Article

Optimum conditions for carbonisation of coconut shell

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Abstract

The optimum conditions that are useful in the carbonization of coconut shell have been examined. The carbonization was effected using particle sizes (150 – 2000μm) at carbonization temperatures between 200 and 900 0 C in a laboratory muffle furnace. The study involved determination of yield, rate of weight loss, optimum temperature, as well as determination of ash and moisture contents of the carbonized carbon and suitable resident time for carbonization. The result showed a maximum yield of 27% of carbonized product. It had 1.03 and 5.50% ash and moisture contents respectively. The characteristic particle size of 500μm, carbonization temperatures of 500 – 600 0 C at resident time of 5 minutes were the optimum production conditions. INTRODUCTION Carbonization is the production of charred carbon from a source material. The process is generally accomplished by heating the source material usually in the absence or limited amount of air to a temperature sufficiently high to dry and volatilise substances in the carbonaceous material (Hassler, 1963). Coconut shells are cheap and readily available in high quantity. Coconut shell contains about 65 – 75% volatile matter and moisture which are removed largely during the carbonization process (Gimba, 2001). The cellulosic structure of the coconut shell determines the end product. Coconut-shell-based activated carbon has unique properties as a superior adsorbent, making it the carbon of choice for a wide range of liquid and gas/vapour phase applications. It has been recognized that for an effective activated carbon the preliminary carbonization process is very essential (Gimba, 2001). Therefore, parameters such as temperature, particle size and resident time for carbonization will affect the overall texture, quality and quantity of the carbonized product with the attendant effects on the ash, moisture and possibly metal contents. Available information on carbonization of source materials such as coconut shell is still scanty. For instance, the recommended particle size of shell for carbonization reactions is between 150 – 850μm (Gimba, 2001). This wide range could be reduced through a properly monitored carbonization process to obtain the characteristic particle size. It is hoped that the results obtained in this study would give more specific optimum conditions for carbonization of coconut shell. Carbonised products with more definite characteristic data can therefore be produced in large quantity from the relatively cheap coconut shell for subsequent production of activated carbon.

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... During the process, carbonaceous materials are heated in an inert environment in a closed container (crucible) to a high temperature to dry and burn off the volatiles in the material. Different temperatures have been used for carbonizing coconut shells ranging between 600 and 1200°C [7,8]. The carbon obtained from the process is least dusty and much harder when compared with those obtained from other agricultural products [9]. ...
... Percentage mass difference estimation using equation 1 indicated that 78.68 % of the charged coconut shells accounted for burnt-off substances during the carbonization process. This agrees with literature [8]. c a Suspected to be Si and K As the ball fell on the particles, they mounted different form of breaking forces such as impact, attrition, shear and compression on the particles. ...
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Physical properties such as apparent density, bulk density, compressibility index and particle sizes of carbonized and uncarbonized coconut shell nanoparticles produced through top down approach have been studied. Percentage composition of the coconut fruit was determined using five different coconut fruit samples. Results revealed that coir occupies the highest percentage; coconut shells account for 15 % while the flesh and liquid occupy 30 % of the whole coconut fruit. The apparent densities of the uncarbonized and carbonized coconut shell nanoparticles obtained at 70 hours of milling are 0.65 g/cm 3 and 0.61 g/cm 3 respectively. Their respective compressibility indices and average particle sizes are 46.4 % and 69.7 %; 50.01 nm and 14.29 nm. The difference in the particle sizes of the carbonized and uncarbonized coconut shell nanoparticles can be linked with reduction in the moisture content and volatiles of the carbonized coconut shell nanoparticles due to carbonization process. The reduction in the moisture and volatiles results in the enhanced hardness and brittleness of the carbonized coconut shells which facilitate their breakage during the course of milling than that of the uncarbonized coconut shells.
... During the process, carbonaceous materials are heated in an inert environment in a closed container (crucible) to a high temperature to dry and burn off the volatiles in the material. Different temperatures have been used for carbonizing coconut shells ranging between 600 and 1200°C [7,8]. The carbon obtained from the process is least dusty and much harder when compared with those obtained from other agricultural products [9]. ...
... Percentage mass difference estimation using equation 1 indicated that 78.68 % of the charged coconut shells accounted for burnt-off substances during the carbonization process. This agrees with literature [8]. c a Suspected to be Si and K As the ball fell on the particles, they mounted different form of breaking forces such as impact, attrition, shear and compression on the particles. ...
Article
Full-text available
p>Physical properties such as apparent density, bulk density, compressibility index and particle sizes of carbonized and uncarbonized coconut shell nanoparticles produced through top down approach have been studied. Percentage composition of the coconut fruit was determined using five different coconut fruit samples. Results revealed that coir occupies the highest percentage; coconut shells account for 15 % while the flesh and liquid occupy 30 % of the whole coconut fruit. The apparent densities of the uncarbonized and carbonized coconut shell nanoparticles obtained at 70 hours of milling are 0.65 g/cm<sup>3</sup> and 0.61 g/cm<sup>3</sup> respectively. Their respective compressibility indices and average particle sizes are 46.4 % and 69.7 %; 50.01 nm and 14.29 nm. The difference in the particle sizes of the carbonized and uncarbonized coconut shell nanoparticles can be linked with reduction in the moisture content and volatiles of the carbonized coconut shell nanoparticles due to carbonization process. The reduction in the moisture and volatiles results in the enhanced hardness and brittleness of the carbonized coconut shells which facilitate their breakage during the course of milling than that of the uncarbonized coconut shells. Kathmandu University Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Vol. 12, No. I, June, 2016, Page: 63-79</p
... According to Gimba and Gimba [10], "cocoa pods and coconut husk were sun-dried separately to about 5% moisture content and hammer milled before carbonizing at 400 for 45 minutes in a muffle furnace. In the desiccator, the carbonized materials were cooled to room temperature". ...
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... According to Gimba and Gimba [10], "cocoa pods and coconut husk were sun-dried separately to about 5% moisture content and hammer milled before carbonizing at 400 for 45 minutes in a muffle furnace. In the desiccator, the carbonized materials were cooled to room temperature". ...
Article
Full-text available
The majority of Ghana's population uses wood biomass as a source of energy, but as energy demand rises, the forest cover will no longer be able to provide the need. As a result, there is a pressing need to look for sustainable alternative energy sources. The project is focused on the mechanical and combustion characteristics of coconut husk and cocoa pod composite briquette. Dry coconut husk and cocoa pod were collected, carbonized at a temperature of 450ºC and hammer milled. They were then mixed into various mixture ratios at the required particle sizes and bonded together with the help of starch before manually compacting them into the desired shape. The resulting composite briquette were dried for a week before determining their mechanical and combustion characteristics. CNH: CCP 20:80 was the best mix ratio, with the highest calorific value (25.83 MJ/kg), good moisture and ash content, as well as good density and durability index. The density of the briquettes increased from 389 Kg/m 3 to 608 Kg/m 3 at 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 20:80, 0:100 (CNH: CCP); the durability index increased from 97.36% to 99.96% when the cocoa pod was increased. Moisture content, ash content, as the cocoa pod mix ratios were decreased from 6.43%, 5.14%, and 10.12% to 4.53%, and calorific value increased from 17.73MJ/kg to 25.83 MJ/kg respectively. The analysis of the production cost of briquettes revealed that 1 kg of briquettes should be sold at Gh¢3.11 in order to make a 10% profit. The resulting briquettes may be used as an alternative energy source since they exhibited mechanical and combustion properties that were comparable to those of wood and charcoal. Original Research Article Yirijor et al.; JMSRR, 9(3): 29-38, 2022; Article no.JMSRR.88968 30
... The bagasse carbonization process is carried out at a temperature of 500˚C. The reactions that occur during the carbonization process are as follows [21]: ...
... The carbonization was done in a muffle furnace (model SXL) in accordance with the method described by (Gimba and Turoti, 2008). 200 g each of raffia palm seed (without activation) was carbonized in the muffle furnace. ...
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... This may probably be due to excessive burning/oxidation and collapse of pore structures which predominate at longer residence (carbonization) time and high temperature. This observation was actually found to be in conformity with that of Gimba and Turoti (2008) who observed in the production of carbon from coconut peel that when carbonization time was increased, charcoal yield decreased. ...
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The pyrolysis of cellulose up to 500°C has been studied primarily by the use of infrared absorption techniques on fibers and films in various stages of degradation. Combining these results with those obtained from static thermogravimetric analysis, gas evolution data, and physical property data has permitted detailed reaction mechanisms for the carbonization process to be postulated. The process is described in terms of four successive stages: 1, desorption of physically adsorbed water; 2, splitting off of structure water; 3, chain scissions, or depolymerization, and breaking of C—O and C—C bonds within ring units, accompanied by evolution of more water, CO, and CO2, and 4, aromatization, or formation of graphite-like layers. The ultimate residue from each cellulose ring unit is postulated to be four-carbon atoms which serve as the basic building block for the formation of graphite layers.
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