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Purpose – The leadership of entrepreneurs/business founders, as perceived by their employees, has received limited research attention. Using the Authentic Leadership Model as a guiding framework, this study seeks to provide an exploratory examination of the linkage between employees' perception of the business founder as an authentic leader and the employees' attitudes and happiness. Design/methodology/approach – Participants are employees (n ¼ 179) of 62 newer, smaller businesses. Each business represented in the study had been founded by a single owner still active in the daily operations of the company. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze the two levels of data (individual and business level) gathered in the study. Findings – As hypothesized, the employees' perception of authentic leadership serves as the strongest single predictor of employee job satisfaction (t ¼ 6:453, p ¼ 0:000), organizational commitment (t ¼ 6:665, p ¼ 0:000), and work happiness (t ¼ 5:488, p ¼ 0:000). Research limitations/implications – A convenience sampling method limits the generalizability of results. Experimental and longitudinal future research is needed to assess issues of causality as well as the strength and duration of relationships noted. Future research should focus on how the authentic leadership of the founder/entrepreneur impacts not only employee attitudes, but also the performance and long-term viability of the emerging organization. Originality/value – This exploratory study offers the first application of the Authentic Leadership Model within the context of entrepreneurial ventures, and provides new insights into the relationship between entrepreneur/leader behavior and employee attitudes. Findings indicate that if employees in newer, small organizations view their founder/entrepreneur as an authentic leader, it can have a positive impact on their work-related attitudes and happiness.
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... Moreover, it nurtures a transparent communication system that cultivates employee-organization relationships wherein the leaders' perceived authentic characteristics among organizational teams translate to satisfaction and commitment (Darvish & Rezaei, 2011). The perception of AL affects work-related attitudes and happiness (Jensen & Luthans, 2006). The outcomes of an authentic leader-follower relationship include heightened levels of trust, job engagement, workplace well-being, and sustainable performance (Gardner et al., 2005). ...
... In organizational context, AL predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and work happiness (Darvish & Rezaei, 2011;Jensen & Luthans, 2006). It promotes trust that leads to work engagement, workplace well-being, and sustainable performance (Gardner et al., 2005;Hassan & Ahmed, 2011). ...
... At the same time, AL influences employees' intention to stay. It is also noted that AL stimulates work happiness, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment (Darvish & Rezaei, 2011;Jensen & Luthans, 2006). ...
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The paper aims to examine the effects of authentic leadership and perceived organizational support on employees' turnover intention and investigate the mediating effect of perceived organizational support on the relationship between authentic leadership and turnover intention. The participants of the study were the 203 employees from select business process outsourcing companies within Pampanga, Philippines. The study implemented a predictive-causal research approach and a quantitative research design to gauge the relationship between perceived organizational support, authentic leadership, and turnover intention. Partial least squares-structural equation modeling was further employed to measure the direct and indirect effects of the structural model. The findings revealed that authentic leadership and perceived organizational support are significantly and negatively related to turnover intention. Moreover, a significant and positive relationship between authentic leadership and perceived organizational support was observed. Perceived organizational support was also found to significantly mediate the negative relationship between authentic leadership and turnover intention. The present study offers a new perspective on perceived organizational support as a mediator on turnover intentions in the Philippine setting. It also provides a view on authentic leadership as an important leadership quality in reducing employee withdrawal behaviors.
... 28,87 Various studies support the positive relationship between authentic leadership of superiors and well-being of followers. 88,89 These authors explain that authentic leadership promotes first workers' authenticity, which thereby increases their well-being. Recently, Lemoine et al 42 identified 11 studies, including among them Semedo et al´s investigation 90 , that relate authentic leadership and well-being. ...
... The results obtained provide empirical evidence of both direct and indirect relationships. Direct relationships have been previously analysed in different contexts, both in the case of servant and authentic leadership (eg, Avolio and Gardner; 35 Luthans and Avolio; 83 Greenleaf 41 ) and of authentic leadership and SWB (Jensen and Luthans; 89 Gardner et al 88 ). However, to our knowledge, the indirect relationship assessed in this work has not been previously investigated in the working context. ...
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Introduction: Empirical evidence shows that leadership style is a job resource that promotes employee subjective well-being among workers of value-based organizations. These organizations try to create cultures with strong values to which employees adhere, increasing their subjective well-being and transmitting the identity values. Concretely, religious organizations are characterized by transmitting their values while they perform their services. The value-based management model of religious entities is an appropriate setting for studying the effects that this style based on values has on subjective well-being. Purpose: In organizations with strong value-based cultures, the most appropriate styles are moral leadership and, among them, servant and authentic leadership; thus, this research contributes from the theoretical framework of job demands-resources (JD-R) model to the open debate on leadership as job resource to promote subjective well-being and the common characteristics of these leadership styles. Patients and Methods: To reach the aim of this research, a sample of workers in Catholic organizations located in Spain was used. The data was processed using partial least squares (PLS) technique. Results: The results show that while authentic leadership is a job resource to achieving greater well-being among workers of valuebased organizations, servant leadership is merely a resource in the presence of a perceived authentic leadership. In other words, authentic leadership exerts a total mediation in the relationship between servant leadership and subjective well-being. Conclusion: The main contribution of this research lies in demonstrating that servant and authentic leadership are job resources that together promote subjective well-being among workers of religious organizations. This result rejects the previous theory that defend the redundant outcomes of these leadership styles, what undoubtedly constitutes an interesting finding for the academy. These findings also complement the social identity theory, as the identity of a service entity could justify that servant leadership generates higher levels of perceived authentic leadership. Keywords: authentic leadership, governance, JD-R model, servant leadership, subjective well-being, value-based organizations
... Organizational climate successfully integrates the effect of authentic leadership on job performance [94,95]. However, job performance is not always driven by authentic leadership factors and organizational climate [96][97][98][99]. ...
... Moreover, due to the increasing importance of teamwork in today's organizations, they should be able to work together towards predetermined organizational goals under a single leadership, while simultaneously contributing to organizational change and help formulate appropriate group norms (Jimmieson et al., 2008). Although numerous studies have been conducted on the effects of different leadership styles on employee attitudes (Jensen & Luthans, 2006;Choi, 2011;Jia et al., 2007), it is still largely unclear what kind of relationship there is between the wisdom of a leader and the planned behavior and which dimensions of the formation of behavioral intentions will be affected by the wisdom of leaders. ...
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Leadership is one of the most crucial factors effecting on the employee behavior in the organizations. The effectiveness of the leaders in multicultural organizations is in associated with newcomers' immigrants' behavior. How these employees adopt the leader and the new environment will influence on their performance. Therefore, the aim of this article is to provide the model for enhancing the effectiveness of the leadership on the employee planned behaviors through mediating moderating effects of the practical wisdom management. The model concludes that in international organizations leaders should be practically wise to be accepted as effective leader in the employee's perception. This acceptance will affect their attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behaviors. These suggestions will help to managers in multinational companies to lead better their immigrant forces in the multicultural situation.
... Although research on leadership in entrepreneurship is burgeoning, cognitive processes influencing a founder's leadership behavior are sparse (Leitch and Volery, 2017). Jensen and Luthans (2006) emphasize the importance of prior experience in exhibiting leadership behavior. Consequently, TEK may also be applied as a potential explanatory factor for various leadership behaviors, such as transactional and transformational leadership. ...
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Organizational knowledge components dominate research on tacit knowledge. In order to overcome this dominance, we introduce Tacit Entrepreneurial Knowledge (TEK). TEK is conceptualized as one’s experiential learning from past experiences and insights that result in tacit knowledge regarding entrepreneurship that is implicit, personal, and uncodified. For this study the situational judgment test (SJT) approach is adopted to overcome the common limitations in quantifying an individual’s tacit knowledge. The SJT is a scenario-based measurement instrument that allows us to quantify an individual’s TEK. The SJT is developed using three steps: first, scenarios were collected through interviews, followed by formulating responses to the scenarios, and finally, the effectiveness of the responses for each scenario was evaluated. The outcome of this research article is threefold; first, a comprehensive conceptualization of TEK, including delineation of its nomological network. Second, the development of a measurement instrument for TEK and subsequent scoring method. Finally, an antecedent-consequence model which includes potential contingencies associated with these relationships. In the debate on tacit knowledge, our measurement is innovative and relevant, as previous research failed to uncover an individual’s tacit knowledge in the context of entrepreneurship, despite its importance in various entrepreneurial processes. This study aspires to ignite research into TEK by demonstrating important research opportunities unlocked by our conceptualization and subsequent measurement, offering future researchers a wide range of avenues to uncover the black box of tacit knowledge in entrepreneurship.
... The theory of authentic leadership bases the leader's moral behavior in decision making on high levels of self-awareness and the establishment of transparent relationships with followers to achieve optimal performance . Some authors have suggested conducting studies on authentic leadership in the framework of new and small enterprises to determine how entrepreneurs can more fully exploit potential growth opportunities (Jensen and Luthans, 2006). In addition, studies have shown that authentic leadership produces positive effects in the area of working life (Banford et al., 2012) because, through the characteristics of authentic leadership, employees develop positive attitudes toward their work and perceive that their leaders show an interest in the professional development of their employees (Hassan and Ahmed, 2011). ...
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The goal of this study was to explore the connection between authentic leadership, spirituality, and human development theory to determine if spirituality contributes to the emergence or formation of an authentic leadership identity. An interdisciplinary research approach was conducted by reviewing literature on authentic leadership, spirituality, and human development. A sequential explanatory mixed method design was used to collect and analyze the personal beliefs and life experiences of individuals who were nominated as authentic leaders. Sixty-one participants completed a questionnaire and a subset of eleven participants completed semi-structured interviews. Quantitative findings identified that nearly 94% of participants considered themselves to be spiritual (n = 57). Most participants (90%) believe that spirituality influences their beliefs about leadership and their behaviors as leaders (n =55). Similarly, most participants (90%) affirmed that their spirituality influences their authenticity and self-awareness as a leader (n =55). Qualitative findings from semi-structured interviews identified that spirituality, or spiritual influences, experienced during the formative years, influenced participants’ values and beliefs, defined their principles and ethics, and provided a framework for how to live and behave. For most participants, these values and beliefs were informed by religious parents and/or a religious upbringing. When a participant did not reference a religious parent or religious upbringing, a sense of God, or higher power, or a strong sense of service was acknowledged instead. Findings also credit spirituality, or the belief in a higher power or God with having encouraged a participants’ journey or purpose. Participants acknowledged that spirituality has helped and continues to help define who they are, who they want to be, and how they want to live and work. Based on these findings, this study offers evidence that values and beliefs link spirituality to the emergence of an authentic leadership identity. While an individual's identity continues to be shaped and influenced across a person's lifespan, core values which influenced their emergence as an authentic leader were established during the early formative years, informed by parental and spiritual (religious) influences. As such, spirituality may be a mediating variable which influences the emergence of authentic leadership identity, as well as, encourages a sense of purpose, life-direction, and/or self-actualization.
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