVGs. In fact, a
person who is located opposite this point on the sphere, at ⌳⫽
315 and ⌽⫽35, would likely be the least affected by VVGs.
As seen on the sphere, this location falls directly between the
three locations on the circumplex models that predict who
would be least adversely affected by VVGs (easy going, effec-
tive altruists, and directed).
Table 1
Theoretical Location of 26 Characteristics on the Spherical Model and Multiple Regression Analyses Predicting Hostility From a
Given Characteristic and the Characteristic’s Interaction With VVG Condition
Variable ⌳⌽ NAC
Main Effect of
Characteristic (SE B)
Characteristic
VVG (SE B)
N(high neuroticism) 90 0 1.00 0.00 0.00 .17
ⴱⴱ
(.06) .26 .19 (.12) .15
NA(temperamental) 135 0 0.707 0.707 0.00 .21
ⴱⴱ
(.06) .33 .23 (.12) .18
A(low agreeableness) 180 0 0.00 1.00 0.00 .14
(.06) .20 .19 (.12) .14
NA(cold-blooded) 225 0 0.707 0.707 0.00 .03 (.06) .03 .02 (.13) .01
N(low neuroticism) 90 0 1.00 0.00 0.00 .17
ⴱⴱ
(.06) .26 .19 (.12) .15
NA(easygoing) 135 0 0.707 0.707 0.00 .21
ⴱⴱ
(.06) .33 .23 (.12) .18
A(high agreeableness) 0 0 0.00 1.00 0.00 .14
(.06) .20 .19 (.12) .14
NA(timid) 45 0 0.707 0.707 0.00 .03 (.06) .03 .02 (.13) .01
AC(well intentioned) 0 45 0.00 0.707 0.707 .06 (.06) .09 .01 (.13) .01
C(low conscientiousness) 0 90 0.00 0.00 1.00 .05 (.06) .07 .22 (.12) .17
AC(undistinguished) 180 45 0.00 0.707 0.707 .13
(.06) .20 .20
(.12) .23
AC(self-promoters) 180 45 0.00 0.707 0.707 .06 (.06) .09 .01 (.13) .01
C(high conscientiousness) 0 90 0.00 0.00 1.00 .05 (.06) .07 .22 (.12) .17
AC(effective altruists) 0 45 0.00 0.707 0.707 .13
(.06) .20 .30
(.12) .23
NC(undercontrolled) 90 45 0.707 0.00 0.707 .16
(.06) .24 .26
(.13) .20
NC(relaxed) 270 45 0.707 0.00 0.707 .08 (.06) .12 .01 (.13) .01
NC(directed) 270 45 0.707 0.00 0.707 .16
(.06) .24 .26
(.13) .20
NC(overcontrolled) 90 45 0.707 0.00 0.707 .08 (.06) .12 .01 (.13) .01
NAC315 35 0.577 0.577 0.577 .21
ⴱⴱ
(.06) .31 .31
ⴱⴱ
(.12).24
NAC315 35 0.577 0.577 0.577 .14
(.06) .22 .10 (.12) .08
NAC225 35 0.577 0.577 0.577 .05 (.06) .07 .11 (.13) .09
NAC225 35 0.577 0.577 0.577 .01 (.06) .01 .15 (.13) .11
NAC45 35 0.577 0.577 0.577 .01 (.06) .01 .15 (.13) .11
NAC45 35 0.577 0.577 0.577 .05 (.06) .07 .11 (.13) .09
NAC135 35 0.577 0.577 0.577 .14
(.06) .22 .10 (.12) .08
NAC135 35 0.577 0.577 0.577 .21
ⴱⴱ
(.06) .31 .31
ⴱⴱ
(.12) .24
Note. Nneuroticism; A agreeableness; C conscientiousness; VVG violent video games. Bolded values represent the semipartial r(effect size)
associated with a given main effect or interaction effect. n118.
p.05.
ⴱⴱ
p.01.
86 MARKEY AND MARKEY
An Example: Using a Spherical Model to Predict the
Effects of VVGs
As discussed earlier, two potential explanations can account for
past research linking psychoticism and trait aggressiveness to
negative outcomes after playing VVGs.
Explanation 1: The FFM trait agreeableness moderates the
negative effects of VVGs.
Explanation 2: The FFM traits neuroticism, agreeableness,
and conscientiousness merge in an additive manner with the
resulting combination being more powerful than any individ-
ual FFM trait.
The application of the spherical model to the effects of VVGs
serves to complement previous research examining psychoticism
and trait aggression by suggesting why these traits are important
moderators. For example, Explanation 1 suggests that psychoti-
cism and trait aggression moderate the negative effects of VVGs
simply because they both contain elements of low agreeableness.
Explanation 2 implies that psychoticism and trait aggression mod-
erate the effects of VVGs because they both contain elements of
low agreeableness and they contain high neuroticism (aggressive-
ness) or low conscientiousness (psychoticism). Therefore, the re-
sults from the present report will not only allow for better identi-
fication of who is likely to be most adversely affected by VVGs,
it will also help integrate previous research linking psychoticism
and trait aggressiveness to negative outcomes after playing VVGs.
Archival data were analyzed using the statistical program
SPSS 17 to gain insight into which of these two explanations is
most valid. Previous research by the first author assessed 118
participants’ neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness
using the Big Five Inventory
1
(BFI; John, Donahue, & Kentle,
1991) before playing a VVG (Manhunt 2) or a non-VVG (Tiger
Woods Golf). After playing a given video game, participants’
hostility was assessed using the State Hostility Scale (SHS; Ander-
son, Deuser, & DeNeve, 1995). Specifics of this study are pre-
sented in Markey & Scherer, 2009; the findings concerning the
FMM have not been discussed previously. Table 2 displays the
results from the regression analyses in which the centered traits of
neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, and VVG con-
dition (dummy coded 0 non-VVG, 1 VVG) were used to
predict hostility.
2
As indicated by the main effects presented in
Step 1, neuroticism was positively and agreeableness was nega-
tively related to hostility (i.e., participants high in neuroticism and
low in agreeableness tended to be hostile regardless of the VVG
condition) and VVGs slightly increased individuals’ hostility. In
contrast to the first explanation, suggesting only agreeableness
would moderate the negative effects of VVGs, these analyses
indicate that none of the traits significantly moderated the effect of
VVGs. A researcher not considering the importance of the com-
bination of these traits might also incorrectly conclude that the
second explanation was also not supported and that none of these
1
To utilize the geometric formulas the traits of neuroticism, agreeable-
ness, and conscientiousness were forced to be orthogonal. This was done
by submitting these three traits to a principal components analysis and
extracting three components with a Varimax rotation. The resulting com-
ponent scores have the advantage of being highly correlated with their
original scales (all rs.90) while being orthogonal.
2
To be certain that any potential moderating effects were not caused by
possible sex differences on a trait, regression analyses were conducted to
control for the main effect of sex as well as its interactions with video game
condition and a given trait. Results indicated that none of the sex interac-
tion terms were significant and, more importantly, none of the results
significantly changed.
0
o
45
o
90
o
o
180
o
225
o
270
o
o
Agreeableness
Neuroticism
Conscientiousness
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness
0
o
45
o
-
45
o
90
o
-90o
Longitude Latitude
Figure 3. Longitude and latitude locations on the spherical model.
87SPECIAL ISSUE: VULNERABILITY TO VIOLENT VIDEO GAMES
traits are important moderators of VVGs. However, whenever
three orthogonal traits (e.g., neuroticism, agreeableness, and con-
scientiousness) are all important predictors of an outcome (e.g.,
hostility) the total possible size of their separate effects is severely
limited (Cohen & Cohen, 1983; Markey & Markey, 2006). Closer
inspection of the interaction effects’ signs are suggestive of results
occurring in the predicted direction of the second explanation.
Specifically, the negative interaction effect of agreeableness and
conscientiousness and the positive interaction effect of neuroticism
suggest that individuals low in agreeableness and conscientious-
ness and high in neuroticism were adversely affected by VVGs.
Rather than being limited by the size of the effects three orthog-
onal traits can produce, a more direct means of examining what
occurs when three traits combine together within an individual
would be to compute characteristic scores for each of the 26 sphere
characteristics presented in Figure 2 and Table 1 for each partic-
ipant. This is easily accomplished using a participant’s neuroti-
cism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness scores and the
weighted relations presented in Table 1 and applying them to the
formula (Markey & Markey, 2006):
Characteristic Scorej
ZiWj
Where:
Z
i
is the individual’s standardized neuroticism, agreeableness,
or conscientiousness score
W
j
is the weighted relation of jth characteristic to neuroti-
cism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.
As seen in the above formula, characteristic scores are essen-
tially computed using a simple standardized regression equation.
In this manner, each person receives 26 different characteristic
scores representing slightly different combinations of the three
FFM traits. To examine the potential interaction of these charac-
teristics with VVGs, 26 separate regression analyses were con-
duced predicting hostility. In each analysis, a given characteristic
and VVG condition were entered in the first step and the interac-
tion term between these variables was entered in the second step.
The results from these analyses are presented in Table 1. The
column labeled “main effect of characteristic” displays the relation
between a given characteristic and hostility. More central to the
focus of this manuscript are the coefficients displayed in the
column labeled “Characteristic VVG,” which lists the interac-
tion effect for a given characteristic. A positive value indicates that
people high on a given characteristic were more adversely affected
by VVGs than other individuals whereas a negative value indicates
that people low on a given characteristic were less adversely
affected by VVGs than others. Figure 4 presents a graphical
display of these effects by presenting the different interaction
effects for different combinations of neuroticism and agreeable-
ness at different levels of conscientiousness. As predicted by the
second explanation, Figure 4 and Table 1 show that the individuals
most adversely affected by VVGs tended to be high on neuroticism
and low on agreeableness and conscientiousness (i.e., ⌳⫽135 and
⌽⫽⫺35). As expected, the effects of the interaction tended to get
smaller the more distal to this location, with the people least
adversely affected by VVGs being low on neuroticism and high on
agreeableness and conscientiousness (i.e., ⌳⫽315 and ⌽⫽35).
The findings from these analyses strongly suggest the impor-
tance of considering the cumulative effect of multiple traits within
an individual. When the FFM dimensions of neuroticism, agree-
ableness, and conscientiousness were used to predict hostility, all
of the interaction effects were null. However, when these dimen-
sions are combined to measure a single characteristic representing
high neuroticism, low agreeableness, and low conscientiousness,
significant results emerged from the exact same data set. It seems
likely that a researcher examining these traits in a one-dimensional
manner would fail to realize that these traits are significant mod-
erators of VVGs when they are considered simultaneously. It is
important to note that the methodology of combining together
three dimensions is both computationally and conceptually differ-
ent than examining the interaction between the three traits. Such an
interaction term would be computed by multiplying the three traits
together whereas in the current analyses the combination of the
traits was computed by averaging together the FFM traits with
various weights.
3
Conceptually a three-way interaction would ex-
3
In the current data set the additive method used to combine the three
traits together was not strongly related to the nonadditive method of
multiplying the three traits together (r.14) further suggesting the
difference between these two methodologies.
Table 2
Multiple Regression Analysis Predicting Hostility
BSE BSemipartial r
Step 1
Violent video game
(VVG) .24 .12 .18
.18
Neuroticism (N) .17 .06 .26
ⴱⴱ
.26
Agreeableness (A) .14 .06 .21
.21
Conscientiousness (C) .05 .06 .08 .08
Step 2
VVG N .17 .12 .18 .12
VVG A.17 .12 .19 .12
VVG C.19 .12 .21 .14
Note. n 118.
p.05.
ⴱⴱ
p.01.
88 MARKEY AND MARKEY
amine whether a two-way interaction (e.g., neuroticism agree-
ableness) changed depending on the level of a third variable (e.g.,
conscientiousness); whereas the methodology employed above
allows for different levels of the three traits to be examined when
combined together in an additive manner.
Conclusion
Video games are rapidly becoming one of the most popular
forms of media consumed by children, adolescents, and adults
(Gentile & Anderson, 2003; Olson, 2010). This popularity of video
games, combined with the fact that more than half of the games on
the market today contain some form of violence (Gentile & Ander-
son, 2003), has caused many to express concern about the potential
negative effects of VVGs. Previous research examining the effects
of VVGs suggests that VVGs are linked to various negative
behaviors and cognitions such as hostility and aggressive thoughts
(e.g., Anderson, 2004; Bushman & Anderson, 2002; Gentile et al.,
2004; Sheese & Graziano, 2005). However, more recent research
(e.g., Arriage et al., 2006; Giumetti & Markey, 2007; Markey &
Sherer, 2009; Panee & Ballard, 2002; Ravaja et al., 2008) suggests
that the notion that all, or even most, individuals who play VVGs
will inevitably become aggressive may be unwarranted. Instead, it
appears that it is crucial to consider various personality traits of the
person playing the VVG when predicting whether or not the VVG
will have adverse effects.
By using the FFM as a taxonomy, the current report was able to
assimilate the findings of past studies, which examined the moderat-
ing effects of psychoticism and trait aggressiveness. This integration
of past research using the structure provided by the FFM allowed for
a reconceptualization of the traits most salient in VVG research and
provided insight into why these traits moderate the negative effects of
VVGs. A spherical model of personality was then created to visually
demonstrate the resulting personality characteristics associated
with different combinations of neuroticism, agreeableness, and
conscientiousness. Archival data were then analyzed and con-
firmed the notion that individuals who were most adversely af-
fected by VVGs tended to be high on neuroticism and low on
agreeableness and conscientiousness (i.e., ⌳⫽135 and ⌽⫽⫺35
on the sphere). Additionally, the more distal an individual’s per-
sonality characteristic on the sphere was from this location, the
greater the tendency for VVGs to have less adverse effects. It is
important to note that the games used in this study (Manhunt 2 vs.
Tiger Woods Golf) likely differ from each other in ways other than
their level of violence. However, it seems unlikely that a variable
other than violence might account for the moderating effect of
personality occurring in the exact manner predicted by previous
research, which examined the effects of violence.
The multidimensional view of personality presented in this
manuscript helps integrate previous research examining different
personality traits as moderators of the adverse effects of VVGs.
This model of personality also recognizes that what truly makes an
individual different and unique is not a high or low rating on a
single trait, but their unique combination of traits. When each of
the FFM traits were examined separately, none significantly mod-
erated the effects of VVGs. However, when these traits were
combined together, significant moderating effects emerged. These
results suggest that it is the simultaneous combination of FFM
traits which yield a more powerful moderator of VVGs than any
single FFM trait. It appears that the “perfect storm” of FFM traits
-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
VVG Interaction effect (r)
C-
C
C+
A-N- A- A-N+ N+ A+N+ A+ A+ N- N-
Figure 4. The semi partial correlations indicating how strongly each of the 26 personality characteristics
moderated the negative effects of VVGs. Results are presented for the various combinations of neuroticism and
agreeableness at different levels of conscientiousness. Note: Nneuroticism; A agreeableness; C
conscientiousness.
89SPECIAL ISSUE: VULNERABILITY TO VIOLENT VIDEO GAMES
in this context is high neuroticism (e.g., easily upset, angry, de-
pressed, emotional, etc.), low agreeableness (e.g., little concern for
others, indifferent to others feelings, cold, etc.) and low conscien-
tiousness (e.g., break rules, don’t keep promises, act without
thinking, etc.).
It is tempting to directly relate the findings presented here to the
anecdotal evidence describing the personality characteristics of
perpetrators of school violence (e.g., angry, depressed, unruly,
anxious, aggressive, hateful, etc.) who also played VVGs. Many of
these personality descriptions would certainly be related to high
neuroticism, low agreeableness, or low conscientiousness and
would probably be located near ⌳⫽135 and ⌽⫽⫺35 on the
sphere. However, it should be noted that past experimental re-
search examining VVGs has tended to assess outcomes that were
either proxy measures for real world aggression (e.g., question-
naire assessments of hostility or physical aggression) or mild
forms of aggression (e.g., loud “sound blasts” delivered to a
hypothetical person) and not anything as severe as murder. A
direct translation of these findings to a “profiling” of school
shooters needs to be done with great caution.
Although the incidences of violence, particularly school vio-
lence, linked to video games are alarming, what should perhaps
surprise us more is that there are not more VVG-driven violent
episodes. Given the number of youths who regularly engage in
VVG play and the general concern regarding this media, it would
seem likely that resulting violent episodes would be a regular
occurrence. And yet, daily reports of mass violence are not re-
ported. It appears that the vast majority of individuals exposed to
VVGs do not become violent in the “real world.” Thus, the
questions for researchers, policymakers, and laypersons become
“Why do some individuals appear to be affected by VVGs while
others are not?” and “Who is most likely to be affected by VVGs?”
These questions are somewhat analogous to the questions a med-
ical doctor would ask in trying to determine why the majority of
individuals have no adverse effects when exposed to seemingly
benign stimuli (e.g., peanuts) while others may experience life-
threatening consequences from even minimal exposure. In the case
of VVGs, current research suggests that personality moderates
individual proclivity to respond adversely to VVGs. It appears that
VVGs only adversely affect some individual and those who are
affected have a preexisting disposition (i.e., high neuroticism, low
agreeableness, and low conscientiousness) which make them sus-
ceptible to such violent media.
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Accepted January 15, 2010
91SPECIAL ISSUE: VULNERABILITY TO VIOLENT VIDEO GAMES
... Another potential source of variance in the literature concerns how individual differences in affective traits, like empathy, may influence susceptibility to the purported effects of violent gaming (Markey & Markey, 2010;Valkenburg & Peter, 2013). For example, trait coldheartedness (a distinct lack of emotion, guilt, or regard for others) is associated with reduced empathic concern (Oliver et al., 2016), increased aggression (Blais et al., 2014;Frick et al., 2003;Hare & Jutai, 1983), and reduced activity in neural regions associated with fear perception (Han et al., 2012;Marsh et al., 2008;Viding et al., 2012). ...
... Violent gaming research has been criticized by some for not adequately considering other variables that may account for the effects found in the literature (Markey & Markey, 2010;Valkenburg & Peter, 2013). In light of this issue, we examined trait coldheartedness as a variable that may interact with VGE to determine neurocognitive outcomes. ...
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Bu bölümde; dijital oyunların kişilik, duygu ve davranışlar üzerindeki etkileri ele alınmış, dijital oyun oynama alışkanlıklarının oluşmasında ve devam etmesinde rol oynayan, güdüleyen unsurlar, özellikle de psikolojik ihtiyaçlar çerçevesinden teorik olarak değerlendirilmiştir. Dijital oyun oynama alışkanlıklarının kişilik üzerindeki olası etkileri ve tartışmalı bir konu olan dijital oyunlar ve saldırganlık ilişkisi ele alınarak dijital oyunlar ve kişilik arasındaki ilişkiler karşılıklı olarak incelenmiştir. Dijital oyun oynamanın olumsuz ve olası olumlu sonuçları ele alınmış, bu konudaki tartışmalar gözden geçirilmiştir. Sonuç kısmında ise dijital oyunların olumsuz sonuçlarını azaltmak için bağımlılık düzeyindeki dijital oyun oynama alışkanlıklarına dair yapılması gerekenlerden söz edilmiştir ve bu konularla ilgili olarak çocuklara, gençlere, yetişkinlere, anne babalara ve öğretmenlere yönelik önerilere yer verilmiştir.
... 2013). A large proportion of the research done into the field of video games tends to focus on the negative impacts they have and what problems they cause and amplify such as the research done by (Markey, P.M. and Markey, C.N. 2010). Although this research is all valid and reasonable, a more balanced argument is needed which compares both negative and positive impacts of consistent video game use. ...
... Some researchers believe that playing violent video games results in an aggressive stance of the individual while some researchers say that concrete effect could not be found and further research is needed for a better understanding. Some researchers have examined a linkage to VVG and aggression like "for instance, mediators such as hostile attribution bias, aggressive norms, and dehumanization and moderators such as psychoticism, aggressive traits, neuroticism, and conscientiousness" 2 (some of these researches were Anderson, Gentile, &Buckley, 2007 3 andMarkey &Markey, 2010 4 ...
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The Internet is defined as interactive network systems that enable quick communication through computer connection and network and allow the person to send and receive the number of information that they want to multiple recipients. The TCP/IP protocol (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol), comprised of international network words, and the Internet, which is connected by many computer networks, is a worldwide communication system that is developing and growing continuously. Rapid progress and change in science and technology; facilitated the fulfilment of the need for direct, fast and secure access to information. The Internet, the most important innovation of information technology, which is easy for almost everyone from children to adults, has quickly influenced people. So, one has become a mass media that affects family and social life in multidimensional terms. The increasing developments, particularly of mass media over the last two centuries, demonstrate how technology has entered the everyday lives of individuals and, over time, modern mass media have become virtually indispensable elements. Internet use has become an important part of daily life in our country as well as in the world. This study aims to investigate the factors affecting the frequency of Internet use by individuals living in Turkey. The study used a micro data set from the 2021 Information and Communication Technology Usage Survey in Households conducted by Turkey Statistical Institute. The research's sampling method is a 2-stage stratified cluster sampling. The study uses generalized ordered logistics regression analysis to identify factors associated with the frequency of Internet use of individuals.
... Some researchers believe that playing violent video games results in an aggressive stance of the individual while some researchers say that concrete effect could not be found and further research is needed for a better understanding. Some researchers have examined a linkage to VVG and aggression like "for instance, mediators such as hostile attribution bias, aggressive norms, and dehumanization and moderators such as psychoticism, aggressive traits, neuroticism, and conscientiousness" 2 (some of these researches were Anderson, Gentile, &Buckley, 2007 3 andMarkey &Markey, 2010 4 ...
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Aile içi şiddet küresel bir sorundur ve şiddetin bireylerde uzun vadeli olumsuz etkileri olabilmektedir. Bu bağlamda şiddetin travmatik etkilerini iyileştiren terapiler hem birey hem de toplum ruh sağlığı açısından önem kazanmaktadır. Göz Hareketleriyle Duyarsızlaştırma ve Yeniden İşleme (EMDR) yaklaşımı aile içi şiddet olgularında travmanın etkilerini azaltmada etkin rol alabilir. Araştırmanın amacı; EMDR terapi yaklaşımının, aile içi şiddetin sonucu olarak kadın danışanda ortaya çıkan travma tepkilerini iyileştirmedeki etkisini incelemektir. Çalışmada, olgu sunum yöntemi kullanılmıştır. 34 yaşındaki aile içi şiddete maruz kalmış, psikiyatrik tanı varlığı bulunmayan kadın danışan ile sekiz EMDR seansı yapılmıştır. Seansların ardından bir de kontrol seansı yapılmıştır. Terapi öncesi ve sonrası yapılan ölçümler kıyaslandığında terapi sonrasında danışandaki TSSB ve depresyon puanlarında kayda değer miktarda iyileşme saptanmıştır. EMDR terapisi; aile içi şiddetin travmatik etkilerini iyileştirmede ruh sağlığı uzmanları tarafından uygulanabilir. Ruh sağlığı profesyonelleri EMDR terapi yaklaşımı konusunda bilgilendirilebilir ve eğitilebilirler.
... The present study findings of the personality evaluation of participants suggest that they had higher scores on neuroticism and lower scores on extraversion and conscientiousness . Similar corroborative findings are evident in literature for higher neuroticism and lower traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness for online game players (Allam, 2017;Markey & Markey, 2010). In addition, such individuals use online gaming as a way of coping or controlling their negative affective states (Mehroof & Griffiths, 2010). ...
Article
Background : Large number of studies on Internet gaming disorder (IGD) have primarily focussed on ascertaining its psychological correlates. Few studies have focused on developing and assessing effectiveness of multimodal psychotherapeutic intervention programs. This intervention focussed on minimizing salience, pre-occupation, conflict related to gaming and enhancing the overall quality of life, inclusive of psychological health, physical health, and environmental problems in individuals with IGD. At present, there appear to be no such studies in the Indian context. Methods : In this study, we developed and assessed the effectiveness of an intervention manual for IGD. The intervention program consisted of ten 60-minutes sessions with one therapist administering sessions once in each week. The interventions included motivational enhancement strategies, cognitive restructuring, behavioural strategies and relapse prevention. The outcomes from intervention were measured in terms of improvement in IGD, IAT, and overall quality of life. Our assessments, both at baseline and post-intervention consisted of Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGD-20) and the Whoqol-Bref. A total sample of 40 was selected out of which 33 individuals completed the 10 sessions of multimodal psychotherapy program and post assessments Results : A total of 40 participants (age: M = 20.25, SD = 5.39) enrolled, out of which 33 completed the entire intervention program of 10 sessions and showed significant improvements. The statistically significant pre-test/intervention to post-test/ intervention scores for the outcome measures of IAT and IGD-20, with the mean difference being 10.09(SD=13.6) and 9.09(SD=7.56) observed respectively. In addition, the participants showed significant improvements in the quality of life inclusive of physical and psychological health post the completion of intervention program Limitations : The sample size of the study was small and assessments for evaluation of other psychological symptoms like depression, anxiety could have been conducted Conclusion : The intervention program indicated a substantial change in the IGD scores at post- assessment. A study on a larger sample to assess the validity of the manualized multimodal psychotherapy program for IGD needs to be conducted. In addition, this manualized intervention program can be useful for administering structured intervention for IGD by mental health professionals working in the area of internet gaming disorder.
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This book was compiled in order to connect the dots between past and present expressions of significant phenomena in media and culture. It attempts to provide a “big picture” perspective on how contemporary relevant manifestations of the entertainment industry, artistic expression, mediated civic engagement, technological infrastructure, or automated information control evolved from subversive surroundings, niche markets, and underestimated potentials to shaping forces in today’s society.
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“This compilation of essays addresses the ethical and academic implications of many global trends, using up-to-date examples. These current discussions, in my view, will be welcomed worldwide.” Dr Jane L. Chapman Professor of Communications, Lincoln University, UK https://www.cambridgescholars.com/product/978-1-5275-7693-3
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Objective: Two common mood induction procedures (MIPs) use autobiographical recall (AR) or video clips. The first relies upon internal generation of mood states whereas the second presents external information to elicit emotion. Often new video clips are created for each experiment. However, no study has examined the efficacy and specificity of a freely available video clip compared to AR for use in other studies. Method: In the present experiment, participants watched either video clips or engaged in autobiographical recall to induce an emotional state. Participants were 53 University first year psychology students who took part for course credit. Results: The anger video clip was more effective compared to AR at increasing the target emotion (anger) and decreasing the non-target emotions - happiness and serenity. Compared to baseline both the video and AR anger scores were higher than sadness scores. Conclusion: The response to recalling personal events is more influenced by personality characteristics such as trait anger and neuroticism compared to the response to the video stimulus, which proved a cleaner stimulus. Implications for future research in both mood induction and media are discussed.
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In this study of 278 children from the seventh and eighth grade of five elementary schools in Enschede, The Netherlands, the relationship between the amount of time children spent on playing video games and aggressive as well as prosocial behaviour was investigated. In addition, the relationship between the preference for aggressive video games and aggressive and prosocial behaviour was studied. No significant relationship was found between video game use in general and aggressive behaviour, but a significant negative relationship with prosocial behaviour was supported. However, separate analyses for boys and girls did not reveal this relationship. More consistent results were found for the preference for aggressive video games: children, especially boys, who preferred aggressive video games were more aggressive and showed less prosocial behaviour than those with a low preference for these games. Further analyses showed that children who preferred playing aggressive video games tended to be less intelligent.
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The alphabetical list of needs described by Murray (1938) has formed the basis for a number of inventories, including the Personality Research Form (PRF; Jackson, 1984). In an attempt to provide a more meaningful classification of the Murray needs, the scales of Form E of the PRF were examined in relation to the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI; Costa & McCrae, 1985), which measures the five major dimensions of normal personality. Data from 296 adult men and women showed hypothesized correlations on the level of individual scales, and suggested that the Desirability scale of the PRF measures substantive traits when used in a volunteer sample. Although the NEO-PI and PRF have different conceptual origins and measure somewhat different aspects of personality, a joint factor analysis showed that the needs measured by the PRF can be meaningfully organized within the framework of the five-factor model. Use of this taxonomy can facilitate communication between motivational and trait psychologists, and supplement the dynamic interpretation of motives with a second level of interpretation that points to related affective, interpersonal, and experiential styles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A new questionnaire on aggression was constructed. Replicated factor analyses yielded 4 scales: Physical Aggression, Verbal Aggression, Anger, and Hostility. Correlational analysis revealed that anger is the bridge between both physical and verbal aggression and hostility. The scales showed internal consistency and stability over time. Men scored slightly higher on Verbal Aggression and Hostility and much higher on Physical Aggression. There was no sex difference for Anger. The various scales correlated differently with various personality traits. Scale scores correlated with peer nominations of the various kinds of aggression. These findings suggest the need to assess not only overall aggression but also its individual components.
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